Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida North Florida Experiment Station ; 66-5
Title: Ground snapped versus ground shielded corn with different roughages and with citrus pulp in steer fattening rations
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 Material Information
Title: Ground snapped versus ground shielded corn with different roughages and with citrus pulp in steer fattening rations
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1966
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Carcasses -- Grading   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066037
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69661640

Full Text

North Florida Experiment Station
Quincy, Florida
January 26, 1966

North Florida Station Mimeo Report 66-5

GROUND SNAPPED VERSUS GROUND SHELLED CORN WITH DIFFERENT
ROUGHAGES AND WITH CITRUS PULP IN STEER FATTENING RATIONS

by F. S. Baker, Jr.1

SUMMARY

With citrus molasses, steers fed ground snapped corn gained faster, had heavier
carcasses, and had a higher net return than cattle fed ground shelled corn-cottonseed hulls
Ground snapped corn cost $34.82, ground shelled corn $48.11, and cottonseed hulls $23.85
per ton (no mixing or milling charges).

Without citrus molasses, steers fed ground shelled corn-cottonseed hulls gained faster
with slightly heavier carcasses and slightly higher net return than those fed ground snapped
corn.

Cattle fed ground shelled corn with self-fed grass hay consumed less roughage than with
rations that had the roughage mixed with the grain. The ground shelled corn-hay ration with
no molasses gave the best steer performance and highest net return of any ration in the
trial.

Adding a level of 30 percent citrus pulp to a ground shelled conn-cottonseed hull
mixture resulted in similar gains, carcass weights, and net returns as with comparable
rations without the pulp. With the citrus pulp ration, results were somewhat better where
no citrus molasses was fed .

Average results of two trials show little difference in steer performance or carcass
weight from feeding either ground snapped corn or ground shelled corn-cottonseed hulls,
with or without citrus molasses, as the source of energy. With per ton costs of $44.28 for
ground snapped corn, $58.16 for ground shelled corn, $30.12 for cottonseed hulls, and $24.00
for citrus molasses, net returns were higher with the ground snapped corn and the citrus
molasses rations. Mixing and milling charges of $7.00 per ton are included in costs of the
corn and the cottonseed hulls.

INTRODUCTION

In previous trials ground snapped and ground shelled corn with various roughages have
been compared as energy sources in cattle finishing rations2j Feedlot performance dnd
carcass characteristics were similar from feeding the gtdrnd snapped corn rationst in Which
cob and shuck furnished all the roughage, and ground shelled corn rations with cottonseed
hulls as roughage. With approximate prices of $40.00 per ton for ground snapped corn,
$55.00 for ground shelled corn, and $22.50 for cottonseed hulls, net returns were higher
from the ground snapped corn rations. Adding $24.00 per ton citrus molasses to either
ground snapped or ground shelled corn-cottonseed hull rations did not greatly affect results.
Feeding a ground shelled corn ration with self-fed grass hay as roughage resulted in lower
roughage intake, but similar net return, than mixing cottonseed hulls as roughage with the
grain. Further comparisons of ground snapped and ground shelled corn rations with various
roughages are needed.


1Animal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy.
2NFES Mimeo Rpt. 66-1, August 7, 1965.





-2-


Except for brief periods, citrus pulp has not been widely used in North Florida steer
rations because of a generally unfavorable price relationship of the citrus pulp to locally
produced corn. An estimated doubling of orange production by 19753 indicates a greater use
of citrus pulp in the area in the future. Data are needed on the use of pulp in cattle
rations currently in use in North Florida feedlots.

PROCEDURE

Eighty good grade yearling Angus, Hereford, and Angus-Hereford crossbred feeder steers
weighing approximately 700 pounds were purchased off summer pasture in Gadsden County. The
cattle were grazed on North Florida Experiment Station pasture until they regained the
purchase weight and then were individually tagged, weighed, and allotted as equally as
possible to eight experimental groups of ten head each. Cost of feed during the preliminary
period between purchase and start of trial was added to the purchase price, and the total
was the cost of the cattle going on trial.

Rations fed the eight experimental lots are shown in Table 1. All groups were given
free access to grass hay for the first week while the grain mixtures were being increased
to full-feed. After the cattle were consuming all the feed mixtures they would clean-up
between once-a-day early morning feedings, hay was discontinued with all groups except
Lots 3 and 4, which were self-fed grass hay throughout the trial. Citrus molasses was
topdressed on the feed mixtures of Lots 1, 3, 5, and 7, at the morning feedings. The cattle
were confined to a peanut hull-bedded steer feeding barn with 60 square feet of pen space
and 2 feet of trough space per steer. The trial was begun on August 9, and the cattle were
slaughtered on November 19. Each steer was given a 24 mg. stilbestrol ear implant at the
beginning of the trial.

