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* (o ... ''
S-- ",, POTENTIAL YIELDS FROM FOLIAGE STOCK PLANTS .,,,.
:, "V O
Charles A. Conover
Agricultural Research Center-Apopka
ARC-A Research Report RH-76-3
A major consideration that producers face in selecting foliage genera to grow are
potential yields and gross returns. Information in this area has been extremely limited,
and has resulted in inability of many producers to obtain loans for expansion. In general,
most people have underestimated yielding potential of foliage stock plants, resulting in
unfavorable decisions by lending institutions.
Information presented in this paper has been obtained from commercial sources and
research. Where information from both sources was available, data were cross checked and
found to be within 10% of agreement. Information presented in the table is based on
30,000 sq ft per acre planted to stock plants, with the remaining sq footage devoted to
isles and roads. Yields listed are for stock plants in full production, with the time
varying by species from six months to four years for stock to reach maximum potential.
Estimated establishment time for each plant as well as other factors that may influence
production are listed separately.
All data listed are from stock plants receiving recommended light and nutritional
regimes, as well as good pest control measures. Weeds were also kept under control and
did not compete with stock plants. Data are from tropical and subtropical locations
where yearly temperature minimums are 55 to 650? or where plants are heated to that
minimum level during winter months. Light intensities on clear days range from 10,000
ft-candles during winter to as high as 15,000 ft-candles during summer, but plants were
grown under recommended shade. Plants grown in ground beds were grown under poly-
propylene shade cloth and those in raised beds under fiberglass. Therefore, plants in
ground bed cloth shade structures were subjected to rainfall and those in raised beds
under fiberglass were not.
Yields listed should not be considered as maximum, but simply an average that can
be obtained by commercial operators following established production practices.
Production of plants listed in Table 1 may be subjected to several problems which may
limit achieving average yields shown in the table. The major problems are discussed
Aglaonema 'Fransher' -- No serious problems have been encountered with production of this
plant in raised benches. However, Pythium can be a problem in ground beds and tempera-
tures below 600F reduce yields. Stock will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to yield listed
Aglaonema modestum -- Pythium can be a limiting factor in production in raised benches,
but is often severe in ground beds and frequently prevents profitable production there.
-tock will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to yield listed amounts.
.ordyline terminalis -- Major problems in production include fluoride toxicity and
spider mite control. In addition, root-knot nematodes may be a problem unless control
measures are practiced. Stock will reach yields listed after 1 to 1 1/2 years.
Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll' -- Major problems in production include fluoride
toxicity and spider mite control. In addition, root-knot nematodes may be a problem
unless control measures are practiced. Growth on raised benches, however, is difficult
because of deep rooting, and height of plants. Stock will reach yields listed after 1
to 1 1/2 years.
Codiaeum variegatum 'Bravo' -- Growth of this large leaved croton and color of leaves
is governed by light intensity and temperature. Good color is obtained with 10,000
ft-candles and warm temperatures or 7000 ft-candles and cool nights. Spider mite
-ontrol is a major problem, which is intensified by high light and low humidity. Yields
sted will require 3 to 4 years to achieve.
'odiaeum 'Gold Dust' -- This croton will produce good growth and color under 5000 or
more ft-candles. Spider mites are also a serious pest of this plant and frequently
determine its profitability. Maximum yields will be reached in 1 to 2 years depending
Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica' -- Major problems with this plant include Erwinia,
(bacterial cane rot), Phytophthora (stem rot) and spider mite control. Control of soil
borne diseases is very difficult in ground beds, so growth on raised benches is preferred.
Nearly 1 1/2 years are required for new stock beds to achieve maximum yields.
Dracaena godseffiana -- No serious pest of this plant exists, although care in the
nutritional program is necessary to control iron deficiencies. New stock'plantings take
2 1/2 to 3 years to become profitable and achieve maximum yields.
