Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida North Florida Experiment Station ; 64-7
Title: Steer fattening trial
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066031/00001
 Material Information
Title: Steer fattening trial
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1964
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle -- Economic aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066031
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69660674

Full Text



NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION

Quincy, Florida
May 25, 1964


NFES Mimeo Rpt. 64-7


STEER FATTENING TRIAL
F. S. Baker, Jr.1


SUMMARY


Steers fed ground shelled corn with hay as roughage gained faster and more
efficiently than those fed ground snapped corn. Using ground peanut hulls (with 20%
added molasses) as roughage in a ground shelled corn ration resulted in satisfactory
gains and about the same feed requirement per 100 pounds gain as the shelled corn ration
with grass hay as roughage. Fceder ca-tle vwre larger and older than used in previous
peanut hull tests, which possibly explains the favorable results with peanut hulls in
this trial. With ground snapped corn at $40, roughage at $20 and $22.50, and ground
shelled corn at $60 per tcn, net returns were about the same from feeding the two forms
of corn.

Dried bakery product fed at a level of 2.5 pounds per head daily in a ground
snapped corn ration gave about the same results as the same ration without the bakery
products. With ground snapped corn at $40, dried bakery products were apparently worth
$60 per ton.

Ground soybeans, either alcne or in combination with cottonseed meal, gave results
comparable to cottonseed meal as a protein supplement for fattening steers. With
cottonseed meal at $85 and ground soybeans at $90 per ton, net returns were comparable.
-------------------------------------- -------------------------------------

INTRODUCTION

In North Florida Station trials, ground shelled corn rations have not consistently
produced faster gains than ground snapped corn rations, but cattle fed ground shelled
corn have had heavier carcasses because of higher dressing percentages.2 Carcass grades
have been slightly higher with shelled corn-fed cattle. With ground snapped corn at $40
per ton, ground shelled corn at $55, and grass hay at $22.50, economic returns have been
similar with the two rations. Further data were accumulated in the experiment reported
in this mimeograph.

Cattle fed ground shelled corn rations with self-fed grass hay as the only
roughage often do not consume the 20 percent level of roughage needed to prevent digestive
disturbances. Furthermore with self-fed hay as the sole roughage, level of roughage is

1Animal Husbandman, North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy.
progress Rpt., North Florida Experiment Station, June 30, 1963.






-2 -


difficult to regulate. Mixing a roughage with the concentrates is the obvious solution
to these problems; however, North Florida Station results with ground peanut hulls as
a source of roughage in shelled corn rations have not been too satisfactory because of
the lack of palatability of the peanut hulls.3 Adding molasses to peanut hulls to improve
palatability offers some possibility of making the hulls a more suitable roughage for
high concentrate rations. A trial with ground peanut hulls and added molasses is included
in this report.

In 28 Corn Belt experiments, yearling or older cattle fed raw soybeans gained as
fast or almost as fast as those fed oil meals.4 Soybeans were worth slightly more per ton
than either soybean oil meal or cottonseed meal. In 7 experiments, soybeans were worth
decidedly less per ton than oil meals for fattening calves. Prior to the current trial,
no cattle fattening studies with soybeans were conducted in the Southeast.

A large quantity of bakery products (bread dough, broken cookies, etc.) is
available around large cities. This material contains starch, sugar, and a rather high
level of fat, which makes it a high energy feed when dehydrated. A dried bakery product
containing a minimum of 9.5 percent protein, 11.0 percent fat, and a maximum of 1.5 percent
fiber was tried in a fattening ration in the experiment reported herein.

PROCEDURE

Fifty-six medium to good quality yearling and two-year-old steers were purchased
in Alabama sales. The cattle were mostly Herefords or Hereford crosses, with a few Angus,
Angus-Herefords, and beef breed-dairy crosses. Purchase weights averaged 787 pounds.
The cattle were divided as equally as possible into seven groups and weighed on test after
they overcame shipping shrink and weighed approximately the same as the original purchase
weight. Initial weights were early morning feedlot weights with no shrink.

Rations fed are shown in Table 1. With the exception of citrus molasses which was
poured on top of dry feed each day, all concentrates were mixed each morning and fed once
daily. Ground peanut hulls with molasses were mixed with concentrates fed to Lot 4 at the
rate of one part peanut hulls to three parts ground shelled corn (approximately same
quantity of roughage supplied by cob and shuck in ground snapped corn). Hay was fed to
all lots during the first two weeks but thereafter was removed from all rations except
those of Lots 1 and 3, which continued to receive self-fed Argentine Bahia hay throughout
the feeding period. Salt and steamed bonemeal were available free-choice in separate
troughs. Vitamin A palmitate was added to the protein supplement to supply 25,000 I. U.
per head daily. Each animal received a 24 mg stilbestrol implant at the beginning of the
trial.

Corn was full-fed according to appetite. Allowances of all other concentrates
were restricted. With Lot 6, ground soybeans were fed at a level to furnish approximately
the same amount of supplementary protein as supplied by the cottonseed meal to other groups.
With Lot 7, cottonseed meal and soybeans were fed at levels so that each furnished about
the same quantity of protein. Protein content of various feeds are shown in Table 5.

