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Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - University of Florida Central Florida Research and Education Center ; RH-90-10
Title: A review of literature concerning the use of growth retardants on tropical foliage plants
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065864/00001
 Material Information
Title: A review of literature concerning the use of growth retardants on tropical foliage plants
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Henny, R. J
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Growth regulators   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 7-8).
Statement of Responsibility: R.J. Henny.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065864
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70548991

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




l/0



A Review of Literature Concerning the Use of Growth Retardants on
Tropical Foliage Plants

R.J. Henny ,1 2 c
University of Florida, IFAS
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report, RH-90-10
Introduction: Use of growth retardants in production of tropical ornamental
foliage plants is not a routine practice, however, interest in potential
benefits is increasing as growers look for ways to improve their products.

The purpose of this report is to list and summarize the published
literature dealing with growth retardant work on tropical foliage plants. It is
intended only as a guide for anyone considering treatment of a specific plant or
group of plants.

Several factors influence the effectiveness of growth retardants including
cultivar, method of application, time of year, soil mix and general growing
conditions. These factors were recently reviewed by Mansour and Poole (15).

Potential users of growth retardants should be aware that new chemicals
such as Bonzi and Sumagic are very active at low application rates;
subsequently there is little margin for error during application or results may
be unpredictable. Trials on a small number of plants should be performed before
application to an entire crop, even when results presented in Table 1 meet
desired objectives since the research was conducted under conditions different
than your own. In some cases results from different reports using the same
chemical, applied in the same manner, on the same plant, produced different
degrees of response. This is an excellent reminder that caution must be
exercised to reduce the possibility of crop loss or prolonged production time
due to excessive chemical use.

Table 1. A current summary of published literature regarding effects of growth
retardants on ornamental tropical foliage plants.

Plant Growth Method of Amount Degree of ref
name retardant application applied response1

Aglaonema modestum A-Rest spray 10-200 ppm none 4
A-Rest drench 0.5-5 ppm none 4
B-Nine spray 1000-10000 ppm none 4
Cycocel spray 500-3000 ppm none 4
Cycocel drench 500-3000 ppm none 4
Alternanthera amoena A-Rest spray 0.6-5 mg/ft2 high 8
B-Nine spray 945 mg/ft2 moderate 8




1Professor of Plant Genetics, Central Florida Research and Education Center
- Apopka, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703











Aphelandra squarrosa





Ardisia crispa



Brassaia actinophylla


Cissus rhombifolia







Codiaeum variegatum


Cordyline terminalis

Cyanotis kewensis


A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel
Cycocel

A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
B-Nine
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Sumagic

A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel

Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi
Sumagic
Sumagic

A-Rest

A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel


spray
drench
spray
spray
drench

spray
spray
spray

spray
spray
spray
drench
drench
spray
spray
spray
drench
spray
drench
drench
drench
spray
spray
drench

spray
drench
spray
spray
drench
spray
drench

spray
drench
drench
spray
drench

spray


spray
spray
spray


10-200
0.5-5
1000-10000
500-3000
500-3000

50
10000
3000


ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm

ppm
ppm
ppm


50 ppms
5 mg/ft
113 ppm
0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
10000 ppm
10000 ppmq
945mg/ft
0.06-0.25mg/6"pot
62.5-125 ppm
0.75-4 mg/6"pot
0.2-2mg/16cm pot
0.5mg/6"pot
3000 ppm
3000 ppm
0.2-1mg/16cm pot

10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
1000-10000 ppm
62.5-125 ppm
0.75-4mg/6"pot
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm

12-75 ppm
.05-.4mg/6.5"pot
0.5mg/6"pot
12-75 ppm
.05-.4mg/16cm pot

5 mg/ft2


50 ppm
10000 ppm
3000 ppm


+
+
none
none
none


none
slight
none


high
high
slight
none
none
none
slight
moderate
none
slight
slight
high
slight
moderate
none
high

+
+
none
slight
slight
none
none

high
high
moderate
high
high


moderate 8


moderate
moderate
high










Dieffenbachia maculata










Dracaena marginata

Epipremnum aureum












Fatshedera

Ficus benjamin










Ficus elastica


Ficus lyrata


Ficus retusa


A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Sumagic

Bonzi

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
B-Nine
B-Nine
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Cycocel

A-Rest

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest

Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi
Bonzi

A-Rest
Bonzi
Bonzi


Bonzi
Bonzi


A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel
Bonzi


spray
drench
drench
drench
spray
drench
drench
spray
drench
drench

drench

spray
drench
spray
drench
spray
spray
spray
spray
drench
spray
spray
drench


10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
22-0.88mg/ll"pot
0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
1000-1000 ppm
0.5mg/6"pot
0.06-0.25mg/6"pot
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
0.2-0.6mg/6"pot

0.5mg/6" pot

(3x)100 ppm
.25-0.75mg/6" pot
10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
5.0 mg/ft
1000-10000 ppm
10000 ppm
945mg/ft
0.5mg/6"pot
3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm


drench 0.25-1.0mg/6"pot


drench
drench
spray
drench
drench +
spray
spray
drench
drench
drench

drench
spray
drench


spray
drench

spray
drench
spray
spray
drench


.5-1.5mg/8"pot
10mg/10"pot
132 ppm
0.5-1.0mg/8"pot
1. Omg/6"pot
200 ppm
500-2000 ppm
5-10mg/10"pot
.125-8mg/4"pot
0.5mg/6"pot

