Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Book XVII
 Index of names, places, and...
 Map of the ancient city of...
 Maps of Egypt and Ethiopia
 Map of Libya

Title: The geography of Strabo
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065780/00008
 Material Information
Title: The geography of Strabo
Series Title: Half-title The Loeb classical library. Greek authors
Physical Description: 8 v. : front. (map) ; 17 cm. --
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Horace Leonard, 1879- ( tr )
Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, 1851-1914
Publisher: W. Heinemann
G. P. Putnam's sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1917-33
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones ... Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett ... --
General Note: Greek and English on opposite pages.
General Note: Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxix-xliii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065780
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000608778
notis - ADD7916
lccn - 17013967

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    Book XVII
        Page 1
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    Index of names, places, and subjects
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    Map of the ancient city of Alexandria
        Page 512
    Maps of Egypt and Ethiopia
        Page 513
    Map of Libya
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Full Text


E. CAPPS, rP.D., LL.D. W. H. D.










Printed in Great Britain



INDEX . . . 217

MAPS . . .At end







1. 'ET el 86 T 'v 'Apaa3iav fpoSevovreT Kcal Trob
icoX7rov'; ovu,'IeptedfoXa oe.v ro a'TO t''YovTa' avriv
Katl rrotovvra< Xeppovr7'ov, rTV HIepCtixPCy cal TO
'Apd ciov, TOTd 8C Twva arvtreptwoSe6fr Kcal Tff
Aiy/vrTov ical Tr AlOtodrta, Ta' T&v TpwyXoSv-
Tv Ical 7TaOV ,? P Xpt TCOv do-Xa' v T7 KlvVa-
I tw0o 6pov, Ta Xetwr6opuva Kical vveX- TOE 'Oveat
TrovTro, ravTa 8' EC071O Ta 7repl TO NedXov,
EdcOe eov ieTa Se TraO ra Tv Atqrlv 'itLer,
T7rep eor-Tt ot7r T? 7 o-vjLTdE r; yewypa0tlaq.
cKavTavOa 8' 'EparToaO'vovT atro idajrc rpoeicOe-
2. 4lFo- 871 ToO 'Apa/liov idoX7rov 'rpoT Tr v
ac7repav vYvaKoariovq XtXl'ov, 1 o-ra8tovq 8ti'Xet
Tov NeZXov, 7rapa7rX4toov or a KcaTa TO a'~Xy a 2
C 786 Tr ypC/ippaL, rT7 N3 KILe'ivw ...av -aXt ve.l
ryap, faoiyv, ano Mepov}' e'rL Ta alp/crove co
8to-XtXov9 ical Er'atioaoov9 o-ra&bovw, 7rdXiv
ivaa-TpCfiet rpo' 4 peao'ifLplav Kcal 7j v Xetfieptvbv
1 dvvaKooiovs Xa'iovu, Groskurd, for uvaKuoXiAious (F has
,a in margin) ; dvraooious, Corais; xiAovs, Kramer.
2 rxjMa, C. Miiller, for oarpa. Meineke ejects Krah Tb
3 T v EFDr, though D has N above vv.



1. SINCE, in my description of Arabia, I have also
included the gulfs which pinch it and make it a
peninsula, I mean the Persian and Arabian Gulfs,
and at the same time have gone the rounds of cer-
tain parts both of Aegypt and of Aethiopia, I mean
the countries of the Troglodytes and the peoples
situated in order thereafter as far as the Cinnamon-
bearing country, I must now set forth the remaining
parts that are continuous with these tribes, that is,
the parts in the neighbourhood of the Nile; and
after this 1 shall traverse Libya, which is the last
remaining subject of my whole geography. And
here too I must first set forth the declarations of
2. Now according to him the Nile is nine hundred
or a thousand stadia distant towards the west from
the Arabian Gulf, and is similar in shape to the
letter N written reversed; 1 for after flowing, he
says, from Mero6 towards the north about two
thousand seven hundred stadia, it turns back towards
the south and the winter sunset about three thousand
1 i.e. I, This is true, roughly speaking, of the course of
the Nile from Mero6 to Syeng (see critical note).
4 Dh insert i-v after irpds.


8toav (O TptILXLlov ic al CU7TraKoo ovq uTraoiovu,
Kal aXe86v avrapaq Trol /cara Mepojv TroTroct Kal
els rT4v AtS337v 7roXb prpo7reoev 1 cal TTv Erepav
.Trtr-rpotnv 'P rotrjo-dap vov 7qpo rp Ta apTrovT (6epeTat
7r1evTacIto-LtXov; pev Ical 7ptaxoE ov eOTrai8ov9
e7rl ToPV ijeyav KaTapatCruv, puipov 7rape7rt-
orpe 'wv 7rpo Tv wo, XtXLov9 S Kal 8taicorovu
TOV9 f7Tr Tory XiTTo T iY Kca7ra v77v'y, 7TrvTarait-
XtAlov 8 ai'Xovu Kal Tptaicocrovo ev't 7T v
OaXaT7av. 4/ji3XAXovo-t 8' ela abTov Sv8o 7roTrauot,
6epoflevot J16v Kc TItVCV X.ftVwPv aO Ti) w Trept-
XaldfdvovTre 68~ vclaov ep/eymlsl 7 v MepO'v" wv
o Itv6 'AaTra86pa K/aXe at KcaT h TO 7rpoC ew
irXevpov pe'v, aTepoq 8' 'Ao-rdarov- o01 'Aora-
oa-dav Kacoiae, rv 8' 'Ao-Trdrrovv EXXov eJlvat,
peovra ifc Ttvwv Xt/lvOv a tro\ yeajtpplaT, Kal
aX"E8bv TO Kar' eIJelav ro-aea TO7 NeiXov 'VTOio
7rotetv* 'nv 8 r x'poao-tv avTro TOVS 9fepvobv
oltPpovU wrapao-KevdCIe. V7irp S~ rav T rv/3p0o-
XAs T70O 'AaTra,,Pa Kal TO7 NelXov or-TaClov
4Tral oo`tLot Mlepoi7v elvat woXtv o/Uvv&/ov 7T
v4yw tAlXXyv 8' elvat v7j1ov vTrep Tjr? MeprjPO, )v
eXovaty ol AlyvtrrTiv vUydCes ol a iTOaTaVTreF
Er71r2 'Pa,/LtriLov ,3 KaXovrat 86 e .,/3pL at, O?
av erjiXve9V' /3aartXeovTratr 8 yro yvvauco9,
bvraKcoovotr 4 ToJV ev Mep6d. TA 8S rcarwroepo
cKaTrpw'(e Mepol'9, 7rapa phEv Trv NeFXov 7rpb0
1 vpovw*dv D, wpoarwevdv other MSS.
2 drL, Corais emends to &rd, citing Herodotus 2. 30; and
so Meineke, but both drl ''aPiP jriXov and a&rb ,FapqriT[ov are
found in that passage.
3 VWauTrirXov CDFhiuz.
4 braKobou t, Corais emends to yrapx oda-s (cp. 16. 4. 8).