See footnote 2, page 1.
Morrison, F. B. Feed and Feeding, 22nd ed.: 468-470.






- 3 -


Table 2 gives average percentages of concentrates and roughage and average cost
per ton of feed for the various groups; cob and shuck in snapped corn were considered
roughage. Table 3 lists prices of ration ingredients.

Final weights were taken after trucking 3 miles to Quincy and were shrunk 3
percent. Final shrunk weights were used in computing gains, feed efficiency, carcass
yields, and other data. Thus weighing conditions were as nearly as possible on a market
purchase weight to market sale weight basis.

Carcass weights were hot weights minus 2 1/2 percent. Carcasses were ribbed and
graded to the nearest third of a grade by a USDA grader and packer and Experiment Station
personnel. Sale prices were prices actually received for carcasses (Table 4).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Ground snapped versus ground shelled corn.- As shown ii Table 6, cattle fed ground
shelled corn with hay for roughage (Lot 3) gained faster with less feed per 100 pound gain
than cattle fed ground snapped corn rations with (Lot 1) or without hay (Lot 2). Carcass
yield and grades were only slightly higher with the shelled corn groups. With ground
peanut hulls (+ 20 percent molasses) supplying the roughage in a ground shelled corn ration
(Lot 4), gains were somewhat lower; but if adjusted to the same carcass yield, gains of
Lot 4 are more nearly comparable (2.43 pounds per head daily), and feed efficiency is
approximately the same as that of Lot 3. Apparently the older, heavier cattle used in
this trial were able to utilize the ground peanut hulls more efficiently than cattle in
previous trials. It should be pointed out that one of the larger steers in Lot 2 died a
few days prior to the end of the test, resulting in lighter weights and less satisfactory
results than otherwise would have been obtained. Despite the loss of the steer, Lot 2
required 139 pounds less feed per 100 pounds gain than Lot 1. Because of lack of a margin
between feeder and fat cattle prices, all groups showed a financial loss. With ground
snapped corn at $40 and ground shelled corn at $55 per ton, net returns were similar.

Dried bakery product.- Gains, feed efficiency, and carcasses of cattle receiving
dried bakery products (Lot 5) were similar to those of the Lot 2 control steers. With
dried bakery product at $60 per ton, it apparently can be used to replace a limited
quantity (2.5 pounds daily) of $40 per ton ground snapped corn.

Ground soybeans.- With ground soybeans as the sole protein supplement (Lot 6),
feed intake was lower but gains were comparable and feed per 100 pounds gain was lower
than with Lot 2 control steers with co ttonseed meal as the protein supplement. Thus it
appeared that the soybeans not only were an adequate source of protein but that the fat
in the soybeans was also well utilized, resulting in improved feed efficiency. Lot 7
steers with half of supplementary protein from soybeans consumed about the same quantity
of feed as Lot 2, but the Lot 7 cattle gained slightly faster and more efficiently. In
this trial, ground soybeans at $90 per ton adequately replaced 41% cottonseed meal at $85
per ton.

Carcass data.- More detailed carcass data are given in Table 7. It should be
stated that the Lot 2 steer who died would probably have graded low choice, which would
have slightly improved average results of the group.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Appreciation is expressed for protein analyses by Dr. T. J. Davidson, Jr.,
Assistant Soils Chemist, North Florida Experiment Station.











Table 1.- Rations (pounds per head daily).


Feed Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot 6 Lot 7

Ground snapped corn 22.98 21.95 --- ----- 19.15 19.39 21.54
Ground shelled corn --- ----- 19.11 14.84 --- --- ---
Dried bakery product ---- --- --- ---2.37 ---
Citrus molasses 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.84
41% cottonseed meal* 2.34 2,34 2.34 2.34 2.34 ----- 1.18
Ground soybeans* ----- ----- --- ---- --- 2.58 1.28
Argentine Bahia hay 2.91 0.91 4.15 0.97 0.93 0.99 0.92
Ground peanut hulls ---- --- ----- 4.95 ---- ----
+ 20% cane molasses

Total 30.07 27.08 27.44 24.94 26.63 24.80 26.76


* 25,000 I.U. vitamin A added to protein supplement


Table 2.- Percentages concentrates and roughages in rations:


Concentrates

71
76
85
76
78
76
76


Roughage

29
24
15
24
22
24
24


Cost ton feed

$ 41.75
.43.19
51.54
48.44
45.00
44.49
43.66


Lot










Table 3.- Feed Prices.

Feed

Ground snapped corn

Ground shelled corn

Dried bakery product

41% cottonseed meal + vitamin A

Ground soybeans + vitamin A

Argentine Bahia hay

Ground peanut hulls + 20%

blackstrap molasses

Salt

Steamed bonemeal


Per ton

$ 40.00

55.00

60.00

85.00

90.00

22.50


Table 5.- Percentages protein in various feeds.

