Group Title: Mimeo report - North Florida Experiment Station ; 68-3
Title: Chemical control of nematode root rot complex of shade- grown tobacco
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066042/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chemical control of nematode root rot complex of shade- grown tobacco
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 9 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Tobacco -- Effect of chemicals on   ( lcsh )
Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: W.B. Tappan.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066042
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69858619

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ANF NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Ouincy, Florida
November 15, 1967

NFES Miideo Report 68' r I

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF NEMATODE ROT ROT COMPLEX OF SHADE-GROWN TOBACCO
NOV 30 1967 ppa


'OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effectiveness of chemical soil treatments in the control of nematode
root rot complex of shade-groin tobacco.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

Test Materials.--Materials, chemical composition, formulations, and sources are
presented in Table 1.

Equipment.--A gravity-flow single-shank injector devised by the North Florida Experiment
Station was used in all injections. Ground seals after treatment were made with a crosstie
drag. A rotary tiller was used to mix some of the treatments into the soil after application.

METHODS AND PROCEDURE

Experimental Design.--Eleven treatments and an untreated check were replicated four
times in randomized complete blocks. Plots were approximately 0.0118 acre in size, and
were located in the west half of the "bug shade". Each plot had four rows, 32 feet long and
4 feet apart The two inside rows constituted the experimental plot from which data were
taken. The two outside rows, one on each side of the experimental plot, acted as buffers
between plots. Alleys between blocks of plots and buffer zones within blocks were 8 feet
wide.

Tfeatments.--All plots were fertilized with 20 t6tib of stable manure on December 211
1964, and 500 pounds pet acte of high calcie lime on january 7, 1965. The plots were
subsoiled to a depth of approximately 11 inches on January 12, and rotary tilled to a depth
of approximately 6 to 8 inches on February 3. Most treatments were applied on February 4
and 5, except the second application of Bayer 25141 which was applied on April 19. Soil
temperatures at the 6-inch level on February 4 ranged from 480F. at 03:15 P. M. to 510F. at
04:25 P. M., and on February 5 ranged from 440F. at 08:45 A. M. to 500F. at 03:16 P. M.
Rain in the amount of 2.11 inches was recorded on February 6. Methods of application were
as follows: Bayer 25141 broadcast on the soil surface and rotary tilled to a depth of
6 to 8 inches. A second broadcast application of Bayer 25141 was made at the time of the
second sidedressing of fertilizer and worked into the soil with the fertilizer covering
process; Diazinon A-1619 and GA-301-diluted 1:4 in water and injected on 6-inch centers;
M-2633-injected on 12-inch centers; M-2811-diluted 1:3 in petroleum solvent and injected on
12-inch centers; and Niagara 10242, Niagara 9227, Penphene, SKF-21701, and UC-21149-broad-
cast on the soil surface and rotary tilled to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. All treatments
except the second application of Bayer 25141 were sealed with a drag. Injected treatments
were applied to depths of 6 to 8 inches. Rows were prepared for fertilizer application on
March 8, and a 7-5-7 fertilizer was applied at 2,000 pounds per acre in the row on March 9.



- Associate Entomologist, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy.






The plot area was treated with 10% heptachlor granules broadcast at 60 pounds per acre for
cutworm control on March 9. Sidedressings of fertilizer were applied on April 13 and 19,
each at 500 pounds per acre. Both middles were plowed at the second sidedressing to
incorporate the broadcast application of Bayer 25141. Applied 500 pounds of shade fertilizer
7-5-7 on May 3 due to excessive rainfall in April. The Dixie Shade (DL-4) variety was
transplanted in all plots on April 6. Most treatments were applied 60 to 61 days before
transplanting with the exception of the second application of Bayer 25141, which was applied
13 days after transplanting. The treated area of each plot was 16 x 36 feet. Each plot was
decreased in size to 16 x 32 feet on April 21, when vacancies in each row were reset with
plants from the treated ends of each plot row. No reset was transposed from one row to
another row.

Weed Growth.--Visual weed growth ratings were made on March 5, April 2, May 5, and 26.
The readings were based upon a visual growth appearance rated according to over-all density
of growth per plot. The rating system was as follows:

0 No weed growth
1 Light weed growth
2 L Moderate weed growth
3 Heavy weed growth
4 Very heavy weed growth

The average of these readings, reported as the weed index, are given for March 5, April 2, -
and May 26.

