Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida North Florida Experiment Station ; 66-6
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass chracteristics of Brahma_nEuropean crossbred and angus calves
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066038/00001
 Material Information
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass chracteristics of Brahma_nEuropean crossbred and angus calves
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Palmer, A. Z
Carpenter, J. W
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Carcasses -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr., A.Z. Palmer, and J.W. Carpenter.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066038
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69661657

Full Text


'7 vNorth Florida Experiment Station
AF F. ,' d L-dQ Quincy, Florida
April 15, 1966 '

NFES Mimeo Rpt. 66-6
i
FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF /
BRAHMAN-EUROPEAN CROSSBRED AND ANGUS CALVES

F. S. Baker, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, and J. W. Carpenter


SUMMARY

During the 163 -day feedlot period, the five groups of calves made a very satisfactory
average daily gain of 2.44 pounds with 1074 pounds feed consumed per 100 pounds gain (all
groups adjusted to a carcass yield of 60.88 percent).

Calves of 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford, the heaviest group on trial, made the
largest and most efficient gain and had the highest estimated cutout of closely trimmed
boneless cuts. This group had particularly large rib eye areas.

Angus carcasses graded the highest but were wastier because of excess fat cover and had
considerably lower estimated cutout than carcasses of the four crossbred groups.

All groups showed a positive return above cattle and feed costs, with the Charolais-
Brahman-Hereford lot having the highest net return.

In contrast to results in previous years, cattle that had live flukes in their livers
at slaughter made slower gains than those with non-infested livers.


INTRODUCTION

In five previous trials, heavy steer calves of various Brahman-European crosses and
comparable weight British calves approximately 10 months of age and weighing 500 to 650
pounds when started on feed made very satisfactory feedlot gains for periods ranging from
157 to 207 days2. Although the calf gains have been somewhat more efficient than those
made by yearling steers normally fed in North Florida feedlots, the advantage of greater
feed efficiency was largely offset by the longer feeding period required to finish the
calves as compared with yearlings. Generally, margins of at least $3 per 100 pounds live
weight between the cost of the calves going on feed and the selling price of the fat cattle
would have been necessary to realize modest profits from the feeding trials.

Carcass grades of Brahman crossbreds have generally been as high as those of the
British cattle. In the first and fifth experiments, Charolais-Brahman-Herefords, and in
the second and third tests, Brahman-Herefords graded slightly lower. Lower grading cattle
usually had higher estimated cutout values. In most of the trials carcass grades were not
as high as expected, largely because of lack of marbling in both Brahman hybrid and British
calves. Most of the carcasses graded U. S. Good, with a few U. S. Choice and U. S. Standard.

In one trial wherein only half of the calves were implanted with stilbestrol, the
implanted calves gained 67 pounds more and had carcasses that averaged 43 pounds heavier
than non-implanted calves. Response to stilbestrol was particularly large in Charolais-
Brahman crossbreds. All calves received 24 mg stilbestrol implants in the other four trials.


1Animal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy; Meat Scientist and Associate
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville, respectively.
2NFES Mimeo Rpts. 61-5, 1961; 62-10, 1962; 63-8, 1963; 64-6, 1964; and 65-4, 1965.










A majority of the livers from cattle originating in South Florida had live flukes at
slaughter, regardless of whether the cattle had received fluke treatment. When cattle with
fluke-infested and clean livers were compared, it appeared that fluke infestation did not
adversely affect feedlot performance or carcass characteristics, although loss of the liver
itself was significant economically.

PROCEDURE

Brahman-European crossbred calves were trucked to Quincy from Clewiston and Cocoa,
Florida. Ten head each of 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford, 1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-
1/4 Angus, 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn, and 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahmain ere delivered to the
North Florida Experiment Station Farm on September 4, 1965. Comparable weight Angus calves
and light yearlings were delivered on September 17, 1965. All calves were placed in dry lot
on a light grain feed and self-fed grass hay until October 6, then individually weighed and
started on trial. Early morning weights on October 6 were slightly heavier than ranch
weights taken immediately before the calves were trucked to the North Florida Experiment
Station. Because of close agreement of ranch delivery and October 6 weights, the latter
were used as initial experimental weights without shrink.

When the trial began, feed was increased gradually for approximately three weeks after
which each group received all the concentrates it would clean up between once-a-day feedings.
Hay was self-fed at the beginning of the feeding period but restricted thereafter. Salt and
steamed bonemeal were supplied free-choice throughout the trial. Each calf received a 24 mg
stilbestrol implant at the beginning of the trial, and vitamin A concentrate was mixed with
the protein supplement to furnish 25,000 I. U. vitamin A per head daily. The following
ration was fed:

Ground snapped corn -- according to appetite
Citrus molasses -- 5.0 pounds per head daily
41% cottonseed meal -- 2.5 pounds per head daily
Argentine Bahia grass hay -- fed as previously noted
Salt and steamed bonemeal -- free-choice
Vitamin A 25,000 I. U. per head daily

The ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal were mixed each morning, and citrus molasses
was poured on top of the mixture in the trough. Ratios of concentrates to roughage ranged
from 76:24 during the first part to 79:21 during the last part of the feeding period, with
the average percentage of concentrates and roughages consumed by each group for the entire
trial shown in Table 1.

