Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report - Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka ; RH-93-6
Title: Effects of low temperature storage on quality of twenty-two foliage plants
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 Material Information
Title: Effects of low temperature storage on quality of twenty-two foliage plants
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 12 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1993
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Effect of temperature on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: R.T. Poole and C.A. Conover.
General Note: Caption title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00065833
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70220746

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1_3' ( Effects of Low Temperature Storage on Quality of Twenty-two Foliage Plants


R.T. Poole and C.A. Conover r n iR
Marston Science University of Florida
L ibraY Central Florida Research and Education Center-ApoplWCT 0 4 1994
OCT 0 4 094 CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-93-6
oUniversity of Florida
University of Florida
a Summary

When twenty-two foliage plants were stored in dark, air tight coolers for up to four days
at 36, 410 or 460F air temperatures quality of seven plants (Araucaria heterophylla,
Dizygotheca elegantissima, Ficus benjamin, Maranta leuconeura 'Kerchoviana', Rademachera
sinica, Schefflera arboricola and Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly') was unaffected.
Chilling injury symptoms on foliage resulting from low temperature storage are summarized in
Table 1.

Storage duration and storage air temperature interactions damaged foliage of twelve
plants, Aglaonema 'Silver Queen', Chamaedorea elegans, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, Codiaeum
variegatum 'Norma', Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille', Dracaena marginata, Epipremnum
aureum 'Marble Queen', Ficus elastica 'Robusta', Homalomena 'Emerald Gem', Nephrolepis
exaltata 'Bostoniensis Compacta', Philodendron scandens oxycardium and Spathiphyllum 'Petite'
Generally, damage worsened as storage temperature decreased and storage time increased.

Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Crai"' quality deteriorated when storage duration increased
or air temperature decreased. Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' and Neoregelia carolinae
'Perfecta Tricolor' foliage was damaged by 360F air temperature during storage.

On two plants, Dracaena marginata and Spathiphyllum, no damage was visible five days
after treatment but foliage damage was apparent when plants were graded a second time two
weeks after removal from coolers.






'Professor of Plant Physiology, Professor of Environmental Horticulture and Center
* Director, respectively, Central Florida Research and Education Center, 2807 Binion Road,
Apopka, Florida 32703.







Introduction


Many foliage plants are injured when exposed to air temperatures between 35 F and
50F during propagation, production, storage or shipping. Damage, commonly called chilling
injury, typically becomes more severe with lower temperature and also as exposure time
increases (Lyons, 1973; Marousky, 1980; Marousky and Harbaugh, 1978; McConnell, et al,
1978; McConnell et al, 1982; McWilliams and Smith, 1978; Poole and Conover, 1983).
Some common symptoms are surface lesions on foliage, water soaked tissue that eventually turns
black and necrotic, tissue breakdown and reduced growth rates (Morris, 1982; Ingram et al,
1978). Since symptoms may be similar to other plant disorders, and damage sometimes does
not become apparent until two to four days after removal from low temperature conditions, more
work needs to be done to determine chilling tolerance of economically important foliage plants
(Conover, 1980; Marousky 1980). The following test was initiated to determine effects of low
air temperature during short-term shipping on twenty-two foliage plants.

Materials and Methods

The following twenty-two foliage plants were obtained from local growers; Aglaonema
'Silver Queen' (Silver Queen aglaonema), Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine),
Chamaedorea elegans (parlor palm), Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (areca palm), Codiaeum
variegatum 'Norma' (Norma croton), Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille' (Camille dieffenbachia),
Dizygotheca elegantissima (false aralia), Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' (Janet Craig
dracaena), Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' (Warneckii dracaena), Dracaena marginata
(Madagascar dragon tree), Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen' (Marble Queen pothos), Ficus
benjamin (weeping fig), Ficus elastica 'Robusta' (robust rubber tree), Homalomena 'Emerald
Gem', (Emerald Gem homalomena), Maranta leuconeura 'Kerchoviana' (prayer plant),
Neoregelia carolinae 'Perfecta Tricolor' (Perfecta Tricolor blushing bromeliad), Nephrolepis
exaltata 'Bostoniensis compact' (compact Boston fern), Philodendron scandens oxycardium
(heart-leaf philodendron), Rademachera sinica (China doll), Schefflera arboricola (dwarf
schefflera), Spathiphyllum 'Petite' (Petite spathiphyllum) and Syngonium podophyllum 'White
Butterfly' (White Butterfly nephthytis). Plants were excellent quality fully grown specimens
produced in 4, 6 or 10-inch containers.