Plant Growth.--Measurements of plant growth were made on May 12, 19, 26, and June 2,
after the plants began showing wilting and stunting symptoms. Plant growth as an indication
of response to the various treatments was reported as a measurement in inches per plant
from the base of the stalk at ground level to the base of the terminal bud. Height
measurements were discontinued as soon as the plants began to button. Plant growth responses
are somewhat accelerated after formation of the reproductive portion, and this tends to
confuse height measurements.

Nematode Populations.--Root and soil samples were taken from the 5th, 15th, and 25th
plants from the east buffer row of each plot on July 19. The three root and soil samples
were combined into one composite sample for each plot. The samples were processed and the
results were reported as average numbers of nematodes per 1 gram of root or 100 cubic
centimeters of soil.

Poot Disease Readings.--Root disease readings were taken from every 3rd plant in the
experimental plot rows on July 8, constituting 10 plants per row or a total of 20 plants per
plot. Diseases rated in these observations were black shank, root knot, and coarse root
(nematode root rot). The severity of each disease was rated in eleven categories ranging
from 0 to 100. The average of the readings per plot was reported as the disease index.

Crop Evaluation.--The crop was harvested (primed), cured, fermented, and graded
according to the usual commercial practices. Seven leaf primings were made during the crop
season on May 27 (3 leaves), June 3 (3 leaves), June 9 (3 leaves), June 17 (3 leaves),
June 22 (3 leaves), June 25 (3 leaves), and June 30 (3 to 5 leaves). The leaves taken at
each priming represent the number primed per stalk. Leaves harvested for the crop data were
taken from the experimental plot rows of each plot. Yield was calculated in pounds per acre
from the total weight of fermented leaves from each treatment replication, and reported as
the mean of four replications. A sample (one hand totaling 32 to 38 leaves; approximately
li:3 grams) of leaves from each priming of each replication was graded to obtain the grade
index. The best grade was assigned a factor of 1.000, and the other grades were assigned







proportionately smaller factors with respect to their relative market value. The grade
index was reported as the mean for four replications. Crop index was obtained by multiplying
the yield in pounds per acre by the grade index. The crop index was a measure of the total
value of the crop; reported as the mean of four replications. The fire-holding capacity was
determined by measuring the length of time in seconds that the leaf burned after being
ignited by an electric cigarette lighter. Five leaves of the 2nd, 4th, and 6th primings
from each replication were tested by burning the tip and base of each leaf. The mean of 120
readings were reported as the index for four replications. The weight of the crop in off-
color, dark wrapper, light wrapper, light medium, and top three grades was calculated in
percent.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Weed growth (Table 2) was reduced most effectively by M-2633 and M-2811. Best plant
response resulted from treatments with the split application of Bayer 25141, and single
applications of M-2633, NIA-10242, and NIA-9227. Growth differences between the 300 and 600
pound rates of NIA-10242 indicated that the higher rate was causing some stunting or root
phytotoxicity. Both rates of NIA-10242 gave best reduction of Pratylenchus spp. in the
roots, and the highest rate gave best reduction in the soil. Populations of Rotylenchulus
spp. were erratic and evaluation of results impossible. Reduction of Helicotylenchus spp.
was best with NIA-10242, NIA-9227, M-2633, and Diazinon A-1619. The results indicate that
both Diazinon formulations were relatively ineffective in reducing nematode populations at
the rates used, except for Helicotylenchus spp. with A-1619. UC-21149 was also ineffective
and somewhat of a disappointment. NIA-10242 showed considerable promise for control of both
Pratylenchus spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. Black shank index was lowest in plots treated
with M-2633. Root knot was not a problem in any plot. Coarse root was best controlled with
NIA-10242 at the higher rate followed by NIA-9227, and the lower rate of NIA-10242.

Listed in order of descending yields (Table 2): M-2633, NIA-10242 at both rates, and
Bayer 25141 gave best results. NIA-10242 at the higher rate showed the best grade and crop
indices. The best fire-holding capacity resulted from treatments with the lower rate of
NIA-10242, UC-21149, and the split application of Bayer 25141. None of the treatments were
particularly outstanding with respect to the various grades analyzed. The higher rate of
NIA-10242 was generally the best treatment from the standpoint of improving the quality of
the tobacco as indicated by the grade and crop indices.

Both rates of NIA-10242 caused considerable foliage phytotoxicity characterized by
chlorotic and necrotic spotting of the lamina, and upward curling of leaf edges and tips.
Some stunting was apparent with both NIA-10242 and Penphene.