The calves were confined to dry lot in a well-bedded steer feeding barn with 60 square
feet of pen space and 2 feet of trough space per head.

Final live weights, taken after trucking 3 miles to Quincy in early morning, were shrunk
3 percent; and these shrunk weights were used in calculating gains, carcass yields, and on-
foot sale prices. As previously noted, starting weights were not shrunk, as they
corresponded closely to ranch delivery weights. Thus, experimental weights were on a
purchase to sale weight basis.

Carcass weights were hot weights less 2 1/2 percent. After a 72-hour chill carcasses
were ribbed and graded to the nearest third of a grade by a USDA grader and Experiment
Station personnel. Sales prices were actual prices paid by the packer for the carcasses
(Table 2).






-3-


Table l.-Feed Prices


Individual Feeds
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal + vitamin A
Argentine Bahia hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Aurofac crumbles
24 mg stilbestrol implant


Entire Ration
Percent
Lot concentrates
21 77
22 77
23 77
24 77
25 79


Per Ton
$40.00 and $45.00
24.00
80.00 and 86.00
22.50
38.00
95.00
0.24 pound
0.20 each


Percent
Roughages
23
23
23
23
21


Ton Feed
$41.30
41.35
41.17
41.01
41.83


Table 2.-Prices Received for Carcasses.


Grade
S. Choice
S. Good
S. Commercial Stag


Price cwt.
$44.50
42.50
38.00


Carcass maturity, conformation, degree of marbling, and other USDA grade data were
recorded for each carcass. Fat thickness over rib eye, percent kidney and pelvic fat, area
of rib eye, and carcass weight data were used in estimating percentage of closely trimmed
boneless cuts from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chick according to the following formula:

Estimated cutout = 51.34-(5.78 x fat cover)-(0.462 x % kidney & pelvic fat)
+ (0.74 x area rib eye)-0.0093 x carcass weight).

Feed costs were based on local prices (Quincy, Florida) at the time the cattle were in
the feedlot (Table l)o Prices are shown for the various ingredients and an average for the
entire ration (no mixing or handling charge). Other costs (labor, pen rent, interest, and
other expenses) are included in the assumed charge of $0.10 per head daily.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Overall (all groups) average daily gain was larger than for any of the previous trials
except 1962-1963 test in which overall average daily gain was the same as this year (Table
3)3. Because of relatively high feed intake in the current trial, feed efficiency was not
as satisfactory as in the 1963 and 1965 trials. When adjusted to the same carcass yield or
dressing percentage (60.88), an average of 1074 pounds feed was consumed per 100 pounds gain
this year, while feed per 100 pounds gain averaged 988 and 1031 pounds, respectively, in the
1963 and 1965 trials.


3
See footnote 2, page 1.










Table 3.-Results Calf Finishing Trial, 1965-66.


Number head
Number days
Av. initial weight*
Av. final weight*
Av. gain
Av. daily gain
Average Daily Ration:
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Argentine Bahia hay
Feed per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates**
Roughage**
Mineral
Cost
Carcass and Financial Data:
Av. slaughter weight
Av. carcass weight***
Av. carcass yield
Av. carcass grade****
Av. price cwt./carcass
Av. price cwt./on foot
Av. cost cwt./feeders
Av. cost head/feeders
Av. feed cost
Av. cost cattle and feed
Sale price per head
Net return above costs
cattle & feed
Other costs (0.10 day)
Initial value (sale price
less costs)
Initial value cwt.


Lot 21 Lot 22 Lot 23 Lot 24 Lot 25
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 3/4 Bra. 1/2 Short. Angus &
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Short. 1/2 Bra. Ang. x Her.


10
163
676
1092
416
2.55

18.73
4.71
2.41
1.67

1013(830)
66(249)
3.1
$22.33

1092
688
63.02
10.8
$42.37
26.70
23.50
158.86
92.94
251.80
291.70

39.90
16.30

182.46
26.99


10
163
639
1027
388
2.38


17.99
4.71
2.41
1.58

1055(866)
66(255)
3.2
$23.27

1027
634
61.76
10.5
$42.93
26.51
23.50
150.26
90.23
240.49
272.36

31.87
16.30

165.83
25.94


10
163
518
893
375
2.30

15.51
4.71
2.41
1.69

984(816)
73(241)
2.9
$21.81

893
546
61.16
9.8
$42.50
25.99
23.50
121.75
81.84
203.59
232.22

28.63
16.30

134.08
25.88


10
163
525
875
349
2.14


14.62
4.71
2.41
1.89

1015(845)
88(258)
2.6
$22.68

875
535
61.19
10.7
$42.94
26.27
23.50
123.47
79.17
202.64
229.82

27.18
16.30

134.35
25.57


10
163
637
1038
401
2.46


20.44
4.71
2.41
0.91

1119(912)
37(244)
2.4
$24.24

1038
632
60.88
12.5
$44.33
26.98
23.50
149.72
97.26
246.98
280.26

33.28
16.30

166.70
26.17


*Initial weights at feedlot
percent.


not shrunk final weights at Quincy packing plant shrunk 3


**Numbers in parentheses on shelled corn basis -- cob and shuck in snapped corn as roughage.
***Hot weights less 2 1/2 percent.
****9, low good; 10, average good; 11, high good; 12, low choice; 13, average choice.











