Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 68-5
Title: Florida 17
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066043/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida 17 a high quality variety of cigar-wrapper tobacco
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Alternate Title: High quality variety of cigar-wrapper tobacco
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dean, Charles Edgar, 1929-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Tobacco -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: C.E. Dean.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066043
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69858898

Full Text
/00O


NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
A/F15- e -S Quincy, Florida
December 4, 1967

NFES Mimeo Report 68-5

FLORIDA 17, A HIGH QUALITY VARIETY OF CIGAR-WRAPPER TOBACCO

C. E. Dean1/


Florida 17 is a high yielding variety which has good agronomic characteristics and high
quality in demand by the cigar-wrapper industry. Resistance to black shank and root knot is
high; however, fleck resistance is moderate. Plants grow slowly during the early stages of
development, but by the end of the growing season, plant size equals or surpasses other
varieties. The variety produces a large number of harvestable leaves which maintain a
desirable size and shape well up the stalk. When handled properly, Florida 17 should
produce a high yield of tobacco in the best grades. Vein conformation and structure are
favorable together with general finish of the leaves.

Commercial tests in 1967 indicated that over-all performance of Florida 17 to be good
and that production of this variety should fill a need in the Florida cigar-wrapper tobacco
market.

INTRODUCTION

Quality is one of the most important factors to be considered in varieties of cigar-
wrapper tobacco, and is also the most difficult to define quantitatively. A uniform
acceptable color is probably the most important single element of quality; however, other
characteristics, such as leaf thickness, texture, grain, vein conformation and size are all
interrelated in the final definition of quality.

In addition to improved quality leaf, a variety must possess resistance or tolerance
to the major diseases which are of importance and cannot be controlled economically by
other means. Plant and leaf type should be such that the variety can be grown without
undue difficulty and harvested with a minimum of damage to the leaves. The release of
Florida 17 should represent improvements in many of the agronomic and quality characteristics
in demand by the cigar-wrapper tobacco industry.

ORIGIN

Florida 17 originated from a cross between the cigar-wrapper tobacco variety No. 63
and the flue-cured tobacco breeding line PD-42, developed by the South Carolina Agricultural
Experiment Station. Subsequent generations were obtained by backcrossing two times to Dixie
Shade and two times to No. 63, with a final cross with the Connecticut variety designated as
Connecticut B.

The final cross was advanced to the F6 generation before seed were bulked for small
commercial plantings in 1966. Seed were saved from selected plants and expanded commercial
plantings were made in 1967 for further evaluation.


Associate Agronomist, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy, Florida.







DESCRIPTION

GROWTH RATE.-Seedlings of the Florida 17 variety grow more slowly than the other
varieties, and may require slightly longer to reach transplant size. The slow rate of
growth continues after transplanting, so that at three weeks after transplanting the.plants
may not be as tall as Florida 15. This is an advantage, since tying the plants to the row
wires is not as critical soon after transplanting and more time can be spent on other
essential operations.

PLANT TYPE.-Leaves of Florida 17 are about the same length as Florida 15, but average
up to one and one-half inches wider, especially toward the top of the plant. Lateral veins
branch from the midrib at a more acute angle, making the leaf more desirable from the
manufacturers standpoint. Table 1 shows that Florida 17 compares quite favorably with the
other three varieties for number of 16-inch leaves. The last leaf measuring 16 inches is
somewhat higher, and on the average, plants have about three more leaves overall. The
internode length is about the same as for Florida 15 and somewhat longer than that of Dixie
Shade and No. 63.

DISEASE RESISTANCE

BLACK SHANK.-Florida 17 has a high level of black shank resistance adequate for Florida
conditions (Table 1). Commercial tests in 1967 on different soil types in several locations
revealed almost no plant loss from black shank.

ROOT KNOT.-Florida 17 has resistance to the common root knot nematode. This nematode
and others which attack tobacco are usually controlled by soil fumigation with nematocides.
In instances where soil fumigation fails to effect control, plant resistance will help to
assure a successful crop.

ROOT ROT.-Average root rot indices indicated that Florida 17 did not differ appreciably
from the other three varieties.

WEATHER FLECK.-On the basis of 1966 data, Florida 17 can be classified as having
moderate fleck resistance. This would mean that during average seasons (3-5 parts per
hundred million) little or no losses would occur. Prolonged periods of high ozone
concentrations, could result in some leaf damage, although not as much as would be
experienced with Florida 15, No. 63, or some other commercial varieties.

YIELD AND QUALITY

The yield of Florida 17 was surpassed only by that of Florida 15, as is shown in three-
year averages from the variety test at the North Florida Experiment Station (Table 2). The
three-year average indicates a 4 percent advantage in No. 1 string over the next highest
variety, Florida 15. The percentage of broken leaves (XL-1) was about the same for all of
the varieties, however, the amounts were higher than would be expected in a commercial crop
because of the extra handling an experimental crop requires.

The percentage of tobacco in the off-color grades (LC-1 and LC-2) and the medium and
filler grades showed that Florida 17 differed only slightly from the other three varieties.
The three-year average grade index was highest for Florida 17, and the crop index was
exceeded only by that of Florida 15.

Approximately 80 acres of Florida 17 were grown commercially in 1967. Because of the
different methods of grading used by the processors who handled the various crops, compiling
average values for all of the various grades was not possible. In general, yields ranged
from 1450 to over 1900 pounds per acre, while No. 1 string varied from 61 to 83 percent.
Buyer acceptance of Florida 17 has been good.








PRODUCTION SUGGESTIONS

The production of Florida 17 should not require any major changes in standard practices.
The following suggestions are offered in certain areas of management which should aid growers
in obtaining the maximum from this variety.