seven hundred stadia, and after almost reaching the
same parallel as that of the region of Mero6 and
projecting far into Libya and making the second
turn, flows towards the north five thousand three
hundred stadia to the great cataract, turning aside
slightly towards the east, and then one thousand
two hundred stadia to the smaller cataract at Syen6,
and then five thousand three hundred more to the
sea. Two rivers empty into it, which flow from
some lakes on the east and enclose Meroe, a rather
large island. One of these rivers, which flows on
the eastern side of the island, is called Astaboras 1
and the other is called Astapus,2 though some call it
Astasobas and say that another river, which flows
from some lakes from the south,3 is the Astapus and
that this river forms almost all the straight part of
the body of the Nile, and that it is filled by the
summer rains. Above the confluence of the Asta-
boras and the Nile, he says, at a distance of seven
hundred stadia, lies Meros, a city bearing the same
name as the island; and there is another island above
Mero6 which is held by the Aegyptian fugitives
who revolted in the time of Psammitichus, and are
called "Sembritae," meaning "foreigners." 4 They
are ruled by a queen, but they are subject to the
kings of Mero.65 The lower parts of the country
on either side of Meroe, along the Nile towards the
1 Now Atbara or Takazze.
2 Now Bahr el-Abiad. a Now Bahr el-Asrek.
4 See 16. 4. 8. According to Herodotus (2. 30), the original
number of these fugitives was 240,000 (see Rawlinson's note,
Vol. II, p. 37).
6 This statement is inconsistent with that in 16. 4. 8,
which, however, appears to have been taken from Artemi-


TIv 'EpvOpav Mey d/apot ical BX4'/ve-, Alrtorwv
LvratovovreT, AlyTvrrTotC 8' Yopotp 7rapa Oda'ar-
Tav 86 Tpw~'XoShract &iea-rriet el SecKa 4a
&o8eca 4~uepwov 6o v ol Ica'ra "Tv Mep6iv TpwtyXo-
8'rat TO7 Netkov. e~ aptIa-epewv 8~ T A? PVaewo
Tro NeiXov NoDg/at carouKcoDo-Ivw v T Att rly,
pi'ya 5Wvo, a'trb rTv MepOr' dpdiptlevoit 1EXPL TWV
aNycwvov, ovy vroraTTro/votI TOr AlPloiftv, aX'
18la caTr 7rXeiovv 3ao-tXcla, a SeetXfr/.vot. T'ij 8'
AiyVrrov T wrapa Triv Odhandv aorv rTt 70
HIIlXovrotarcoD -Tioaroc 7rpbk To Kavoawtbv OT-TdtoL
Xtio r1 piaKaocrtot. 'Eparoo-Oevri, pv ozyv oVirTW.
3. Aei S 'rl rXeov elreiv, cal 7rpwirov Ta rept
Trv A'yvirrTOv, toT rod) ar'o yVvtoptyop~wiTov Er
Ta 'Fj rpootwtev" Kotva Itev 'yap rtva ical 7adrv
7y )Wpa Kcal Try avveyel KcaL vrep avryv 71T TWV
Alioorrwv o NeXov woapao-Ievadet, vroTlwov re
avtdr IfarTa r Ta avabSdao-et caL 70r olict'-ov
avT&rv TO .Epo9 (L7rOXeirrw IAVoV o KcaXvTrrd-
ievov Ev TaFz 7rXI AtiPvpto-t, TO 8' brep&~ftov cal
I iereoporepov 7TO pev/aro'v raov aol~cTov s8etco
eicarTpo9ev cKal eIpfov 8ta rT7) aTry v dvvSplav.
C 787 adXXa -Rv ieuv Alitorliav ofire raaoav 8tietra-v
NeZXoq o07Te woyvo? oT r' ~ evoetiaa ob'" olcov/iK Ev7y
KaXcj-. Tzv e A Y A'Lyvrrrov Kcat pvov icat rr&a-av /cal
67' eBelas atc roD TOV KucpoDi KarapaKcrov v-rep
ivrvnv ical 'EXE avrtivi; adpdievorvo oirep etariv
Opot Ty1 A-ly wrov Kica 7Tr Al9lorria, o? rTov r7rl
I Xixtor (as in 15. 1. 33; ep. 1. 4. 5), the editors, for rptr-
Xlhoi (E reads -yr'),

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 2-3

Red Sea, are inhabited by Megabari and Blemmyes,
who are subject to the Aethiopians and border on
the Aegyptians, and, along the sea, by Troglodytes
(the Troglodytes opposite Meroe are a ten or twelve
days' journey distant from the Nile), but the parts on
the left side of the course of the Nile, in Libya,
are inhabited by Nubae, a large tribe, who, begin-
ning at Meroe, extend as far as the bends of the
river, and are not subject to the Aethiopians but
are divided into several separate kingdoms. The
extent of Aegypt along the sea from the Pelusiac
to the Canobic mouth is one thousand three hundred
stadia. .This, then, is what Eratosthenes says.
3. But it is necessary to speak at greater length,
and first of the parts about Aegypt, in order to
proceed from those that are better known to those
that come in order thereafter; for the Nile effects
certain common results in this country and in that
which is continuous with it and lies above it, I mean
the country of the Aethiopians, in that it waters
them at the time of its rise and also leaves only
those parts of them habitable which have been
covered during the overflows, and in that it merely
passes through all the higher parts that are at a
greater altitude than its current, leaving them un-
inhabited and desert on both sides because of the
same lack of water. However, the Nile does not
pass through the whole of Aethiopia, nor alone, nor
in a straight line, nor through country that is well
inhabited, but it alone passes through Aegypt,
through the whole of it and in a straight line, begin-
ning from the little cataract above Syen6 and
Elephantine, which are the boundaries of Aegypt
and Aethiopia, to its outlets on the sea-coast. And


OaXaTTrav 6d0coX1v.1 Kal /trv of ye AlioT07re TO
TrXeov vol/a8txo&i oart Kal aTropw 8~td re T'~7 XvTr-
poT7lTa Ty7 Xypap a cat TyV ToW adepaoy av/tlperpLav
Kal .TOV d .' /1i0v ecKToTrtoL-ov, TO? 8' Alt'y'nTtotI
a7raVTa TIavawTa ov/tfiE3fKe icatl yap 'rOXtTiKtcG
Ka p71 -p dpxp ,y ^wOt ICUa 4v yvopIuots9
L8pvvTat TOT'TOt, wO-e ical al 8stara7e avrTOV
l/vJ/ItoveVovTat. /cal E7ravovvral ye OKicoVTr
atoi, Xp-oaa-at T2l 7Tr Xa)pav eb8at/ovia, Ilepl-
cave T6e eD IcaL e7rLt/FeX7 0VTe';' /3aatXa yap
da7oSel6avTre T7ptXI TO 7-rrXjo SteiXov, fcal TobV
Fev a TpaT iTa d eJKLXeoav, TOVb 8 'yeOpIyovs, Tobv
8~ [epeaf- KIal Tobv p/~ TCOv epwv e7L7T/zeXiTaC,
TOy? 8' dXXovq TWoV 7rep TOPv avpO7Trov Kcal Trov
iev Ta 2 e 7 o\6t, roV 8' oo-a ev eLpivyl, '17
TE Keal TeXvaq epyaf oeVov9,3 d& owvrep Ical at
wrpo-aot o vvvyovTro T Saao'tX- ol 8' lepedl Ical
LootXaaooiav ijar ovv cal ad-Tpovoilav doutXflra Te
TOV 3ao-IinXEv joaav. f See Xopa TqrV pev rn'pcoTr
Stalpeatv eiL voP/ov eo)Xe, 8"Uea /eEv 17 OEh,/3a,
8Acxa 8' 6 ev TO7 ACXTa, &cKKale8Ka 8' /1erTayv
( 4 8e TtLve, 7TOoOVTOL tlaiav ol ao-v/ravrTe vo/Iot,
o"raa at dv 7r Xa3vpivtP abXai 4 a Trat e'dT-
Tov TOW V TptiOVTa6) 7rditv 8' ol vo/oat TO/a
AiXaka exoov, elvy yap TrorapXtav ol 7rXecrlTot

