Group Title: ARC-A research report - Agricultural Research Center-Apopka ; RH-78-5
Title: Weeds in leatherleaf fern
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065897/00001
 Material Information
Title: Weeds in leatherleaf fern
Series Title: ARC-A research report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Scudder, W. T ( Walter T. ), 1920-
Loadholtz, Larry L
Agricultural Research Center (Apopka, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Leatherleaf fern -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Weeds -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole, W.T. Scudder, and L.L. Loadholtz.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065897
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70631773

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







T7f^ Weeds in Leatherleaf Fern

R. T. Poole, W. T. Scudder and L. L. Loadholtz Li. ...
Agricultural Research Center Apopka iU. LD\
University of Florida
ARC-A Research Report RH-78-5 F I ? 13i

I.AS.- Univ. of Florida!
Weeds in leatherleaf fern (Rumohra adiantiformis (G. Forstr-)-GhMng-)-------

beds and aisles are a major problem for Florida fern growers. Many growers

hire labor to manually remove weeds from beds; an expensive practice. Aisles

are often cleared of weeds by hoeing or rototilling. Keeping aisles weed-

free prevents weeds with runners, such as dayflower and drymary, from in-

vading beds and reduces the source of seeds from grasses and other weeds.

Another practice which aids in preventing weed infested beds is cutting fern

frequently and lightly. Cutting fern infrequently and heavily opens the bed

to sprouting of seeds, establishment and growth of weeds. An excellent sup-

plement to these practices would be chemical weed control use of herbicides,
but unfortunately no herbicides are registered for this use. Hopefully, in-

formation presented here will be used to obtain registrations.

This article presents a summary of research which has been conducted to

determine effects of herbicides on leatherleaf fern and reports which herbi-

cides and usages have been found to be effective and safe. Herbicides, formu-

lations and manufacturers are listed in Table 1. Experiments on leatherleaf

fern were started at the Agricultural Research Center, Apopka, FL in 1970.

This paper summarizes 6 experiments which were conducted during 1970-78.

Expt. 1. Leatherleaf fern were grown in ground beds of Lakeland fine

sand amended with 2 inches of peat receiving 80% shade and were located in a

slatshed at ARC-Apopka. Simazine and DCPA were applied when fern were 8

months old and 3 more times at 8 month intervals. Fern were harvested 7

months after each herbicide application date.




-2-


Table 1. Names and manufacturers of herbicides evaluated.

Common name Trade name Formulation Manufacturer


alachlor
ametryne
atrazine
bromacil
chloramben
2,4-OB
dalapon
dalapon + 2,4-0
DCPA
dicamba
dicamba
dichlobenil
diuron
dinoseb + diesel oil
EPTC
glyphosate
linuron
linuron
methazole
metolachlor
metolachlor +
simazine
metribuzin
monuron
paraquat
prometon
prometon
simazine
simazine
trifluralin
trifluralin


Lasso
Evik
AAtrex
Hyvar X
Ami ben
Butoxone
Dowpon M
Dowpon M + Dacamine
Dacthal
Banvel
Banvel
Casoron
Karmex
Dow General
Eptam
Roundup
Lorox
Lorox
Probe
Dual
Dual +
Princep
Sencor
Telvar
Ortho Paraquat CL
Pramitol
Pramitol
Princep
Princep
Treflan
Treflan


E
W
W
W
E


WP
W'P + 2 E
W
S
G
G
W
E
G
S
W
G
G
E
E +
W
W
W
S
PS
E
G
W
E
G


Monsanto
Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy
DuPont
AmChem
Rhodia
Dow
Dow + Diamond
Diamond
Velsicol
Velsicol
Thompson-Hayward
DuPont
Dow
Stauffer
Monsanto
DuPont
DuPont
Velsicol
Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy

Chemagro
DuPont
Chevron
Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy
Ciba-Geigy
Elanco
Elanco


--




-3-


Simazine reduced yield of fern (Table 2), but gave acceptable weed

control. Although DCPA did not reduce yield, it did not give acceptable

weed control. The most numerous weeds were bittercress (Cardamine sp.),

watergrass (Cyperus compressus) and oxalis (Oxalis Florida).


