Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-92-15
Title: Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' cuttings affected by storage duration and air temperature
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065842/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' cuttings affected by storage duration and air temperature
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Dracaena -- Storage   ( lcsh )
Dracaena -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Storage   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065842
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70254785

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"RoHL

Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana' Cuttings Affected by Storage Duration and Air
Temperature ,. Sc"

C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole1
S301994
University of Florida, IFAS,
Central Florida Research and Education Center-ApopkaJniversity of Florida
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-92-15


Dracaena fragrans Ker. 'Massangeana' (corn plant) is propagated from semi-
hardwood stem sections of various lengths, referred to as cane. Cane are usually placed
directly into containers and watered intermittently until rooted. Under optimum conditions,
good quality, salable plants are produced in 5 to 6 months.

Much of the D. 'Massangeana' cane propagated in the U.S. and Europe is imported
from the Caribbean Basin region, where it is usually field grown. Effects of shipping
duration and temperature on Dracaena surculosa 'Florida Beauty', D. marginata, D.
sanderana and other foliage plants propagated by vegetative cuttings shipped from the same
geographical area have already been determined (2, 3) but little research has been published
on propagation of Basin grown 'Massangeana' cane (1).

Propagation of 'Massangeana' cane frequently yields inconsistent results, especially
for 1 ft cane sections. The most common problems are failure to root, slow root growth,
and lack of shoot development. In one test, removal of a small piece of the basal end of the
cane and soaking cane in water before propagation accelerated initial bud break, but effects
on root growth were not determined (4). A recent experiment examined effects of storage
duration and temperature on plants stored during winter and propagated in the spring (1).
The following experiments were initiated to determine influence of storage air temperature
and duration on root and shoot growth of 'Massangeana' cane shipped from the Caribbean
Basin region to central Florida during summer.

Materials and Methods

Cane utilized in these experiments was harvested from stock plants field grown in a
nursery located near Siquirres, Costa Rica (Matas, De Costa Rica S.A., Siquirres, Costa
Rica). Healthy stock plants were produced in the native clay soil irrigated only by natural
rainfall and fertilized at relatively low levels (100 lbs N/A/yr from a 1-1-1 formulation).


'Center Director and Professor of Environmental Horticulture, and Professor of Plant
Physiology, respectively, University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education
Center-Apopka, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, FL 32703.








Cane harvested from stock plants was stacked lengthwise onto pallets and moved into the
processing facility, where it was cut into 1 or 3 ft lengths with a circular table saw. Cane
tops were dipped into a mixture of portland cement and sealing wax to prevent drying and
splitting during shipping. Basal ends of canes were submerged for approximately 2 seconds
in a 60% alcohol:40% water solution containing 10,000 ppm (IBA). Cane were placed
upright into plastic lined crates with 1 inch moss covering bottoms to maintain high humidity
during shipping.

Cane were shipped from Puerto Limon to Miami, Florida in shipping containers
loaded on cargo vessels, then transferred to refrigerated trucks and delivered to University of
Florida, IFAS, CFREC, Apopka, Florida. Air temperatures in containers and trucks were
maintained at 620F.

Experiments 1 and 2, initiated on 30 July 1991, were the same except for length of
cane sections propagated. One ft cane was propagated in experiment 1 and 3 ft cane was
utilized for experiment 2. Immediately after arrival at CFREC-Apopka, a control group of
cane sections was placed on a greenhouse propagation bench. All remaining cane were
placed in dark coolers maintained at 60, 70, 80 or 90*F for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks. Storage
coolers were airtight, so that air exchange and light exposure occurred only briefly when
doors were opened every two weeks for scheduled cane removal. Stored cane were stacked
horizontally in the coolers in bundles containing 8 canes held together with masking tape.
Cane were grouped according to treatment with all 8 replications of a single treatment taped
together to make a bundle.

Treatments were removed from temperature controlled storage at two week intervals.
Cane stored 2 weeks were removed 13 August, cane stored 4 weeks, 27 August, cane stored
6 weeks, 10 September and cane stored 8 weeks were removed 23 September 1991. After
storage, cane sections were moved to the same propagation area where the control group was
being maintained. All cane were rooted in cypress shavings on a greenhouse propagation
bench where temperatures ranged from 65 to 900F and maximum light intensity at bench
level was 1500 ft-c. An intermittent mist system, which supplied cane with 5 minutes of
mist, at 30 minute intervals, was activated daily from 12:00 noon until 4:00 PM.

Root grade, number of roots greater than 1 inch long, number of shoots and shoot
length were recorded after cane were maintained in the propagation area for 16 weeks. All
data measurements and evaluations were determined on 20 November for the control group,
on 4 December for cane stored 2 weeks, on 18 December for cane stored 4 weeks, on 2
January 1992 for cane stored 6 weeks and on 15 January for cane stored 8 weeks.

Results and Discussion

Results were similar for both 1 and 3 ft cane. Cane produced adequate shoot and root
growth when not stored or stored for 2 weeks (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4). Shoot growth was
suppressed when cane were stored for more than 2 weeks at 80 or 900F and also when cane








were stored for more than 4 weeks (Tables 1 and 3). Cane had fewer roots when stored at
90F (Tables 2 and 4). Root growth was slower and cane received lower root grades when
stored for more than 6 weeks at any of the 4 storage air temperatures tested.

