Title: Feedlot performance and cracass chracteristics of brahman-European crossbred and angus calves
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 Material Information
Title: Feedlot performance and cracass chracteristics of brahman-European crossbred and angus calves
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Palmer, A. Z
Carpenter, J. W ( James Woodford )
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Carcasses -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr., A.Z. Palmer, and J.W. Carpenter.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066041
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69858753

Full Text

/leo


2, A/F5 NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
nuincy, Florida
August 9, 1967

NFES Mimeo Report 68-2 EP 1
SEP 15 13 7
FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAHMAN-EUROPEAN-i~ ,- .-
CROSSBRED AND ANGUS CALVES i .

F. S. Baker, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, and J. W. Carpenter/

SUMMARY

During the 167-day feedlot finishing period, four groups of calves made an average
daily gain of 2.77 pounds with 958 pounds of feed per 100 pounds gain (all groups adjusted
to a carcass yield of 60 percent). As in previous trials, calves of 1/2 Charolais-1/4
Brahman-1/4 Hereford breeding made the largest (3.27 pounds daily), most efficient gain
(911 pounds feed per 100 pounds gain) with the highest estimated cutout of closely trimmed
boneless cuts (51.04 percent). Carcasses of the other three groups had more marbling and
slightly higher carcass grades than those of the Charolais crossbreds. Differences in fat
cover, ribeye area, percent kidney fat, and estimated cutout were not as great as in
previous trials.

Because of a negative margin between cost ($26.00) and sale price ($23.97) per 100
pounds and a relatively high feed ingredient cost of $46.13 per ton, the feeding operation
did not show a positive return above costs of cattle and feed. With the $26 purchase price,
cattle would have paid all costs (cattle, feed, and $0.10 per day for other costs) if sold
at $25.84 per hundred. Similarly, if the cattle sold at $23.97, all costs would have been
paid if they were purchased at $22.65 per hundred. Despite the fast, efficient gains, a
margin between cost and sale price per hundred was needed to show a profit.

INTRODUCTION

In six previous trials, heavy steer calves of various Brahman-European crosses and
comparable weight British calves approximately 10 to 11 months of age and weighing 500 to
650 pounds when started on feed made very satisfactory feedlot gains for periods ranging
from 157 to 207 days2. Although the calf gains have been somewhat more efficient than those
made by yearling steers normally fed in North Florida feedlots, the advantage of greater
feed efficiency was largely offset by the longer feeding period required to finish the
calves as compared with yearlings. Generally, margins of at least $2 to $3 per 100 pounds
live weight between cost of the calves going on feed and the selling price of the fat cattle
would have been necessary to realize modest profits from the feeding trials.

Carcass grades of Brahman crossbreds have generally been as high as those of the
British cattle; however, Charolais-Brahman-Herefords and Brahman-Herefords have averaged
grading slightly lower. In a four trial average involving the same breed groups, Charolais-
Brahman-Hereford crossbreds had the highest estimated percentage of lean cuts but the lowest
carcass quality grade. Lack of marbling prevented higher carcass quality grades in all
groups.


-/Animal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy; Meat Scientist and Associate
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville,
respectively.
2/NFES eps. 61-5, 1961; 62-10, 192; 63-, 1963; 64-6, 1964; 65-4, 1965; and 66-6, 1966.
- NFES Reps. 61-5, 1961; 62-10, 1962; 63-8, 1963; 64-6, 1964; 65-4, 1965; and 66-6, 1966.











PROCEDURE


Angus and 7/C Angus-1/C Brahman calves were trucked to Quincy from Raiford, Florida,
on November 1. Charolais-Brahman-Herefords and Hereford-Brahman-Angus calves were trucked
to Cuincy from Clewiston, Florida, on November 11. All calves had been weaned at least 6
weeks prior to shipment. All groups were placed on limited grain and self-fed hay until
started on trial on November 22, at which time the Raiford calves weighed approximately the
same as when weaned, and the Clewiston calves weighed about the same as ranch weights when
they were shipped.

As initial feedlot weights were about the same as ranch delivery weights, the initial
weights were not shrunk. Final weights were in the early morning after trucking 3 miles to
Quincy and were shrunk 3 percent. Thus experimental live weights were on a ranch delivery
to shrunk market weight basis. Carcass weights were hot weights less 2 1/2 percent shrink.

