Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-93-5
Title: Yields and growth of cuttings from five stock plants grown in four maximum air temperatures
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065838/00001
 Material Information
Title: Yields and growth of cuttings from five stock plants grown in four maximum air temperatures
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1993
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole and C.A. Conover.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065838
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70245474

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'Ro 14
93-5
Yields and Growth of Cuttings from Five Stock Plants Grown in Four Mg'imum Air u.
Temperatures
S., Science
R.T. Poole and C.A. Conover' ib. ..I y

University of Florida, SE-- 3 0 1994~
Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-93-5 University of Florida


Tropical foliage plants need relatively high daytime air temperatures (70 to 900F) to
achieve optimum growth rates (1, 2, 3, 4). However, plant respiration increases as air
temperatures rise, so that eventually plants are using more carbohydrates maintaining existing
tissues than to initiate new growth (1). While temperatures as high as 104F reportedly do not
damage well-watered heart-leaf philodendrons, growth rates of this crop produced under different
maximum air temperatures have not been compared (2).

In another test, Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis' (Boston fern), Dieffenbachia maculata
'Perfection' ('Perfection' dieffenbachia) and Chamaedorea elegans (parlor palms) did not appear
to be damaged when maximum air temperatures were allowed to reach 110F and watered four
times per week. However, growth rates were also not compared to plant growth under lower
maximum air temperatures (5). Plants grown in such high temperatures may not look damaged
but economic loss still occurs if growth rate is slower, increasing crop production time.

Maximum air temperature in areas where stock plants are maintained could influence
cutting size and vigor. Since cuttings rely on stored carbohydrates until roots are generated,
maximum air temperature in stock plant areas may influence vigor of propagation material. The
following experiment measured stock plant yields and quality of propagation material from 5
foliage plant species grown in 4 maximum air temperatures.

Research was initiated on May 21, 1990. Ready-for sale Aeschynanthus pulcher (lipstick
vine), Aglaonema commutatum 'Fransher' ('Fransher' aglaonema), Epipremnum aureum (golden
pothos) and Philodendron scandens oxycardium (heart-leaf philodendron) grown in 6-inch pots
and Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille' ('Camille' dieffenbachia) in 8-inch pots were used as stock
plants. All stock plants were grown in Vergro Container Mix A (Verlite Co., Tampa FL
33610).

Plants were placed in greenhouses under 1400 ft-c maximum light intensity where the
minimum air temperature was 640F. Maximum air temperature was 86, 90, 93 or 97F and
stock plants were watered 3 times per week. Containers were top-dressed with 10 g/pot 19-6-12


'Professor of Plant Physiology and Professor and Center Director, respectively, Central
Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka, 2807 Binion Road, Apopka, 32703.







Osmocote (Grace/Sierra Co., Milpitas, CA 95035) on May 22 and again on July 16, 1990.

Cuttings were harvested at least three times over the five month test period. At harvest
times, lipstick vine, golden pothos and heart-leaf philodendron stock plant vines were cut back
to the rim of their 6-inch pots. On all harvest dates except the final one, four cuttings were
obtained from each 'Fransher' aglaonema or 'Camille' dieffenbachia stock plant. On the final
cutting date for each of these two species, all available propagation material from each plant was
harvested. On harvest days, fresh weight of cutting material obtained from each plant was
determined. Number of vines and nodes per vine were counted for lipstick vine, golden pothos
and heart-leaf philodendron on those species' harvest dates. Also measured for each cutting
group was length of shoots on heart-leaf philodendron cuttings after an average of twenty-seven
days of propagation time.

After growth measurements were obtained, cuttings were propagated in 5-inch containers
filled with Vergro Container Mix A. Lipstick vine, golden pothos and heart-leaf philodendron
cuttings were stuck, five/5-inch pot, 'Fransher' aglaonema and 'Camille' dieffenbachia one/5-
inch pot. Cuttings were placed under intermittent mist (activated for five seconds every thirty
minutes, from 8:00 am until 6:00 pm daily), in a propagation greenhouse where maximum light
intensity was 1000 ft-c and air temperatures ranged from 70 to 950F.

Propagation and evaluation dates for cuttings are shown in Tables 1 through 5. Roots
were graded based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots
but no branching, 4 = healthy roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched
healthy roots.

