Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-92-14
Title: Chlorosis of Liriope muscari foliage effected by medium and fertilization
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065841/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chlorosis of Liriope muscari foliage effected by medium and fertilization
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, IFAS, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Liliaceae -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Chlorosis (Plants)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065841
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70246096

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Chlorosis of Liriope muscari Foliage Effected by Medium and Fertilization

C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole' Sci'

University of Florida, IFAS,
Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka S CP 3 0 1994
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-92-14
University of Florida

XeriscapeTM landscaping (The National Xeriscape Council Inc., P.O, Box 7679366,,,..
Roswell, GA 30076-7936) is one organization's term for high quality landscapes designed to
conserve water and protect the environment. Designers select site appropriate plants based
on soil type, topography, local climatic conditions and intended uses of space. Plants are
grouped according to sun or shade requirements and water needs, to conserve water and
reduce maintenance time, soil erosion and nutrient runoff. Demand for these
"environmentally friendly" landscape plans is growing and plants valued for their hardiness,
drought resistance, salt tolerance and/or adaptability to many environmental conditions is
expected to increase.

Liriope muscari (Decne.) (liriope or lilyturf), an attractive grass-like perennial, is a
drought tolerant plant frequently included in XeriscapeTM landscaping designs. This
groundcover has deep green leathery leaves up to 18 inches long and 1/2 inch wide. Plants
flower for an extended period during the summer, producing white, light blue, lavender or
violet blooms, depending on cultivar. Liriope grows well in shaded or sunny locations in
warm and temperate climates and is propagated by division of tubers and roots.

Nurserymen growing liriope occasionally experience unexplained crop losses due to
chlorosis of foliage. When several cultivars are grown together, severity of chlorosis seems
to vary according to cultivar. The following experiments were conducted to determine cause
of chlorosis and individual cultivar susceptibility and provide information on use of liriope in
the XeriscapeTM.

Materials and Methods

Experiment 1, a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial test, was initiated 22 April 1987 to test fluoride
(F) damage on six cultivars of liriope in different potting media with different dolomite
levels. Rooted Liriope muscari were transplanted from small cell packs into 6 inch nursery
containers using Vergro Container Mix A (Verlite Co. Inc., Tampa, FL 33680) or a mix
composed of (6:3:1 v/v) Florida sedge peat:pine bark:builder's sand. Both media were


'Center Director and Professor of Environmental Horticulture, and Professor of Plant
Physiology, respectively, University of Florida, IFAS, CFREC-Apopka, 2807 Binion Road,
Apopka FL 32703.








amended with 1 lb/yd3 Micromax (Grace Sierra Co., Milpitas, CA 95035), 0 or 10 lb/yd3
dolomite and 0, 5 or 10 lb/yd3 single superphosphate which contains about 1.5% F. Liriope
were grown in full sun and temperatures ranged from 65 to 1000 F. Plants were watered
three times per week. Pots were top dressed with 5 g/6 inch pot 19-6-12 Osmocote (Grace
Sierra Co., Milpitas, CA 95035) on 22 April and 29 July 1987.

Severity of chlorosis was rated 24 December 1987, based the following scale: 1 =
no chlorotic leaves; 2 = slight damage, salable plants; 3 = moderate chlorosis, salable but
quality reduced; 4 = severe chlorosis, unsalable plants; 5 = dead plants. Plant quality was
also determined on 24 December, when plants were assigned a grade using a scale of 1 =
dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 =
excellent quality plant.

Experiment 2, a 3 x 3 factorial test with 5 replications per treatment, was initiated to
study effects of fertilizer rate and shade level on chlorosis of several liriope cultivars.
Testing began on 26 May 1988 when liners of 'Big Blue', 'Evergreen Giant' and 'Sunproof'
liriope were transplanted into 6 inch nursery containers using a container mix composed of
(6:3:1 v/v) Florida sedge peat:pine bark:builder's sand. Growing medium was amended with
7 lbs/yd3 dolomite and 1 lb/yd3 Micromax. Liriope were grown under 0, 30 or 60 percent
shadecloth. Pots were top dressed with 3.5, 7.0 or 10.5 g/6 inch nursery pot Osmocote 19-
6-12 (3 month release rate fertilizer) on 21 June and 15 September 1988. Potting medium
moisture level was checked daily and plants were watered as needed to maintain healthy
growth. On 8 December 1988 plants were rated for chlorosis severity and plant quality
using the two descriptions in experiment 1.