1mg/6"pot
62.5-100 ppm
.75-4mg/6"pot

62.5-125 ppm
.75-4mg/6"pot

10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
1000-10000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
.75-4mg/6"pot


none
none
moderate
slight
none
moderate
moderate
none
none
moderate

slight

high
moderate
+
+
high
none
high
slight
slight
slight
none
none

high

moderate
slight
slight
moderate

moderate
high
high
high
high

none
slight
slight


moderate 10
high 10


+
+
none
none
slight











Ficus lyrata


Ficus retusa





Gynura aurantiaca









Hedera helix


Hoya carnosa


Monstera deliciosa





Nephrolepis exaltata

Peperomia caparata

Peperomia crassifolia


Peperomia metallica


Peperomia
griseoargentea


Bonzi
Bonzi

A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel
Cycocel

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
B-Nine
Cycocel
Cycocel
Cycocel

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel


Bonzi
Bonzi


A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel
Cycocel

Bonzi

A-Rest

A-Rest
Cycocel

A-Rest
Cycocel


A-Rest


spray
drench

spray
drench
spray
spray
drench

spray
spray
spray
drench
spray
spray
spray
drench
spray

drench
spray
drench
spray
drench
spray
drench

spray
drench

spray
drench
spray
spray
drench

drench


62.5-125 ppm
.75-4mg/6"pot


10-200
0.5-5
1000-10000
500-3000
500-3000


ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm


50 ppm
5 mg/ft
10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
10000 ppm
1000-10000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
3000 ppm

.25-1.0/6"pot
10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
1000-10000 ppm
0.5mg/6"pot
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm

62.5-125 ppm
.75-4mg/6"pot


10-200
0.5-5
1000-10000
500-3000
500-3000


ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm
ppm


0.5mg/6"pot


drench 0.12-2.0mg/6"pot

drench 0.12-2.0mg/6"pot
drench 0.5-2.0gm/6"pot

drench 0.12-1.0mg/6"pot
drench 0.5-2.0gm/6"pot


drench 0.12-2.Omg/6"pot


moderate


moderate
high

+
none
none
none
none

high
moderate
+
+
none
+
+
+
none

none
+
+
+
slight
none
none


slight 10
slight 10


+
+
none
none
none

none


moderate 21


high
none


moderate
slight


high











Peperomia obtusifolia


Philodendron scandens
oxycardium


Pilea cadierei








Pilea depressa




Pilea involucrata



Pilea microphylla



Pilea serpyllacea


A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Sumagic

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
B-Nine
B-Nine
B-Nine
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Cycocel
Cycocel
Sumagic

A-Rest
A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel

A-Rest
A-Rest
Bonzi
Cycocel

A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel

A-Rest
B-Nine
Cycocel

A-Rest
Cycocel


spray
drench
drench
drench
spray
drench
drench
spray
drench
drench


10-200 ppm
0.5-5 ppm
.25-1mg/6"pot
0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
1000-10000 ppm
0.5mg/6"pot
0.06-0.25mg/6"pot
500-3000 ppm
500-3000 ppm
0.2-0.6mg/6"pot


spray 10-200 ppm
drench 0.5-5 ppm
spray 50 pp l
spray 5mg/ft
drench 0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
drench 0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
spray 2500-10000 ppm
spray 10000 ppm
spray(2x) 10000 ppm
spray 1000-10000 ppm
drench 0.06-0.25mg/6"pot
spray 500-3000 ppm
drench 500-3000 ppm
spray 3000 ppm
spray 3000 ppm
drench 0.2-0.8mg/6"pot


spray
drench
spray
spray
spray
drench
drench
spray

drench
drench
drench
drench

spray
spray
spray

spray
spray
spray

drench
drench


5mg/ft2
0.12-2.0mg/6"pot
50 ppm
10000 ppm
25-400 ppm
0.12-2.0mg/5"pot
0.5-2.0gm/6"pot
3000 ppm

0.25-1.Omg/6"pot
0.25-0.75mg/6"pot
0.5mg/6"pot
0.5-2.0gm/6"pot

50 ppm
10000 ppm
3000 ppm

50 ppm
10000 ppm
3000 ppm

0.12-2.0mg/6"pot
0.5-2.0gm/6"pot


+
+
moderate
moderate
none
moderate
moderate
none
none
high

+
+
slight
moderate
moderate
none
moderate
slight
moderate
none
none
none
none
slight
slight
none

