| Material Information
||Leatherleaf fern fertilization and association with fern wilt
||ARC-Apopka research report
||2 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Mathur, D. D
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
||University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research Center
||Place of Publication:
||Leatherleaf fern -- Fertilization -- Florida ( lcsh )
Wilt diseases -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 71126143
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
Q7/"' ."' I -
LEATHERLEAF FERN FERTIIJZATONi' A ASSOCIATION WITH FERN WILT
S, F D,,D. [lath.r.,
ni v'qs in+ "loriaad FAS
ARC-Apopka -Research Repo-rt- 0-1980-15
Research has been initiated to develop a fertilizer program that decreases percent
fern wilt. The objectives are to determine effects of different nitrogen fertilizer
sources and rates on production and causes) of wilt.of leatherleaf fern.
Research on the effect of different nitrogen sources on yield and fern wilt was
initiated on 3/12/79 at the Agricultural Research Center, Apopka. Eight-year-old .
leatherleaf fern beds grown under 73% polypropylene shade were used for this experiment.
There were 16 treatments and 3 replications. Leatherleaf fern grown in research plots
was fertilized monthly (N-P-K-Mg) at a rate of 1) 500-250-500-100 Ib/A/yr, and 2) 1000-
500-1000-200 Ib/A/yr, with the following nitrogen sources 1) 50% Urea + 50% Nitrate,
2) 50% Urea + 50% Miilorganite, 3) 100% Urea, 4) 100% Ammonium, 5) 50% A'nonium + 50%
Nitrate, 6) 75% Urea + 25% Nitrate, 7) 25% Urea + 75% Nitrate and 8) No fertilizer.
Potassium sources were potassium nitrate and/or potassium sulfate. The phosphorus
source was single superphosphate. Foliage was irrigated with overhead sprinklers to
remove the residue after each fertilization. Fern was harvested and counted by con.':.r-
cial fern cutters 5/22/79, 8/9/79, 11/20/79, 2/14/80, 5/30/80 and 9/5/80. At each
harvest 20 fronds per plot were cut and immediately submerged in a 2000 ml beaker
:ed with deionized water and placed in acclimatizQtion rooms. Light intensity of
rooms at the surface of the frond was 9.4 uE-s"' or 85 ft-c, with 12 hours daily
of fluorescent light. Temperature was 21 20C and relative humidity was 55 15%.
Fern wilt was counted every third day. Fern frond with 100% of its pinnule curled/
dried was counted as wilted.
Results and Discussion
Results of yield are reported in Table 1. The fertilizer treatments and sources
of nitrogen are listed in sequence starting with maximum yield the equivalent of
596,000 fronds/30,000 sq ft of actual production area/yr from the 50% Ammonium + 50%
Nitrate treatment. The -uivalent of more than 500,000 fronds/30,000 sq ft of actual
production area/year yield was also obtained from the 100% Ammonium, 50% Urea + 50%
Nitrate, 25% Urea + 7b5 Nitrate and 50% Urea + 50% Milorganite treatments. No minor
elements or lime were applied during the study.
The effects of the different nitrogen sources on leatherleaf fern wilt at 12 days
postharvest are reported in Table 2. A high yielding treatment does not mean it will
have less wilt and/or long vase life (Tables 1 and 2).
Data in Table 3 show that more than 40% fern wilt and yellowing at the end of 12
days was found in treatments such as 100% Urea. 75% Urea + 25% Nitrate and control (No
fertilizer), Fern wilt and yellowing in treatments such as 50% Ammonium + 50% Nitrate,
50% Urea + 50% Nitrate: 50% Urea + 50% Milorganite and 100% Armmonium was 39.6% or less.
High urea fertili-"tion should be avoided due to adverse effects on yield and
lity of the fern as compared to the rest of the treatments.
Table 1. Effect of different nitrogen sources on yield (number of fronds/
30,000 sq ft/yr) of leatherleaf fern1
Fertilizer composition Number of fronds Percent of
(%) (X 1000) Highest yield
50:50 Anmonium:Nitrate 596 100
100 Ammonium 583 98
50:50 Urea:Nitrate 567 95
25:75 Urea:Nitrate 528 87
50:50 Urea:Milorganite 522 86
75:25 Urea:Nitrate 463 71
100 Urea 434 63
No fertilizer 412 56
No application of minor elements and lime.
Table 2. Effect of nitrogen source on leatherleaf
fern wilt at 12 days postharvest.
Fertilizer composition Fern wilt
No fertilizer 23.5
100 Urea 23.0
50:50 Urea:Milorganite 21.2
100 Ammonium 20.5
25:75 Urea:Nitrate 18.0
50:50 Ammonium:Nitrate 17.8
50:50 Urea:Nitrate 16.8
75:25 Urea:Nitrate 16.6
No application of minor elements and lime.
Table 3. Effect of different nitrogen sources on leatherleaf fern wilt at
6, 9, and 12 days postharvest.
Fertilizer composition Acceptable fronds (%)
(%) 6 days 9 days 12 days
50:50 Urea:Nitrate 94.8 89.7 60.4
50:50 Ammonium:Nitrate 93.7 89.3 64.0
50:50 Urea:Milorganite 93.5 89.9 63.6
75:25 Urea:Nitrate 91.3 81.7 56.1
25:75 Urea:Nitrate 90.1 81.9 64.2
100 Ammonium 90.0 84.6 61.7
100 Urea 88.6 82.0 51.5
No fertilizer 88.4 82.8 45.3