Protein concentrate levels were slightly higher in feed mixtures supplemented with
citrus molasses (Table 1) to compensate for the low protein content of the molasses.

Average daily feed intake for each lot is shown in Table 2. The first part of the
table (ending with the line, "Total feed intake") shows feed consumption on an "as fed"
basis; in the latter part of the table, cob and shuck in ground snapped corn are included
in the roughage, and citrus pulp is considered 3 parts concentrate and 1 part roughage.
Also in the last part of the table, weight of citrus molasses is adjusted to an 85 percent
dry matter basis, which permits more accurate comparison of feed intake of groups fed
molasses and those with no molasses.

Average costs of individual feeds and feed mixtures are given in Table 3. Costs of
feed mixtures include a charge of $7.00 per ton for milling and mixing. Prices received
for carcasses are shown in Table 4.

Final weights were taken in the early morning after trucking three miles to the
packing plant in Quincy. Individual final weights were shrunk 3 percent, and the shrunk
weights were used in calculating gain, carcass yield, and sale price per hundredweight.
Carcass weights were warm weights less 2 1/2 percent. Quality grade, degree of marbling,
and yield grade (fat cover over ribeye, ribeye area, estimated kidney fat, and estimated
cutout) were determined for each carcass by a USDA grader and packing house and Experiment
Station personnel.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As shown in Table 5, steers fed the ground snapped corn ration with citrus molasses
(Lot 1) gained faster than the ground shelled corn-cottonseed hull-citrus molasses group


3The DARE Report, IFAS, Univ. of Fla. 1964.






-3-


Table 1.-Rations Fed.

Lot 1 Pounds
Feed mixture Percent per ton
Ground snapped corn 90.00 1800
60% protein supplement 8.75 175
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 2000
Plus limited allowance citrus molasses.

Lot 2
Feed mixture
Ground snapped corn 91.25 1825
60% protein supplement 7.50 150
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 2000

Lot 3
Feed mixture
Ground shelled corn 90.00 1800
60% protein supplement 8.75 175
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 ..2000
Plus limited allowance citrus molasses and self-fed grass hay.

Lot 4
Feed mixture
Ground shelled corn 91.25 1825
60% protein supplement 7.50 150
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 2000
Plus self-fed grass hay.

Lot 5
Feed mixture
Ground shelled corn 67.50 1350
Cottonseed hulls 22.50 450
60% protein supplement 8.75 175
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 2000
Plus limited allowance citrus molasses.

Lot 6
Feed mixture
Ground shelled corn 68.75 1375
Cottonseed hulls 22.50 450
60% protein supplement 7.50 150
Mineral mixture 1.25 25
Total 100.00 2000










Table 1.-Continued.


Lot 7
Feed mixture Percent
Ground shelled corn 45400
Citrus pulp 30.00
Cottonseed hulls 15.00
60% protein supplement 8.75
Mineral mixture 1.25
Total 100.00
Plus limited allowance citrus molasses.


Lot 8
Feed mixture
Ground shelled corn
Citrus pulp
Cottonseed hulls
60% protein supplement
Mineral mixture
Total


46.25
30.00
15.00
7.50
1.25
100.00


Pounds
per ton
900
600
300
175
25
2000




925
600
300
150
25
2000


Table 2.-Average Daily Feed Intake.


Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6 Lbt 7 tibt 8


Ground snapped corn
Ground shelled corn
Citrus pulp
Cottonseed hulls
60% protein supplement
Mineral mixture
Total mixed feed
Citrus molasses
Grass hay
Total feed intake

Pounds concentrates*
Percent concentrates


Pounds roughage*
Percent roughage

adjusted intake*


21.09 22.21
- -


15.01


2.05
0.29
(23.43)
4.06
0.58
28.07


1.83 1.46
0.30 0.21
(24.34) (16.68)
- 4.06
0.44 3.17
24.78 23.91


21.50 18.79
78.61 75.83


5.85
21.39


18.21 13.69 16.87


1.49
0.25
(19.95)