These results agree with some of the conclusions of the experiment in which cane
were propagated in spring (1). Best storage temperature in both experiments was 70*F and
shoots grew progressively slower as storage time increased. Root growth and grade was
relatively unaffected at temperatures below 70*F but suppressed in this experiment, along
with shoot growth, when storage air temperature was 900F.

Shoot growth on cane in this experiment, propagated during the short days of winter,
dropped off much more dramatically as storage time increased, compared to shoot growth on
cane, propagated during earlier research, in the summer months (1). Cane coming out of
storage after 6 or 8 weeks was propagated during the time of year when the shortest day
length and coolest temperatures prevail. The combined effects of these two uncontrolled
variables (daylength and propagation air temperature) could have caused the more severe
drop in propagation performance observed in this test.

One ft cane can be successfully stored, in air temperatures of 60 to 900F, for up to
two weeks. Based on this research, storage of 1 ft cane beyond 2 weeks is not
recommended. Three foot cane were more tolerant of shipping conditions, with number of
roots and root grade after propagation good when cane were stored up to 3 weeks in 60, 70
or 80F air temperature. Number of roots and root grade were lower for 3 ft cane stored
longer than 2 weeks at 900 F.

Literature Cited

1. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1991. Effects of cane storage time and temperature
on growth of Dracaena fragrans 'Massangeana'. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
104:331-333.

2. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1990. Storage of dracaena cuttings. Proc.
Interamer. Soc. Trop. Hort. 34:7-10.

3. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1988. Storage of philodendron and pothos cuttings.
Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 101:313-315.

4. Poole, R.T., C.A. Conover and W.E. Waters. 1974. Bud-break in canes of
Dracaenafragrans Ker. cv Massangeana. HortScience 9(6):540-541.








Table 1.


Interaction of storage duration and storage air temperature on total shoot
length (in) and number of shoots greater than 1 inch long on 1 ft sections of
Dracaenafragrans 'Massangeana' cane placed in coolers 30 July 1991. Cane
were removed from coolers and propagated under mist after storage treatment
was completed.


Storage duration
Storage temp (OF) 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks 8 wks
Total shoot length (in)
60 13 10 4 0
70 14 9 3 0
80 12 5 0 0
90 14 1 0 0


Number of shoots greater than 1 inch
60 2.0 2.4 2.0 0.0
70 2.4 2.2 1.4 0.0
80 2.4 2.0 0.2 0.0
90 2.4 0.2 0.0 0.0

zResults for total shoot length and number of shoots greater than 1 inch significant at P =
0.001.
Control group data: Total shoot length 17 in. Number of shoots 2.2.








Table 2.


Interaction of storage duration and storage air temperature on number of roots
greater than 1 inch and root grade on 1 ft sections Dracaena fragrans
'Massangeana' cane placed in coolers 30 July 1991. Cane were removed from
coolers and propagated under mist after storage treatment was completed.


Storage duration
Storage temp (F) 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks 8 wks
Number of roots greater than 1 inch
60 5 5 9 4
70 4 7 9 3
80 6 6 5 9
90 5 4 1 0


Root gradey
60 4.8 4.6 5.0 3.8
70 4.7 5.0 5.0 3.1
80 4.6 4.9 4.3 4.1
90 4.7 3.1 1.8 1.0

'Results for number of roots greater than 1 inch and root grade significant at P = 0.001.
YRoot grade was determined based on a scale of 1 = little root system or growth, 3 =
average root system development and growth and 5 = excellent root system development
and growth.
Control group data: Number of roots greater than 1 inch 16. Root grade 4.8.








Table 3.


Interaction of storage duration and storage air temperature on total shoot
length (in) and number of shoots greater than 1 inch long on 3 ft sections of
Dracaenafragrans 'Massangeana' cane placed in coolers 30 July 1991. Cane
was removed from coolers and propagated under mist after storage treatment
was completed.


Storage duration
Storage temp (F) 2 wks 4 wks 6 wks 8 wks
Total shoot length (in)
60 19 6 0 0
70 18 7 3 0
80 16 9 0 0
90 10 1 0 0


Number of shoots greater than 1 inch
60 2.4 1.8 0.0 0.0
70 2.2 2.0 1.2 0.0
80 2.0 2.6 0.0 0.0
90 1.8 0.6 0.0 0.0

zResults for total shoot length and number of shoots greater than 1 inch significant at P =
0.001.
Control group data: Total shoot length 31.4 in. Number of shoots 2.8.








Table 4.


Interaction of storage duration and storage air temperature on number of roots
greater than 1 inch and root grade on 3 ft sections of Dracaena fragrans
'Massangeana' cane placed in coolers 30 July 1991. Cane were removed from
coolers and propagated under mist after storage treatment was completed.


Storage duration


Storage temp (F)


2 wks


4 wks


6 wks


8 wks


Number of roots greater than 1 inch


-"'o- o. o ........ .. .............. .................................... .... .. ,o.................


Root gradey
0 5.0 5.0 4.6 4.7
70 5.0 5.0 4.5 4.8
80 5.0 4.9 3.4 4.1
90 4.9 2.8 1.4 1.3

zResults for number of roots greater than 1 inch and root grade significant at P = 0.001.
YRoot grade was determined based on a scale of 1 = little root system or growth, 3 =
average root system development and growth and 5 = excellent root system development
and growth.
Control group data: Number of roots greater than 1 inch 26.8. Root grade 5.0.





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