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y;L Quincy, Florida
December 4, 1967
ort 68-6 JANi 2, i,3
FLORIDA 20, A FLECK RESISTANT VARIETY OF CIGAR-WRAPPER TOBACCO
C. E. DeanAS.- Un f a
C. E. Deani' __------_ ----_-
Florida 20 is good yielding fleck resistant variety with a strong stalk and easily
handled leaves. It has a high level of black shank resistance, and resistance to ozone-
induced weather fleck should be sufficient to prevent da-mage under Florida conditions.
Fleck resistance could result in the prevention of s-erious loss in crop seasons when ozone
concentrations are high. Plants may begin flowering earlier than some other varieties, but
leaf number is sufficient for present harvesting practices. Yield per acre is somewhat
lower than some of the varieties currently being grorn, but quality in terms of percent
No. 1 string is higher. In addition, vein structure and angle are favorable, as is the
grain and finish of the leaf.
Industry representatives rated Florida 20
considered in Experiment Station tests in 1966.
that this variety has continued to perform well
wrapper tobacco industry.
very high among varieties and lines being
Expanded.commercial twists in 1967 indicated
and that it should fill a need in the cigar-
Shade-grown cigar-wrapper tobacco has been grown in the Gadsden County area of North
Florida since before 1900. The production of this crop requires the most intensive
management procedure of any type of tobacco, and as a result, the processed leaf demands
the highest price per pound.
Through the years of production in the Florida area, there have been few changes in
varieties in comparison with other tobacco types. Throughout this period Florida-grown
wrapper tobacco has been used mainly on lower priced cigars. This C:t.ation can be
attributed largely to the lack of varietal change in response to changing market demands.
The release of Florida 15 in 1964 gave the industry a variety with a higher potential
for yield and quality. However, Florida 15 proved to be susceptible to ozone-induced
weather fleck, which first caused serious economic loss in 1966. Other commercial varieties
proved to be susceptible as well. Also, improvements ware needed in certain quality factors
which would result in industry acceptance of the leaf for use on higher priced cigars.
Florida 20 is being released in an effort to meet the reed for a disease resistant, high
quality variety of cigar-wrapper tobacco.
The development of Florida 20 began in 1959 with the program to incorporate root knot
resistance in cigar-wrapper lines. The root knot resistant flue-cured tobacco breeding line
NG 8098 from the North Carolina State University was crossed with the black shank resistant
cigar-wrapper variety No. 63. These resistance factors were then transferred into a No. 63
genotype by a series of four backcrosses with No. 63 as the recurrent parent. The
segregating progeny was screened for root knot and black shank resistance after each
backcross. Advancing the generations and disease screening were done both in the field and
Associate Agronomist, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy, Florida.
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A single plant in the BC4S2 generation was crossed with the breeding line Bel 62-8, a
line of Connecticut derivation, obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Seed of
selected F5 plants were bulked for commercial evaluation in 1967.
Some of the comparisons of Florida 20 will be made using Florida 15 as a standard;
however, two additional varieties which are familiar in the cigar-wrapper production area
will be used when discussing certain morphological characteristics, yield and quality.
PLANT TYPE.-Florida 20 has a stronger stalk than Florida 15 which makes it less
subject to wind damage. Vein structure is improved, since the angle with the midrib is
more acute and the veins are more refined in structure. The heel portion of Florida 20
leaves is narrower than that of Florida 15; however, this is not objectionable. Basal
leaves of Florida 20 are about the same size as Florida 15, which means that perhaps one
leaf normally harvested should also be left on the plant. However, at the fifth leaf
position and upward, the leaf length and width are about the same as Florida 15, but may
tend to be smaller depending on growing conditions.
Table 1 presents a comparison of Florida 20 with three varieties of cigar-wrapper
tobacco. Size of the tenth leaf is comparable with the other three varieties, however,
the variety has approximately two less 16-inch leaves. Since only 18 leaves are currently
being harvested, the number of harvestable leaves produced by Florida 20 should be adequate.
The variety begins to flower five to eight days earlier than the other varieties, and the
seed head is large and branching, showing the influence of Connecticut ancestory.