Results and Conclusion

Inconsistent results were obtained for weight of propagation material, number of vines
and number of nodes harvested from lipstick vine stock plants during the three growth periods.
Propagation material from plants in the low maximum air temperature weighed more than that
from plants grown in the three higher temperatures for the last two growth periods measured
(Table 1). However, root growth on cuttings from stock plants in 860F maximum air
temperature was more rapid only from cuttings harvested October 4, and number of vines per
plant greatest on only on the July 26 harvest date.

Weight of cutting material produced by 'Fransher' aglaonema was not affected by
maximum air temperatures (Table 2). When propagated cuttings from the three harvests were
compared, no consistent effects on root growth were found for maximum air temperature in
stock plant areas.

No clear growth trends can be seen in data obtained for the golden pothos stock plants
and cuttings produced in this test (Table 3). Root grades from cuttings propagated on June 13
show cuttings from stock plants grown in 860F had more roots, but cuttings with the highest
root grade on August 21 came from stock plants grown in 970F.








Heart-leaf philodendron and 'Camille' dieffenbachia stock plant growth and rooting
response of cuttings were not affected by maximum air temperature maintained in stock plant
areas. Tables 4 and 5 show averages of growth data from these two species collected in this
experiment.

Results from this experiment indicate that maximum air temperatures, in the range tested,
do not consistently affect stock plant yields or cutting root growth for the five foliage plant
species tested. However, the expensive cooling growing structures may still be cost effective
when air temperatures are below the ranges where plants show visible symptoms of damage.
Although plants may not be damaged by temperatures higher than 97"F, volume of production
would probably decrease due to a slow down in growth rate.

Literature Cited

1. Conover, C.A. 1969. Foliage stock plant production. Florida Foliage Grower 6(5): 1-9.

2. Conover, C.A., L.S. Osborne and A.R. Chase. 1984. Heart-leaf philodendron.
Nurseryman's Digest 18(5):91-94.

3. Conover, C.A., R.T. Poole, R. J. Henny, R.A. Hamlen and A.R. Chase. 1981.
Aglaonema production guide for commercial growers. Univ. of Fla. Orn. Hort. Com.
Fact Sheet OHC-1, 5 pp.

4. Henny, R.J., A.R. Chase, C.A. Conover, R.T. Poole, R.A. Hamlen and L.S. Osborne.
1984. Dieffenbachia production guide. Univ. of Fla., Orn. Hort. Com. Fact Sheet
OHC-11. 6 pp.

5. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1981. Influence of maximum air temperatures and
irrigation frequencies during high temperature periods on growth of four foliage plants.
HortScience 16(4):556-557.








Table 1. Weight and number of vines from Aeschynanthus pulcher stock plants grown in 4 maximum air temperatures from May
21 until November 14, 1990 and root grades of cuttings.

Crop 1Z Crop 2Y Crop 3x
Maximum air Weight No. Root Weight No. Root Weight No. Root
temperature (F) (g) vines grade" (g) vines grade (g) vines grade

86 753 46 4.1 158 16.3 3.8 476 33.7 4.6
90 966 50 4.6 63 7.2 3.8 341 27.0 4.4
93 877 50 4.8 79 11.2 3.8 343 33.8 4.3
97 840 48 4.2 46 7.8 4.3 239 42.0 3.4
Significance'
linear ns ns ns ** ** ns ** ** **
quadratic ** ns ** ** ** ns ns ** ns

zCrop 1 fresh weight and number of vines harvested recorded on June 13, roots grades on July 17, 1990, after 34 days in
propagation area.
YCrop 2 fresh weight and number of vines harvested recorded on July 26, roots graded on August 23, after 28 days in propagation
area.
xCrop 3 fresh weight and number of vines harvested recorded on October 4, roots graded on November 14, after 41 days in
propagation area.
'Root grades were based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots but no branching, 4 =
healthy roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched healthy roots.
Vns, **; Results nonsignificant or significant at P = 0.01, respectively.








Table 2.


Weight and root grade of cuttings from Aglaonema commutatum 'Fransher' stock plants grown in 4 maximum air
temperatures from May 21 until November 26, 1990.


Crop 1z Crop 2Y Crop 3x
Maximum air
temperature (F) Weight (g) Root grade" Weight (g) Root grade Weight (g) Root grade
86 64 4.5 54 4.0 428 5.0
90 60 3.2 50 4.0 415 5.0
93 51 2.3 46 4.0 389 4.8
97 60 3.5 50 4.5 444 4.0
Significance"
linear ns ns ns ns **
quadratic ns ** ns ns ns **

zCrop 1 fresh weight of cuttings recorded on June 13, roots grades on July 24, 1990, after 41 days in propagation area.
YCrop 2 fresh weight of cuttings recorded on July 26, roots graded on September 18, after 54 days in propagation area.
xCrop 3 fresh weight of cuttings recorded on October 3, roots graded on November 26, after 54 days in propagation area.
'Root grades were based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots but no branching, 4 = healthy
roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched healthy roots.
'ns, *, **; Results nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05, or significant at P = 0.01, respectively.








Table 3. Weight of vines, number of nodes and number of vines from Epipremnum aureum stock plants grown in 4 maximum
air temperatures from May 21 until November 1, 1990 and root grade of cuttings.

Crop 12 Crop 2Y Crop 3x
Maximum air Wt No. No. Root Wt No. No. Root Wt No. No. Root
temperature (F) (g) nodes vines grade" (g) nodes vines grade (g) nodes vines grade
86 241 87 20 3.7 149 67 11 3.3 473 210 21 2.9
90 245 80 22 3.2 180 87 15 3.5 478 205 21 3.1
93 273 95 19 3.4 148 60 11 3.9 540 204 20 3.3
97 236 87 19 3.0 100 44 10 4.0 470 184 18 2.7
Significance'
linear ns ns ns ** ** ** ** ns ns ns ns
quadratic ns ns ns ns ** ns ns ns ns ns
zCrop 1 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on June 13, roots graded on July 10, 1990, after
27 days in propagation area.
YCrop 2 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on July 26, roots graded on August 21, after 26 days
in propagation area.
xCrop 3 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on October 4, roots graded on November 1, after
28 days in propagation area.
"Root grades were based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots but no branching, 4 = healthy
roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched healthy roots.
Vns, *, **; Results nonsignificant, significant at P = 0.05, or significant at P = 0.01, respectively.








Table 4. Average weight of vines, average number of nodes and average number of vines from Philodendron scandens
oxycardium stock plants grown in 86, 90, 93 or 97F maximum air temperatures from May 21 until November 14,
1990 and root grade and shoot length averages of cuttings.
Crop Weight Number of nodes Number of vines Cutting Shoot length (cm)
number (g) Root gradez
Crop 1Y 249 87 20 3.3 6.3
Crop 2x 144 64 12 3.7 2.7
Crop 3" 490 201 20 3.0 3.3

ZRoot grades were based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots but no branching, 4 = healthy
roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched healthy roots.
YCrop 1 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on June 13, roots graded and shoot length measured
on July 10, 1990, after 27 days in propagation area.
xCrop 2 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on July 26, roots graded and shoot length measured
on August 21, after 26 days in propagation area.
"Crop 3 fresh weight, number of nodes and number of vines harvested recorded on October 4, roots graded and shoot length
measured on November 1, after 28 days in propagation area.








Table 5.


Average weight of cuttings from Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille' stock plants grown in 86, 90, 93 or 97F maximum
air temperatures from May 21 until October 26, 1990 and average root grade of cuttings.


Crop number Total cutting weight (g) Root grades

Crop 1y 83 3.3

Crop 2x 68 3.9

Crop 3' 74 4.2
Crop 4' 835 4.1

zRoot grades were based on a scale of 1 = no roots, 2 = little root growth, 3 = some healthy roots but no branching, 4 = healthy
roots with some branching and 5 = several large branched healthy roots.
YCrop 1 total cutting weight recorded on June 13, roots grades on July 3, 1990, after 20 days in propagation area.
xCrop 2 total cutting weight recorded on July 20, roots graded on August 13, after 24 days in propagation area.
WCrop 3 total cutting weight recorded on August 31, roots graded on September 21, after 21 days in propagation area.
'Crop 4 total cutting weight recorded on October 3, roots graded on October 26, after 23 days in propagation area.









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