Linear correlations (Table 3) showed that the crop was adversely affected by *'- '
Pratylenchus spp. and Helicotylenchus spp. in the soil. The relationship of Pratylenchus
spp. in the roots and Rotylenchulus spp. in the soil to the crop was not as strongly
correlated. Black shank, being a light infestation, caused some adverse effects in grade,
but not enough to be of much significance. The most interesting correlations were those
between Helicotylenchus spp., yield, crop index and off-color. There is a definite relation-
ship between these nematodes and poor tobacco. So far, no evidence in pathogenicity studies
has confirmed this; that is, on cigar-wrapper tobacco.


WBT
100 CC
11/15/67









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

Table 1: Materials, Compositions, Formulations, and Sources of Materials Used for Control of Nematode Root Rot
Complex-1965.


Material

Bayer 25141

Diazinon A-1619


Diazinon GA-301


M-2633

M-2811

NIA-10242


NIA-9227

SKF-21701


UC-21149


Chemical Composition

0,0-diethyl 0-p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl phosphorothioate

0,0-diethyl 0-(2-isopropyl-4-nethyl-6-pyrimidinyl)
phosphorothioate

0,0-diethyl O-(2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl)
phosphorothioate

Telone (80%), chloropicrin (15%) and 3-bromopropyne (5%)

Ethylene dibromide (80%) and 3-bromopropyne (20%)

2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl 7-benzolfuranyl
N-methylcarbamate

organo-phosphorus compound

phenol compound


2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde
O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime


Formulation

10% granular

4.45 lbs./gal.


4.34 Ibs./gal. EC


100% liquid

100% liquid

5% granular


5% granular

33.3% granular


10% granular


Source

Chemagro Corp.

Geigy Chemical Corp.


Geigy Chemical Corp.


Dow Chemical Co.

Dow Chemical Co.

Niagara Chemical Div.


Niagara Chemical Div.

Smith Kline and French
Lab.

Union Carbide Corp.


---









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida

Table 2. Effects of Nematocidal and Fungicidal Treatments on Weed Growth, Plant Growth, Reduction of Nematodes,
Reduction of Root Diseases, and Crop Data on Dixie Shade Tobacco (DL-4) 1965.

Weed Index Plant Heights
Treatment and Dates of Avg. 4 Reps. Avg./Plant 4 Reps.
Doc.ae per Acre Treatment 3/5 4/2 5/26 5/12 5/19 5/26 6/2

Penphene, 80 lbs. Feb. 4 2.75 3.25 3.75 15.39 24.75 38.91 56.10
NIA-10242, 300 Ibs. Feb. 4 1.75 3.00 3.50 20.11 32.23 49.50 69.43
NIA-10242, 600 Ibs. Feb. 4 1.75 2.75 3.50 17.90 30.53 47.89 67.78
NIA-9227, 550 lbs. Feb. 4 2.00 3.00 3.25 19.54 31.53 48.56 67.35
UC-21149, 80 lbs. Feb. 4 1.75 3.00 3.75 15.44 26.44 43.05 61.75
SKF-21701, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 2.00 3.00 3.75 15.39 25.35 40.50 58.41
M-2633, 30.5 gals. Feb. 5 2.00 2.25 2.25 20.21 33.33 51.05 71.18
M-2811, 6.1 gals. Feb. 4 2.25 2.00 2.25 19.36 31.00 47.73 65.63
Bayer 25141, 150 + 150 lbs. Feb. 4 + Apr. 19 2,25 3.25 3.25 21.18 33.95 52.25 71.94
Diazinon GA-301, 7.6 gals. Feb. 5 2.00 3.25 3.50 16.81 27.93 43.34 61.18
Diazinon A-1619, 7.4 gals. Feb. 5 2.25 3.25 3.50 17.39 28.56 45.24 63.49
Check, untreated ----- 4.00 4.00 4.00 15.29 25.00 39.35 56.65


L.S.D. 5% 0.93 0.87 0.75 2.74 3.48 5.14 6.87
L.S.D. 1% 1.26 1.16 1.01 3.68 V4.68 6.91 9.24
C.V. (%) 29 20 16 11 8 8 7










NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Floridan


Table 2. Continued.