BLACK SHAN1K.-Florida 20 has a level of resistance equal to or surpassing commercial
strains now in production (Table 1). High resistance to this disease is imperative for
production in florida.
IEATHER FLECK. Fleck resistance is high, as can be seen in the 1966 data (Table 1).
Only 3 percent of the plants had any damage, while 30 percent of the Florida 15 plants had
lesions. Fleck damage in 1967 was too low to allow effective evaluation in Florida.
Fleck in Connecticut has been more severe than in Florida. Through the cooperation of
the Consolidated Cigar Corporation, seed were sent to Connecticut for screenings Primings
were rated from zero to four, with four representing a useless leaf. Out of seven primings
Florida 20 had a combined rating of 0.9, while a susceptible check variety was rated at 2.9.
ROOT ROT.-Average root rot indices for the two-year project did not indicate any
important differences between Florida 20 and the other varieties.
YIELD AND QUALITY
In variety trials at the North Florida Experiment Station, Florida 20 had a lower
yield per acre than Florida 15, the average yicld difference being 189 pounds per acre.
The lower yields reflect the somewhat smaller leaf size, compared with a large-leaved
variety such as Florida 15.
-Appreciation is expressed to the Consolidated Cigar Corporation for assistance in fleck
Florida 20 averaged higher in No. 1 string than any of the check varieties over the
two-year period, exceeding Florida 15 by 5 percent, No. 63 by 8 percent and Dixie Shade by
11 percent. It also averaged 2 percent fewer broken leaves (XL-1), reflecting the slightly
smaller and flatter leaf which allows easier handling. These percentages for broken leaves
are higher than would be expected in a commercial crop because of the amount of handling
required in experimental work. Averages in the off-color grades (LC-1 and LC-2), medium
and filler grades for Florida 20 are about the same as for the other three varieties. Grade
index, which takes into account all commercial grades into which the tobacco was separated,
was highest for Florida 20. Crop index was exceeded only by the value of Florida 15, which
is caused by the higher yield of the latter variety.
Results of two commercial trials are given in Table 3. Florida 20 produced a high
percentage of the No. 1 string grade, with only small amounts in the less desirable grades.
The percentage of broken leaves (XL-1) was very low in both locations.
General production practices for Florida 20 are similar to those for other cigar-wrapper
tobacco varieties now being grown. Attention to the following suggestions should aid in the
production of a more successful crop, however.
FERTILIZATION.-Do not use excessive amounts of fertilizer, since this can be a cause of
poor quality regardless of the variety grown. Follow fertilizer recommendations made on
the basis of a soil analysis.
BLUE MOLD.-Recommended fungicides should be applied both in plant bed and shade to
control blue mold. Fungicides are also effective in preventing damage from leaf spotting
IRRIGATION.-Florida 20 should be irrigated as needed with moderate amounts of water.
Even though the variety had almost no fleck in 1966, care should be taken not to irrigate
excessively when there is a forecast for the ozone concentration to increase.
PRIMING.-The interval between transplanting and the first priming should be about 50
days. Sufficient time should be allowed between subsequent primings for the leaves to
mature properly. No more than four leaves per week should be primed.
CURING.-Florida 20 was developed using a slow curing technique; therefore, best results
should be obtained when such a procedure is followed. Curing temperatures should not be
allowed to go above 1000F, unless the occurrence of barn rot makes an increase necessary to
stop this condition.
LEAF WILT.-Even when soil moisture is adequate, occasional plants may be seen with a
single leaf near the bud in a wilted condition. This should be a problem only when the
relative humidity is low and rapid drying conditions are present. These leaves may recover
completely or may partially recover leaving small areas of dead tissue between the veins.
In any event, loss from this condition is negligible.
Seed are available from the Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. It is recommended
that the grower limit his acreage of Florida 20 until experience is gained in producing this
new variety. This will provide the opportunity to observe it further under different
growing conditions and establish its acceptance by the trade.