3.65
23.60


4.56
1.77
0.25
(20.27)
4.06
0.52
24.85


5.52
1.84
0.31
(24.54)

0.50
25.04


9.07
6.05
3.02
1.77
0.25
(20.16)
4.06
0.57
24.79


11.05
7.17
3.59
1.79
0.30
(23.90)

0.48
24.38


20.02 19.95 19.05 19.02 18.97 18.52
86.33 84.53 78.95 75.96 78.81 75.96


5.99 3.17
24.17 13.67


3.65
15.47


5.08 6.02
21.05 24.04


5.10
21.19


5.86
24.04


27.35 24.78 23.19 23.60 24.13 25.04 24.07 24.38


Cob and shuck in snapped corn included in roughage; molasses adjusted to 85 percent dry
matter basis; citrus pulp calculated to be 75 percent concentrates and 25 percent roughage,
approximately the same as ground snapped corn.


__


__










Table 3.-Average Costs
Mixtures.


of Various Feeds and Feed


Feed or Ration Price per ton
Ground snapped corn $ 34.82
Ground shelled corn 48411
Citrus pulp 47.14
Cottonseed hulls 23.85
60% protein supplement 101.22
Mineral mixture 84.00
Citrus molasses 24.00
Grass hay 22.50
Stilbestrol implants (24 mg) 0.20/each
r~kr,----rir~L--r-- -----r-----------


Ration
Ration
Ration
Ration
Ration
Ration
Ration
Ration


number
number
number
number
number
number
number
number


45.06
47.17
50 22
55.26
50.00
53.65
50.82
54.33


*Price includes $7.00 pet ton mixing
charge for mixed feed.


and milling


Table 4.-Price Received for Carcasses.


Grade
U. S. Choice
U. S. Good
U. S. Standard


Price cwt.
carcass
$41.00
39.00
36.00


(Lot 5), and the ground snapped corn cattle had 15-pound heavier carcasses. Without
molasses, ground shelled corn-cottonseed hull cattle (Lot 6) gained faster with only
slightly heavier carcasses than the corresponding ground snapped corn group (Lot 2).
Carcass grade and other carcass data were similar for the corresponding ground snapped and
ground shelled-cottonseed hull lots (Lots 1 and 5; Lots 2 and 6, Tables 5 and 6). Net
return favored the ground snapped corn cattle (Ground snapped corn $34.82 ton; ground shelled
corn, $48.11; cottonseed hulls, $23.85). Steer performance, carcass weight, carcass grade,
and net return were higher with the ground snapped corn group fed citrus molasses, while
with shelled corn-cottonseed hulls, performance was lower, although net return was higher,
with the molasses.

Cattle self-fed hay with a ground shelled corn ration (Lots 3 and 4) consumed less
roughage than the other groups where roughage was mixed with the grain (Lots 1, 2, 5, 6, 7,
and 8). With citrus molasses (Lot 3), steer performance with the shelled corn-hay ration
was about average for all groups; without molasses (Lot 4), feedlot performance, carcass
weight, and net return were the highest of any group in the trial.







Table 5.-Feedlot Results and Carcass Data.

Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 7 Lot 8
Gr. shell.
Gr. shell, corn + cit. Gr. shell.
Gr. snap. Gr. shell. Gr. shell, corn + c.s. Gr. shell. pulp + c.s. corn + cit.
corn + Gr. snap. corn + hay corn + hulls + cit. corn + hulls + cit. pulp + c.s.
cit. mol. corn + cit. mol. hay mol. c.s. hulls mol. hulls


Number head
Number days
Av. initial weight
Av. final weight
Av. gain
Av. daily gain
Average Daily Ration:
Mixed ration
Citrus molasses
Grass hay
Corn (and citrus pulp)*
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates**
Roughage
Mineral
Cost
Carcass and Economic Data:
Av. slaughter weight
Av. carcass weight
Av. carcass yield (%)
Av. carcass grade.