1 To7 NelAov, after eKBo3av, Groskurd and later editors
2 Td, added from the Epitome.
3 .pyaDoydjvous, Kramer, for Epya(ople'ov.
4 ab;ai F, a Ta( other MSS.
56 rpidcovra, Meineke, following conj. of Groskurd, emends
to rpadKovra rf.


indeed the Aethiopians lead for the most part a
nomadic and resourceless life, on account of the
barrenness of the country and of the unseasonable-
ness of its climate and of its remoteness from us,
whereas with the Aegyptians the contrary is the
case in all these respects; for from the outset they
have led a civic and cultivated life and have been
settled in well-known regions, so that their organ-
isations are a matter of comment. And they are
commended in that they are thought to have used
worthily the good fortune of their country, having
divided it well and having taken good care of it;
for when they had appointed a king they divided
the people into three classes, and they called one
class soldiers, another farmers, and another priests;
and the last class had the care of things sacred and
the other two of things relating to man; and some
had charge of the affairs of war, and others of all the
affairs of peace, both tilling soil and following trades,
from which sources the revenues were gathered for
the king. The priests devoted themselves both to
philosophy and to astronomy; and they were com-
panions of the king. The country was first divided
into Nomes,1 the Thebais containing ten, the country
in the Delta ten, and the country between them
sixteen (according to some, the number of the
Nomes all told was the same as that of the halls in
the Labyrinth, but the number of these is less than
thirty2); and again the Nomes were divided into
other sections, for most of them were divided into
I The Greek word (Nojoi) here means Districts or Provinces.
Pliny (5. 9) refers to them as praefecturae oppidorum.
2 Meineke and others unnecessarily emend the text to read
"thirty-six (see critical note).

81tprlro, Kcal aTat 8' ea &XXa Tro/ta'- e'XcdxtoTat
8' al ipovpat fepli8e'. 686'r7o0-e 68 7'ri e7r' aicpt$Seh
'al Ka'7l XeTrTV Statpe oews 8t11 Tr< OvveXe6' T6wV
opowv rvovyvoer a? 6 NeFXov a7repydaerat a KaaT
Tah avbjca'e, diatpcv Kal WpoaT etO KCal evaX-
XaT'Tv ur Ta Xrj'/ aTa Kali T&ata o'T-/efa "d'roicpVT-
TmV, ov 8taKcpiverat To re f tXX'drptov ical 7
t!8tov vdTyacri Y 8 va1JeTpEiroat 7rdXtv ICal dTXiv.
evrevPev e Ica Tql yefeo/Trpiav ovoarTjval oao-crv,
~9 rTv XoytrTt K71cv Ka apt' O pI'rjf7cOlv 7rapa (Iovlicw
&th rae dpropla9'. 7ptX Se 8Le prTro, wa'orep To
ov/n7rav, Kal To eV ic -nTW Tio 7 Yo VrXJ00o, els
T pla ''a-a p/epioElao-v 7r T X*cpav. rj 8$ repi Try
7roTra~bv rrpay7taTe7a Staolpet r To-oTrOV, -roov T7
erriteXea vtIcv T'7V fvo-atv. Iosa-e yap 7rXetova
fepet KapTrbv cal roTrto-0aeti a iaiXXov, do-vet xKai
C 788 2 ~df~wv dvd3aatac Toi Tro7oTauoD 7rXe I OTfortret
,yiv, dXX' 5 e'irviLtXeta vroXXadItE Kal 7r ~j9 O cros
fo-Xyvo-ev TrtXt'rovar)F, Clore Kal cKaTa Ta' e.dr-
Trov adraRd3aot- Too-aV'rv vrorttO`0vat ry0V, oa0-1l
ev 'rai pIetooaL, Std re TrfoV Stwpvywv Kal To o
7rapaXwyptTrovv yorl v oD v 7rpb IHerpwviov
Xypovwv g /feyLa-rT7 )Cv 7v bopa Kalt ivd/aa-ut,
Pllica 'rl Tecr-apeo-acalielca Vr4etXs tve/atvev 6
NeXoa, jvitca 8 r'r o~'crT, avv4eatve Xttod' 6r'
e~tevov Se aipoavaro9 Tr xcpav t al a 8w8ea Ldvov
1 By "arourae Strabo refersto theAegyptian land-measure,
which was 100 Aegyptian cubits square (Herodotus 2. 168),
i.e. about seven-elevenths of our acre, Each soldier was


toparchies, and these also into other sections; and
the smallest portions were the arourae.1 There was
need of this accurate and minute division on account
of the continuous confusion of the boundaries caused
by the Nile at the time of its increases, since the Nile
takes away and adds soil, and changes conformations
of lands, and in general hides from view the signs by
which one's own land is distinguished from that of
another. Of necessity, therefore, the lands must be
re-measured again and again. And here it was, they
say, that the science of geometry 2 originated, just
as accounting and arithmetic originated with the
Phoenicians, because of their commerce.3 Like the
people as a whole, the people in each Nome were also
divided into three parts, since the land had been
divided into three equal parts. The activity of the
people in connection with the river goes so far as to
conquer nature through diligence. For by nature
the land produces more fruit than do other lands, and
still more when watered; and by nature a greater rise
of the river waters more land; but diligence has often-
times, even when nature has failed, availed to bring
about the watering of as much land even at the
time of the smaller rises of the river as at the greater
rises, that is, through the means of canals and
embankments. At any rate, in the times before
Petronius 4 the crop was the largest and the rise
the highest when the Nile would rise to fourteen
cubits, and when it would rise to only eight a famine
would ensue; but in the time of his reign over the
granted the free use of twelve arourae of land without tax-
ation (Herodotus 2. 168).
2 Literally, "land-measuring." 3 See 16. 2. 24.
4 C. Petronius (see 17. 1. 54).


wrk~p; aavTo< 7rw-xev' ToiD Neloov iEfTpov,1 /eiyLT1r
?Iv Oopd, icatl dIOKT rroTe pOvov 7TrX>po-avTov,
XtuLoDi obsel ~O'aero. TotaVTry I v StdTaatg, Ta
8' e4i^ XeQ'y ev vvvl.
4. 'Anrb y7p Tiv AIltomniLcv Tep/jvWv pedt T'
'e9edas NeFXo? 7rpo ? plcTovq, e'w TroO Kcaov-
pevov xwplov AeXiTa e'T'r ETrt KopvUOv a-XtL~dIE ov
6 NedXo, 6s ira'tv 6 lIXla'rwv, s4 av 7ptydvov
Kopvyfrv a7troTeXe? TOV TO7rov Trorov, 7rXevpa' 86
TOO 7ptyvov Ta arxtLopeva 1f)' e'Kciepa eiepa
KaGrKcovTa tf'Xp Tr? O aXda'77r, TO pEv v 8 ta
T7? Ka'a nlhXov'crov, To 8' ev apta-rept Tc K Ta
Kadvwcov cal To 7 rXro-tov 'HpLacXetov rrpooa-
yopevo evov, /3do'v 8' Trv 'rapaXiav r~v UeTrabv
T7o IrlXovOiov Kcal 7ro 'HpaKcXeiov. 7yeove S\2
vi-o' ec re T 0OaXdTT1ris al TrOv CevudTrw
Adc'oFv TroO oraTuov, Kcal KaaXETai AX7Ta 8ta
T7v o/IOLdOTqfa rTOV X/arTO o' 8' t TF KcopvpYj
Xywpov o/,wvvU, /w Ke chKTat 8ta TO aX2pXY elvat TO7
aXe0evTOt aX.pa'rTOv, tKal fA Kpur 82 de'7' aVTo
KcaXe'Ta Ae'XTra. 8to p v owv TaiTa TOO NeXo v
or-TOaTra, wv To pyev Hrl9ovo-taic c KaXerTat, rTO 8\
KavwpLticv Kcal 'IHpaKtcX T'rcdv, UeTa'av 86 TOVV70
XXat 7re'e ela6v e/c3oXai t al ye cto'lXoot, Xe7rr-
Tepat 8 7rXeiov and yap T&v r rpwOwv /Cepov
aTroppo 7ye 7roXXal KaO' obXiv /peptlcOetra -at T
vcrov 7roXXah Kal pei0pa Kcal vrjo-ov drrolytoav,
carO' "X'v yeve'o-Oat 7rXwcoTv 8twpI6cov 67ri Stcopvt
Ty7Jret-rov, at Kara pqaTo-wrlv rXeovTaCt 'TotravTrv,
NeIAov U iTpov r ; NetAo~erpi[ov, Corais ; rxiewv .iTpov
conj. Villebrun.
2 St, Groskurd, for 6' i;.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 3-4

