Group Title: AREC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-85-9
Title: Comparison of a liquid fertilizer source with several slow-release fertilizers on Brassaia actinophylla and Ficus benjamina
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065962/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparison of a liquid fertilizer source with several slow-release fertilizers on Brassaia actinophylla and Ficus benjamina
Series Title: AREC-A research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Ficus (Plants) -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fertilizers -- Evaluation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065962
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70927095

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Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
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Comparison of a Liquid Fertilizer Source with Several Slow-Release
Fertilizers on Brassaia actinophylla and Ficus benjamin

C. A. Conover and R. T. Poolel
University of Florida, IFAS
Agricultural Research and Education Center Apopka
AREC-A Research Report RH-85-9


Although considerable research has been conducted on fertilization of
Brassaia actinophylla (Schefflera) and Ficus benjamin (Weeping fig)
(1,2,5,6,7), no direct comparison has been made for liquid versus slow-
release fertilizers on these plants. A recent comparison of liquid and 12
slow-release fertilizers on 7 woody plants (8) showed improved growth with
all slow-release sources versus liquid, but nitrogen rates were not equal.
Research on Chamaedorea, Philodendron and Howea (4) compared liquid 19-6-12
and slow-release 19-6-12 fertilizers as well as combinations. Growth and
quality were slightly better for plants grown on liquid fertilizer than
slow-release when similar rates were used. Acclimatization levels for
weeping fig grown on liquid 9-3-6 or slow-release 19-6-10 at equivalent
nitrogen rates were the same when fertilizer was applied to the medium
surface (6). Growth of schefflera and weeping fig increased as fertilizer
level increased from 4 to 16 g/gallon of 18-6-12 Osmocote (1) in 1 and 5
gallon containers. In container sizes of 1, 2, 3 or 4 gallon, schefflera
increased in grade as nitrogen level from 19-6-12 Osmocote increased from
1000 to 3000 Ibs/A/yr, but height was not affected (5). The suggested
fertilizer level for schefflera and weeping fig is 2100 pounds N/A annually
(3), although slightly more color intensity and grade can be achieved with
higher rates. This experiment was established June 19, 1981 and terminated
December 26, 1981. Treatments were composed of 5 fertilizer sources and 3
fertilizer rates in factorial combination with 5 replications. Fertilizer
sources included: 1) liquid fertilizer in a 19-6-10 ratio of ammonium
nitrate, phosphoric acid and pot s 7nttrate--24)-Osmocote 18-6-1.2; 3)
Osmocote Sierrablen 19-6-10; 4) Chie'9-3-61a'i'd,)A'an ic coat 14-14-14.
Treatments 2 and 3 were completely coated slow-release f rtilizers, treat-
ment 4 contained uncoated P and abouti10% uncoated N and K and treatment 5
contained coated N, but P and K were uncoated.'P'frtili zer rates were 1200,
1800 and 2400 lbs N/A/yr from te var ous sources, whicq resulted in some
variation in P and K. Liquid f rti1ifzer('was '.surf ace applied weekly and
slow-release fertilizers surface applied-at experiment initiation and again
3 months later.

Schefflera from 3 inch pots with 3 to 5 plants per pot and weeping fig
approximately 6 inches tall with one plant per 4 inch pot were potted into
8 inch pots in a medium composed of 3 sedge3peat:l mason sand (v/v) amended
with 7 pounds dolomite and 2 pounds Perk/yd Schefflera were grown under
47% and weeping fig under 63% shade with a temperature range of 50 to
1000F. Plants were irrigated 2 to 3 times/week as needed and sprayed to
control pests.

Professor and Center Director, and Professor, Plant Physiology,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion Road Road, Apopka,
FL 32703, respectively.








Data were taken for plant height, foliar color (1 = yellow, 3 = medium
green and 5 = dark green) and plant grade (1 = poor, unacceptable, 3 =
good-minimum, acceptable and 5 = excellent quality) on September 21 and
December 26, 1981.

After 3 months growth, the tallest schefflera and those with the best
plant grade had received either Osmocote 18-6-12 or Sierrablen 19-6-10
(Table 1). However, the best foliage color at 3 and 6 months was observed
on plants grown with liquid fertilizer, even though these plants had the
poorest grade and shortest height after 3 months. After 6 months, height
was equal for all sources as was grade except for Chase 9-3-6 which was
poorer. These data indicate that some injury may have occurred from the
liquid fertilizer source while plants were small, but it was temporary and
they were among the best at 6 months.

Weeping fig on liquid fertilization had the best plant and foliage
grade and was the tallest at 3 months (Table 2). After 6 months, height was
equal for all sources, foliage color was best for the liquid source, and
liquid 19-6-10, Chase 9-3-6 and Atlantic coat 14-14-14 produced plants that
had the best quality grade. Unlike results obtained with schefflera, the
liquid fertilizer source was apparently the best for weeping fig from
experiment initiation.