Experiment 3 was a 4 x 3 factorial test, with 5 replications per treatment, initiated 21
February 1989 to evaluate micronutrients and fertilizer rates. Liners of 'Big Blue' liriope
were potted into 6 inch nursery containers using the same mix described in experiment 2,
amended with 7 lbs/yd3 dolomite and 0, 2 or 4 lbs/yd3 Micromax. Liriope were grown
outdoors in full sun and watered daily. Pots were top dressed with 19-6-12 Osmocote, at
rates of 5, 10, 15 or 20 g/6 inch nursery pot, on 21 February, 24 May and 14 September
1989. Plants were rated for chlorosis and plant quality as described above 24 January 1990.

Results and Conclusion

Additions of dolomite or single superphosphate to growing medium did not affect
foliage chlorosis or plant quality, making it unlikely that leaf damage could be attributed to
fluoride toxicity. Severity of chlorosis and plant grade of 5 of the 6 cultivars tested was
affected by growing medium (Figures 1 and 2). Plants growing in Vergro Container Mix A
had leaves with more chlorotic areas and received lower plant grades compared to cultivars
grown in Florida sedge peat:pine bark:builder's sand. The only plant unaffected by medium,
'Evergreen Giant', had less chlorotic leaves compared to the 5 other cultivars tested.
'Evergreen Giant' was also the only salable quality cultivar produced with Vergro container
Mix A.








Results from experiment 2 show foliage chlorosis was less severe and plants received
higher quality grades when fertilized at 7.0 or 10.5 g/6 inch pot compared to 3.5 g/6 inch
pot (Table 1). Response to shade level varied according to cultivar tested. Best quality 'Big
Blue' were grown in full sun, while best quality 'Sunproof' were grown under 60% shade.
'Evergreen Giant' growth was unaffected by shade treatment and good quality 'Evergreen
Giant' plants were produced under all shade levels tested.

Plant grade of 'Big Blue' liriope, grown in experiment 3, improved, and foliage
developed less chlorosis when fertilizer rates were increased from 5 to 20 g/6 inch nursery
pot (Table 2). Plants receiving 4 lbs/yd3 Micromax incorporated into the medium also had
higher plant grades and less chlorosis compared to plants in medium containing 0 or 2
lbs/yd3.

Cause of foliage chlorosis of liriope was not determined by these experiments but
results of experiment 1 suggest that fluoride is not the causal agent. Symptoms decreased
when fertilizer and micronutrient rate increased, indicating that chlorosis may be due to lack
of some, still undetermined, essential macro and/or micro nutrients. Foliage of 'Evergreen
Giant' developed less chlorosis than other cultivars used in experiments 1 and 2 and also
proved to be the most versatile cultivar tested. Acceptable quality plants were grown in both
media tested in experiment 1 (Figure 2). Salable 'Evergreen Giant' were also grown in
experiment 2 under full sun, 30% or 60% shade using 3.5, 7.0, or 10.5 g 19-6-12/6 inch pot
(Table 1).

Additional Reading

1. Conover, C.A. and R.T. Poole. 1985. Growth of Calathea makoyana as influenced
by media,, fertilizer and irrigation. Nursrymn. Dig. 19(2):68-70.

2. Marlatt, R.B. 1980. Mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Noncontagious diseases
of tropical foliage plants. Univ. of Fla. IFAS, Agri. Exper. Sta. Bull. 812 pp 2-18.

3. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1975. Media, shade and fertilizer influence
production of Areca palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Wendl. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
Soc. 88:603-605.

4. Servis, R. 1992. XeriscapeTM -the word. Ornamental Outlook 1(2):24-25.








Chlorosis of 6 Liriope muscari cultivars influenced by growing medium.