Table 1.-Comparison of Florida 20 with three cigar-wrapper tobacco varieties for morphological characteristics and disease
resistance, 1966-67. (Variety Test, North Florida Experiment Station)
Ht. Internode %77
10th Leaf No. Leaves Last Leaf Total Leaf Length Root Disease Indices!/ Plants
Variety Length (in.) Width (in.) > 16" > 16" Number (in.) Black Shank Root Rot Flecked
Florida 20 21.1 12.5 20.0 70.0 25.3 3.5 6 68 3
Florida 15 23.3 13.4 22.0 78.0 27.0 3.6 6 62 30
Dixie Shade L-4 20.8 13.2 21.5 73.8 28.5 3.4 3 67 16
No. 63 22.2 13.7 22.5 74.3 27.8 3.3 7 64 43
L.S.D. (.05) 1.4 1.2 1.8 6.9 1.5 N.S. N.S.
Florida 20 22.1 14.3 23.9 88.4 26.6 3.7 0 61
Florida 15 22.3 13.8 24.6 92.3 28.4 3.8 3 55
Dixie Shade L-4 21.7 14.2 25.4 97.0 28.6 3.8 0 64
No. 63 21.6 14.2 26.8 89.6 29.9 3.3 4 59
L.S.D. (.05) N.S. N.S. 1.2 5.6 1.7 N.S. 7 --
Florida 20 21.6 13.4 22.0 79.2 26.0 3.6 3 65 3
Florida 15 22.8 13.6 23.3 85.2 27.7 3.7 5 59 30
Dixie Shade L-4 21.3 13.7 23.5 85.4 28.6 3.6 2 66 16
No. 63 21.9 13.9 24.7 82.0 28.9 3.3 6 62 43
-Based on scale from 0 to 100.
Weather fleck to the degree necessary for screening purposes occurred only in 1966.
Weather fleck to the degree necessary for screening purposes occurred only in 1966.
Table 2.-Comparison of Florida 20 with three cigar-wrapper
(Variety Test, North Florida Experiment Station).
tobacco varieties for yield and quality, 1966-67.
Yieldl/ No. 1 String XL-1 LC-1 LC-2 Medium Filler Grade Crop
(Lbs./A.) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Index!/ Index!/
Florida 20 1442 49.5 11.9 9.3 3.3 4.6 4.6 .738 1065
Florida 15 1648 44.3 17.0 8.5 7.4 6.9 3.8 .707 1167
Dixie Shade L-4 1401 41.1 17.1 3.6 10.1 3.5 7.7 .665 939
No. 63 1467 44.5 17.5 9.3 7.4 2.9 5.0 .706 1034
L.S.D. (.05) 160 N.S. 4.3 5.4 5.7 N.S. 3.1 .048 128
Florida 20 1859 72.3 12.9 1.1 2.7 2.7 1.9 .841 1563
Florida 15 2031 67.0 11.7 1.2 2.7 7.9 1.0 .822 1670
Dixie Shade L-4 1813 59.0 14.8 0.5 1.0 6.6 2.4 .766 1388
No. 63 1938 60.7 18.4 1.4 4.7 2.4 2.5 .775 1501
L.S.D. (.05) 162 9.0 3.4 N.S. 2.5 3.8 N.S. .060 155
Florida 20 1651 60.9 12.4 5.2 3.0 3.7 3.3 .790 1314
Florida 15 1840 55.7 14.4 4.9 5.1 7.4 2.4 .765 1419
Dixie Shade L-4 1607 50.1 16.0 2.1 5.6 5.1 5.1 .716 1164
No. 63 1703 52.6 18.0 5.4 6.1 2.7 3.8 .741 1268
2 Yield based on harvest of all commercially usable leaves.
-/Grade Index Computed by applying to the grade records a scale of
best grade and decreasing for the inferior grades.
3/Crop Index Computed by multiplying the yield by the grade index.
comparative values, beginning with 1.000 for the
Table 3.-Commercial tests of Florida 20 at two locations,
Yield No. 1 String XL-1 LC
acres in size, 1967,
Location (Lbs./A.) (%) (%)(%) () (o) (%)
1 1614 79.3 4.7 0.7 0.1 0.8 5.1
2 1507 78.1 3.7 5.6 8.0 0.9 2.3
Average 1561 78.7 4.2 3.2 4.1 0.9 3.7