When the trial began, feed was increased gradually for approximately three weeks after
which each group received all the concentrates it would clean-up between once-a-day
feedings. Hay was self-fed at the beginning of the feeding period but restricted
thereafter. Salt and steamed bonemeal were supplied free-choice throughout the trial.
Each calf was ear implanted with 24 mg stilbestrol at the beginning of the trial. Vitamin
A concentrate was mixed with the protein supplement to furnish 25,000 I. U. vitamin A per
head daily. The following ration was fed:

Ground snapped corn -- according to appetite
Citrus molasses -- 4.0 pounds per head daily
41% cottonseed meal -- 2.5 pounds per head daily
Argentine Bahia grass hay -- fed as previously noted
Salt and steamed bonemeal -- free-choice
Vitamin A -- 25,000 I. U. per head daily

The ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal were mixed each morning, and citrus molasses
was poured on top of the mixture in the trough. As shown in Table 1, ratios of concentrates
to roughage ranged from 75:25 to 77:23 for the various groups, depending on the quantity of
ground snapped corn consumed. Average daily feed consumption of each lot is also shown in
Table 1. Prices of feed are given for individual ingredients as well as complete rations
for each group.

The calves were confined to dry lot in a well-bedded steer feeding barn with 50 square
feet of pen space and 2 feet of trough space per head.

After a 48-hour chill, carcasses were ribbed and graded to the nearest third of a
grade by a USDA grader and Experiment Station personnel. Sale prices were actual prices
paid by the packer for the carcasses (Table 2). Two steers sent to Expo 67 for exhibition
(Lots 1 and 2) were priced at the average live weight price per hundredweight of their
respective groups and are included in all instances except the carcass data.

Carcass maturity, conformation, degree of marbling, and other USDA grade data were
recorded for each carcass. Fat thickness over ribeye, percent kidney and pelvic fat, area
of ribeye, and carcass weight data were used in estimating percentage of closely trimmed
boneless cuts from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chuck according to the following
formula:

Estimated cutout = 51.34 (5.78 x fat cover) (0.462 x % kidney and pelvic fat) +
(0.74 x area ribeye) (0.0093 x carcass weight).











Table 1.-Average daily feed consumption and feed prices.


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Argentine Bahia hay
Mineral
Total


Lot 1
1/2 Char.
1/4 Bra.
1/4 Her.
21.57
3.74
2.44
1.91
0.09
29.75


Pounds feed per
Lot 2
1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra.
1/4 Ang.
20.59
3.74
2.44
1.64
0.10
28.51


head daily
Lot 3

7/3 Ang.
1/8 Bra.
15.30
3.74
2.44
1.46
0.08
23.52


Individual feeds
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal + vitamin A
Argentine Bahia hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
24 mg stilbestrol implant


Price per ton
$ 45.00
25.00
100.00
22.50
38.00
110.00
0.25 each


Entire Ration


Percent
concentrates
75.1
75.9
76.7
77.1


Percent
roughage
24.6
23.7
23.0
22.7


Percent
mineral
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2


Cost ton
of feed
$45.73
46.02
46.35
46.41


Table 2.-Prices received for carcasses.


Choice
Good
Standard
Choice Stag


Price cwt.
$41.50
39.00
39.00
39.00


Lot 4


Afg.
16.78
3.74
2.44
1.32
0.06
24.34


Lot
1
2
3
4


Grade
U. S.
U. S.
U. S.
U. S.










Feed costs were based on local price (Ouincy, Florida) at the time the cattle were in
the feedlot (Table 1) with no mixing or handling charge included. Other costs (labor, pen
rent, interest, and other expenses) are included in the assumed charge of $0.10 per head
daily.

The calves from Raiford (Lots 3 and 4) were weaned about six weeks prior to shipment
to Quincy and weighed approximately the same as when weaned. The Clewiston calves (Lots 1
and 2) were weaned about 2 months before trucking to Quincy, but weaning weights were not
available. As previously stated, initial experimental weights were approximately the same
as ranch delivery weights when the calves were shipped. The time interval between weaning
and starting on trial was much longer this year than in previous years.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

During the 167-day feedlot finishing period, the four groups of calves made an average
daily gain of 2.77 pounds with 958 pounds of feed consumed per 100 pounds gain (all groups
adjusted to a carcass yield of 60 percent (Table 3). The overall rate of gain was higher
than in preceding trials, possibly because of the greater time interval between weaning the
calves and starting the trial as compared with previous years.

As shown in Tables 3 and 4 (results with final weights adjusted to same carcass yield),
calves of 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford breeding (Lot 1) made the largest (3.27
pounds daily), most efficient gain (911 pounds of feed per 100 pounds gain), with the
highest estimated cutout of closely trimmed boneless cuts (51.04 percent). Gain of the
1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus (lot 2) approached that of the Charolais crossbreds, but
calves of predominantly Angus breeding (Lots 3 and 4) gained more slowly and less
efficiently.

Carcasses of the Charolais crossbreds (Lot 1) had less marbling and slightly lower
quality grades than those of the other groups. Differences in fat cover, ribeye area,
percent kidney fat, and estimated cutout were not as great among the various groups as in
previous trials (Table 4 and footnote 2, page 2).