high
moderate
moderate
moderate
moderate
moderate
slight
high

moderate
slight
high
high

moderate
moderate
slight

slight
slight
moderate


high 21
moderate 21











Plectranthus australis


Bonzi
Sumagic


Plectranthus nummularius Bonzi


Saxifraga stolonifera

Saxifraga sarmentosa

Sedum anglicum


Syngonium podophyllum


Bonzi

A-Rest

A-Rest
Cycocel

A-Rest
A-Rest
B-Nine
B-Nine
Bonzi
Bonzi
Cycocel
Cycocel
Sumagic


Tradescantia fluminensis A-Rest


Zebrina pendula


A-Rest
B-Nine
Bonzi


drench 0. 2-lmg/6"pot high


drench
drench

drench

drench

drench

drench
drench

spray
spray
spray
spray
drench
drench
spray
spray
drench

drench

spray
spray
drench


0.2-1mg/6"pot
0.02-0.8mg/6"pot

0.5mg/6"pot

0.5mg/6"pot

0.12-2.0mg/6"pot

0.25-1.0mg/6"pot
0.5-2.0gm/6"pot

50 ppm
5mg/ft
10000 ppm
10000 ppm
0.5mg/6"pot
0.1-1.0mg/6"pot
3000 ppm
3000 ppm
0.02-0.8mg/6"pot

0.25-1.0mg/6"pot

5mg/ft2
945mg/ft2
0.5mg/6"pot


high
high

high


moderate 7

moderate 21

moderate 21
moderate 21


moderate
moderate
none
slight
slight
moderate
none
slight
moderate

high

high
moderate
high


1A rating scale developed by the author to standardize published data where
slight = 1-10%; moderate 11-50% and high = 51% or greater growth reduction of
treated plants versus untreated plants. The + sign indicates that a positive
response to the growth retardants was reported but no numerical data presented
in the original paper.








Literature Cited

1. Barrett, J.E. and T.A. Nell. 1983. Ficus benjamin response to growth
retardants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 96:264-265.

2. Blessington, T.M. and C.B. Link. 1980. Influence of Ancymidol on four
species of tropical foliage plants under different artificial light
intensities. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:502-504.

3. Blessington, T.M., A.A. Srithavaj, and C.C. Singletary. 1980.
Influence of watering methods and Ancymidol on two tropical foliage
species held in a simulated interior environment. J. Amer. Soc. Hort.
Sci. 105:785-787.

4. Cathey, H.M. 1975. Comparative plant growth-retarding activities of
ancymidol with ACPC, phosfon, chlormequat, and SADH on ornamental plant
species. HortScience 10:204-216.

5. Collins, Pamela C. and Thomas M. Blessington. 1981. Influence of
production light and ancymidol on foliage plants. HortScience
16(2):215-216.

6. Cox, Douglas A. and Flora F. Whittington. 1988. Effects of
paclobutrazol on height and performance of aluminum plant in a
simulated interior environment. HortScience 23(1):222.

7. Davis, Tim D. and Narendra Sankhla. 1987. When you don't want it to
grow. Interior Landscape Industry 4(8):44-47.

8. Frank, D.F. and A. Donnan, Jr. 1975. Influence of A-rest on tropical
foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 88:531-534.

9. Henley, R.W. and R.T. Poole. 1974. Influence of growth regulators on
tropical foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 87:435-438.

10. Hickman, Gary W. 1986. A new growth regulator for greenhouse plants.
California Agriculture 40(11):16-17.

11. Johnson, C.R. 1979. Influence of growth regulators on Ficus benjamin
L. Nurserymen's Digest 13(5):88.

12. Johnson, C.R. and J.N. Joiner. 1978. Influence of ancymidol and
ethephon on growth of Ficus benjamin L. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
91:204-205.

13. Joiner, J.N., R.T. Poole, C.R. Johnson, and C. Ramcharam. 1979.
Effects of ancymidol and N,P,K on growth and appearance of
Dieffenbachia maculata 'Baraquiniana'. HortScience 13:182-184.

14. Lecain, D.R., K.A. Schekel and R.L. Wample. 1986. Growth-retarding
effects of paclobutrazol on weeping fig. HortScience 21(5):1150-1152.

15. Mansour, Hazem and R.T. Poole. 1987. Growth retardants how can they
help? Foliage Digest 10(10):1-3.








16. Mansour, H.A. and R.T. Poole. 1987. Trials with growth retardants on
ornamental foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 100:375-378.

17. McConnell, D.B. and R.T. Poole. 1972. Vegetative growth modification
of Scindapsus aureus by ancymidol and PBA. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
85:387-389.

18. Peterson, N.C. and T.M. Blessington. 1982. Postharvest effects of
ancymidol on Ficus benjamin L. HortScience 17(4):612-614.

19. Poole, R.T. 1970. Influence of growth regulators on stem elongation
and rooting response of foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
83:497-502.

20. Sanderson, Kenneth C. and C. Martin Willis, Jr. 1984. "But they're
growing too much!" Interiorscape 3(5):76-77.

21. Vienravee, Kanok and Marlin N. Rogers. 1974. Growth control of
terrarium plants with ancymidol. 1974. Florists' Review
155(4008):24-25, 67-71.

22. Wang, Y.T. 1987a. Influence of ancymidol on growth and interior
quality of Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly'. HortScience
22(5):959-960.

23. Wang, Y.T. and T.M. Blessington. 1990. Growth of four tropical
foliage species treated with paclobutrazol or uniconazole. HortScience
25(2):202-204.




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