country, and when the Nilometer registered only
twelve cubits, the crop was the largest, and once,
when it registered only eight cubits, no one felt
hunger. Such is the organisation of Aegypt; but
let me now describe the things that come next in
4. The Nile flows from the Aethiopian boundaries
towards the north in a straight line to the district
called "Delta," and then, being "split at the head,"
as Plato says,1 the Nile makes this place as it were
the vertex of a triangle, the sides of the triangle being
formed by the streams that split in either direction
and extend to the sea-the one on the right to the
sea at Pelusium and the other on the left to the sea
at Canobus and the neighboring Heracleium, as it is
called,-and the base by the coast-line between
Pelusium and the Heracleium. An island, therefore,
has been formed by the sea and the two streams of
the river; and it is called Delta on account of the
similarity of its shape; and the district at the vertex
has been given the same name because it is the
beginning of the above-mentioned figure; and the
village there is also called Delta. Now these are two
mouths of the Nile, of which one is called Pelusiac
and the other Canobic or Heracleiotic; but between
these there are five other outlets, those at least that
are worth mentioning, and several that are smaller;
for, beginning with the first parts of the Delta, many
branches of the river have been split off throughout
the whole island and have formed many streams and
islands, so that the whole Delta has become navigable
-canals on canals having been cut, which are

1 Timaeus 21 E.


worTe Kal oaTrpKtLva evioLF elvat 7ropO p/ea. Tiv
IIPv obv rIepi.terpov 0oov 7rpL0t0o-tv araSlT v
eaoIv i oavrao-a vraov9 icaXovoa-t 8' a'Trj Ka'
7TV arcta Xwpav oa-v Talv a'ravTtcpv 'roTayiatav
Tro AAXra- ev e$ MEa;, avaP3dOa-eat roO NedXov
KcaXv'rTeTat iro-a Ka? reXatayet 7rX1jv TW ov olKi1-
oe ovr arTat 8' EdTr Xd wov avbro voW v 77 XWaidr
C 789 'i'pvvTra, 7roXet9 Te dto'Xo',ot Kat KCoLaL, vrfaiov-
o-at iaTa T v 7T rppwOev olrtv. rXelov9 8' 12
TerTapaKovrTa 27J.epa9 roO O06pov;v tatcvevav bT
e8mp d'retO' rb' "Iov,
vSoap '7e()' bvrro/fao-tv 'XaAL3avet tear oX17OV,
IcaOd'rep Kxa T7 v airl(atv oa-XEv' ev eitcovTa 8
tIttE'pat' TeXeWs6 yvflrovTait Kal Ava4tvyerai TO
7"re&iOv' "a 0- 8ff OTTOaPv ; avdL'~U~V TOo7aw OrTTOV
6 aporov iaat a 7rpo tOaTTov 8ae, trap' ole Ta
IeLdo O0d'X'r. Tryv abTO Tpo7rov Kia TA etrdvw
TO7 AeAxa 7roTrgITat, rX\Iv OrT E7r' evbElda9 Soov
TerpaKito-XXiotis o-TaSlotv S Pt' evov peIOpov Tro
roratAov )pepop0evov, 7rT\v el' Tro v3 T? evTrpe'y
vFjlao, Jov A toXolywadrr 71 7rov 'HpacxXetwTtxv
vo/LOv 7reppteovaa, 7 e'l roV TL ecKTpo/rr7 Stopvyt
t 7ri rXEov els Xifv7v t/eyadrlYv ial Xropav, j)v
7roriTetv Sv'arata ca d'rep 7r Trr TorP 'Apoa-votT'?v4
vop1Vy rortio~v-17'v 5 ca Tr)v MoiptSog XlLPv7v Kal
TrOv e61 Ts7v MapeorwaT6 vaaXeo/evwov. 0avXXj/37rlv
6' Trel, 7 rroTraji a dioov eo-Tiv At"yvwrrTO9 I
eKaTrpwO9ev -XaTyri TO) NeiXov, a--radov elt' rov

1 icaAoio-, Brequigny, for icoX oieo; Ka7roLcovr, Corais.
2 i hmox, f E, 8e other MSS.
3* d rwov EF; el / irov other MSS.
S'Apotvotrmv D ; 'ApOrvo~r7v other MSS.
5 7roTi(ouu1is Letronne, for 7roLtolis.


navigated with such ease that some people even use
earthenware ferry-boats.1 Now the island as a whole
is as much as three thousand stadia in perimeter; and
they also call it, together with the opposite river-
lands of the Delta, Lower Egypt; 2 but at the rising
of the Nile the whole country is under water and
becomes a lake, except the settlements; and these are
situated on natural hills or on artificial mounds, and
contain cities of considerable size and villages, which,
when viewed from afar, resemble islands. The water
stays more than forty days in summer and then goes
down gradually just as it rose; and in sixty days the
plain is completely bared and begins to dry out; and
the sooner the drying takes place, the sooner the
ploughing and the sowing; and the drying takes place
sooner in those parts where the heat is greater. The
parts above the Delta are also watered in the same
way, except that the river flows in a straight course
about four thousand stadia through only one channel,
except where some island intervenes, of which the
most noteworthy is that which comprises the
Heracleiotic Nome, or except where the river is
diverted to a greater extent than usual by a canal
into a large lake or a territory which it can water, as,
for instance, in the case of the canal which waters the
Arsinoite Nome and Lake Moeris 3 and of those which
spread over Lake Mareotis.4 In short, Aegypt consists
of only the river-land, I mean the last stretch of river-
1 Op. Juvenal 15. 126.
2 Cp. 1. 2. 23 and 16. 2. 35.
3 See Herodotus 2. 149 and Breasted's A History of Egypt,
pp. 191-94.
Now Lake Mariout.