Because of a negative margin between assumed cost ($26.00) and sale price ($23.97)
per 100 pounds and a relatively high feed ingredient cost of $46.13 per ton, the feeding
operation did not show a positive return above costs of cattle and feed. With feeder
calves costing $26.00 per hundred pounds, selling the finished cattle at $25.84 per hundred
would have paid all costs (cattle, feed, and $0.10 per day for other costs). With the
finished cattle selling at $23.97 per hundred (60 percent carcass yield) the necessary
margin would be $1.32 per hundred, and if the feeder calves were purchased at $22.65 per
hundred, all costs would have been paid. Overall feed cost per 100 pounds gain was $22.03,
other costs were $3.60, and the total cost of gain was $25.63 per hundred pounds. Differ-
ences among the various groups were not great, but net returns were somewhat more
favorable for Lots 1 and 2 (Table 3).

In contrast to results of previous trials, none of the livers of calves originating
in liver fluke-infested areas had live flukes at slaughter.











Table 3.-Results calf finishing trial, 1966-67.

Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Angus
Number head 10 10 10 10
Number days 165.3* 165.3* 167 167
Av. initial weight** 637 603 564 525
Av. final weight** 1175 1063 934 926
Av. gain 533 459 370 401
Av. daily gain 3.25 2.70 2.22 2.40
Av. daily feed intake 29.75 28.51 23.52 24.34
Feed per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates*** 053(687) 964(779) 992(314) 957(782)
Roughage*** 59(225) 59(244) 66(244) 55(230)
Mineral 2.6 3.5 3.3 2.2
Cost $20.91 $23.61 $24.61 $23.52
Carcass and Economic Data:
Av. slaughter weight 1175 1063 934 926
Av. carcass weight****H* 707* 661* 576 561
Av. carcass yield 60.17 62.10 61.64 60.58
Av. carcass grade***** 10.0 11.1 11.3 11.4
Av. price cwt./carcass $39.30 $40.14 $40,25 $40.02
Av. price cwt./on foot 23.62 25.06 24.81 24.24
Av. cost cwt./feeders 26.00 26.00 26.00 26.00
Av. cost head feeders 165.57 156.86 146.67 136.58
Av. feed cost 112.45 108.42 91.01 94.33
Av. cost cattle and feed 278.02 265.28 237.68 230,91
Sale price per head 277.48 266.28 231.75 224.57
Net return above costs
cattle and feed -0.54 +1.00 -5.93 -6.34
Other costs (0.10 day) 16.53 16.53 16.70 16.70
Initial value (sale price
less costs) 148.50 141.33 124.04 113.54
Initial value cwt. 23.32 23.43 21.99 21.61
*1 str. each group to Expo 67 before trial completed; carcass data 9 head.
**Initial weights at feedlot not shrunk--final weights at Quincy packing plant shrunk
3 percent.
***Numbers in parentheses on shelled corn basis--cob and shuck in snapped corn as roughage.
****Hot weights less 2 1/2 percent.
*****10, average good; 11, high good; 12, low choice.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Results with final weights adjusted to same carcass yield or dressing percentage.

Adjusted carcass yield 60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00
Adjusted final weight 1177 1101 960 935
Adjusted average gain 540 493 396 410
Adjusted average daily gain 3.27 3.01 2.37 2.46
Adjusted feed per 100 pounds gain 911 947 993 991
Feed cost per 100 pounds gain $20.83 $21.78 $23.01 $23.01

Remainder data same as shown above.











Table 4.-Detailed carcass study.


Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 7/8 Ang.
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/8 Bra. Ang.
Carcass weight (hot weight-27%) 707 661 576 561
Maturity A A A A
Conformation* 15 16 16 16
Marbling** 9.0 12.1 12.4 11.3
USDA grade* 14.4 15.7 15.9 15.6
Ribeye area (sq. in.) 12.46 11.27 11.17 11.34
Ribeye area/cwt. carcass (sq. in.) 1.76 1.70 1.94 2.02
Fat cover ribeye (in.) 0.31 0.49 0.38 0.40
Est. kidney fat (%) 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1
Est. kidney fat (lbs.) 13.4 18.5 17.3 17.4
Est. yield closely trimmed
boneless rib, chuck, loin,
rump, and round (%) 51.04 49.51 50.64 50.77
Color lean*** 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.0


*Conformation and grade: average good, 14; high good, 15;
**M-,arbling: slight+, 9; small-, 10; small, 11; small+, 12;
***Color lean: light cherry red, 3; cherry red, 4.


low choice, 16.
modest-, 13.


FSB
400 CC
8/18/67




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