Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-94-5
Title: Effects of production fertilization on damage during simulated shipping of Aechmea 'Friederike'
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065891/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effects of production fertilization on damage during simulated shipping of Aechmea 'Friederike'
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Steinkamp, K
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Central Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Bromeliaceae -- Transportation -- Diseases and injuries -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fertilization of plants   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover, R.T. Poole, and K. Steinkamp.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065891
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70627807

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida
















Effects of Production Fertilization on Damage During Simulated
Shipping of Aechmea 'Friederike'
Marston Sch,:-
C.A. Conover, R.T. Poole and K. Steinkamp1
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-94-5 SEP 3 o0 199

University of Florida
Long lasting flowers, colorful foliage and adaptability to indoor conditions make
bromeliads well suited for use in interiorscapes. Unfortunately, bromeliad foliage is sometimes
damaged during shipping and handling. Damage is usually observed as a structural breakdown
in tissue most often occurring near or at the arch in the leaf blade.

During previous research, Aechmea 'Friederike' plants were damaged during three days
spent in dark 65F coolers where relative humidity was 90% + 10%. Plants were also damaged
when watered just three hours before being sleeved, boxed and placed in 650F coolers for three
days; however, two other species tested, Aechmea fasciata and Aechmea fasciata 'Morgana',
were not damaged by the same simulated shipping treatments (Poole and Conover, 1992). In
another test, Aechmea 'Friederike' fertilized at rates of 7.7 or 10.4 g nitrogen (N)/15-cm pot/yr,
applied by means of a weekly 150 ml fertilizer solution, were not damaged during simulated
shipping treatments (Poole and Henley, 1992).

Experiment 1 was conducted to further study effects of fertilizer rate and handling during
shipping on growth and postharvest plant quality before and after simulated shipping.
Experiment 2 was performed to determine effects of fertilizer N:K ratio on postproduction plant
quality before and after simulated shipping.

Experiment 1 was initiated on June 26, 1992, when small Aechmea 'Friedericke' plantlets
were potted into 15-cm (6-in) pots using Fafard #4 growing medium (Fafard, Inc. 3723
Hogshead Rd., Apopka FL 32703). Plants were grown to salable size in a greenhouse where
maximum light intensity was 2000 ft-c and air temperatures ranged from 70 to 90F. Plants



'Professor of Environmental Horticulture and Center Director, Professor of Plant
Physiology, and Technical Assistant, respectively, Central Florida Research and Education
Center, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL, 32703.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Employment Opportunity Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin.
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE, HOME ECONOMICS, STATE OF FLORIDA, IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND BOARDS OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COOPERATING.


Central Florida Research
UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA and Education Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Research Report








were watered overhead when needed.


This was a 4 (nitrogen level) x 2 (shipping treatment) factorial experiment with five
replications per treatment. Plants received 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg N, 14 mg P and 56 mg K
in a 150 ml liquid fertilizer solution applied once a week (plants were fertilized at a rate of 5.2,
10.4, 15.6, or 20.8 g N, 0.73 g P and 2.9 g K/15-cm pot/yr). On January 26, 1993, plants
were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality,
salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality.

After grading, one half of the plants in each fertilizer treatment were placed in standard
2-ft long 6-in wide (at the bottom) paper plant sleeves, boxed and moved to a dark 65F cooler.
The remaining plants, neither sleeved nor boxed, were placed on the floor of the same cooler.
After plants had been in the cooler 24 hours, boxed and sleeved plants were unpacked. All
plants were then moved back to the greenhouse. Number of damaged leaves per plant was
counted on January 28, 1993.

In experiment 2, Aechmea 'Friedericke' were grown from small plantlets to salable size
plants using fertilizer with various ratios of N to K. On February 10, 1993, plantlets were
potted into 15-cm pots using Bacto Custom Blend growing medium (Michigan Peat Co., P.O.
Box 980129, Houston, TX 77098). Plants were fertilized with 150 ml of a fertilizer solution
once a week starting on March 1, 1993. Sixteen fertilizer treatments were tested (Table 3), with
6 replications per treatment.

Plant height, measured from growing medium to arch of highest leaf blade, was
determined on September 17, 1993. On September 20, plants were graded (using the same scale
as in experiment 1), then sleeved in paper plant sleeves, boxed and placed in 650F dark coolers
to simulate shipping conditions. On September 23, 1993, after three days in the simulated
shipping environment, plants were unpacked and placed back in the greenhouse. On September
27, 1993, plants were graded based on the same scale as described above, number of damaged
leaves was counted and damage was given a severity rating of 1 to 5 (1 = no damage, 2 = little
visible damage, still salable, 3 = damage noticeable, but plants still salable, 4 = damage
obvious, plants unsalable, 5 = damage severe).

Results

In experiment 1, plant grade decreased as fertilizer rate increased (Table 1). The lowest
fertilizer rate, 5.2 g N/15-cm/yr, produced the best quality plants. Even though number of
damaged leaves after simulated shipping was lower on plants fertilized at the low or high rates,
differences were not great enough to affect plant salability. Plants placed on the floor of the
cooler not sleeved and not boxed during simulated shipping had fewer damaged leaves compared
to sleeved and boxed plants, but again, not much difference was seen in commercial value of
the plants (Table 2).

In experiment 2, interaction of N:K fertilizer ratios slightly affected plant growth, quality









and amount of foliage damage after shipping. However, as in experiment 1, not much
difference was seen in commercial value of the plants when evaluated before and after simulated
shipping (Tables 3 and 4). Plants getting the least or most fertilizer were shortest, and lowest
quality plants were those getting fertilized at the highest N:K rate tested. Number of damaged
leaves and severity of damage after simulated shipping was least on plants getting the two higher
N levels combined with the 3.07 g K rate (Tables 5 and 6).