6 Mape@Twv E, Maparativ other MSS.


TptaKLoawv crTara v er'xovra cvveXw1r irXaToc
TO oic1atLov, apfaze'vni a7iro T70 Oypwv1 T7i2
AltoTriag, tieXp T 79 Kopvp ji TroiO Ae XTa. otLKev
oiu Ketpia2 *~XO/Ie'v3 7 Eri iCLKO9, virealtpov-
PtEVow TWV Tr Mi 7TrXov dICTpoTr)v. Wro0ei 8e 7
o- uCpa TOOTO 7T 7roTra/jla9, f1j Xe'yw, Ical 7rj9
Xwcpa; T7a op) T7a ecaTrepw0e v aro V rept
~v4qv 7TOd7V Kara otfeva xIeXpt Troi AlyvIrrtov
r-e Xdovr 6'' oo-ov 'yap TavTa rapaTeiveL Kat
et 'rfcv at V r', aX? ov, ew7rL 7000V70o V al 0
S t t a tat Kat &aoX?7-
roOTato aorvvadyeTal e TKCa SaLeiTat tal SGaaXri-
tLaTt e T 7v Xdpav 8ctao6poi T'7v olK 'ictrov. 6\7
Vr7p TWV 6Popwo eTr Xov aotliKro C7oe-Tv.
5. Oi p~v ovv apyxaLot aTO aaya ` 7b 7rXeov, ol
8' V'aTepov aVbT7Tral yevV? fl~ VTEf T'-0ovTr VTr
opJppwv Oeptvw0v 7rXrpodVevov T7v NeZXov, 7T n
Ailtorliag 7T7 a9l K/Xvto/EvP97, tal dAXt aTra dv T70
eXo-7roL bpeao-, 7ravica/Levcov 8& TWv 5u/3pwv
7ravo/IevrYv Kica oXt/ov 7V TrX w/h.vpiSa. TO7TO
S' bvriTpe t/dMtoraa SoXov 7roF 7TrXE'Owt OV
'Apd3sov KOX7Tov tE'Xpt 7 29 Kivvauwlu0O )o pov Ka'
TO9 deTre/rojflOevotL E7Tr 727V T7 v dkXEdvTwv 07rpav,
ica el e7' Arve lXat Xpeiat rapdcvvov dcea-e tlv-
8pa? 7rpoXetpll eo-aOat Tob 7 T A ywT7rou /ao-iXea6
7rob ITIoXe/XaiLco0v. OVTOI yap Efpov toLav TWV
TOLOVTL' &afepOv'7T S' o6 LtXd4eXo E'7rtKCX7-
1 Spov, Corals, for opwv.
2 KipiG CEFs (C adding u above i), Kcieyi DhiLnowxz (D
adding the et above 7), ,cvp1% Aid.
3a voXoiY.n, Corais (who conj. *rTraih7, however), for
*vXop.v ; &varrTuouvrovy or &ve7rvTuypie conj. Kramer.
1 But the text seems corrupt (see critical note). Strabo
may have written, "Accordingly, it resembles length-wise an

GEOGRAPHY, 17. i. 4-5

land on either side of the Nile, which, beginning at
the boundaries of Aethiopia and extending to the
vertex of the Delta, scarcely anywhere occupies a
continuous habitable space as broad as three hundred
stadia. Accordingly, when it is dried, it resembles
lengthwise a girdle-band,' the greater diversions of
the river being excepted. This shape of the river-
land of which I am speaking, as also of the country,
is caused by the mountains on either side, which
extend from the region of Syen6 down to the
Aegyptian Sea; for in proportion as these mountains
lie near together or at a distance from one another,
in that proportion the river is contracted or widerted,
and gives to the lands that are habitable their
different shapes. But the country beyond the
mountains is for a great distance uninhabited.2
5. Now the ancients depended mostly on conjec-
ture, but the men of later times, having become eye-
witnesses, perceived that the Nile was filled by summer
rains, when Upper Aethiopia was flooded, and particu-
larly in the region of its farthermost mountains, and
that when the rains ceased the inundation gradually
ceased. This fact was particularly clear to those who
navigated the Arabian Gulf as far as the Cinnamon-
bearing country, and to those who were sent out to
hunt elephants 3 or upon any other business which may
have prompted the Ptolemaic kings of Aegypt to
despatch men thither. For these kings were con-
cerned with things of this kind; and especially the
Ptolemy surnamed Philadelphus, since he was of an
unwound girdle-band," or else, Accordingly, it resembles a
hand outstretched to full length," meaning both arm and
hand, and thus referring to the Delta as well as to the stretch
of river-land from Aethiopia to the vertex.
2 See 1. 2. 25. 3 See 16. 4. 7.



0Bet, Aito-ropwv icat &8t ryv dao-Oetav roV
-cOtfuaTO? 8taywyA del TLva Kcal T PPfrete NTlv
Katvorepav. ol 7rdaXat S, paaoXeFT o Trravv
C 790 p6ovrto-av rTv TrotovrWV, lcatrep oliceLot a oopla
/yeryovare Kaa avro 0 ica ol lepeLt, /LeO' 4 v fv
abros 06 'rTXeitwv p/lo8 Wo-e Kal OavJdi~etv d~tov
Kal ~t Troro Ical 8toTt EIo-wo-Tpt T7y Alito7rrav
e7rXOev alrrao-av peXpt, TrI? Kwtvvamwo/iopov, Kal
vrro)tvrljaTa Tr7j c'paTeta" avrov Kai vvv erT
8elivvTat, r7THXat Kal drrt'ypa ai. Katp3oay- re
7r7v A'YV7rTov KaraTa)xv 7rzpoljXOe Kai LE'Xpt Trj
MeC*py tLerh r'ov Alyvrt7wv Kcalt 82 Kala roivoza
T 6 re vr o- Ical Ty7 TrXe TOVTO 7rap' eKivov
TeO jval 0aa rt, eiceL T7 aSeXofb aro0avov;aVU
abT7 MepbOlr (ol A yvvanad 8aot)- '7v e'orwvvvdlav
ohv exaploaro avry Tr9Iv rrv dyvOpwrrov. Oav-
i.aarro' ohv, rwF EK T rv TOLOVT rv a Pop/oWv ob
TeXE(O9 e vapyFv v 'q rrept rOwv obp,3pwv la-opia
roL Tore, cal ravra rwv lepewv 0tXorrpayIuoveo--
Tepov avaSepovrTOv el; Ta tepa ypapp~uara Kal
7rrortsfe/Ievwv, oa-a pd0ro-tv rTeptrrTv e'rrralvet.1
Se yap apa, TOUT' eXP jv rellv, orrep Kcal vvv eMT
i7reTEat, Ti 87j Troe O6povEP Xet/&OVvo 85 ov, IKal
ev To09 vonwrdro0t, ev SE 'r7 0r7,/3ali' Kal t7 rTepl
Yvr2jv v ob vrrdIrrrovwtv o pj3pot" b 8' T OT ef
6tp3pwov at dvaado-eipg L7 17Frelv, r786 rotov'rOv
eo9at /-ai~aprvpwov, oi'ov Iloo-aetiwvio; epP7ae.
prjal yap KaXico-vrvl XE Eiv r)v eK rwv d/pSpwv
1 varopalvet moZ, 4ITrerTve E, marg. F, D first hand but
changed to cerailvet.
1 Diodorus Siculus (1. 33) says his mother.
2 So 15. 1. 19.


inquiring disposition, and on account of the infirmity
of his body was always searching for novel pastimes
and enjoyments. But the kings of old were not at
all concerned with such things, although they proved
themselves congenial to learning, both they and the
priests, with whom they spent the greater part of
their lives; and therefore we may well be surprised,
not only on this account, but also by the fact that
Sesostris traversed the whole of Aethiopia as far as
the Cinnamon-bearing country, and that memorials
of his expedition, pillars and inscriptions, are to be
seen even to this day. Further, when Cambyses
took possession of Aegypt, he advanced with the
Aegyptians even as far as Meroe; and indeed this
name was given by him to both the island and the
city, it is said, because his sister Mero6-some say his
wife-1 died there. The name, at any rate, he
bestowed upon the place in honour of the woman.
It is surprising, therefore, that the men of that time,
having such knowledge to begin with, did not possess
a perfectly clear knowledge of the rains, especially
since the priests rather meticulously record in their
sacred books, and thus store away, all facts that re-
veal any curious information; for they should have
investigated, if they made any investigations at all,
the question, which even to this day is still being
investigated, I mean why in the world rains fall in
summer but not in winter, and in the southernmost
parts but notin Thebais and the country round Syen6 ;2
but the fact that the rising of the river results from
rains should not have been investigated, nor yet
should this matter have needed such witnesses as
Poseidonius mentions; for instance, he says that
it was Callisthenes who states that the summer rains