As in two of the five previous trials, Charolais-Brahman-Hereford calves (Lot 21) made
the largest gain, and as in 1963, the most efficient gain of the groups on test, if gains
are adjusted to the same carcass yield or dressing percentage as shown below.

Adjusted
Adjusted Adjusted Adjusted feed per
carcass final live average daily 100 pounds
Lot yield weight gai_ gain
21 60.88 1131 2.79 990
22 60.88 1042 2.47 1084
23 60.88 898 2.33 1048
24 60.88 879 2.17 1092
25 60*88 1038 2.46 1158

Shorthorn-Brahman crossbreds (Lot 24) had the smallest feed ihtakb and gain, while the Angus
cattle (Lot 25) made the least efficient and most costly gaiti Exact age of the Angus was
not known, but it appeared that part of these cattle were sbtewhat older than the crossbred
calves. Also, the Angus were very fleshy when placed on feed, having apparently been creep-
fed or pasture-fed prior to going on trial.

Table 4 gives results of the detailed carcass study. Degree of marbling and USDA grade
were similar for the four crossbred groups (Lots 21, 22, 23, and 24) with the Angus (Lot 25)
having more marbling and a higher USDA grade. Estimated cutout was highest for the 1/2
Charolais-1/4 Brahman-l/4 Hereford (Lot 21) and lowest for the Angus (Lot 25). The Lot 21
carcasses were particularly outstanding for area of rib eye, having an average of 13.29
square inches or 1.93 square inches per 100 pounds carcass weight (688-pound carcass weight).
Although the Angus carcasses (Lot 25) had large rib eyes, a heavy fat cover resulted in a
considerably lower estimated yield of closely trimmed cuts than with the other groups. The
Lot 23 (3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn) carcasses had lighter color lean.

Economic data in Table 3 are presented in two ways:

(1) Assuming a cost of $23.50 per 100 pounds going into the feedlot, cost of
cattle and feed are deducted from actual sale price of carcasses,

(2) Feed costs plus an additional assumed cost of $0.10 per head daily are
deducted from sale price per head to give initial value per head of feeder
cattle. Initial value per head of feeder cattle is divided by initial
weight and the result multiplied by 100 to obtain initial value per
hundredweight of feeder cattle (price that could have been paid for
feeders to "break even" on feeding operation).

In contrast to results in most previous trials, all groups had positive returns above costs
of cattle and feed because of positive margins between cost of feeder cattle and selling
price of fat cattle ranging from $2.49 to $3.48 per hundredweight for the various groups.
though differences were not great, the Lot 21 Charolais-Brahman-Herefords had the highest
return above costs and the highest initial value per 100 pounds of any of the groups.








All the crossbred calves originated in fluke infested areas, and 28 of the 40 cattle
had live flukes in their livers at slaughter. Following were the number of livers in each
group that passed veterinary inspection and the number condemned:


Lot
21
22
23


Number
Passed
4


24 1
25* 9
21
*Not from fluke are


Number
condemned
(flukes)
6
4
9
9
0
28
-a.


Number
condemned
(abscesses)
0
0
0
0
1
1


In contrast to results in the five previous trials, cattle with clean livers at slaughter
made faster gains and had higher carcass yields than those with fluke-infested livers.


Table 4.-Detailed Carcass Study.

Lot 21 Lot 22 Lot 23 Lot 24 Lot 25
1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 3/4 Bra. 1/2 Short. Angus &
1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/4 Short. 1/2 Bra. Ang. x Her.
Carcass weight (hot weight
2 1/2%) 688 634 546 535 632
maturity A- A- A- A- A-
3onformation Low choice Low choice High good High good Av. choice
warbling Small- Slight+ Slight- Small- Modest-
JSDA grade High good Av. good Av. good High good Low choice
libeye area (sq. in.) 13.29 11.08 9.85 10.21 11.38
libeye area/cwt. carcass
(sq. in.) 1.93 1.75 1.80 1.91 1.80
?at cover ribeye (in.) 0.42 0.53 0.34 0.38 0.86
st. kidney fat (%) 3.20 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.60
st. kidney fat (Ibs.) 22.0 20.3 18.6 19.3 22.8
st. yield closely trimmed
boneless rib, chuck, loin,
rump, and round (%) 50.85 49.08 50.01 50.11 47.27
SDA yield grade (%) 2.6 3.4 3.0 2.9 4.2
olor lean** 3.4 3.9 2.4 3.2 3.2
Maturity Groups
Red porous chine bones; soft, pearly white cartilages.
Intermediate maturity for Prime, Choice, or Good grades.
SApproaching maximum maturity for Prime, Choice, or Good grades.


*Color of Lean
. Dark pink
. Very light cherry red
. Light cherry red
. Cherry red


Moderately dark red
Dark red
Very dark red


FSB
5/17/66
400 CC




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