Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida North Florida Experiment Station ; 65-4
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Brahman-European crossbred and hereford carpenter
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 Material Information
Title: Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of Brahman-European crossbred and hereford carpenter
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
Palmer, A. Z
Carpenter, J. W ( James Woodford )
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1965
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr., A.Z. Palmer, and J.W. Carpenter.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066033
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69660892

Full Text

V/06
/633M
L / North Florida Experiment Station
Quincy, Florida
'Iay 12, 1965

NFES Mimeo Rpt. 65-4

FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF
BRAHMAN-EUROPEAN CROSSBRED AND HEREFORD CALVES

F. S. Baker, Jr., A. Z. Palmer, and J. W. Carpenter1

SIMA RY

Despite a 207-day feeding period (27 to 50 days Longer bHan in previous trials), gains
and feed efficiency compared favorably with that in earlier tests.

When adjusted to the same carcass yield, 1/2 Heteford-1/4 Brahman-l/4 Angus and 1/2
Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman calves g ined slightly faster than the other groups. The least gain
was made by Saita deitrudis calves, which were lighter weight initially than the other lots.
Feed efficiric was hot diosely related to rate of gain; variation in feed per 100 pounds
gain wds iot gtetia

With exception of the 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthornd, variation In individual gains was
much larger in crossbred lots than in the Herefords.

The highest gaining 1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus and 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman
lots had the highest marbling scores and carcass grades. The 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4
Herefords had the highest estimated yield of closely trimmed boneless cuts.

Highest sale prices and most favorable economic returns were from 1/2 Hereford-1/4
Brahman-1/4 Angus and 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman calves.

With sale prices ranging from $21.67 to $23.70 per 100 pounds on foot (carcass prices
$35.72 to $33.50), "break even" costs of feeder calves of $16.78 to $20.63 would have
allowed recovery of feed cost plus $0.10 per head daily for other expenses. Thus the margin
between feeder costs and sale prices needed to "break even" ranged from $3.07 to $4.89 per
100 pounds.

Neither gain nor carcass gradeere affected by light liver fluke infestation. Of the
70 cattle originating in fluke areas S had live flukes in their livers at slaughter.
......... ........ ...................----.-..-----.. ---.-

61 I REDUCTION
\\, 'J 7
With the exception o, the 1963 196" trial, steer calves of various Brahman-European
crosses approximately 10 ',iths of age ad weighing 550 to 650 pounds when started on feed
made very satisfactory gai or_160,days in dry lot in preceding trials2. Only half of the
calves received stilbestrol impanEts in the 1963-1964 trial, while all calves were implanted
in earlier tests. Slower gains by calves without stilbestrol was responsible for the
relatively poor performance of all groups in 1964-1964. Comparable weight Hereford calves


lAnimal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy; Meat Scientist and Assistant
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville, respectively.


2NFES Mimeo Rpts. 61-5, 1961; 62-10, 1962; 63-8, 1963; and 64-6, 1964.







-2-



made larger gains than the Brahman hybrids in the fourth trial-And lhile eifqrdSt gained as
well as any of the crossbreds except the Brahman-Charolais- -Ieford fiin' the third test.
British calves made gains similar to those of the crpssbreds in the first trial, while
lighter weight Angus calves made somewhat.slow4r gains than the various Brahman-European
crosses in the second test.

Carcass grades of Brahman crossbreds have generally been as high as those of the
British cattle. In the first experiment, 3/8 Brahman-3/8 Charolais-1/4 Hereford, and in
the second and third tests, 1/2 Brahman-1/2 Hereford graded slightly lower. Lowest grading
carcasses usually had the highest estimated cutout. Often carcass grades were not as high
as expected, largely because of lack of marbling in both Brahman hybrid and British calves.
Most of the carcasses graded U. S. Good with a few U. S. Choice and U. S. Standard. Margins
of $3 or more per 100 pounds animal weight between the cost going on feed and the selling
price of the fat cattle wodld have been necessary to realize modest profits from the feeding
trials.

A majority of the livers from cattle originating in South Florida had live flukes at
slaughter. When cattle with fluke-infested and clean livers were compared, it was apparent
that fluke infestation did not adversely affect feedlot performance or carcass character-
istics, although loss of the liver itself was significant economically.

