Group Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Title: Fattening steers in dry lot and in pasture
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00066019/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fattening steers in dry lot and in pasture
Series Title: NFES mimeo rpt.
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Baker, F. S ( Frank Sloan ), 1921-
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1962
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by F.S. Baker, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00066019
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 69154714

Full Text
100
FL3 1
/j o. 2 -5

NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
January 30, 1962

NFES MIMEO REPORT 62-5

FATTENING STEERS IN DRY LOT AND IN PASTURE

by F. S. Baker, Jr.
Associate Animal Husbandman

Summer gains made by yearling steers grazing permanent pasture grasses
are small. Neither Bahia nor Bermuda grass has produced gains comparable to
those from winter and spring small grain or clover pasture. In an effort to
improve results from grazing summer pasture grasses, the study reported herein
was conducted.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Cattle used.--One hundred short yearling steers grading medium to
mostly good were purchased in Alabama and Georgia auction sales.

Pasture.--Productive Bahia pasture fertilized annually with 500 pounds
per acre 0-14-14 and limed at rate of one ton per acre at four-year intervals
was used. Heavy growths of crimson clover have been present in the pasture for
several years, but the grazing trial was not begun until the clover had seeded
and matured. The pastures were predominantly Argentine Bahia, although some
Pensacola Bahia was present. An abundance of forage was available in all
pastures throughout the grazing season. All pastures were mowed each month to
keep the grass from maturing.

Weighing conditions of cattle.--The steers were maintained on a
preliminary ration until shipping shrink had been overcome and the steers had
regained their purchase weights. They were then weighed without shrink and
started on trial. Cattle slaughtered at the end of the Pasture Phase were
trucked three miles to Quincy in the early morning, weighed, and the Quincy
weights shrunk 3 per cent. The shrunk Quincy weights were used as final weights
at the end of the Pasture Phase. Cattle placed in the Feedlot-Finishing Phase
at the end of the pasture season were weighed at the feedlot and the weights
shrunk the same as their mates who were slaughtered. Final slaughter weights
were also taken in Quincy and shrunk 3 per cent. Shrunk slaughter weights were
used in calculating both steer gain and carcass yield.

Carcass weights were hot weights less 21 per cent.

Experimental design.--Pasture Phase ,

Lot 11 1.00 acre per head Bahia pasture .,
Lot 12 0.70 acre per head Bahia pasture + .;pounds grain daily
Lot 13 0.55 acre per head Bahia pasture + 10 l ounds.grain Oaily
Lot 14 0.40 acre per head Bahia pasture + iull-feed grain/ i
Lot 15 Dry lot full-feed grain

Half of each lot was slaughtered at end of the Pasture Phase and the
remainder placed in the feedlot.











Feedlot-Finishing Phase.--All groups were given a full-feed of grain
in dry lot until they reached an average slaughter weight of approximately 950
pounds. No feed additives were used except vitamin A, which was supplied to all
cattle in dry lot at the rate of 25,000 I. U. per head daily.

Table 5 contains feed prices used and Table 6 shows prices received
for carcasses.

RESULTS

Pasture Phase.--Table 1 gives results from all lots for the pasture
season, and Table 2 shows gains, carcass weights, grades, and returns for the
half of each lot slaughtered at end of the Pasture Phase. Gains from pasture
along (Lot 11) were small, resulting in the cattle not attaining a satisfactory
finish for slaughter off grass. Although the steers fed grain on pasture
(Lots 12, 13, and 14) gained faster than the cattle on pasture alone, none
produced carcasses of adequate weight and quality to make their slaughter off
pasture profitable. Only the Lot 15 dry lot cattle showed a return above cost
of cattle and feed.

Feedlot-Finishing Phase.--Table 3 presents the results of the stosrs
finished in dry lot and Table 4 shows the combined pasture-feedlot data. It
will be noted that all groups previously fed grain on grass during the Pasture
Phase had similar rates of gain and carcass weights while the Lot 15 group
fattened entirely in dry lot yielding slightly heavier carcasses. The less
grain fed during the preceding Pasture Phase, the longer required to reach
slaughter weight. Amount of finish as measured by carcass grade and degree of
marbling did not differ greatly among the four groups (Lots 12, 13, 14 and 15).
The cattle fed entirely in dry lot had a somewhat thicker covering of fat over
the rib.

Despite faster feedlot gains, cattle not fed on pasture (Lot 11)
produced carcasses that were slightly lighter with less finish than the four
lots previously fed grain during the Pasture Phase. As might be expected, the
Lot 11 cattle required more time in the feedlot to reach slaughter weight.

Steers fed 5 pounds of grain on pasture and finished in the feedlot
(Lot 12) showed the highest return above costs of any of the groups.