airLav TWv 0eptv)v, 7rapa' 'ApwtaorXovv Xa,3v'ra,
Kce6vov 8' 7rapa Opao-avdcov TroVD Oaov (7rwv
apXalwv Se (votpCoKv elZ orovT), Ecelvov 8 wrap'
atXXov,1 ToV &e Trap' 'Op pov 8uLTreTa 0a'caKovTov
TOv NeZXov"
av S' tel Alyvi7rroto uttreoTEo '7rorapolo.
'AXX' C0O TraDra, '7oXXCv elpyKOTrov, S;v dprio-et
6vto pvaaI T'ov 7rotao-avTaV KaO ^ 'a TO 7' epi rov
NeiXov /3t/Xlov, Eib'8opv re KcaL 'Apl'o-rwa Tv
6K TOW 7TreptdTrdrvO rX'v yap T719 TadEW 7Td /ye
alhXa Kal 7b puee IcaL Ty erIXt 0pio-e rabd T2
e'o-T KIetl/eva rap' alUpoTrpotL. eyo yovv ar-opov-
puevoF dv7Tt'YpdCPCoV elF TrV dvTt/3ohXv c Oarepov
Odre6pov avvreaXov" 7roTepoT 8' v 0 TaXXoTrpta
b7ro/aXX6/evo, ev "AjzuCvoo eVpot Tts av. EbGo8po9
,' ?ita'ro ov 'AplTorwva' ? pv'rot Cpdot'- 'Apt -
TCOeVto' pIaXXov o-rv.
01 ithv ozv adpXato TO oli/ovpuevov avr Ktca
'ToTir61ervov V'T TO7 NelXov tuovov ALyV7,rov
Eaciovv, a0ro TCOV 7rept iv1v rV TO7TrtV ap daeivot
eapep 7TrIj 0aXLadrrv ol 8' Vor-epov p4eXp vvv
rrpocdXa/pov Ke / TVv Tov TrpO u PLCepwv Ta3
f/erag T70O 'Apa~elov icX7'rov Kal 7TO Netkov
C 791 aXeSv Tt r'iraTa (ol 8' Ait o7' reo ov rdvv XpovTat
Tj 'Epvtpa LakdaTy), KC 8 7Tn)v o'irepiwv Ta
1 For &6Aov C. Miller conj. irapa eaAoo (citing 1. 1. 11).
STraird, Corais, for TaCTa.
3 Td, before iperaj, Corais inserts.

1 Literally "antigraphs"; i.e., apparently, "copies" of
parallel passages from the two works.


are the cause of the risings, though Callisthenes took
the assertion from Aristotle, and Aristotle from
Thrasyalces the Thasian (one of the early physicists),
and Thrasyalces from someone else, and he from
Homer, who calls the Nile "heaven-fed": "And
back again to the land of Aegyptus, heaven-fed
But I dismiss this subject, since it has been dis-
cussed by many writers, of whom it will suffice to
report only the two who in my time have written the
book about the Nile, I mean Eudorus and Ariston the
Peripatetic philosopher; for except in the matter of
arrangement everything found in the two writers is
the same as regards both style and treatment. I, at
any rate, being in want of copies 1 with which to make
a comparison, compared the one work with the other;2
but which of the two men it was who appropriated
to himself the other's work might be discovered at
Ammon's temple! Eudorus accused Ariston; the
style, however, is more like that of Ariston.
Now the early writers gave the name Aegypt to
only the part of the country that was inhabited and
watered by the Nile, beginning at the region of Syene
and extending to the sea; but the later writers down
to the present time have added on the eastern side
approximately all the parts between the Arabian
Gulf and the Nile (the Aethiopians do not use the
Red Sea at all 3), and on the western side the parts
2 In the Alexandrian library, apparently.
SThe other translators interpret wdvv as meaning "much,"
or "to such an extent," or the like. But Strabo is speaking
of Aethiopians in the strict sense of the term; for "the
country between the Nile and Arabian Gulf is Arabia (17.1.
21), and even Aegyptian Heliupolis (17. 1. 30) and Thebes
(17. 1. 46) are in "Arabia."


AlXpt Trov AbdaO Kae l Jv TT 7rapaXIa T aTro7
TOD Kavwo/3KoD aro67daTov pteXpt Ka-rapa0 ov Kcal
7Ti Kvprvaiwov ELTr7ipare'ia. o' re yAp aro TOV7
'HToXetzaov 3ao-terE,; f iaoxvav TOOV'OTOV, o'1007T
Ica) Trv Kvpnvat'av av'Trv IcaTeorov Kacl 8evel-
ptavTo T7pO Trvn A'lyvwrov Ial qT\v KVtrpov.
'Pcowauobl 7 01 81a8ead/1eAoit T EIV eICeivL av7r apXiav
IKpivavT~e 7Tr A'tyvUrrov dv TO, aVToZL opotv
8te~oXa~av. Aadcre(t 8' ol AlryTr7toL KaXova-
TA9 olcovulevaP; Xcpa; TrepteXo/Ueva K;v ckX /Leya-
Xatv ep/p7lant, co &av vljrovw 7re ayla. -roXb se
7TOUT eoT KaTa' 7V At 8v77v, rpel' 8' elaiv a'
7rpobcropoL Tj At'yvrrTw cal b Tr'2 abTry Teraybat.
Ta /eiv oPv /caO' oXov ial avwoTrdrtw reply 7T79
Al'yvTrov TaDTa Xeyo/1eV, Ta KcaO' Ccao-Ta U8 ical 3
Ta9? apertv aTr? vPiv 8 EtifLev.
6. 'Evel 2 Tb 7TrXe-a'rTOV Tro Ipov rovrov ical
Tb KvperbraTov ] AX 'fvSpetd ear cal TO Trep
To KvptfTaTop 17 'AXecav~peta cT a Ta 7TrEpl
avT?7v, EvTerOev apKIcTov. e'rTt Trovvv oa rO
iqX.ovcriov wrapaXia 7rpP9 TJ7Vwi arrpav ~7Tovo
/ItXpt /ev TOV KavwosBLco O`rToIaTOv XtI'Owv 7rov
Iai Tpla/KorTlov OTna8Lwv, 8 I8i' Ka e3d(rTv TOO
AeXTa Efagev* evrTEvOev 8' e\l 4CpovtPOV T) V"-0OP
iXXot oTratot rTrevTrf'OVTa 7rpbO T 70ro e9aTrv.
8 6 dpo vPaOlov e'oTr vrapa/yrpice, 7rpoaeX'oraTro
Tf rj7re6p, XLt/zva 7rpTO aVrTIv WroiovP ap/lcroToov.
1 go-E, Letronne and Groskurd, for o'i ye.
2 67r' m for eir'; so Corais and Meineke.
3 The text of F from KaL to nroEAsaios (17. 1. 11) is lost.