PROCEDURE

Shortly after weaning, Brahman-European hybrid and Santa Gertrudis steer calves were
trucked to Quincy from Clewiston, Cocoa, and Loxahatchee, Florida. Ten head each of 1/2
Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Charolais, 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford, 1/2 Hereford-
1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus, 1/2 Hereford-1/2 Brahman, Santa Gertrudis, 3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn,
and 1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman were delivered to the North Florida Experiment Station on
August 28. Hereford steer calves of approximately the same age were delivered from
Tallahassee on September 2. All calves were placed in dry lot on a light grain feed and
self-fed grass hay until September 17, when they were individually weighed and started on
trial. Early morning weights on September 17 corresponded closely to ranch weights taken
before the calves were shipped to Quincy. Because of close agreement between ranch delivery
and September 17 weights, the latter were used as initial experimental weights with no
shrink.

When the trial began, feed was gradually increased for approximately three weeks after
which each group was consuming all the concentrates cleaned-up between once-a-day feedings.
Minerals were self-fed throughout the feeding period, while hay was self-fed for 60 days,
restricted for 80 days, and eliminated during the last 67 days. Ratios of concentrates to
roughage (including cob and shuck in snapped corn) ranged from 69:31 during the first 60
days to 81:19 toward the end of the trial. Table 1 shows the average percentages of
concentrates and roughage consumed by each group for the entire trial. The following ration
was fed:

Ground snapped corn--according to appetite
Citrus molasses-3.0 pounds per head daily first 60 days,
4.0 pounds second 60 days, and
2.5 pounds thereafter
41% cottonseed meal--2.5 pounds per head daily
Argentine Bahia grass hay--fed as previously noted
Salt and steamed bonemeal-free-choice
Vitamin A--25,000 I. U. per head daily










Table l.--Feed Prices


Individual Feeds


Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal + vitamin A
Argentine Bahia hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Aurofac crumbles
24 mg stilbestrol implant


Entire Ration
Percent
Lot Concentrates


Percent
Roughage

25
24
24
24
24
23
22
22


$40.00 and $45.00
34.00 and 27.50
80.00
22.50
33.00
90.00
27.50 cwt.
0.20 each


Ton Feed

$43.36
43.84
43.76
43.72
43.91
44.16
44.20
44.28


Table 2.--Prices Received for Carcasses.


Grade


Choice
Good
Standard
Commercial Stag.


Price cwt.


$39.00
36.50
32.50
32.00


The ground snapped corn and cottonseed meal were mixed each morning, and citrus
molasses was poured on top of the mixture in the trough. Each calf received a 24 mg
silbestrol implant at the beginning of the trial. The calves were confined to dry lot in a
well-bedded steer feeding barn with 50 square feet of pen space and 2 feet of trough space
per head.

Final live weights, taken after trucking 3 miles to Quincy in early morning, were
shrunk 3 percent; and these shrunk weights were used in calculating gains, carcass yields,
and on-foot sale prices. As previously stated, starting weights were not shrunk, as they
corresponded closely ro ranch delivery weights. Thus, experimental weights were on a
purchase to sale weight basis.

Carcass weights were hot weights less 2 1/2 percent. After a 48-hour chill carcasses
were ribbed and graded to the nearest third of a grade by a USDA grader and Experiment
Station personnel. Sale prices were actual prices paid by the packer for the carcasses
(Table 2).


Per Ton




-4-


Feed costs were based on local prices (Quincy, Florida) at the time the cattle were in
the feedlot (Table 1). Prices are shown for various ingredients and an average for the
entire ration (no mixing or handling charge). Other costs (labor, pen rent, interest, and
other expenses) were included in the charge of $0.10 per head daily.

Carcass maturity, conformation, degree of marbling, and other USDA grade data were
recorded for each carcass. Fat thickness over rib eye, amount of kidney and pelvic fat,
area of rib eye, and carcass weight data were used in estimating percentage of closely
trimmed boneless cuts from the round, rump, loin, rib, and chuck.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Despite a longer feeding period, gains compared favorably with those in previous
trials (Table 3)3. Likewise feed efficiency was similar to that in earlier tests. Differ-
ences in gain and feed efficiency among the various groups were small, especially if carcass
yield or dressing percentage of each group is adjusted to that of the Lot 38 Herefords which
had the lowest yield. Adjusted data are:
Adjusted Adjusted
Adjusted Adjusted average feed per
carcass final live daily 100 pounds
Lot yield weight gain gain

31 60.16 1122 2.27 1052
32 60.16 1065 2.22 1011
33 60.16 1104 2.42 1002
3' 60.16 1021 2.17 930
35 60.16 929 2.09 1006
35 60.16 947 2.15 973
37 60.16 1032 2.35 989
38 60.16 977 2.23 1016

The 1/2 Hereford-1/4 EBraman 1/4 Charolais (Lot 31) cattle, which were slightly less efficient,
were the heaviest group initially. The Lot 35 Santa Gertrudis had the lightest initial
weight; two unusually slow-gaining steers contributed to the somewhat smaller gain of the
group. Faster gains by Lot 33 (1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus) and Lot 37 (1/2 Short-
hcrn-1/2 Brahman) did not result in a marked reduction in feed per 100 pounds gain as
compared to the other lots. With the exception of Lot 36 (3/4 Brahman-1/4 Shorthorn),
variation in individual gains was much greater in the crossbred lots than in the Herefords
(Lot 38).

Table 4 contains results of the carcass study. Lot 33 (1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4
Angus) and Lot 37 (1/2 Shorthorn-1/2 Brahman) cattle had slightly higher grading carcasses
from a quality standpoint because of slightly higher marbling scores. Because of more
kiVney fat and thicker fat cover, the Lot 37 cattle had the lowest estimated yield of
closely trimmed cuts (cutout). The 1/2 Charolais-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Hereford (Lot 32) steers
had the highest estimated cutout, with an exceptionally large ribeye area and relatively
thin fat cover. Lot 32 carcasses and those of Lot 34 (1/2 Hereford-1/2 Brahman) showed
slightly more physiological maturity, with a few carcasses in each group cutting with rather
dark lean. A few carcasses from Lot 31 (1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Charolais) also cut
rather dark.


3See Footnote 2, page 1.






-5-


Table 3.--Results Calf Fattening Trial, 1964-65.


Number Head
Number days
Av. initial weight*
Av. final weight*
Av. gain
Av. daily gain
Average Daily Ration:
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Argentine Bahia hay
?eed Per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates**
Roughage**
Mineral
Cost
Carcass and Financial Data:
Av. slaughter weight
Av. carcass weight***
Av. carcass yield (%)
Av. carcass grade Av
Av. price/cwt. carcass
Av. price/cwt. on foot
Av. cost/cwt. feeders
Av. costi/had feeders
Av. feed cost
Av. cost cattle and feed
Sale price per head
Net return above costs cattle
and feed
Sale price per head
Av. feed cost
Other costs ($0.10 day)
Initial value (sale price less
costs)
Initial value/cwt.


Lot 31 Lot 32 Lot 33 Lot 34 Lot 35 Lot 36 Lot 37 Lot 38
1/2 Her. 1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/2 Her. Santa 3/4 Bra. 1/2 Short.
1/4 Char. 1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/2 Bra. Gertrudis 1/4 Short. 1/2 Bra. Herefor
11 n in


10
207
650
1088
438
2.11

16.18
3.29
2.42
2.00

1035(844)
95(286)
6.1
$24.64

1088
675
62.02
,/high good
$36.83
22.84
20.00
130.08
107.82
237.90
248.48

10.58
248.43
107.82
20.70


10
207
604
1031
427
2.06

15.12
3.29
2.42
1.61

1009(826)
78(261)
6.7
$24.00

1031
641
62.23
Low good
$35.72
22.23
20.00
120.72
102.46
223.18
229.08

5.90
229.08
102.46
20.70


119.96 105.92
18.44 17.55


1U
207
603
1078
475
2.29

17.05
3.29
2.42
1.50

991(805)
65(251)
4.3
$23.23

1078
664
61.55
Low choice
$33.50
23.70
20.00
120.64
110.34
230,93
255.49

24. :1
255.49
110.34
20.70

124.45
20.63


1i
207
571
986
414
2.00

14.04
3.29
2.42
1.74

986(811)
87(262)
5.1
$23.60

986
614
62.26
Av. good
$36.60
22.79
20.00
114.24
97.76
212.GO
224.56

12.56
224.55
97.76
20.70

106.10
18.57


1
207
495
922
427
2.06

13.75
3.29
2.42
1.57

943(776)
76(243)
4.6
$22.50

922
559
60.57
Lc-/av, good
$35.78
21.67
20.00
99.02
96.07
195.09
199.84

4.75
199.84
96.07
20.70

83.07
16.78


.L0
207
502
925
423
2.04

13.85
3.29
2.42
1.36

958(789)
67(236)
6.0
$22.78

925
570
61.67
Low/av. good
$36.10
22.27
20.00
100.48
96.25
196.73
205.94

9.21
205.94
96.25
20.70

88.99
17.71


207
546
1010
464
2.24


16.44
3.29
2.42
1.08

988(805)
48(231)
3.3
$22.98

1010
621
61.48
Low choice
$38.23
23.50
20.00
109.14
106.63
215.77
237.33

21.56
237.33
106.63
20.70

100.00
20.16


.LJ
207
515
977
463
2.23

15.88
3.29
2.42
1.12

966(788)
50(228)
3.0
$22.57

977
588
60.16
High good
$37.23
22.40
20.00
102.94
104.42
207.36
218.90

11.54'
218.90
104.42
20.70

93.78
18.22


*Initial weights at feedlot not shrunk--final weights at Quincy Packing Plant shrunk 3 pierce
**Numbers in parentheses on shelled corn basis---cob and shuck as roughage.
***Hot weights less 2 1/2 percent.


'^1 ,


-- ~'-~----"IY---C-LI-YI


~--~-~-- -~ --~-


---------U-l-- IY~--- ----- _










Table 4.--Carcass Study.


Lot 31 Lot 32 Lot 33 Lot 34 Lot 35 Lot 36 Lot 37 Lot 38
1/2 Her. 1/2 Char. 1/2 Her.
1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/4 Bra. 1/2 Her. Santa 3/4 Bra. 1/2 Short.
1/4 Char. 1/4 Her. 1/4 Ang. 1/2 Bra. Gertrudis 1/4 Short. 1/2 Bra. Hereford
Carcass weight 675 641 664 614 559 570 621 588
Maturity* A A+ A A+ A A A A
Conformation High good Av. good Low choice Av. good Av. 3ood Av. qood Av. good High good
Marbling Small- Slight 'odest- Small Slight Slight Modest- Small
USDA grade High good Av. good Low choice Av. good Av. good Av. good Low choice High good
Ribeye area (sq. in.) 12.47 12.86 12.00 11.72 10.52 10.36 10.65 11.12
Ribeye area/cwt.
carcass (sq. in.) 1.85 2.01 1.81 1.91 1.88 1.82 1.71 1.89
Fat cover ribeye (in.) 0.39 0.32 0.52 0.34 0.36 0.48 0.54 0.52
Est. kidney fat (%) 2.50 2.10 2.40 2.00 2.60 2.80 3.00 2.30
Est. kidney fat (Ibs.) 16.90 13.50 15.90 12.30 14.50 16.00 18.60 13.50
Est. yield closely trimmed
boneless rib, chuck, loin,
rump, and round (%) 50.88 52.10 49.96 51.37 50.67 49.64 49.00 50.01
USDA yield grade** 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 2

*Maturity Groups
A. Red porous chine bones; soft, pearly white cartilages.
B. Intermediate maturity for Prime, Choice or Good grades.
C. Approaching maximum maturity for Prime, Choice or Good grades.


**Based on new system of yield grades (5 grades instead of 6) which go into effect June 1, 1965.







-7-


Economic data in Table 3 are presented in two ways:

(1) Assuming a cost of $20 per 100 pounds going into the feedlot, cost of cattle
and feed are deducted from actual sale price of carcasses.

(2) Feed costs plus an additional assumed cost of $0.10 per head daily are
deducted from actual sale price and the differences are divided by the
initial weights of the calves to obtain initial value per 100 pounds (at
the beginning of the trial).

From data presented in Table 3, it can be seed that returns above costs of cattle and feed
are small; this, of course, includes no charges for other expenses. When $0.10 per head
daily is deducted for expenses other than feed, the various groups of calves would have had
to be purchased at "break even" prices ranging from $16.78 to $20.63 per 100 pounds
delivered to the feedlot. Lot 33 (1/2 Hereford-1/4 Brahman-1/4 Angus) and Lot 37 (1/2 Short-
horn-1/2 Brahman), with higher carcass grades, faster gains, and higher sale prices, had
higher initial values per 100 pounds.

All the crossbred and the Santa Gertrudis calves originated in fluke-infested areas,
and 50 of these 70 cattle had live flukes in their livers at slaughter. Following were the
number of livers in each group that passed veterinary inspection and the number condemned:

Number
Number Condemned
Lot Passed (flukes)
31 2 8
32 1 9
33 0 10
34 0 10
35 8 2
36 7 3
37 2 8
Total 20 50

The Lot 38 Herefords were not from a fluke area, and all their livers passed veterinary
inspection. Feedlot gains and carcass characteristics of fluke-infested and non-infested
cattle were similar; however, in the fluke-infested cattle, loss of the liver itself was
significant from a monetary standpoint.













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