Per 100 cc. of soil
Treatment and Dates of Pratylenchus spp. Pratylenchus spp. Rotylenchulus spp. Helicotylenchus spp.
Dosage per Acre Treatment 7/19 7119 ~ 7/19 7/19

Penphene, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 82.25 270.25 734.00 71.75
NIA-10242, 300 lbs. Feb. 4 58.50 226.50 25.25 3.25
NIA-10242, 600 Ibs. Feb. 4 40.25 119.00 15.50 0.00
NIA-9227, 550 Ibs. Feb. 4 84.50 278.00W 27.00 6.00
UC-21149, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 67.75 205.25 141.75 24.50
SKF-21701, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 102.50 374.50 65.50 39.25
M-2633, 30.5 gals. Feb. 5 76.00 155.00 21.00 6.00
M-2811, 6.1 gals. Feb. 4 104.25 232.50 5.25 17.00
Bayer 25141, 150 + 150 lbs. Feb. 4 + Apr. 19 94.00 185.25 31.50 10.25
Diazinon GA-301, 7.6 gals. Feb. 5 112.50 279.00 101.50 52.25
Diazinon A-1619, 7.4 gals. Feb. 5 104.75 204.50 53.25 7.00
Check, untreated ----- 107.50 270.00 42.00, 82.25


L.S.D. 5% 53.86 149.81 151.36 32.09
L.S.D. 1% 72.43 201.47 203.55 72.26
C.V. (%) 44 45 225 84









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida


Table 2. Continued:


Fire-
Disease Index 7/8-Avg. 4 Reps. Grade Crop Holding
Treatment and Dates of Black Root Coarse Yield Index Index Capacity
Dosage per Acre Treatment Shank Knot Root Avg. 4 Reps.

Penphene, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 6.00 0.00 63.33 1359 0.533 725 9,7
NIA-10242, 300 Ibs. Feb. 4 7.00 0.00 53.75 1650 .580 960 10,8
NIA-10242, 600 Ibs. Feb. 4 5.00 0.00 48.25 1670 .598 999 8.0
NIA-9227, 550 Ibs. Feb. 4 5.25 0.00 53.50 1562 .505 791 9.3
UC-21149, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 6.50 0.00 60.00 1518 .569 864 10.4
SKF-21701, 80 lbs. Feb. 4 5.25 0.00 63.50 1432 .575 825 8.3
M-2633, 30.5 gals. Feb. 5 2.25 0.00 59.75 1687 .523 881 5.5
M-2811, 6.1 gals. Feb. 4 6.75 0.00 62.00 1528 .536 8a3 7,8
Bayer 25141, 150 + 150 Ibs. Feb. 4 + Apr. 19 5.25 0.00 57.50 1645 .550 905 10.1
Diazinon GA-301, 7.6 gals. Feb. 5 5.00 0.00 55.00 1500 .554 232 9.4
Diazinon A-1619, 7.4 gals. Feb. 5 5.75 0.00 55.50 1596 .527 837 8.5
Check, untreated ---- 8.00 0.00 64.00 1486 .532 790 9.2


L.S.D. 51 5. 5 --- 7.29 139 .055 124 3.7
L.S.D. It 7.86 --- 9.80 187 .074 167 5.0
C.V. (M) 72 ---- 9 6 7 110 29










NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Ouincy, Florida


Table 2. Continued.


Percent Percent Percent Percent
Percent Dark Light Light Top Three
Treatment and Dates of Off-Color Wrapper Wrapper Medium Grades
Dosage per Acre Treatment Avg. 4 Reps.

Penphene, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 26.4 34.9 5.3 10.9 25.4
NIA-10242, 300 lbs. Feb. 4 20.3 31.5 11.5 7.3 29.6
NIA-10242, 600 Ibs. Feb. 4 17.2 27.3 14.4 10.0 37.5
NIA-9227, 550 Ibs. Feb. 4 10.8 45.5 5.2 8.7 18.5
UC-21149, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 26.6 26.1 6.1 9.8 31.8
SKF-21701, 80 Ibs. Feb. 4 21.1 27.4 12.4 8.7 32.4
M-2633, 30.5 Ibs. Feb. 5 11.8 44.8 3.2 14.8 24.7
M-2811, 6.1 gals. Feb. 4 18.8 40.4 5.0 9.7 24.0
Bayer 25141, 150 + 150 Ibs. Feb. 4 + Apr. 19 17.0 28.9 3.2 15.6 26.4
Diazinon GA-301, 7.6 gals. Feb. 5 27.2 35.5 5.5 9.2 30.6
Diazinon A-1619, 7.4 gals. Feb. 5 21.6 42.5 5.1 7.5 23.4
Check, untreated ------ 20.9 37.5 6.9 5.5 23.8


L.S.D. 5% 8.5 15.3 71;. 9.1 13.2
L.S.D. 1% 11.4 20.5 9.6 12.3 17.8
C.V.(%) 29 30 71 65 34









NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
ouincy, Florida

Table 3. Linear Correlations Relating to Soil Nomatocide and Fungicide Studies on Shade-Grown Tobacco-1965.