Depending on availability of quality specimens, plants were either stored for one, two,
three or four days in dark airtight coolers where air temperature was 36, 410 or 46*F (a 3 x
4 factorial design with five foliage plants of each type tested per air temperature), or were stored
for two or four days in airtight dark coolers in 36, 41 or 460F air temperature (a 3 x 2 factorial
design with five foliage plants of each type tested per air temperature).

Plants were acquired, stored and evaluated on various dates starting on January 13, 1991
and ending on April 10, 1991. Experimental design was chosen for each kind of foliage plant
based on available excellent quality specimens, so that five foliage plants were stored using two
time periods and the remaining seventeen plants were tested using four storage time treatments.








Araucaria heterophylla, Chamaedorea elegans, Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille',
Dizygotheca elegantissima, Dracaena marginata, Ficus elastica 'Robusta', Neoregelia carolinae
'Perfecta Tricolor', Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis compacta, Schefflera arboricola and
Syngonium podophyllum 'White Butterfly' were placed in paper sleeves immediately before
storage. Sleeves were removed when storage treatments were completed. Aglaonema 'Silver
Queen', Chrysalidocarpus lutescens Codiaeum variegatum 'Norma', Dracaena deremensis 'Janet
Craig' Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii', Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen' Ficus
benjamin, Homalomena 'Emerald Gem', Maranta leuconeura 'Kerchoviana', Philodendron
scandens oxycardium, Rademachera sinica and Spathiphyllum 'Petite' were not sleeved during
storage.

Before and after time spent in air-tight dark coolers, plants were maintained in different
greenhouses so that favorable environmental conditions were provided for all types. Twenty
foliage plant types were graded using a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality. Norma croton quality was
evaluated by counting the necrotic, dead and dying leaves. Plants with more than two leaves
damaged were unsalable. Dracaena marginata cold damage was graded by rating size of the
gray bands appearing in foliage (a typical sign of cold damage in Dracaena marginata) on a
scale of 1 = no bands or damage, 2 = some grey streaking but little overall damage, 3 = plants
noticeably damaged but still salable, 4 = gray bands at least 0.5 cm wide throughout foliage,
plants unsalable and 5 = prominent gray bands 1 cm wide throughout foliage.

Plants were graded two times after removal from coolers. If damage was apparent when
plants were removed from coolers, plants were immediately graded and the second evaluation
was done two weeks later. When no damage was visible immediately after plants were stored,
plants were graded five days and two weeks after removal from coolers.

Results

Six of the foliage plants, Araucaria heterophylla, Dizygotheca elegantissima, Ficus
benjamin, Maranta leuconeura 'Kerchoviana', Schefflera arboricola and Syngonium
podophyllum 'White Butterfly' were unaffected by storage treatments (Table 1). Quality of these
plants two weeks after removal from storage was excellent. Alihouigi some leaves on
Rademachera sinica developed necrotic tips after storage treatments, damage was insignificant
and overall plant quality remained unaffected.

Interaction of storage time and storage air temperature had a negative affect on quality
of ten foliage plants (Table 2). Chrysalidocarpus lutescens was damaged after two days storage
in 360F air temperature and Codiaeum variegatum 'Norma' and Spathiphyllum 'Petite' were
damaged when stored three or four days at 360F. However, none of these three foliage plants
were injured by four days storage at 41 or 460F.

Philodendron scandens oxycardium were damaged when stored for two or more days
in 360F air temperature. Foliage of plants stored for three or four days at 410F also showed






symptoms of chilling injury. Storage for two days at 41 F or four days at 460F did not harm
foliage.

Dracaena marginata, Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen' and Homalomena 'Emerald
Gem' were not damaged when stored in 46F coolers for four days. Severity of damage caused
by storage at 36 or 41 F increased as temperature decreased and storage time increased.

Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille' tolerated three days at 46F or one day at 41 "F without
foliage damage. Plants stored at 36F were injured regardless of storage duration.

Nephrolepis exaltata 'Compacta' ferns stored in 36 or 41 F air temperatures were
injured, with the low temperature having the most severe effects. Ferns stored at 460F for up
to four days were not damaged.

Aglaonema 'Silver Queen' foliage showed symptoms of chilling injury at all the storage
times and air temperatures tested. Injury was more severe as storage time increased and air
temperature decreased. Damage resulted in low quality grades so that no Aglaonema 'Silver
Queen' were salable two weeks after storage.

When Dracaena marginata and Spathiphyllum 'Petite' were examined five days after
storage, plants did not appear to be negatively affected by any storage treatment. However,
when evaluated a second time, two weeks after storage, foliage damage was apparent.

Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig', Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' and Neoregelia
carolinae 'Perfecta Tricolor' were unaffected by interactions of storage air temperature and
storage duration. However, both air temperature during storage and storage duration influenced
plant grade of Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' (Table 3). When quality was evaluated two
weeks after storage, only plants at 410 and 46F, or stored for one day were in salable
condition.

