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Title: Response of foliage plants in an interior environment to irrigation frequencies
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065919/00001
 Material Information
Title: Response of foliage plants in an interior environment to irrigation frequencies
Series Title: AREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Water requirements -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2-3).
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole and A.R. Chase.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065919
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70701578

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
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to -L

SResponse of Foliage Plants in an Interior
Environment to Irrigation Frequenc4~i-..--- _

R. T. Poole and A. R. Chase1 Central Science
University of Florida, IFAS Library
Agricultural Research and Education Center Apopka
AREC-Apopka Research Report, RH-86122 UCT 14 1987

ji'' ,st i- Ia j
Maintenance of attractive foliage plants while taerior conditions
requires proper light, temperature and irrigation procedures. AfteF- te
building is completed, temperature is usually constant and varies only
slightly with seasons, but judgment based on experience and knowledge
determines amount of water applied.

Many variables determine amount of water required to maintain
attractive foliage plants, such as the kind of plant, size of plant, size
of pot, pot drainage, potting medium, temperature, light intensity, and
fertilization practices. Because of all these variables, definite
procedures cannot be established for irrigation practices.

Several papers have been published which report effects of irrigation
frequency on plants during production (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8). These results
cannot be used as an indication of water requirements of plants maintained
indoors, but can be used to determine plant tolerance to varying irrigation
frequencies (Table 1). Aphelandra, Brassaia, Chlorophytum, Crassula,
Epipremnum, Nephrolepis and Peperomia benefited from increased frequency of
irrigation within the ranges tested, but Calathea, Chamaedorea,
Dieffenbachia, Ficus, Pellionia and Pilea either did not benefit from
increased frequency of irrigation or increased frequency had a detrimental
effect on plant growth.

Tests were conducted to determine the influence of irrigation
frequencies on quality and growth of four foliage plants, Brassaia
actinophylla, Epipremnum aureum, Peperomia obtusifolia and Philodendron s.
oxycardium, while in an interior environment. Experiments were conducted
during 1984 and 1985, one during the cool months of the year and one during
the warm season for each plant. Test duration was 3 months. Plants were
potted in 6 or 6" pots in a mix of Canadian peat:pine bark (1:1 by volume)
with one pound MicroMax and 7 pounds of dolomite per cubic yard and 10
pounds Osmocote 19:6:12 fertilizer and placed in 10'x10'x8' rooms with 125
ft-c from Cool White fluorescent light with temperatures of 70-80F.
Height or vine length was taken initially and at the termination of the
experiment. Percent root coverage, top grade and fresh weight were also
determined at each experiment's termination. Treatment variables included
irrigation frequencies of 1,2,3, or 4 times every 2 weeks. Water was
poured through pots until water collected in saucers below pots. Excess
water was removed from saucers after 1-2 hrs. Treatments were replicated
20 times.


Professor of Plant Physiology and Associate Professor of Plant Pathology,
respectively, Agricultural Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion
Road, Apopka, FL 32703.








One irrigation every 2 weeks was not sufficient to maintain attractive
B. actinophylla, but 2, 3 or 4 times/2 weeks appeared to be equally
satisfactory (Table 2). During the warm season when temperatures in the
room were frequently 80F, 3 times per 2 weeks was needed, but when
temperature was near 70F, twice per 2 weeks was satisfactory.

Pothos showed one of the greatest growth responses to increased
frequency of irrigation. Watering 3 or 4 times every 2 weeks produced the
highest quality plants during the warm season trial (Table 2). During the
cool season, however, only the plants watered once every 2 weeks were of
significantly lower quality than those receiving more water.

Peperomia also reacted differently during the two seasons. When
temperature was cool, once every 2 weeks maintained high plant quality, but
with warmer temperatures, 3 and 4 irrigations every 2 weeks were apparently
required.

Philodendron was least responsive to irrigation frequency with only
slight increase of vine length, top grade and top weight as frequency
increased during the summer. Irrigation frequency had no effect during the
cool months. When Brassaia were grown from December to March, there was a
considerable reduction in percentage of pots with roots as irrigation
frequency increased.

Results from greenhouse and interior trials indicate that Pothos,
Brassaia, and Peperomia require relatively more frequent irrigation than do
Philodendrons.

Results from these tests show that watering once every 2 weeks will
result in poor quality plants. However, attractive plants were maintained
when watered once weekly. Results also show the importance of adjusting
the watering schedule with changing seasons.