Increasing fertilization level from 1200 to 2400 Ibs N/A/yr increased
all measurements on both plants at 3 and 6 months except height at 6 months.
These data indicate that 2400 Ibs N/A/yr would be needed to produce high
quality plants under a shadehouse growing environment where considerable
leaching occurs.

In summary, liquid fertilizer used in this experiment produced plant
grades equal to any slow-release source at the end of the growth period and
these plants also had the best foliage color. In this research liquid
fertilizer was applied directly to the containers and thus there was no loss
due to deflection caused by the plant canopy. Therefore, pots receiving
surface applications of liquid fertilizer received the same amount of
fertilizer as those receiving slow-release sources. All fertilizer sources
tested produced plants with good plant grades by the end of the 6 month
production period, which indicates they all have potential in fertilization
programs. Increased plant and foliage grades associated with increased
fertilizer levels indicate that a rate near 2400 lb N/A/yr may be most
desirable.








REFERENCES


1. Broschat, T. K. 1981. Effect
on quality of three species of
Soc. 94:113-114.


of container size and fertilization rate
foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort.


2. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1981. Light and fertilizer
slow-release fertilizer sources influence growth of Brassaia
actinophylla Endl. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 94:109-111.


levels and


3. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1984. Light and fertilizer recommen-
dations for production of acclimatized potted foliage plants. Univ.
of Fla, IFAS. Agric. Res. and Education Ctr. Apopka Research Report
RH-84-7.


4. Conover, C. A. and G. A. Sanders. 1978. Influence of liquid
slow-release fertilizer combinations on three foliage plants.
Digest 1(4):5-6.


and
Foliage


5. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1978. Influence of container size,
fertilizer level and area or volume-rate basis on schefflera growth.
Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. Proc. 38:4-5.

6. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1982. Fertilization of weeping fig
before placement indoors. Foliage Digest 5(1):11-12.

7. Poole, R. T. and R. W. Henley. 1981. Constant fertilization of
foliage plants. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 106 (1):61-63.

8. Swanson, B. T., R. J. Fullerton and S. Ramer. 1982. Are some
slow-release fertilizers better? Amer. Nurseryman 155 (2):89-95.








Table 1. Influence of fertilizer source and level


Height Height Pl antz Plant Foliary Foliar
(cm) (cm) grade grade color color
Treatment 9/21/81 12/26/81 9/21/81 12/26/81 9/21/81 12/26/81

Fertilizer source

Liquid 31.7ax 69.6a 2.9a 4.5b 4.6d 4.4c
19-6-10
Osmocote
18-6-12 42.3c 74.5a 4.Oc 4.4b 3.5b 3.9b
Sierrablen
19-6-10 42.5c 73.6a 4.1c 4.4b 3.5b 4.1b
Chase
9-3-6 35.9ab 75.Oa 3.Oa 3.9a 3.2a 3.4a
Atlantic coat
14-14-14 38.1b 72.7a 3.5b 4.5b 4.Oc 4.Ob

Fertilizer level
Ibs N/A/yr

1200 36.6 70.9 3.2 4.2 3.2 3.7
1800 37.6 71.6 3.5 4.2 3.8 3.9
2400 40.2 76.7 3.8 4.6 4.3 4.3


Linearw .01 NS .01 .01 .01 .01
Quadratic NS NS NS .05 NS NS

z1 = poor unacceptable, 3 = good-minimum acceptable, and 5 = excellent quality.

1 = yellow, 3 = medium green and 5 = dark green.
XMean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

WSignificant at 5% level (0.05), 1% level (0.01) or not significant (NS).


on growth of Brassaia actinophylla








Table 2. Influence of fertilizer source and level


Height Height Plantz Plant Fol iagey Foliage
(cm) (cm) grade grade color color
Treatment 9/21/81 12/26/81 9/21/81 12/26/81 9/21/81 12/26/81

Fertilizer source

Liquid
19-6-10 81.Obx 115.7a 4.1b 4.9c 5.0c 4.5b
Osmocote
18-6-12 73.5a 109.9a 2.9a 4.1a 3.0a 4.0a
Sierrablen
19-6-10 74.4a 106.7a 3.3a 4.3ab 3.2a 3.8a
Chase
9-3-6 73.3a 113.0a 3.3a 4.5bc 3.6b 3.9a
Atlantic coat
14-14-14 71.7a 108.8a 3.1a 4.7c 3.1a 4.0a

Fertilizer level
Ibs N/A/yr

1200 71.9 106.1 2.8 4.1 3.0 3.7
1800 73.1 113.1 3.5 4.6 3.8 4.1
2400 76.2 113.2 3.7 4.8 3.9 4.3


Linearw 0.05 NS 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Quadratic NS NS NS NS 0.01 NS

Z1 = poor unacceptable, 3 = good-minimum acceptable and 5 = excellent quality.

Y1 = yellow, 3 = medium green and 5 = dark green.
XMean separation within columns by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.

WSignificant at 5% level (0.05), 1% level (0.01) or not significant (NS).


on growth of Ficus benjamin







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