Plant grades of Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' and Neoregelia carolinae 'Perfecta
Tricolor' were influenced similarly by storage air temperatures (Table 4). Only storage at 36F
damaged plants. Neoregelia carolinae 'Perfecta Tricolor', although damaged, were still in
salable condition but Dracaena deremensis 'Warneckii' too badly damaged to be considered
salable.

Conclusion

As reported elsewhere, plant resistance to chilling injury varied depending on species
(Lyons, 1973). Severity of damage on affected plants was greater as temperatures approached
freezing and also increased with storage time. These findings are consistent with previous
research with other foliage plants (Marousky, 1980; Marousky and Harbaugh, 1978;
McConnell, et al, 1978; McConnell et al, 1982; McWilliams and Smith, 1978; Poole and
Conover, 1983).








References

Conover, C.A. 1980. Maintaining foliage plant quality during truck transit. Florists' Rev.
165(4290):31, 69.

Ingram, D.L., D.B. McConnell, and T.J. Sheehan. 1978. Effects of chilling temperatures on
container growth of Dieffenbachia 'Exotic Perfection'. Proc. S.N.A. Res. Conf. 23:39.

Lyons, J.M. 1973. Chilling injury in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24:445-466.

Marousky, F.J. 1980. Chilling injury in Dracaena sanderana and Spathiphyllum 'Clevelandii'.
HortScience 15:197-198.

Marousky, F.J. and B.K. Harbaugh. 1978. Deterioration of foliage plants during transit.
Proc. Nat. Trop. Fol. Short Course p. 33-39.

McConnell, D.B., D.L. Ingram, C. Groga-Bada and T.J. Sheehan. 1982. Chilling injury of
silvemerve plant. HortScience 17:819-820.

McConnell, D.B., D.L. Ingram, C. Groga-Bada and T.J. Sheehan. 1978. Chilling effects on
propagation of Dieffenbachia 'Exotica Perfection'. Fol. Dig. 4(4):3-5.

McWilliams, E.L. and C.W. Smith. 1978. Chilling injury in Scindapsus pictus, Aphelandra
squarrosa, and Maranta leuconeura. HortScience 13:179-180.

Morris, L.L. 1982. Chilling injury of horticultural crops: an overview. HortScience 17:161-
162.

Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1983. Factors influencing chilling damage of foliage plants.
Interiorscape 5(14):12-13.




=


Table 1.


Date foliage plants were removed from temperature controlled coolers after
one, two, three or four days of storage at 36", 41 or 46F air
temperature, dates plants were graded and description of chilling injury
resulting from storage treatments.


Removed from Plant gradesz
Plant name coolers Damage

Aglaonema 'Silver Mar 13 Mar 16Y Total or partial leaf
Queen' necrosis
Araucaria heterophylla Feb 21 Feb 26, None
Mar 4
Chamaedorea elegans Jan 31 Feb 4, Necrotic leaf tips and
Feb 13 necrotic spots on leaves
Chrysalidocarpus Mar 27 Mar 27, Chlorosis of lower
lutescens Apr 10 foliage but plants still
salable

Codiaeum variegatum Mar 27 Mar 27, Total or partial necrosis
'Norma' Apr 10 of lower leaves
Dieffenbachia Feb 21 Feb 26, Total or partial leaf
maculata 'Camille' Mar 4 necrosis
Dizygotheca Jan 31 Feb 4, None
elegantissima Feb 13
Dracaena deremensis Mar 27 Mar 27, Necrotic lower leaves or
'Janet Craig' Apr 10 necrotic leaf margins

Dracaena deremensis Jan 31 Feb 4, Dark water-soaked areas
'Warneckii' Feb 13 on leaves starting at apex
Dracaena marginata Feb 21 Feb 26, Chlorotic lengthwise
Mar 4 bands on recent growth
Epipremnum aureum Jan 17 Jan 22, Necrosis on leaf tips and
'Marble Queen' Jan 31 margins
Ficus benjamin Mar 27 Mar 27, None
Apr 10
Ficus elastica Jan 31 Feb 4,Feb 13 Some small chlorotic
'Robusta' striations on leaves but
plants still salable
Table 1 continued on next page.


I_






Plant name Removed from Plant grades2
coolers Damage

Homalomena 'Emerald Jan 31 Feb 4, Necrotic stippling on
Gem' Feb 13 mature leaves or total leaf
necrosis
Maranta leuconeura Feb 21 Feb 26, None
'Kerchoviana' Mar 4
Neoregelia carolinae Mar 13 Mar 16 Collapsed tissue near
'Perfecta Tricolor' center of leaf blades
eventually becoming
necrotic

Nephrolepis exaltata Jan 31 Feb 4, Frond tip distortion and
'Bostoniensis Feb 13 necrosis
compact'
Philodendron scandens Mar 13 Mar 16 Necrotic spots on and
oxycardium distortion of new leaves

Rademachera sinica Jan 17 Jan 22, Some necrotic leaf tips,
Jan 31 plants still salable

Schefflera arboricola Feb 21 Feb 26, None
Mar 4

Spathiphyllum 'Petite' Jan 31 Feb 4, Water-soaked spots on
Feb 13 leaf margins
Syngonium Jan 31 Feb 4, None
podophyllum 'White Feb 13
Butterfly' _

zPlants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair
quality, salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality.
YPlants removed from coolers on March 13, 1992 were graded March 16, 1992 but
damaged when a hailstorm destroyed greenhouses on March 25, 1992 so that plants could
not be graded a second time.
Li





Table 2. Interaction effects of low air temperatures and storage time on ten foliage plants.
Storage temperature (OF)
36 41 46
Aglaonema 'Silver Queen', plant grades
Days stored
2 2.0 1.9 2.4
4 1.5 1.8 2.2
Interaction significant at P = 0.017.
Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, plant grade
Days stored
1 5.0 5.0 5.0
2 4.5 5.0 5.0
3 2.9 5.0 5.0
4 2.0 5.0 5.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.
Codiaeum variegatum 'Norma' number of bad leaves
Days stored
1 1.5 1.7 1.5
2 0.5 2.0 0.7
3 5.5 1.2 0.0
4 4.5 1.5 1.5
Interaction significant at P = 0.005.
Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille', plant grades
Days stored
1 2.7 5.0 5.0
2 1.7 3.0 5.0
3 1.5 2.6 5.0
4 1.5 2.2 3.6
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.








Storage temperature (F)
36 41 46
Dracaena marginata, cold damage grades
Days stored
1 1.4 1.0 1.1
2 2.6 1.6 1.0
3 3.6 2.4 1.0
4 2.6 1.7 1.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.
Epipremnum aureum 'Marble Queen', plant gradez
Days stored
1 4.6 4.9 4.4
2 2.7 4.3 5.0
3 2.1 3.6 5.0
4 1.6 3.1 5.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.
Homalomena 'Emerald Gem', plant grades
Days stored
2 2.3 3.6 5.0
4 1.5 3.4 5.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.017.
Nephrolepis exaltata 'Bostoniensis Compacta', plant grade
Days stored
2 2.4 3.1 4.7
4 2.4 4.2 4.8
Interaction significant at P = 0.016.






Storage temperature (F)
36 41 46
Philodendron scandens oxycardium, plant grade
Days stored
1 5.0 5.0 5.0
2 4.6 5.0 5.0
3 3.6 4.8 5.0
4 2.8 4.4 5.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.
Spathiphyllum 'Petite', plant grade
Days stored
1 5.0 4.9 5.0
2 5.0 5.0 5.0
3 4.4 5.0 5.0
4 3.7 5.0 5.0
Interaction significant at P = 0.0001.

TPlants were graded on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality,
salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality plants.
YBad leaves were necrotic, dead and dying leaves.
xCold damage graded by rating size of the gray bands appearing in foliage (a typical sign of cold
damage in Dracaena marginata) on a scale of 1 = no bands or damage, 2 = some grey
streaking but little overall damage, 3 = plants noticeably damaged but still salable, 4 = gray
bands at least 0.5 cm wide throughout foliage, plants unsalable and 5 = prominent gray bands
1 cm wide throughout foliage.








Plant grade of Dracaena deremensis 'Janet Craig' affected by low air
temperatures or storage time.


Storage temperature (*F)


Plant grade


46
Significancey
linear
quadratic


Days stored
1
2
3
4
Significancey
linear


quadratic **

zPlants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality,
salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality.
Y**; Results significant at P = 0.001.


Table 3.







Table 4.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

3 1262 05836 2384
Effects of low air temperature during storage on Dracaena deremensis
'Warneckii' and Neoregelia carolinae 'Perfecta Tricolor'.


Plant grades
Storage temperature (F) Dracaena deremensis Neoregelia carolinae
'Warneckii' 'Perfecta Tricolor'
36 1.5 4.1
41 5.0 5.0
46 5.0 5.0

Significance'

linear ** **
quadratic ** ns

Plants were graded based on a scale of 1 = dead, 2 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality,
salable, 4 = good quality and 5 = excellent quality.
Yns, **; Results nonsignificant or significant at P = 0.001, respectively.




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