FERTILIZATION.-Over fertilization of Florida 17 may result in a quality reduction,
since more tobacco in the medium grade may result. Also too much fertilizer may cause the
leaves to become too large, which increases handling problems.

BLUE MOLD CONTROL.-Apply fungicides for blue mold control in both plant bed and shade.
Continued applications of fungicides will aid in reducing damage from leaf spotting organisms.

IRRIGATION.-Supplemental water in moderate amounts should be applied as needed. When a
choice exists, water should not be applied when forecasts for an increase in ozone
concentration are received.

PRIMING.-The first priming can be made about 50 days following transplanting, with time
allowed between subsequent primings for proper leaf development and maturity. Under no
circumstances should the tobacco be primed too fast.

CURING.-Best results with Florida 17 should be obtained with a slow curing procedure.
Curing temperatures not exceeding 1000F should be adequate, the choice depending on outside
air temperatures.

LEAF WILT.-Under conditions of low relative humidity and rapid drying conditions over
an extended period of time, a single leaf near the bud may be observed in a wilted
condition, even though soil moisture appears adequate. These affected leaves may recover
completely or may partially recover, leaving small areas of dead tissue between the veins.
Losses from this condition are of no consequence, however.

SEED DISTRIBUTION

Seed are available from the Florida Foundation Seed Producers, Inc. It is recommended
that the grower limit his acreage of Florida 17 until experience is gained in producing this
new variety. This will provide the opportunity to observe if further under different
growing conditions and establish its acceptance by the trade.
















CED
12/5/67
350 CC







Table 1.-Comparison of Florida 17 with three
resistance, 1965-1967.


cigar-wrapper tobacco varieties for morphological characteristics and disease


Ht. Last Internode %2/
10th Leaf No. Leaves Leaf Total Leaf Length Root Disease Indicesl/ Plants
Variety Length (in.) Width (in.) 2> 16" 16" Number (in.) Black Shank Root Rot Flecked


1965
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

1966
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

1967
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

Average
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63


1/n s
SBased on scale from


23.3
23.0
21.3
22.4
1.3


21.7
23.0
20.8
22.2
1.4


22.5
22.3
21.7
21.6
0.9


22.5
22.8
21.3
22.1


14.9
13.4
13.6
13.9
1.2


14.5
13.4
13.2
13.7
1.2


15.5
13.8
14.2
14.2
0.8


15.0
13.5
13.7
13.9


25.7
25.7
24.4
26.0
2.1


23.5
22.0
21.5
22.5
1.8


26.5
24.6
25.4
26.8
1.2


25.2
24.1
23.8
25.1


101.4
96.5
88.8
84.6
7.2


78.5
78.0
73.8
74.3
N.S.


100.4
92.3
97.0
89.6
5.6


93.4
88.9
86.5
82.8


28.9
27.1
26.7
27.4
2.0


32.8
27.0
28.5
27.8
1.5


32.0
28.4
28.6
29.9
1.7


31.2
27.5
27.9
28.4


4.0
3.8
3.7
3.3
0.4


3.3
3.6
3.4
3.0
N.S.


3.8
3.8
3.8
3.3
N.S.


3.7
3.7
3.6
3.2


65
62
67
64
N.S.


63
55
64
59
7


59
57
64
60


0 to 100.


2/
- Weather fleck to the degree necessary for screening purposes occurred only in 1966.








Table 2.-Comparison of Florida 17 with three cigar-wrapper tobacco varieties for yield and quality, 1965-1967.


Yield'/ No. 1 String XL-1 LC-1 LC-2 Medium Filler GradeA/ Crop2/
Variety (Lbs./A.) (7) W() (%)) (%) (%) (7) Index Index


1965
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

1966
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

1967
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63
L.S.D. (.05)

Average
Florida 17
Florida 15
Dixie Shade L-4
No. 63


1869
1997
1756
1919
210


1623
1648
1401
1467
160


1863
2031
1813
1937
162


1785
1892
1657
1774


59.3
42.5
53.0
36.2
14.2


42.6
44.3
41.1
44.5
N.S.


65.6
67.0
59.0
60.7
N.S.


55.8
51.3
51.0
47.1


14.8
14.3
12.3
14.2
N.S.


14.5
17.0
17.1
17.5
N.S.


19.3
11.7
14.8
18.3
3.4


16.2
14.3
14.7
16.7


5.6
6.4
5.6
7.8
N.S.


12.4
8.5
3.6
9.3
5.4


0.5
1.2
0.5
1.4
N.S.


6.2
5.4
3.2
6.2


7.3
7.4
4.6
16.0
8.8


7.2
7.1
10.1
7.4
N.S.


1.2
2.7
1.0
4.7
2.5


5.2
5.7
5.2
9.4


1.1
5.9
9.1
0.2
6.0


7.8
6.9
3.5
2.9
4.8


2.0
7.9
6.6
2.3
3.8


3.6
6.9
6.4
1.8


2.8
4.1
5.7
7.4
4.0


5.0
3.8
7.7
5.0
3.1


2.5
1.0
2.4
2.5
N.S.


3.4
3.0
5.3
5.0


.793
.703
.750
.664
.082


.703
.707
.665
.706
N.S.


.790
.822
.766
.775
N.S.


.762
.744
.727
.715


1/Yield based on harvest of all


commercially usable leaves.


1483
1403
1315
1270
214


1140
1167
939
1034
128


1472
1670
1388
1501
155


1365
1413
1214
1268


2-Grade index Computed by applying to the grade records a scale of comparative values, beginning with 1.000 for
the best grade and decreasing for the inferior grades.

/Crop index Computed by multiplying the yield by the grade index.




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