Conclusion

Overall results from these two tests and previous research suggest fertilizer rate and N:K
ratio probably only play a small part in damage occurring during shipment of Aechmea
'Friederike'. Results of these tests indicate best fertilizer rate for 'Friederike' would be in the
range of 4.0 to 5.0 g N and 3 g K/15-cm pot/yr. This N:K ratio is the same as the standard 3-
1-2 N:P:K formulation that we have recommended previously (Conover and Poole, 1990). We
continue to be concerned about the tissue collapse syndrome that occurs during shipping of
bromeliads and plan to continue our research efforts in this area.

References

Conover, C.A. and R.T. Poole. 1990. Light and fertilizer recommendations for production of
acclimatized potted foliage plants. Nursery Digest 24(10):34-36, 58-59.

Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1992. Reaction of three bromeliads to high humidity during
storage. Univ. of Fla. CFREC-Apopka Res. Rpt. RH-92-26.

Poole, R.T. and R.W. Henley. 1992. Response of bromeliads to fertilizer rate and shipping
environment. Univ. of Fla. CFREC-Apopka Res. Rpt. RH-92-22.








Table 1. Effects of production nitrogen fertilizer level on plant grade before simulated
shipping and on number of damaged leaves after simulated shipping (24 hours in a
650F cooler) on Aechmea 'Friedericke' (Experiment 1).
Fertilizer rate g/N/15-cm Plant grade before shipping Damaged leaves after
pot/yr shippingY
5.2 4.2 1.3
10.4 3.4 2.3
15.6 3.2 2.2
20.8 2.5 1.5
Significance
linear ** ns
quadratic ns **
cubic ns

zPlants were graded on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality,
salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality on January 26, 1993.
YNumber of damaged leaves were counted on January 28, 1993, one day after simulated
shipping treatments ended.
xns, *, **; Results nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05 or P = 0.01, respectively.


Table 2. Number of damaged leaves on Aechmea 'Friedericke' plants sleeved and boxed
during simulated shipping compared to number of damaged leaves on plants not
sleeved and boxed during simulated shipping treatment (Experiment 1).
Handling during simulated shipping Number of damaged leavesy
plants sleeved and boxed 2.2a
plants not sleeved or boxed 1.5b

zPlants were sleeved in paper sleeves immediately before simulated shipping began on
January 26, 1993. Sleeves were removed when plants were removed from coolers on
January 27, 1993.
YNumber of damaged leaves per plant was counted on January 28, 1993, one day after
simulated shipping ended.








Table 3. Height (cm) of Aechmea 'Friederike', affected by interaction of production
NH4N03 and KCL fertilization levels (Experiment 2).
KCL, g/15-cm pot/year
NH4NO3, g/15-cm
pot/yr 1.85 3.07 4.30 5.52
1.85 33.7 36.3 37.2 37.7
3.07 37.3 36.3 34.8 37.2
4.30 38.5 38.2 35.8 34.8
5.52 35.2 34.8 37.7 33.7

Interaction results significant at P = 0.0367.
zPlants were grown from rooted plantlets to salable size before height was measured on
September 17, 1993.


Table 4. Pre-shipment plant grade of Aechmea 'Friederike', affected by interaction of
production NH4NO3 and KCL fertilization levels (Experiment 2).
NH4NO3, g/15-cm KCL, g/15-cm pot/year
pot/yr 1.85 3.07 4.30 5.52

1.85 4.2 4.0 4.3 4.6
3.07 4.5 4.5 4.3 4.2
4.30 4.7 4.6 4.2 4.8
5.52 4.5 4.2 4.3 3.8

Interaction results significant at P = 0.0145.
TPlants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality, on September 20, 1993,
one hour before shipping treatments began.









Table 5. Number of leaves on Aechmea 'Friederike' damaged during simulated shipping
affected by interaction of NH4NO3 and KCL fertilization levels' (Experiment 2).
KCL, g/15-cm pot/year
NH4NO3, g/15-cm
pot/yr 1.85 3.07 4.30 5.52
1.85 1.8 1.7 0.7 0.3
3.07 0.7 1.7 1.0 0.8
4.30 ,1.7 0.2 1.0 0.7
5.52 0.3 0.2 0.8 2.2

Interaction results significant at P = 0.0227.
zNumber of damaged leaves per pot was determined on September 27, 1993, one week after
shipping treatments began, four days after plants were removed from coolers.


Table 6. Severity of damage occurring during simulated shipping on Aechmea 'Friederike'
affected by interaction of production NIH4NO3 and KCL fertilization levels
(Experiment 2).
KCL, g/15-cm pot/year
NIH4NO, g/15-cm
pot/yr 1.85 3.07 4.30 5.52

1.85 2.6 2.2 1.6 1.4
3.07 1.8 2.4 2.2 1.5
4.30 1.9 1.2 1.9 1.5
5.52 1.4 1.1 1.8 3.1

Interaction results significant at P = 0.0224.
zSeverity of damage was determined based on a scale of 1 = no damage, 2 = little visible
damage, still salable, 3 = damage noticeable but plants still salable, 4 = damage
obvious, plants unsalable, 5 = damage severe. Severity of damage was determined
on September 27, 1993, one week after shipping treatments began, four days after
plants were removed from coolers.


,.









* I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs