Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-90-8
Title: Effect of fertilizer formulation on blooming potential of 21 cultivars of African violets under interiorscape and greenhouse conditions
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065866/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of fertilizer formulation on blooming potential of 21 cultivars of African violets under interiorscape and greenhouse conditions
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 2, 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Steinkamp, K
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: African violets -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
African violets -- Effect of light on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Flowering of -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole, C.A. Conover, and K.G. Steinkamp.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065866
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70549747

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(eo


;" fn' A
SEffect of Fertilizer Formulation on Blooming Potential of 21 Cultivars
of African Violets Under Interiorscape and Greenhouse Conditions

R. T. Poole, C. A. Conover1 and K.G. Steinkamp2

University of Florida, IFAS
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-90-8

Saintpaulia ionantha spp. (African violets) are one of the most
popular flowering plants in America. Given proper care, African violets
will flower abundantly and continuously throughout the year.
Unfortunately, many of today' offices and interiorscape settings do not
provide the optimum light levels needed by most cultivars for maximum bloom
production.

Thousands of cultivars of African violets exist, and vary greatly in
their ability to bloom under interior light levels. Plants typically stop
flowering after one month under tintensities of 150 ft-c or less
because carbohydrate production i ~ fcient to provide for flower
initiation and deve ment. With ti ome cultivars acclimatize to lower
light levels and bloo dagnin. Iiteriorscapers typically circumvent low
light level problems with fiage Ap-nts by rehabilitating plants in
greenhouses for a time, albermuting tjme spent in the interiorscape with
time spent in the greenhoush',- ..

This experiment was conductor to (1)/ examine the blooming ability of
21 cultivars of African violets receiving 150 ft-c, 12 hours daily; (2) to
test the effect of a lowered ratio oifP and K, in comparison to N, in
fertilizer source on bloom production; and (3) determine rehabilitation
time when cultivars were moved from 150 ft-c to greenhouses with 1500 ft-c.

Twenty-one cultivars of mature, blooming African violets growing in 4
inch plastic pots were obtained from commercial growers. The cultivars
tested were assigned numbers after all recorded data was examined in order
to simplify discussion of results obtained from this experiment. Plants
(1) Mia, (2) Kimi, (3) 330, (4) Mary Anne, (5) 24B, (6) 128, (7) Bobbie and
(11) Angie, are popular commercial cultivars, while plants (8) Hickerson
#1, (9) Hickerson #7, (10) Hickerson #12, (12) Hickerson #9, (13) Hickerson
#10, (14) Hickerson #13, (15) Hickerson #2, (16) Hickerson #3, (17)
Hickerson #4, (18) Hickerson #5, (19) Hickerson #6, (20) Hickerson #8 and
(21) Hickerson #11 are less commonly known to the floriculture industry.
All cultivars tested are described in Table 2. Plants were fertilized with
either 1 gram 19-6-12 per pot every 3 months or 1.36 grams 14-14-14 per pot
every 3 months. More 14-14-14 was used to compensate for the lower
percentage of N in 14-14-14 compared to 19-6-12, so that all pots received
the same amount of N. All plants were placed in rooms simulating an
interiorscape environment. Light levels were maintained at 150 ft-c for 12
hours daily and temperatures ranged from 71F to 780F. Watering was
performed once per week.

'Professor, Plant Physiology and Center Director and Professor,
respectively, Central Florida Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion
Road, Apopka, FL 32703
t 2Technical Assistant.








After 3 months indoors, half of each cultivar was moved to greenhouses
with maximum light levels of 1500 ft-c and temperatures ranging from 650F
to 900F, with plants watered as needed. This was done to determine
rehabilitation potential of the different cultivars tested after 3 months
under 150 ft-c. The remaining plant material was maintained in the rooms.
Blooms per pot were counted once per month until experiment was terminated
on Dec 14.

Fertilizer source had no effect on bloom production with all cultivars
displaying steadily decreasing bloom production for 3 months after
placement in rooms. For cultivars 1 through 9, bloom count in rooms
leveled off after 3 months then held steady or slightly increased over time
(Table 1). These same cultivars made a more rapid recovery when placed in
the greenhouse. Cultivars 10 through 14 stopped, or almost stopped bloom
production in the rooms after 2 months, but showed signs of rehabilitation
after 2 months in the greenhouse. Of 21 cultivars tested, 7 (cultivars
numbered 15 through 21) showed no signs of bloom production after 2 months
in 150 ft-c rooms and displayed no signs of rehabilitation when placed back
in 1500 ft-c greenhouses for three months. Therefore, these 7 cultivars
are excluded from Table 1.