4.5 Medium
I Vergro
S4- Peat:Pine BaricSand

3.5-

3

S2.5-






'Evergreen Giant' 'Monroe White' 'Sunproof'
'Christmas Tree' 'John Birch' 'Royal Purple'
Cultivar


Experiment 1 was initiated on 22 April and terminated on 24 December 1987.
Chlorosis severity grade was based on a scale of 1 = no chlorotic leaves, 2 = slight
damage, salable plants, 3 = moderate chlorosis, salable but quality reduced, 4 = severe
chlorosis, unsalable plants and 5 = dead plants.
Plants were grown in Vergro Container Mix A or a mix of 6:3:1 (v/v) Florida peat
sedge:pine bark:builder's sand. Pots were top dressed with 5 g/6 inch pot 19-6-12 Osmocote
fertilizer on 22 April and 29 July 1987.
Medium influence on chlorosis severity was significant at P = 0.01 for all cultivars except
'Evergreen Giant', which was not significantly affected by growing medium.


-Figure 1.








Figure 2. Plant grade of Liriope muscari cultivars influenced by growing medium.


Medium
4.5- Vergro

4 i Peat Pine BarkcSand


3.5 -



2.5



1.6


'Evergreen Giant' 'Monroe White' 'Sunproof'
'Christmas TreW 'John Birch' 'Royal Purple
Culivar


Experiment 1 was initiated on 22 April and terminated on 24 December 1987.
Plants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = dead plants.
Plants were grown in Vergro Container Mix A or a mix of 6:3:1 (v/v) Florida sedge
peat:pine bark:builder's sand.
Pots were top dressed with 5 g/6 inch pot 19-6-12 Osmocote fertilizer on 22 April and 29
July 1987.
Medium influence on plant grade was significant at P = 0.01 for all cultivars tested except
'Evergreen Giant', which was not significantly affected by growing medium.







Table 1.


Influence of fertilizer rate and shade level on plant grade and chlorosis of
Liriope muscari. Plants grown in 6 inch nursery containers from 26 May until
8 December 1988. Experiment 2.


'Big Blue' 'Evergreen Giant' 'Sunproof'
g 19-6-12/ 6 Plant Plant Plant
inch pot grades Chlorosisy grade Chlorosis grade Chlorosis
3.5 2.8 3.7 -3.4 1.9 3.0 3.3
7.0 3.2 3.2 3.7 1.7 3.4 2.7
10.5 3.5 3.1 4.0 1.7 3.5 2.6
Significance
linear ** ** ns **
quadratic ns ns ns ns ns ns


% Shade
0 3.3 3.3 3.6 1.8 3.0 3.1
30 3.3 3.0 3.7 1.7 3.0 3.2
60 2.9 3.6 3.9 1.7 3.9 2.3
Significance
linear ns ns ns ** **
quadratic ns ** ns ns *

zPlants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality plants.
YChlorosis severity was rated based on a scale of 1 = no chlorotic leaves, 2 = slight
damage, salable plants, 3 = moderate chlorosis, salable but quality reduced, 4 =
severe chlorosis, unsalable plants and 5 = dead plants.
xns, *, **: Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively.








Table 2.


Influence of fertilizer on chlorosis and plant grade of Liriope muscari 'Big
Blue'. Plants grown in 6 inch nursery containers from 21 February 1989 until
24 January 1990. Experiment 3.


g 19-6-12/ 6 inch pot Chlorosisz Plant gradeY
5 3.9 2.4
10 3.9 2.4
15 3.5 2.8
20 3.4 3.0
Significance
linear ** **
quadratic ns ns


Micromax, lbs/yd3
0 4.4 1.8
2 3.5 2.9
4 3.2 3.2
Significancex
linear ** **
quadratic **

zChlorosis severity was rated based on a scale of 1 = no chlorotic leaves, 2 = slight
damage, salable plants, 3 = moderate chlorosis, salable but quality reduced, 4 =
severe chlorosis, unsalable plants and 5 = dead plants.
YPlants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality plants.
xns, *, **: Nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05 and P = 0.01, respectively.







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