SUMMARY

Steer gains from unsupplemented Bahia grass pasture were slow, resulting
in the cattle not attaining satisfactory finish for slaughter at the end of the
pasture season. Supplementing grass with grain feeding improved both gains and
finish of cattle slaughtered off pasture, but none of the cattle slaughtered at
the end of the pasture season were as well-finished or showed as satisfactory
an economic return as the cattle full-fed in dry lot.

When fed to an average slaughter weight of 950 pounds in the Feedlot-
Finishing Phase, cattle gained at about the same rate regardless of whether,
during the Pasture Phase, they were fed 5 pounds, 10 pounds or a full-feed of
grain on grass or were full-fed in dry lot. Cattle in dry lot during the entire
trial had slightly heavier carcasses and a somewhat thicker covering of fat over
the rib.












Steers grazing Bahia pasture without grain during the Pasture Phase
gained somewhat faster when placed in the feedlot but produced considerably
lighter carcasses and graded slightly lower than the other groups on trial.

Return above costs of cattle and feed was greatest for steers fed 5
pounds daily on summer grass and finished in the feedlot at the end of the
pasture season.

Use of pasture prior to finishing in the feedlot resulted in a saving
of concentrates but this saving was largely offset by more time required in the
feedlot to reach slaughter weight.





































FSB
1/30/62
400 cc

















Table 1.--Pasture Phase (Entire Group).
Lot 11


Pasture Treatment
Days
Ave. initial weight
Ave. final weight
Ave. gain
Ave. daily gain
Ave. feed per head:
Pasture (acres)
Concentrates
Hay
Mineral
Cost
Average daily ration:
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Coastal Bermuda hay
Pasture (acres)
Feed per 100 pounds gain:
Pasture (acres)
Concentrates
Hay
Mineral
Cost


Economic data:
Cost cwt. stockers
Cost head stockers
Feed cost
Cost cattle and feed
Cost cwt. end summer


Bahia
Pasture
124
601
673
72
0.58

1.00


Lot 12
Bahia
Pasture +
5 lbs.
grain
124
602
757
155
1.25

0.70
620


Lot 13
Bahia
Pasture +
10 lbs.
grain
124
605
754
150
1.21

0.55
1240


Lot 14
Bahia
Pasture +
Full-feed
grain
124
601
774
173
1.40

0.40
1666


8.1 8.1 6.3 3.8
$ 12.19 $ 22.87 $ 33.43 $ 40.09


4.00
--.00
1.00


0.0081

1.40


11.2
$ 17.05

$ 22.95
138.02
12.19
150.21
22.32


0.0056

0.45
400

5.3
$ 14.76

$ 22.95
138.07
22.87
160.94
21.27


9,00

1.00

0.0044

0.37
829

4.2
$ 22.33

$ 22.95
138.73
33.43
172.16
22.83


12.44

1.00

0.0033


Lot 15


Dry lot
Full-feed
124
602
831
229
1.85


2809
275
4.3
$ 60.02

15.46
4.77
2.43
2.21


0.23
963 1222
-- 119
2.2 1.8
$ 23.17 $,26.11


$ 22.95
137.98
40.09
178.07
23.00


$ 22.95
138.04
60.02
198.06
23.83








-5-


Table 2.--Cattle Slaughtered at End of Pasture Phase (Half of steers from each
group, Table 1).


Pasture Treatment
Days
Ave. daily gain
Ave. slaughter weight
Ave. carcass weight
Ave. carcass yield
Carcass grades



Ave. carcass grade
Degree marbling (ave.)
Color fat
Price cwt. carcasses
Price cwt. on foot
Price carcass
Cost cattle and feed
Return above costs
cattle and feed


Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
Bahia Bahia
Bahia Pasture + Pasture +
Bahia Pasture + 10 lbs. Full-feed Dry lot
Pasture 5 lbs. grain grain Zrain _.. __ lfed_
124 124 124 124 124
0.51 1.28 1.23 1.39 1.90
674 757 749 772 830
357 414 421 441 506
53.05 54.70 56.28 57.14 60.93
-- -- 3 choice
1 good -- 1 good 7 good 7 good
6 standard 9 standard 9 standard 3 standard
3 utility 1 utility
(Low std.) (Ave. std.) (High std.) (Low good) (High good)
Prac. devoid Traces Traces Slight amt.Slight amt.+
Creamy Creamy Creamy Creamy IWhite
$ 37.02 $ 37.05 $ 37.64 $ 39.62 .$ 40.80
19.64 20.27 21.18 22.64 24.86
132.32 153.43 158.60 174.70 206.27
152.40 160.20 170.17 177.74 196.32