Table 2. Expt. 1. Total number of leatherleaf fern harvested
7 months after each herbicide application date.

Herbicide Total no. Yield, % of
(formulation) ppa/ai fronds/plot control

DCPA (75 WP) 10 251 99

simazine (4G) 2 209 82

none 254 100



Expt. 2. Two year old leatherleaf fern were grown under the same cul-

tural conditions as those in Expt. 1. In September 1973, dicamba, linuron,

monuron, prometon and simazine were applied as a 12 inch wide band at 4 foot

intervals through a 4 foot wide bed. Fern tolerance and herbicidal lateral

movement were evaluated 2 and 4 months after herbicide application.

Dicamba, linuron and simazine had acceptable fern tolerance at 2 months

after treatment, but at 4 months linuron showed lateral movement and fern

tolerance was reduced (Table 3). Prometon and monuron severely damaged

fern, and both had considerable lateral movement.








Table 3. Expt. 2. Leatherleaf fern tolerance to selected herbicides and
herbicide lateral movement in fern beds.


Herbicide
(forumlation)

dicamba (5 G)
linuron (50 W)
monuron (80 W)
prometon (5 PS)
simazine (80 W)
ZFern tolerance rating
no injury.


Toleran
ppa/ai rating

2 8.2
10 8.2
10 3.5
20 7.5
10 8.5

ig on 0-10 scale:


2 mos 4 mos
Lateral Lateral
ice movement Tolerance movement
z (in.) rating (in.)

6 9.0 3
10 7.5 17
30 4.8 34
14 5.8 26
10 9.0 5

10 = complete tolerance of treatment,


Expt. 3. Well-established leatherleaf fern at a fernery in Deland, FL
grown in ground beds of Lakeland fine sand located in a shade house covered

with 73% polypropylene shade cloth. In October 1973, herbicides (Table 4)

were applied as a 12 inch wide band to 18 inch aisles between fern beds to

test the border effect. Fern tolerance and weed control were evaluated 6

weeks after herbicide application.

All fern tolerance ratings were acceptable (Table 4) and all herbicides

gave acceptable residual weed control except paraquat, dinoseb plus diesel

oil and metribuzin. Areas treated with these herbicides has some regrowth

of grasses. The most numerous weeds found were maidencane (Panicum hemitomen),

Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis) and heartleaf drymary (Drymaria cordata).

Expt. 4. Well-established leatherleaf fern were grown in ground beds of

Lakeland fine sand under natural oak shade at a fernery in Deland. In October
1973, herbicides (Table 4) were applied over the top of fern to determine fern

tolerance. Fern tolerance was evaluated 6 weeks after herbicide application.

Simazine, dichlobenil, ametryne, bromacil, dicamba 4E and 5G, alachlor

and 2,4-DB had acceptable fern tolerance ratings (Table 4). Prometon burned

40% of mature fronds and some new fronds. Mature fronds treated with diuron

had 50% burn, but new fronds were not damaged. Mature and new fronds treated








with dalapon were severely distorted. Mature fronds treated with glyphosate

had only slight burn, however, there was no regrowth of new fronds. Mature

fronds had 100% burn when sprayed with paraquat, but there was only slight

burn on new fronds. Seventy-five percent of the mature fronds were burned

with metribuzin, but new fronds were undamaged.

Expt. 5. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of

herbicides on yield of leatherleaf fern. Well-established fern were grown in

ground beds of Lakeland fine sand located in a shade house covered with

73% polypropylene shade cloth at ARC-Apopka. In April 1975, herbicides

(Table 5) were applied initially and again at 6 months over the top of fern.

Fern were harvested and number of fronds recorded 3 and 6 months after each

herbicide application. Plots had few weeds, thus no data on weed control

were recorded.

All treatments had acceptable fern yield except for dichlobenil (Table 5).

Repeated applications of dichlobenil burned mature fronds and retarded growth

of new fronds.

Expt. 6. In February 1978, metolachlor, simazine and metolachlor plus
simazins werE znrX1.ij r'i Thi.'iP lE r y Jin 7 flfldri ane a i n.rt r1r anr a"rj 'j- I-,-'
Fern were harvested and number of fronds and percent weed control were recorded

2 months after each herbicide application. Herbicides did not reduce yield

(Table 6).

SUMMARY: The best method of controlling weeds in leatherleaf fern is main-

tenance of vigorous growing fern. Healthy fern will retard the establishment

and growth of weeds. If weeds are present, prompt removal will reduce the

demand for labor at a later date. Aisles and surrounding areas should be

kept clear of weeds. At the present time, no herbicide is registered for

use on leatherleaf fern.






Table 4. Expt. 3 and 4. Leatherleaf fern tolerance to various herbicides
applied to aisles between fern beds (Expt. 3) or over the top of fern
in beds (Expt. 4).

Experiment 3 Experiment 4
Rate Tolerance Rate Tolerance
Herbicide ppa/ai rating ppa/ai rating

Check untreated -- 10 10
Check hand weeded 10 -- 10
alachlorx -- -- 4 10
ametryne (80 W) 10 10 2 9
bromacil (X) 8 10 1.6 7
2,4-DBx -- -- 0.5 9
dalapon (M) 10 10 2 3
dalapon (M) + 5 + 2 +
2,4-D (2 E) 1 10 0.4 5
dicamba (4 E) 4 9 0.5 7
dicamba (5 G) 4 10 0.5 7
dichlobenil (4 G). 10 10 2 7
dinoseb + 5 +
diesel oilY 10 gal 10 -- --
diuron (80 W) 10 10 2 4
glyphosate 3 9 0.5 6
metribuzin (50 W) 4 10 0.5 4
paraquat (CL) 2 10 0.5 1
prometon (25 E) 20 10 4 5
simazine (80 W) 10 10 2 10


ZFern tolerance rating on
ment, no injury.
YApplied in Expt. 2 only.
XApplied in Expt. 3 only.


0 10 scale:


10 = complete tolerance of treat-




Table Expt. 5. Number of
herbicide application.


leatherleaf fern fronds/ploe arrested at 3 pnd 6 months after initial and 6 month


Herbicide 3 month harvest
(formulation) ppa/ai No. fronds % control


Check hand weeded

dichlobenil (4 G)

EPTC (10 G)

linuron (10 G)

simazine (4 G)

methazole (5 G)

trifluralin (5 G)


Check hand weeded

dichlobenil (4 G)

EPTC (10 G)

linuron (10 G)

simazine (4 G)

methazole (5 G)

trifluralin (5 G)


155

116

166

145

134

131

140


100

75

107

94

86

85

90


100

49

94

90

89

106

78


6 month harvest
r Ro. fronds % control

Initial herbicide application
81 100

77 95

89 110

76 94

75 93

73 90

70 86
6 month herbicide application
117 100

79 68

110 94

108 92

111 95

108 92

108 92


Total % of
No. fronds control


236

193

255

221

209

204

210


199

119

187

182

184

195

172


100

82

108

94

89

86

89


100

60

94

91

92

98

86





-8-


Table 6. Expt. 6. Number of leatherleaf fern fronds/plot harvested
2 months after initial and 3 months herbicide application.

Total % of
Herbicide ppa/ai No. fronds Control

Initial herb. appl.
metolachlor (6E) 2 175 108
simazine (80W) 2 167 103
metolachlor + simazine 2 + 1 172 106
check hand weeded 162 100

3 mo. herb. appl.
metolachlor (6E) 2 189 107
simazine (80W) 2 199 112
metolachlor + simazine' 2 + 1 191 108
check hand weeded 177 100




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