Black Coarse
Weed Plant Praty. Praty. Roty. Helico. Shank Root
Index Height Roots Soil Soil Soil Index Index
5/26 5/26 7/19 7/19 7/19 7/19 7/8 7/8

Weed Index (5/26) -.65 -.02 .36 .47 .50 .52 -.01
Plant Height (5/26) -.65 -.35 -.63 -.45 -.85 -.45 -.55
Pratylenchus Roots (7/19) -.02 -.35 .60 .16 .49 .15 .55
Pratylenchus Soil (7/19) .36 -.63 .60 .25 .57 .30 .52
Rotylenchulus Soil (7/19) .47 -.45 .16 .25 .28 .12 .14
Helicotylenchus Soil (7/19) .50 -.85 .49 .57 .28 .41 .65
Black Shank Index (7/8) .52 -.45 .15 .30 .12 .41 .23
Coarse Root Index (7/8) -.01 -.55 .55 .52 .14 .65 .23
Yield -.44 .88 -.47 -.77 -.35 -.82 -.40 -.66
Grade Index .35 -.03 -.52 -.15 .23 -.15 .14 -.32
Crop Index -.11 .63 -.67 -.65 -.14 -.68 -.20 -.68
Fire-Holding Capacity .66 -.21 -.05 .25 .39 .21 .67 -.09
Off-Color .57 -.70 .22 .31 .67 .59 .47 .05
Dark Wrapper -.52 .19 .36 -.01 -.39 -.07 -.25 .15
Light Wrapper .42 -.16 -.50 .09 -.14 -.10 .20 .00
Light Medium -.55 .55 -.17 -.45 -.16 -.33 -.70 .29
Top Three Grades .32 -.12 -.48 -.17 .33 -.07 -.04 -.34

Significance of r at 5% level .58
Significance of r at 1% level .71











NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMBT STATION
Quincy, Florida

Table 3. Continued.


Fire- Top
Grade Crop Holding Off- Dark Light Light Three
Yield Index Index Capacity Color Wrapper Wrapper Medium Grades

Weed Index (5/26) -.44 .35 -.11 .66 .57 -.52 .42 -.55 .32
Plant Height (5/26) .88 -.03 .63 -.21 -.70 .19 -.16 .55 -.12
Pratylenchus Roots (7/19) -.47 -.52 -.67 -.05 .22 .36 -.50 -.17 -.48
Pratylenchus Soil (7/19) -.77 -.15 -.65 .25 .31 -.01 .09 -.45 -.17
Rotylenchulus Soil (7/19) -.35 .23 -.14 .39 .67 -.39 -.14 -.16 .33
Helicotylenchus Soil (7/19) -.82 -.15 -.63 .21 .59 -.07 -.10 -.33 -.07
Black Shank Index (7/8) -.40 .14 -.20 .67 .47 -.25 .20 -.70 -.04
Coarse Root Index (7/8) -.66 -.32 -.68 -.09 .05 .15 .00 .29 -.34
Yield .15 .81 -.27 -.63 .11 .05 .35 .08
Grade Index .15 .69 .25 .34 -.88 .80 -.08 .95
Crop Index .81 .69 -.03 -.26 -.43 .51 .20 .61
Fire-Holding Capacity -.27 .25 -.03 .51 -.48 .10 -.32 .09
Off-Color -.63 .34 -.26 .51 -.47 .O0 -.33 .39
Dark Wrapper .11 -.88 -.43 -.48 -.47 -.58 -.5 -.83
Light Wrapper .05 .80 .51 .10 .08 -.58 -.43 .72
Light Medium .35 -.03 .20 -.32 -.33 -.05 -.43 .02
Top Three Grades .08 .95 .61 .09 .39 -.83 .72 .02

Significance of i at 5% level .58
Significance of r at 1% level .71




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