These results show that light intensity is critical for bloom
production of African violets, a high ratio of phosphorus and/or potassium
to nitrogen is not necessary, and cultivar selection is important.

Additional Reading

1. Anderson, H. 1984. The effects of temperature, frequency of watering,
composition of fertilizer and peat type on Saintpaulia. Tidsskrift
Plant. 88:183-191.

2. Conover, C. A. and R. T. Poole. 1981. Light acclimatization of
African violet. HortScience 16:92-93.

3. Milde, H. 1980. Saintpaulias, a comparison of slow-release
fertilizers. Vergleich von Langzeitdungung 80:486-488.

4. Poole, R. T. and C. A. Conover. Response of African violets to
fertilizer source and rate. HortScience 21:454-455.


-2-









Table 1. Average number of African violet blooms per pot in rooms and greenhouse.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Mia Kimi 330 Mary Anne 24B 128 Bobbie H-1 H-7 H-12 Angie H-9 H-10 H-13

Fertilizer" 7-27-89
19-6-12RY 5.2 12.0 10.7 5.5 3.8 0.3 1.7 18.5 24.0 21.2 5.2 10.2 13.7 5.5
14-14-14R 4.2 14.2 5.7 3.2 0.3 0.7 3.2 23.3 24.3 16.8 3.0 13.7 13.0 3.3
8-24-89
19-6-12R 0.3 0.3 0 3.2 0.3 1.7 4.8 3.3 0.8 0 0.8 0 0 0
14-14-14R 5.5 0.3 0.2 2.5 0.3 1.2 2.7 5.0 2.8 0 1.3 0 0.5 0
9-18-89
19-6-12R 3.0 0.3 0 3.6 0.5 3.8 5.3 2.7 0.2 0 0 0 0.2 0
14-14-14R 4.0 0 0.5 5.0 0.2 4.7 4.8 1.7 0 0 0.8 0 0 0
10-23-89x
19-6-12R 3.0 7.3 5.0 3.6 0.3 2.3 0 9.0 5.0 0.6 9.0 0 4.0 2.6
19-6-12GHw 7.0 1.6 3.6 10.0 0 3.0 10.6 9.5 0.6 0 8.0 0 1.6 0
14-14-14R 4.3 8.0 8.0 0 1.6 0 1.0 5.3 4.0 0 3.0 0 1.6 0
14-14-14GH 12.3 0 8.0 1.3 3.0 0.3 4.6 9.3 0 0 6.6 0 2.0 0
11-15-89
19-6-12R 5.6 3.0 4.0 2.0 1.3 4.6 5.0 9.3 4.3 3.0 2.3 0 4.0 0
19-6-12GH 11 9.6 9.6 16 17 16.6 14 12.6 1.6 0 21.6 0.6 2.3 0
14-14-14R 1.6 5.3 1.3 2.0 0 0 2.3 12 5.6 2.6 0 0 1.3 0
14-14-14GH 24.3 0.3 20.3 3.0 2.0 11 12.3 12.6 2.6 0 20 0 9.3 0
12-14-89
19-6-12R 3.3 3.0 1.0 6.3 3.0 5.0. 9 11.6 4.0 6.0 1.6 0 3.8 0
19-6-12GH 39.6 57.6 41.0 29.6 77.0 24.0 32.3 83.0 33.3 6.6 56 30.3 38 15.0
14-14-14R 4.6 2.3 3.3 5.3 2.6 0.6 0 5.0 4.0 3.6 0 0 1.6 0
14-14-14GH 32.0 4.0 46.6 18.0 59.6 28.3 32.6 75.6 15.0 1.0 49 5.6 32.3 4.6


zOsmocote 19-6-12 1 gram per pot applied 7-27-89 and 12-18-89.


Osmocote 14-14-14 1.36 grams per pot applied


7-27-89 and 12-18-89.
YR=rooms, 150 ft-c light.
XHalf of plant material moved to greenhouse on 9-22-89. Half of plant material remained in rooms.
"GH = greenhouse, 1500 ft-c light.






Table 2. Description of 21 cultivars of African violets tested June 27 December 14.


