Group Title: AREC-A research report - Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-86-18
Title: Response of foliage plants to minimum temperatures and fertilizer levels
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065915/00001
 Material Information
Title: Response of foliage plants to minimum temperatures and fertilizer levels
Series Title: AREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Agricultural Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole and C.A. Conover.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065915
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70667722

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.-/6 Response of Foliage Plants to Minimum Temperatures and Fertilizer Levels

R. T. Poole and C. A. Conover -""== -
University of Florida, IFASi CentraI Science i
Agricultural Research and Education Center Apop~ibrary
AREC-Apopka Research Report RH'-86-18
OCT 1 4 1987

Heating costs continue to be an important factor irfluencing, ,..
profitability of foliage plant production, and research in this a'reda'is
high on the list of needs identified by the industry's-foiTage-pi-it- ---
research committee. In continuing research on energy usage, 6 different
genera of plants were grown during the winter of 1985-1986 to determine
their response to minimum temperatures and fertilizer levels. Codiaeum
variegatum 'Petra' (Croton), Hedera helix ('Glacier' Ivy), Peperomia
obtusifolia (Peperomia), Philodendron scandens oxycardium (Cordatum),
Radermachia sinica (China Doll) and Spathiphyllum 'Tasson' (Spathiphyllum)
were placed in 4 greenhouses December 27, 1985 with maximum light intensity
of 1500 ft-c and thermostats set at 55, 60, 65 or 70F. Plants were
fertilized at the recommended rate (X), 2X and 3X levels (Table 1). Plant
response data were taken March 5, 1986, and depending upon plant, included
height or vine length, top fresh weight, color grade and plant grade.
Color grade was rated 1-5 with 1 = light green and/or poor color and 5 =
dark green, and/or good color. Plant grade was also rated 1-5 with 1 =
poor quality plant and 5 = an excellent quality plant.

Plant response to minimum temperatures, varied (Table 2). Crotons
grew best at 65 minimum, while Glacier Ivy responded best to 60-65"F. The
other 4 plant species grew better as temperature increased. The greatest
increases for Peperomia, China Doll, Cordatum and Spathiphyllum were
between 60 and 65"F. Response to increasing fertilizer level was small,
indicating that recommended levels were adequate for these temperatures in
the winter. Fresh weight of Peperomia, color grade of Cordatum, color
grade of China Doll and Spathiphyllum increased as fertilizer levels were
increased. The only negative response to fertilizer increases was a slight
decrease in height for China Doll.

Soluble salts of the medium increased with an increase of fertilizer
(Table 3). Differences in soluble salt levels varied considerably. Pots
containing Ivy receiving the high fertilizer level had approximately twice
the soluble salts as pots receiving the low fertilizer rate, but pots
containing Peperomia receiving the high level had about 9 times the soluble
salt level of the lowest fertilizer rate. The small variation in plant
response to differing fertilizer levels and the large difference in soluble
salts level illustrates the wide range of soluble salts that will produce
good quality foliage plants, and caution must be observed when using
soluble salts as a guide for production of foliage plants.



Professor of Plant Physiology and Professor and Center Director,
respectively, Agricultural Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion
Road, Apopka, FL 32703.








As a guide to energy consumption, the period of time heaters operated
in each greenhouse (exactly similar units) was recorded (TaDle 4). By
comparing the operating time within each greenhouse maintained at different
temperatures, it is possible to estimate the savings in fuel to maintain
the different temperatures. For example, most foliage plant producers
maintain 60 to 65F as the minimum during winter months. Based on the
winter of 1985-1986 in Apopka, Florida, and a base temperature of 60F,
fuel usage would have been 78% greater to maintain 65F and 212% greater to
maintain 70F.

Summary: Data from this experiment indicate that a temperature range
of 60 to 65F would be adequate for the plants utilized in this research.
Raising the greenhouse air temperature from 60F to 70"F increased fuel
usage by 212%, which probably could not be justified by increased plant
growth for any plant tested. However, fuel usage increased only 78% from
60UF to 65"F and may be justified for Peperomia, Philodendron and
Spathiphyllum. Good growth occurred for Codiaeum, Hedera and Radermachia
at 600F, and this temperature also aids in energy conservation.

Based on this and previous research (1,2,3), Table 5 was developed as
a guide to selecting minimum temperatures for economical production of a
number of foliage plants.

Additional References

1. Chase, A. R. and R. T. Poole. 1985. Effects of temperature on growth
of Syngonium 'White Butterfly'. AREC-Apopka Research Report RH-85-2U.

2. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1981. Growth response of foliage
plants to night and water temperatures. HortScience 16(1):81,82.

3. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. 1982. Growth of foliage plants at
various night temperatures. AREC-Apopka Research Report RH-82-26.



Table 1. Recommended rates for foliage plants used in this test.


poundsz n/1000 gramsx 19-6-12/
Plant Ft -yr 6" pot/3 mos
Codiaeum variegatum 'Petra' 48 5.9
Hedera helix 'Glacier' 34 4.2
PeperomTa obtusifolia 28 3.3
Philodendron scandens oxycardium 34 4.2
Radermachia sinica NAY 4.2
Spatniphyllum 'Tasson' 34 4.2


zRecommended rates, AREC-A Research Report RH-84-7.

Not available.

XAmounts used in test for (X), recommended rates.








Table 2. Response of plants to various minimum temperatures and fertilizer levels.


Min. night
Temp, F
55

60

65

70

Linear

Quadratic

Cubic

Fertilizer
level


Croton 'Petra' 'Glacier' Ivy
Ht. Color Plant Total len.,cm Fresh wt Plant
(cm) grade grade 2 longest vines vines (g) grade
30 3.4- 3.4 67 30 3.3

30 4.2 3.9 84 40 3.7

33 4.4 4.2 77 36 3.8

32 3.7 3.7 75 30 3.6

NS NS NS NS NS NS

NS ** ** ** **

NS NS NS NS NS NS


Ht
(cm)
1"

17

20

22

**


Peperomia
Color Plant
grade grade
3.9 3.3

4.0 3.3

4.7 3.9

4.9 4.1

** **


** NS

NS NS


Recommended (X)

2X

3X

Linear

Quadratic


1 = light green and/or poor color, 5 = dark green and/or

Y1 = poor quality, nonsalable, 5 = excellent quality.

NS = Not significant, and ** equal significant at 5%(*)

3


good color.



or 1%(**).


Fresh
wt (g)
105

128

169

186

**

NS

NS


4.0

4.0

3.7

NS

NS


3.9

3.8

3.7

NS

NS


3.6

3.6

3.6

NS

NS


4.3

4.4

4.5

NS

NS


137

149

155

**

NS









Table 2 Con't. Response of plants to various minimum temperatures and ferti-lizer levels


'Cordatum' China Doll Spathiphyllum
Min. night Total len. cm, Color Plant Fresh Ht. Color Plant Ht. Color Plant
temp., F 2 longest vines grades gradeY wt,(g) (cm) grade grade (cm) grade grade


55

60

65

70


Linear

Quadratic

Cubic

Fertilizer
level
Recommended (X)

2X

3X

Linear

Quadratic


3.1 3.2 79 15

3.2 3.4 85 16

3.8 3.8 95 15

3.7 3.8 91 16

** ** NS

NS NS NS NS

NS NS NS NS


3.2 3.4

3.4 3.4

3.8 3.7

** NS

NS NS


4.0

4.2

4.2

4.4

*


2.8

3.3

3.3

3.5

**


26

25

29

28

**


17 4.0 3.3

15 4.3 3.3

14 4.3 3.1

** NS

NS NS NS


3.1 2.9

3.0 2.9

3.3 3.4

3.4 3.2

NS *

NS NS

NS NS


3.0

3.3

3.4

*
NS


Z1 = light green and/or poor


color, 5 = dark green and/or good color.


YI = poor quality, nonsalable, 5 = excellent quality.


NS = Not significant, and ** equal significant at 5% (*) or 1% (**).


58

60

73

76


n _


n _








Table 3. Micromhos/cm in leachate from pots containing various foliage plants.

Fertilizer Glacier
level Ivy Spathiphyllum Croton Cordatum Peperomia China Doll
Recommended (X) 2663 589 456 2201 22 2576
2X 5157 2277 2802 3410 761 5886
3X 5900 4543 5470 5843 1995 7768
Linear ** ** ** **
Quadratic NS NS NS NS NS NS


Table 4. Average hours/day gas-fired heaters were in operation
to heat similar 500 ft greenhouses. 1985-1986.

Minimum
Temp., F" Dec. Jan. Feb. March Apr. Total
55 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.3 0.0 3.2
60 4.0 1.7 0.9 0.6 0.1 7.3
65 6.4 3.2 1.3 1.2 0.7 12.8
70 6.8 6.3 3.9 3.2 2.3 22.5



Table 5. Suggested minimum temperatures (F) for foliage plant
production during the winter months.

Minimum temperature F'

Aglaonema (cultivars) 65
Aphelandra squarrosa 60
Brassaia actinophylla 60
Codiaeum (cultivars) 60
Dieffenbachia (cultivars) 65
Oracaena marginata 60
Epipremnum aureum 70
Hedera (Most cultivars) 60
Maranta leuconeura 60
Nephrolepis exaltata 65
Peperomia (cultivars) 65
Philodendron scandens oxycardium 65
Polyscias balfouriana 65
Radermachia sinica 60
Spathiphyllum (cultivars) 65
Syngonium podophyllum 60







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