Feed Percentage protein

Ground snapped corn 8.2

Ground shelled corn 9.2

Ground soybeans 39.0

Cottonseed meal 43.5

Dried bakery product 9.5 *

Ground peanut hulls 4.0 a

* Not analyzed feed tag guarantee.


20.00

36.00

90.00


Table 4.- Prices received for carcasses (March 16, 1964)

Grade Price cwt.

U. S. Choice $ 37.00

U. S. Good 35.00

U. S. Standard 31.00








Table 6.- Results steer feeding trial.


Number head
Number days
Ave. initial weight
Ave. final weight
Ave. gain
Ave. daily gain
Average Daily Ration:
Corn
Citrus molasses
Protein sup.
Hay or ground peanut hulls
Feed Per 100 Pounds Gain:
Concentrates
Roughage
Total
Mineral
Cost
Carcass and Financial Data:


Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.
Ave.


slaughter weight
carcass weight
carcass yield
carcass grade
price cwt. carcass
price cwt. on foot
cost cwt. feeders
cost head feeders
feed cost


Lot 1 Lot 2 Lot 3 Lot 4 Lot 5 Lot. 6 Lot 7
Gr. shelled Gr. shelled Gr. sn. corn Gr. soybeans
Gr. sn. corn Gr. sn. corn corn corn Dried bakery Ground + 41%
+ hay no hay + hay + peanut hulls product soybeans c.s. meal
** 8 8


8
115
783
1062
279
2.43

22.98
1.84
2.34
2.91

1121(884)
120(357)
1241
4.1
$ 25.98

1062
625
58.87
(Ave. good)
$ 35.00
20.60
20.68
161.84
72.45


115
767
1050
282
2.46


21.95
1.84
2.34
0.95

1064(841)
38(261)
1102
4.8
$ 23.91

1050
612
58.33
(Low good)
$ 33.90
19.77
20.68
158.68
67.53


Ave. cost cattle and feed 234.29 226.21
Sale price per head 218.71 207.57
Net return above costs cattle
and feed -15.58 -18.64
+ 0.10 day 245.79 237.71
Net return -27.08 -30.14
Numbers in parentheses on shelled corn basis cob
** One steer died *** Includes dried bakery product.


115
783
1089
307
2.67


19.11
1.84
2.34
4.15

873
155
1028
3.7
$26.60

1089
647
59.43
(Ave./high good)
$ 35.00
20.80
20.68
161.84
81.61
243.45
226.58


-16.87
254.95
-28.37
shuck as


0
115
782
1046
263
2.29


14.84
1.84
2.34
5.92

830
258
1088
5.5
$26.51

1046
631
60.29
(Ave. good)
$ 34.86
21.01
20.68
161.80
69.82
231.62
219.76


-11.86
243.12
-23.36


roughage.


115
783
1061
278
2.42


21.52 ***
1.84
2.34
0.93

1063(865) 10'
39(237)
1102 10
3.3
$ 24.88 $

1061 1
621
58.49
(Ave. good)(Low
$ 34.12 $
19.96
20.68
161.92
69.14
231.06
211.72

-19.34
242.56
-30.84


115
782
1054
272
2.36


19.39
1.84
2.58
0.99


115
782
1069
287
2.50


21.54
1.84
2.46
0.92


07(802) 1034(819)
42(247) 37(252)
49 1071
7.4 4.2
23.51 $ 23.47


054
622
59.05
good)
33.66
19.88
20.68
161.70
63.89
225.59
209.42

-16.17
237.09
-27.67


1069
628
58.75
.(Low/ave.good)
$34.58
20.32
20.68
161.72
67.46
229.18
217.26

-11.92
240.68
-23.42


and


and













Table 7.- Carcass data.


I.o- I


Slaughter weight
Carcass weight *
Carcass yield
Carcass grades


Average carcass grade
Average degree marbling
Condemned livers
Telangiectasis
Abscess
Parasites
Cirrhosis


625
58.87

2 high good
4 ave. good
2 low good


(Ave. good)
Small
0


LIot 2""


VuAu
612
58.33

2 high good
1 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.
1 ave. std.
(Low good)
Small -
2
(1)
(1)


1Ot 3


647
59.43

high good
ave. good


(Ave./high
Small
0


Lot 4
1046
631
60.29
1 low choice
1 high good
3 ave. good
2 low good
1 high std.


good) (Ave. good)
Small -
1
(1)


Lot 5
1061
621
58.49
low choice
high good
ave. good
low good
high std.

(Ave. good)
Small


Lot 6
1054
622
59.05


Lot 7
1069
628
58.75


1 high good 2 high good
3 ave. good 2 ave. good
1 low good 3 low good
2 high std. 1 high std.
1 ave. std. ----
(Low good) (Low/ave.good)
Small Small -


* Hot weight minus 2 1/2 percent.
** 1 steer died prior to slaughter.







FSB
5/25/64
250 CC


--


'I--"--~I---


1 .


Lot 11 E


,rrr~ I~LI\ YY




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