Growth habit Leaf shape Leaf color Flower color Flower size


1. Mia




2. Kimi


3. 330


4. Mary Ann


5. 24 B


6. 128


7. Bobbie


8. Hickerson's #1

9. Hickerson's #7

0. Hickerson's #12

1. Angie


upright


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


upright


horizontal

horizontal

horizontal

horizontal


almost oval


obovate


obovate


obovate


obovate


obovate


almost oval
scalloped

obovate

obovate

obovate

obovate


light pink


medium green
light green
circle near
petiole

medium green


dark green
red underside

dark green
red underside

medium green


dark green
red underside

medium green


dark green
red underside
dark green

medium dark
green
dark green
red underside


large single
bloom, ruffled


bicolor blue
and white

dark lavender


dark purple
white margin

bicolor blue
and white

dark pink to
red

dark blue


light blue

Deep blue-
violet
bi-color blue-
purple & white
dark red


medium single
bloom

large single
bloom, ruffled

large single
bloom, ruffled

semi-double bloom
ruffled

medium single
bloom

large single
bloom, ruffled

double blooms

double blooms

double blooms

large single
bloom, ruffled








Table 2. Cont'd.


12. Hickerson's #9


13. Hickerson's #10

14. Hickerson's #13

15. Hickerson's #2


16. Hickerson's #3


17. Hickerson's #4


18. Hickerson's #5

19. Hickerson's #6
20. Hickerson's #8


21. Hickerson's #11


upright


horizontal

horizontal

upright


horizontal


upright


horizontal

horizontal
horizontal


upright


almost oval
slightly
cupped
obovate

obovate

almost oval
crinkled
and cupped
obovate


almost oval,
scalloped,
slightly
cupped
obovate

obovate
obovate


almost oval,
very
scalloped,
cupped


medium green,
olive centers

dark green
red underside
very dark
green
medium green
olive circle
near petiole
variegated
white & green
red underside
dark green


medium green

dark green
very dark
green, red
underside
medium to
dark green


white with
purple margin


violet


dark pink-
purple ruffled
light, pale
pink

medium pink-
purple


dark pink-
purple


dark pink-
purple
true violet
dark pink-
purple

white with
pink-purple
margin


single bloom


large single
bloom
single bloom
ruffled
single blooms


double blooms
frilled

single blooms
very ruffled


double blooms

single blooms
small single
blooms

single bloom
very frilled









cultivars of African violets tested June 27 December 14.


Growth habit

upright


Kimi


330


Mary Ann


24 B


128


Bobbie


Hickerson's #1

Hickerson's #7

Hickerson's #12

Angie


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


horizontal


upright


horizontal

horizontal

horizontal

horizontal


1. Mia


Leaf shape

almost ova




obovate


obovate


obovate


obovate


obovate


almost ova
scalloped

obovate

obovate

obovate

obovate


0


Leaf color

il medium green
light green
circle near
petiole

medium green


dark green
red underside

dark green
red underside

medium green


dark green
red underside

1 medium green


dark green
red underside
dark green

medium dark
green
dark green
red underside


Flower color

light pink




bicolor blue
and white

dark lavender


dark purple
white margin

bicolor blue
and white

dark pink to
red

dark blue


light blue

Deep blue-
violet
bi-color blue-
purple & white
dark red


Flower size

large single
bloom, ruffled



medium single
bloom

large single
bloom, ruffled

large single
bloom, ruffled

semi-double bloom
ruffled

medium single
bloom

large single
bloom, ruffled

double blooms

double blooms

double blooms

large single
bloom, ruffled


Table 2. Description of 21









Table 2. Cont'd.


12. Hickerson's #9


13. Hickerson's #10

14. Hickerson's #13

15. Hickerson's #2


16. Hickerson's #3


17. Hickerson's #4



18. Hickerson's #5

19. Hickerson's #6
20. Hickerson's #8


21. Hickerson's #11


upright


horizontal

horizontal

upright


horizontal


upright



horizontal

horizontal
horizontal


upright


almost oval
slightly
cupped
obovate


obovate


almost oval
crinkled
and cupped
obovate


almost oval,
scalloped,
slightly
cupped
obovate


obovate
obovate


almost oval,
very
scalloped,
cupped


medium green,
olive centers

dark green
red underside
very dark
green
medium green
olive circle
near petiole
variegated
white & green
red underside
dark green



medium green


dark green
very dark
green, red
underside
medium to
dark green


white with
purple margin


violet


dark pink-
purple ruffled
light, pale
pink

medium pink-
purple

dark pink-
purple


dark pink-
purple
true violet
dark pink-
purple

white with
pink-purple
margin


single bloom


large single
bloom
single bloom
ruffled
single blooms


double blooms
frilled

single blooms
very ruffled


double blooms

single blooms
small single
blooms

single bloom
very frilled






S




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