1 Ptolemy I (Soter), reigned 323-285 B.c.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 5-6

extending as far as the oases, and on the sea-coast
the parts extending from the Canobic mouth to
Catabathmus and the domain of the Cyrenaeans.
For the kings after Ptolemy 1 became so powerful
that they took possession of Cyrenaea itself and even
united Cypros with Aegypt. The Romans, who
succeeded the Ptolemies, separated their three
dominions and have kept Aegypt within its former
limits.2 The Aegyptians call "oases "3 the inhabited
districts which are surrounded by large deserts, like
islands in the open sea. There is many an oasis in
Libya, and three of them lie close to Aegypt and are
classed as subject to it. This, then, is my general,
or summary, account of Aegypt, and I shall now
discuss the separate parts and the excellent attributes
of the country.
6. Since Alexandria4 and its neighbourhood con-
stitute the largest and most important part of this
subject, I shall begin with them. The sea-coast,
then, from Pelusium, as one sails towards the west,
as far as the Canobic mouth, is about one thousand
three hundred stadia-the "base" of the Delta, as
I have called it; 5 and thence to the island Pharos,
one hundred and fifty stadia more. Pharos is an
oblong isle, is very close to the mainland, and
forms with it a harbour with two mouths; for
2 The Romans made Cyrenaea an "allied state" (civitas
foederata) in 96 B.c., a Roman province in 88 B.c., and later
(see 17. 3. 25) united it with Crete. Cypros was annexed to
the province of Cilicia in 47 B.c., presented by Antony to
Cleopatra in 32 B.c., made an imperial province in 27 B.c.,
and a senatorial province in 22 B.c.
3 The Greek spelling is "auases."
4 See Map of Alexandria at end of volume,
5 17. 1. 4.


IL9 k0 IEXa 709
oiwv yap erUT KOX7Tr-w8y, aKlpa ELI; TO 7re ayo'
7rpo3e/3pxr7)u vfl 0o 7vo7W 86 o e ra a 17 v770or
itpvTa icX eovUra TOV Ic1X7rov, 7rapa/3/3X77Tat y/ap
avbT Kara /t7KcoF. Trv 8' afcpwv T7F 4dapov Tb
jP, Ov E lov P XXv deU TrpooXCeye 79 lrreipp Kca"
71 Icar avrjlv aKpa (KaXdTae r aKpa AoXta),
Icat 7rote ToV XLtteva aprLT7opov* 1 'rpo Se Ty
rUTeor77Tt TOV teCTa4v 7ropov /cal Trerpat eclav, at
Npv viqaXot, atl 8 Icai d$Xovaat, rpaxyvovaas
7rcaav w(pav '7b 7rpoor-7Tirrov ec roi 7TrebXdaov
icXv8ovtov. Eo7-r1 Kal avTO TOb T7?r v7o-'Sov
aKcpov 7rETpa 7repli'~Xvarov, eXovaa 7rvpyov
Oavyzao-Trow Ka'rTea evaucr ievov Xevlov Xlov Tro-
Xvdpo bov, opuvvoIv 7r vja0-. TODirTV S' av409ice
CTparTOv KMrl8to, X0io9 7TWV SaaewLtv, T7i?
T7)v TrXCoiFto/evv awT plav Xdpiv, 6q prlatv 17
e'rt1ypairj-2 aXtttevov yap ova-r7v ica 7aTrETv17
7Ti)? Ka7epW OE0v 7rapaXia9, eXOaiOrv U Kial Xotpd-
8a; tcal Spd(iyX TIvd, 'Set O'p7/eov Trtvb< V9fyXoio
1 &ay(prolov w, Corais.
2 After irtypao~p' C, in the margin, adds: 'Erf-ypa.ta.
Bruparos Kvzitos Aei osdvovs Geois Uw7'pe rv nrp TUv Tahwi'o-
tcvwv' The same words are found in Dhirw, and also, with
'Eirftpauca omitted, in moxz.

1 This tower, one of the "Wonders of the World," cost
800 talents (Pliny 6. 18). According to Eusebius (Chron. ad
Olymp. 124. 1), it was built in the time of Ptolemy Phila-
delphus, but, according to Suidas, at the beginning of the
reign of Pyrrhus (299 B.c.), i.e. in the time of Ptolemy Soter.
According to Josephus (Bell. Jud. 4. 10. 5, or L.C.L. edition,
Vol. III, pp. 181 and 251), it was visible from the sea at
300 stadia; according to Epiphanes (Steph. Byz., s.v. -dpos),
it was 306 fathoms high ; and the Schol. Lucian ad Icaro-
menippum, 12, says that it was visible 300 miles away See


the shore of the mainland forms a bay, since it
thrusts two promontories into the open sea, and
between these is situated the island, which closes
the bay, for it lies lengthwise parallel to the shore.
Of the extremities of Pharos, the eastern one lies
closer to the mainland and to the promontory
opposite it (the promontory called Lochias), and
thus makes the harbour narrow at the mouth; and
in addition to the narrowness of the intervening
passage there are also rocks, some under the water,
and others projecting out of it, which at all hours
roughen the waves that strike them from the open
sea. And likewise the extremity of the isle is a
rock, which is washed all round by the sea and has
upon it a tower that is admirably constructed of
white marble with many stories and bears the same
name as the island.' This was an offering made by
Sostratus of Cnidus, a friend of the kings, for the
safety of mariners, as the inscription says : 2 for since
the coast was harbourless and low on either side, and
also had reefs and shallows, those who were sailing
from the open sea thither needed some lofty and
A. M. de Zogheb, P/udes sur L'Ancienne Alexandrie, Paris,
1910 ; and Thiersch's restoration of the tower in Rostovtzeff's
A History of the Ancient World, Vol. I, p. 369.
2 Some of the MSS. (see critical note) record the inscription,
which is preserved in Lucian, How to IWrite History, 62
(but is obviously a gloss in Strabo): "Sostratus of Cnidus,
son of Dexiphanes, on behalf of mariners, to the Divine
Saviours." "The.Divine Saviours" might refer to Ptolemy
Soter and Berenice (see the Corais-Letronne edition, which
cites Spannheim, De Praestantia et Usu Numismat. I, p. 415,
and Visconti, Iconographie Grecque II, 18, p. 564), but it was
the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) who were known by "all"
as "guardians of the sea" and "the saviours of sailors"
(1. 3. 2 and 5. 3. 5).


Kca XaL/ripooG 70To AO TroOD IreXayove rpoarTrXeov-
C 792 otv, wor' eVoTroxeLv TrF eI'CorfoXcv TO? X/Eivo9.
i oal TO Er0-pCEov 8e aoroua ob0 eveCIO3OXOv e'oTev,
ob ,tv roo-avir? ye 8eTat rrpovoiac. 'roet 86
/ca2 roirto aXXov Xqt~va Tbv '70o Ev~'aTrov aXoi-
Cevov* PpoKetTat 8' o'Tro TOu opvUICro lcal bXeto--
To7 Xlt1eYoq* o pEV lyap etc TO7 XeXOEV'rTO? Fjpyov
T7i9 O(Ii)pov TOV e'to7rXovv e vr o /eyaq cr
X1117j6v o5'TO( 8C\ O-PVEXEt eU 6a'Oet iceIvy, T65
JerTaa-TaSlo tacov/,ev( ycyaT 8tetpy ievot aTr'
avTov, 7rapacdcetra. TO 8\ )wtad LeCTtv adro T?7
rWeIpov yeo vpa Er' T27 vi-ov ijO KaTa TO e7o-reptov
avTr1' /pepo EIKTCTaftievP 86o 8LaTivrov9 bTroXeflr-
ovo-a povov 6el Tov Evvo'TOv Xqh'rva, Kal avrov;
ye7yedvupoalivov3 j'v 8' ob y7efpa iovov e7ir Tv;
vCaOov TO Epyov TO7TO, aXXa Ical vSpayoytov, 0TC
ye CVfcero vOv 8' "pseLowaev auTr od eb; KaFtrap
ev 79) 7rphq 'AXseav8pe'a wroXEit)o, TeTayfevl7v
/Lera T Wo /aC rXEI)Ov oXAtot 8' oltcoU at 7rpo 7T'
Trrupy) vaVaTiKol aLvpev. o youv /peya' Xt7Lr v rpO?
T7 KIeiKXeLao-a icaXcig 7T TE Xe uaT ical 7K T d -et,
d'ytP3alOrI TE ea-Ttv, ao-Te T7V J IeylaTrlV vaDv ETr
IXI/LaKo optLE; v, IcaL elf rXelov; CaxieraI XL~uEva.
ol 1Ev o3v irpoTepot T7ov AlyrrrTcov 3ao-tX-iE,