Av. price cwt. carcass
Av. price cwt. on foot
Av. cost cwt. feeders
Av. cost head feeders
Av. feed cost
Av. cost cattle and feed
Sale price head
Net return above costs
*Included in total for mix


10
102
710
1001
290
2.85

23.43
4.06
0.58
(15.82)

771
205
10
$22.22

1001
591
59.04
Low choice

$40.64
24.00
23.24
165.05
64.52
229.57
240.10
10.53
ed ration -


10
102
710
981
271
2.65

24.34

0.44
(16.66)

697
226
11
$22.02


981
575
58.60
High good I

$39.58
23.20
23.24
165.03
59.60
224.63
227.48
2.85
- on shelled


10
102
710
974
264
2.59


16.68
4.06
3.17
(15.01)

794
122
8
$23.19

974
585
60.03
Low choice

$40.19
24.13
23.24
164.98
61.23
226.21
234.95
8.74


10
102
709
1028
319
3.13


19.95

3.65
(18.21)

630
117
8
$20.36

1028
610
59.35
High good/
Low choice


$40.24
23.88
23.24
164.84
66.52
231.36
245.56
14.20


10
102
709
963
254
2.49


20.27
4.06
0.52
(13.69)

785
204
10
$24.96

963
576
59.85
High good/
Low choice


$39.99
23.94
23.24
164.75
63.36
228.11
230.42
2.31


10
102
709
1002
293
2.87


24.54

0.50
(16.87)

652
209
11
$23.39
1002
582
58.12
High good


$39.63
23.03
23.24
164.79
68.51
233.30
230.78
-2.52


10
102
709
977
268
2.62

20.16
4.06
0.57
(13.61)

741
194
10
$24.79
977
571
58.49
Av. good


$39.44
23.07
23.24
164.79
64.27
229.06
225.34
-3.72


-3 .72 1. 21


10
102
709
990
282
2.76

23.90

0..48
(I6.434)

660
21Z
11
$23.99
990
583
58.83
High good/
Low choice


$40.07
23.58
23.24
164.73
67.55
232.28:
233.49
i. 21


corn basis; citrus pulp weight x 0.75 to make an
praxi o


shelled corn.
**Cob and shuck in snapped corn include in roughage; citrus pulp considered 75% concentrates 25 percent roughage.


----~- --


8.74


14.20







Table 6.-Detailed Carcass Data.

Lot 1


Gr. snap.
corn +
cit. mol.


Slaughter weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Carcass grades


1001
591
59.04
1 high ch.
3 av. ch.
4 low ch.

2 av. gd.
-
-


Lot 2 Lot 3


Gr. snap.
corn
981
575
58.60

2 av. ch.
2 low ch.
-


5 av. gd. 4

1 high std.


Gr. shell.
corn + hay
+ cit. mol.
974
585
60.03
2 high ch.
2 av. ch.
2 low ch.


av. gd.
-


Lot 4


Gr. shell.
corn +
hay
1028
610
59.35
I high ch.
2 av. ch.
3 low ch.
2 high gd.
1 av. gd.
1 low gd.


Lot 5

Gr. shell.
corn + c.s.
hulls + cit.
mol.
963
576
59.85
2 high ch.
1 av. ch.
3 low ch.

3 av. gd.


1 high


Av. carcass grade* (12.1) (10.8) (11.8) (11.7) (11
Degree marbling** 5.4 6.0 5.5 5.6 5
Conformation 11.7 10.9 10.8 11.3 11
Maturity A- A- A- A- A-
Fat cover ribeye (in.) 0.43 0.34 0.38 0.38 0
Ribeye area (sq. in.) 11.95 11.82 12.23 11.93 11
Kidney & Pelvic fat (%) 2.73 2.47 2.70 2.36 2
Yield grade 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.6 2
Estimated yield closely
trimmed boneless rib,
chuck, loin, rump, and
round (%) 50.94 51.64 51.51 51.21 50
*8, high standard; 9, low good; 10, av. good; 11, high good; 12, low choice; 13
**4, moderate; 5, modest, 6, small; 7, slight; 8, traces; 9, practically devoid.


std.
.5)
.6
.0

.40
.44
.79
.7


.85


, av.


Lot 6


Gr. shell.
corn +
c.s. hulls
1002
582
58.12


4 low ch.
3 high gd
2 av. gd.

1 high st,
(10.9)
6.2
11.2
A-
0.35
12.38
2.18
2.2


Lot 7
Gr. shell.
corn + cit.
pulp + c.s.
hulls + cit.
mol.
977
571
58.49

1 av. ch.
1 low ch.

4 av. gd.
4 low gd.
d. -
(10.1)
6.2
10.8
A-
0.31
11.61
2.29
2.4


52.05 51.77
choice; 14, high choice.


Lot 8

Gr. shell.
corn + cit.
pulp + c.s.
hulls
990
583
58.83

3 av. ch.
2 low ch.
3 high gd.
1 av. gd.
1 low gd.