'acaena godseffiana 'Florida Beauty' -- Like the previous plant it has no serious pest
problems. However, this selection contains less chlorophyll and hence grows slower. New
stock plantings will take 3 years or more to achieve maximum yields.
Dracaena marginata -- Growth of this crop under shade increases problems of Fusarium
infections. Other production problems include nematodes and fluorine phytotoxicity
in full sun. Plants will take 3 to 5 years to reach full yields.
Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' -- Data provided in the table is for tip cutting
production; NOT CANE! Tip cutting production is accomplished in beds by using the
tips thrown away when harvesting cane. Tips are rooted, allowed to grow to about 2 to
3 ft high and topped. Sprouts are then harvested for tip cuttings. Fluoride toxicity
and Fusarium are the major production problems. Beds will yield at maximum after 1 year.
Dracaena sanderiana -- Major production problems include a bacterial leafspot caused by
?seudomonas, spider mites and iron chlorosis. Plantings will take 2 to 2 1/2 years to
attain maximum yield.
. aena deremensis 'Warneckii' -- This is one of the slowest growing dracaenas. The
major production problem is fluoride toxicity, but iron deficiency problems may also
occur. Stock beds will require 2 to 3 years to attain maximum yields.
Monstera deliciosa -- Low yield per square foot is the major problem with this plant.
Several diseases cause leaf spots, but these normally do not limit production. Stock
will take 1 1/2 to 2 years to achieve maximum yields.
Peperomia obtusifolia *- Major production problems include Phytophthora and Cercospora
control. In some areas, Phytophthora is so severe that stock must be renewed yearly.
Where plants are protected from rainfall, and good sanitation practiced, beds will last
for several years. Stock will reach its maximum yielding potential in 6 to 12 months.
Peperomia obtusifolia 'Variegata' -- Same problems as the green form listed above, but
grows much slower because it contains less chlorophyll. Stock usually takes at least
a year to become fully productive.
Pilea cadierei -- Root loss, usually caused by Rhizoctonia, is one of the major
production problems. Several insects and mites may also cause problems. Stock will
become fully productive in 6 to 9 months.
Philodendron oxycardium -- The major production problem is Xanthomonas which causes a
brown marginal necrosis, especially near leaf tips. Other problems include Phytophthora
leaf spot and root rot. Stock will take 6 to 12 months to reach maximum yield.
Philodendron hastatum 'Red Emerald' -- Bacterial leafspot caused by Erwinia and root
loss as the result of nematode infestations and other disease organisms are major
production problems. Growth on raised beds under fiberglass is suggested, but yield
data are not available. Stock will take about 1 year to become fully productive.
Aindapsus aureus -- The main limiting factor in production is a soil borne disease
caused by Pythiui. Stock beds can achieve maximum yields about 12 months after planting.
ocindapsus aureus 'Marble Queen' The main limiting factors in production are the
soil borne disease, Pythium, and reversion of stock back to the green form. Stock grows
slowly and will take 1 to 1 1/2 years for beds to become fully productive.
Sansevieria trifasciata -- The major limiting factor is root-knot nematodes. Depending
on whether stock is grown from leaves or offsets, it will take 1 to 2 years to attain
Table 1. Potential yields from foliage stock plants.
io. cuttings Aveage
produced/30,000 cutting Gross
Plant species sq ft/yr value $/acre/yr
Cordyline terminalis 'Baby Doll'
Codiaeum 'Bravo' (AL)
Codiaeum 'Gold Dust'
Dieffenbachia picta 'Exotica'
Dracaena godseffiana 'Florida beauty'
Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana'
Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii'
Pepercmia obtusifolia 'Veriegata'
Piles cadierei 2,800,000
Philodendron oxycardium 3,500,000
Philodendron hastatum 'Red Emezald' (tips) 200,000
Scindapsus aureus 3,400,000
Scindapsus 'Marble Queen' 1,500,000
Sansevieria trifasciata 600,000
1Not recorrmended for production under these conditions.
Yield data not available.