-11.57 --3.04 +9.95


-20.08 -6.77















Table 3.--Feedlot Finishing Phase.
Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
Bahia Bahia Bahia
Pasture + Pasture + Pasture +
Previous Bahia 5 lbs. 10 lbs. Full-feed Dry lot
Pasture Treatment Pasture grain grain grain Full-feed
Days 120 102 95 85 57
Ave. initial weight 672 756 760 777 833
Ave. final weight 942 961 955 946 950
Ave. gain 270 205 195 169 117
Ave. daily gain 2.25 2.01 2.05 1.98 2.06


Ave. daily ration:
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41% cottonseed meal
Coastal Bermuda hay
Feed per 100 pounds gain:
Concentrates
Hay
Mineral
Cost
Carcass data:
Slaughter weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Ave. carcass grade
Degree marbling
Economic data:
Cost cwt. into feedlot
Cost head into feedlot
Cost feed in feedlot.
Sale price cwt. carcass
Sale price cwt. on foot
Sale price per head
Cost cattle and feed
Return above costs cattle
and feed


17.36
4.63
2.41
2.68


1085
119
2.0
$ 23.33

942
555
58.91
Ave. good
Small amt.

$ 22.02
148.01
62.98
40.41
23.81
224.23
210.99


17.70
4.59
2.40
2.44

1229.
122
3.9
$ 26.36

961
585
60.86
High good
Small amt.

$ 21.38
161.65
54.01
40.78
24.81
238.42
215.66


15.82
4.72
2.39
3.22

1117
157
4.5
$ 24.44

955
582
60.94
High good
Modest

$ 22.94
174.40
47.66
40.86
24.90
237.89
222.06


16.97
4.68
2.38
4.06

1212
205
2.3
$ 26.75

946
582
61.49
Low choice
Modest +

$ 22.96
178.39
45.13
41.22
25.34
239.67
223.52


15.39
5.00
2.50
2.85

1112
139
2.5
$ 24.08

950
592
62.29
Low choice
Modest +

$ 23.99
199.79
28.30
41.40
25.79
245.03
228.09


13.24 22.76 15.83


16.15 16.94
















Table 4.--Pasture and Dry Lot Phase.
Lot 11 Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14 Lot 15
Bahia Bahia Bahia
Pasture + Pasture + Pasture +
Bahia 5 lbs. 10 lbs. Full-feed Dry lot
_P.ast)re Treatment-_ -.. -Fastur.e-. -..prain- __ rin _-r. i Full-feed
Days 244 226 219 209 181
Ave. gain 350 356 241 343 341
Ave. daily gain 1.43 1.58 1.56 1.64 1.88


Ave. feed per head:
Pasture (acres)
Concentrates
Hay
Mineral
Cost
Feed per 100 pounds gain:
.Pasture (acres)
Concentrates
Hay
Mineral
Cost
Carcass data:
Slaughter weight
Carcass weight
Carcass yield
Ave. carcass grade
Degree marbling
Economic data:
Cost cwt. stockers


head stockers
feed Pasture Phase
feed in feedlot
price cwt. carcass
price cwt on foot
price head
cattle and feed


1.00
2928
322
13.6
'$ 75.17

0.286
837
92
3.9
$ 21.48

942
555
58.91
Ave. good
Small amt.

$ 22.95
135.82
12.19
62.98
40.41
23.81
224.23
210.99


0.70
3138
249
16.2
$ 76.88

0.197
880
70
4.6
$ 21.59

961
585
60.86
High good
Small amt.

$ 22.95
138.78
22.87
54.01
40.78
24.81
238.42
215.66


0.55
3419
306
15.1
$ 81.08

0.161
1002
90
4.3
$ 23.76

955
582
60.94
High good
Modest

$ 22.95
140.96
33.43
47.66
40.86
24.90
237.89
222.06


0.40
3710
345
7.6
$ 85.22

0.117
1081
101
2.2
$ 24.83

946
582
61.49
Low choice
Modest +

$ 22.95
138.30
40.09
45.13
41.22
25.34
239.67
223.52


--w
4115
437
7.2
$ 88.30
---
1206
128
2.0
$ 25.87

950
592
62.29
Low choice
Modest +

$ 22.95
139.77
60.02
28.30
41.40
25.79
245.03
228.09


Return above costs cattle
and feed


_llP 22.76 15-83


Cost
Cost
Cost
Sale
Sale
Sale
Cost


11~3L. 22.76 15.83


- --


16.15 16.94















Table 5.--Feed Prices Used.
Feed
Ground snapped corn
Citrus molasses
41 % Cottonseed meal
Coastal Bermuda hay
Salt
Steamed bonemeal
Trace mineralized salt
Pasture


Price per ton
$ 40.00
28.00
70.00
20.00
35.00
90.00
65.00
12.00 acre


Table 6.--Prices Received for Carcasses.
Grade Price cwt.
U. S. Choice $ 41.50
U. S. Good 40.50
U. S. Standard 37.25
U. S. Utility 35.00




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