(11.5)
5.9
11.6
A-
0.36
11.86
2.06
2.4



51.66


51.66






-8-


Adding a level of 30 percent citrus pulp (with guarantee of not less than 6.00 percent
protein, 2.50 percent fat, or 55.00 percent N.F.E. and not more than 15.00 percent crude
fiber or 3.00 percent calcium) to a ground shelled corn-cottonseed hull mixture (Lots 7 and
8) resulted in similar gains, carcass weights, and net returns as comparable rations without
citrus pulp (Lots 5 and 6). As noted in Table 3, citrus pulp cost $47.14 per ton, with
ground shelled corn at $48.11 and cottonseed hulls at $23.85. With the citrus pulp ration,
results were somewhat better where citrus molasses was not fed (Lot 8).

Table 7 shows average data for the four types of rations, with and without citrus
molasses, and averages for all rations. The most striking results are the advantage of
feeding citrus molasses with the ground snapped corn ration and the contrasting better
results with no molasses with the ground shelled corn-hay and ground shelled corn-citrus
pulp-cottonseed hull rations.

Two trials have been completed comparing ground snapped corn and ground shelled corn-
cottonseed hull rations, with and without citrus molasses. Average gain per head, carcass
weight, carcass grade, and net returns are shown in Table 8, together with average feed
costs (with milling costs included) for the two trials. Feedlot performance and carcass
data were similar with the two forms of corn, as well as for the citrus molasses and no-
molasses rations. At the feed prices shown, ground snapped corn rations gave an $8.15
higher net return per head than ground shelled corn-cottonseed hull rations. Feeding
citrus molasses resulted in $4.98 higher net return per head with ground snapped corn,
$3.96 higher net return with ground shelled corn-cottonseed hulls, and an overall average of
$4.47 greater net return with both rations for the two trials. An average of 419 pounds
citrus molasses per head was fed in each of the two trials.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Appreciation is expressed for the assistance of Mr. Dee Murphy, USDA Grader, Quincy,
Flor-da, for grading the carcasses and to Mr. Paul Stoutamire, Frosty Morn Meats, Quincy,
Florida, for assisting with the carcass grading.


Table 7.-Average Data.


(a) Average gain per head 102 days.
With No
citrus molasses molasses Average
Ground snapped
corn 290 271 281

Ground shelled
corn + hay 264 319 291

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 254 293 273

Ground shelled
corn + citrus
pulp + cottonseed
hulls 268 282 275

Average 269 291 280




-9-


Table 7.-Continued.


(b) Average carcass weight.
With No
citrus molasses molasses Average
Ground snapped
corn 591 575 583

Ground shelled
corn + hay 585 610 597

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 576 582 579

Ground shelled
corn + citrus
pulp + cottonseed
hulls 571 583 577

Average 581 588 584

(c) Average carcass grade.
Ground snapped
corn 12.1 10.8 11.5

Ground shelled
corn + hay 11.8 11.7 11.8

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 11.5 10.9 11.2

Ground shelled
corn + citrus
pulp + cottonseed
hulls 10.1 11.5 10.8

Average 11.4 11. 2 11.3

(d) Net return per head.
Ground snapped
corn $10.53 $ 2.85 $ 6.69

Ground shelled
corn + hay 8.74 14.20 11.47

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 2.31 -2.52 -0.11

Ground shelled
corn + citrus
pulp + cottonseed
hulls -3.72 1.21 -1.25

Average 4.47 3.93 4.20




-10-


Table 8.-Average Data Tuo Trials.


(a) Average gain per head.
With No
citrus molasses molasses Average
Ground snapped
corn 279 271 275

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 265 279 272

Average 272 275 274

(b) Average Carcass Weight.
Ground snapped
corn 553 539 546

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 543 547 545

Average 548 543 546

(c) Average Carcass Grade
Ground snapped
corn 12.2 11.2 11.7

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 11.6 11.4 11.5

Average 11.9 11.3 11.6

(d) Net Return per head.
Ground snapped
corn $27.97 $22.99 $25.48

Ground shelled
corn + cottonseed
hulls 19.31 15.35 17.33

Average 23.64 19.17 21.41


Average Prices Per ton
Ground snapped corn $44.28*
Ground shelled corn 58.16*
Cottonseed hulls 30.12*
Citrus molasses 24.00

*Includes $7 per ton cost of milling and
mixing.


FSB
350CC
2/3/66




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