Literature Cited

1. Chase, A. R. and R. T. Poole. 1984. Investigations into the Role of
Fertilizer Level and Irrigation Frequency on Growth, Quality and
Severity of Pythium Root Rot of Peperomia obtusifolia. J. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 109(5):619-622.
2. Chase, A. R. and R. T. Poole. 1985. Irrigation Frequency and Subdue
Rate Affect Pythium Root Rot of Pothos. AREC-A Research Report
RH-85-14.
3. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1977. Influence of Fertilization and
Leaching on Acclimatization of Aphelandra squarrosa Nees cv. Dania.
HortScience 12(6):569-570.
4. Hipp, B. W., P. F. Colbaugh and M. D. Leo. 1979. Influence of
Fertility and Moisture Level on Growth of Chlorophytum. HortScience
14(1):65-66.
5. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1977. Influence of Medium, Container
Size and Water Regime on Growth of Pellionia pulchra N. E. Br. and
Pilea involucrata (SIMS) URB. HortScience 16(4).556-557.
6. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1985. Growth of Ficus benjamin in
Combinations of Peat, Sand and Melaleuca. HortScience 23(3):383-385.








7. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1985. Response of Schefflera to
Variations in Irrigation Procedure. AREC-A Research Report RH-85-7.
8. Spooner, J., L. Daley, G. Ware and M. Vines. 1978. Determination of
Irrigation and Fertilizer Practices for Jade Plant [Crassula argentea
(L.) Thunb.]. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(3):306-308.


Table 1. Growth of plants receiving various
greenhouse production.


irrigation frequencies during


Plant


Reference


Irrigation/Week


Aphelandra squarrosa 'Dania'


Brassaia actinophylla



Calathea makoyana


Chamaedorea elegans


Chlorophytum comosum

Crassula argentea

Uieffenbachia maculata 'Perfection'


Epipremnum aureum




Ficus benjamin

Nephrolepis exaltata


Peperomia obtusifolia


Pellionia pulchra

Pilea involucrata


alP nt Response


2.61
3.2
4.6
2.4
3.3
3.7
4.4
1
3.9
3.7
3.5
4.1
4.0
4.0
3.2
28
40
120
162
4.8
4.8
4.
15
22
25
31
27
4.2
4.1
1
3.9
4.3
4.7
3.6
4.0
4.9
16
16
14
12


IPlant grade 1 = poor quality,
2Top fresh weight (g)
3Vine length (cm).


5 = excellent.


_ ___ __. _


Reeec ricaion ek PatRsos








Table 2. Response of foliage plants to irrigation in an interior environment. 125 ft-c, 12 hours,
70-80UF, 60-80% RH.

Brassaia actinophylla Epipremnum aureum

Height cm % Root Top Top Vine len. cm % Root Top Top
Irrigation/ Initiation Termination coverage grade wt.g Initiation Termination coverage grade wt.g
2 weeks May 2 Jul 25 Jul 26 Jul 26 Aug 2 May 2 Jul 25 Jul 26 Jul 26 Aug 2
1 22 24 25 2.9 63 15 34 24 2.9 41
2 21 28 34 3.6 80 13 38 30 3.2 44
3 23 30 27 3.8 85 13 46 38 3.8 b8
4 22 31 24 3.8 93 13 45 26 3.7 58


Significance
Linear ns ** ns ** ** ns ** ns **
Quadratic ns ** ** s ns ns ns ns
Cubic ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns
Irrigations/
2 weeks Dec 12 Mar 4 Mar 5 Mar 5 Mar 7 Nov 12 Feb 4 Feb 5 Feb 5 Feb 6
1 14 18 50 3.9 39 24 54 32 3.8 52
2 14 21 66 4.4 51 26 65 46 4.4 61
3 14 22 55 4.2 49 27 65 31 4.2 59
4 14 21 26 4.0 48 29 70 37 4.4 60


Significance
Linear ns ** ** ns ns ns ** *
Quadratic ns ** ** ns ns ns ns *
Cubic ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ** ns









Table 2 (con't)


Irrigation/
2 weeks


Heigh
Initiation
Dec 12
10
11
11
10


Peperomia obtusifolia

It cm % Root
Termination coverage
Mar 4 Mar 5
20 11
20 8
20 10
19 6


Philodendron s. oxycardium


Top
grade
Mar 5
3.2
3.4
3.3
3.0


lop
wt.g
Mar 7
26
28
30
31


vine len. cm
Initiation Termination
May 2 Jul 25
14 35
14 38
14 39
15 45


Significance
Linear
Quadratic
Cubic
Irrigation
2 weeks


ns
ns
ns

Jun 19
7
6
7
6


ns
ns

Sep 11
15
15
17
18


Significance
Linear
Quadratic
Cubic


* ns
is ns
* ns


Sep 12
26
25
34
38


Sep 12
2.9
3.0
3.4
4.0


Sep 12
25
25
30
37


** ** **
nc ne **


SKRoot
coverage
Jul 26
12
14
12
16


lop
grade
Jul 26
2.8
3.1
3.2
3.3


lop
grade
Aug 2
30
34
35
38


ns
ns
ns

Jan 9
13
14
12
12


Oct 10
18
18
17
19


ns

ns
ns

Jan 9
4.1
4.1
4.2
4.2


Jan 6
44
45
42
48


*
ns
ns

Jan 9
46
45
46
48


"`


I


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