1 i.e. Harbour of the happy return." This harbour might
have been so named after Eunostus, king of Soli in Cypros
and son-in-law of Ptolemy Soter (0. Wachsmuth, G5ttinger
Festrede, 1876, 4), the idea being inspired, perhaps, by the
fact that Eunostus was so good a harbour as compared with
the eastern.
2 This harbour (called "Cibotus," i.e. Chest" or Box "),
which was fortified, was connected with Lake Mareotis by
a canal. Its shape and size are to-day problematical, for it


conspicuous sign to enable them to direct their course
aright to the entrance of the harbour. And the
western mouth is also not easy to enter, although
it does not require so much caution as the other.
And it likewise forms a second harbour, that of
Eunostus,1 as it is called, which lies in front of
the closed harbour which was dug by the hand of
man.2 For the harbour which affords the entrance
on the side of the above-mentioned tower of
Pharos is the Great Harbour, whereas these two
lie continuous with that harbour in their innermost
recess, being separated from it only by the embank-
ment called the Heptastadium.3 The embankment
forms a bridge extending from the mainland to the
western portion of the island, and leaves open only
two passages into the harbour of Eunostus, which
are bridged over. However, this work formed not
only a bridge to the island but also an aqueduct, at
least when Pharos was inhabited. But in these
present times it has been laid waste by the deified
Caesar 4 in his war against the Alexandrians, since
it had sided with the kings. A few seamen, how-
ever, live near the tower. As for the Great Harbour,
in addition to its being beautifully enclosed both by
the embankment and by nature, it is not only so
deep close to the shore that the largest ship can
be moored at the steps, but also is cut up into
several harbours. Now the earlier kings of the
has been filled up and its site lies within that of the present
s So called from its being "Seven Stadia" in length. It
has been so much enlarged by alluvial deposits and debris
from the old city that it is now, generally speaking, a mile
wide, and forms a large part of the site of the city of to-day.
Julius Caesar.


dya-alreovTe o0 elXov Kca ov 7ravv eTretoadtcrw
Eo0/evot, 8ta/3epR/Xlyevot 7rpO arav7Ta TOV 7rXe ot'-
Tra, Katl .tharX Ta TOb' ~"EXXrva; (Trop90rai ya'p
jaoav iCal ertOVrLU Tal 7 T aXXoTrptav KcarT Trravtv
y7,?), e7re'a'Trav fvXai dv T~ T7TrWo rov6r, KiEXEv-
oavPTe a7reipyeiL TOVn rpool-ouraPT icaroa/cata
aTiroiz 8oaav Triv 7rpooaayopevoy'ev'7 'PaTacKotv,
r1 vvvv 1 r' 'AXeeav8pewOv 7'roXewor o-Tt eipoa TO
vrepKieifLvov rwv vewfplO, TOTe 6 1 /c UT Vbr7PXe'
TA 8\ iCiVcKXip Tir Kci /3ovIKc6XotI r7ap8oo-av,
Svvaievotv Kca aTroa KiwXveiV TOV< ero9Cev
eirtovTra;. eTreX9t v &8 'AX9Aav8poa, i8~wv TT;
EiKcatplav, 7vw Te1XIi etV 77-1 ToI T f\V 7v TOXI
T7j 8' ivo-eTpov e'"rl, coXovO 7Icvlav Evatlovia r Ty^
7r-OXE( 'vl riovevova- t o ie7.telov cara sTv VTro-
,ypaob v Tro KTlr/iTarOq ov/13adv TcOV 7yap PXLtTecK-
T dvV ry 1 XEVKq S8ao-i7yatvo.e'voAv T 7V rov
7reptb/3Xov ypa/jfuv, errtXtrovo- l -T7;~ 7ri Kal
TO7U /3atXce'O e7rto'To, ot 8iLOtKjral Ta V a(! Trwov
Iu'poV 70oWV 7rapercKevacrJO T'cov TO0i ep -/aratl
7rapeayov, 8' 6v ical al Sol icaTeTf7-i)j o-rav elP
7rXteov'"2 r7TT' obv olwvio-lat XeyovTat3 7rpFO
aya0ofi yeyov6r.4
7. 'I 8' e~Kcapla 7roXTrpo07rov' ~ /lcXKoVrT6o
Te ydp e-Tt TO Xwoplov 8val 7reXadye L, T~ puv 5
1 7y, Groskurd, for Tr.
2 els irAcous, Tozer suspects as being a gloss.
3 Ah-yeTai tOz. 'yeyovdTos Dhi.
S,-~ p T 58 E, rb v b r other MSS.
1 Literally, "white earth."
2 According to Plutarch (Alexander 26), birds of all kinds
settled on the place like clouds and ate up all the barley-

GEOGRAPHY, 17. J. 6-7

Aegyptians, being content with what they had and
not wanting foreign imports at all, and being pre-
judiced against all who sailed the seas, and par-
ticularly against the Greeks (for owing to scarcity
of land of their own the Greeks were ravagers and
coveters of that of others), set a guard over this
region and ordered it to keep away any who should
approach; and they gave them as a place of abode
Rhacotis, as it is called, which is now that part of
the city of the -Ale andrians which lies above the
ship-houses, but was at that time a village; and
they gave over the parts round about the village
to herdsmen, who likewise were able to prevent the
approach of outsiders. But when Alexander visited
the place and saw the advantages of the site, he
resolved to fortify the city on the harbour. Writers
record, as a sign of the good fortune that has since
attended the city, an incident which occurred at
the time of tracing the lines of the foundation:
When the architects were marking the lines of the
enclosure with chalk,1 the supply of chalk gave out;
and when the king arrived, his stewards furnished
a part of the barley-meal which had been prepared
for the workmen, and by means of this the streets
also, to a larger number than before, were laid out.
This occurrence, then,theyare said to have interpreted
as a good omen.2
7. The advantages of the city's site are various;
for, first, the place is washed by two seas, on the
meal with which the area had been marked out, so that
Alexander was greatly disturbed at the omen ; but the seers
assured him that the omen was good. The barley-meal
betokened an abundance of food (Ammianus Marcellinus
22. 16. 7).

C 793 aro Tcrv apx v Tr Alyvwrl4l Xeyopi/ev, T7
8' a&ro6 uIfeypipaq r T7 )jF XALrpv 7Ti' Mapela9,
f Kal Mape&'TI1 XMyerat" 7rvXpo'i a Tac1T7v
7roXXaFv &(opvitv 6 NeZXo9, aivwev re ical bc
wrXaayiov, &' wv T el iKO/Ilto(Iea v7roXX rXdor)l
T'V a7Trb aXdrrTTs do-E'iv, OaCr' o kXtp'v 6 X/rvaov
XCi pxe 7rXovo-itLepoa TiD O aXarTTtov Trary 86
icat 7(r dEKo/uto/ieva E 'AXefav8pelav 7TXelt TrWV
elatKO-tIO,~Leyvo E dCOT' Y S' ao v Tl e' Vre 7r
'AXegavSpe[a K al T At^iatapXla vertbyevov, opwvo
Ta oXKdaSav U Tre T'c icardT7irw alE ev ral
avaywyait, oa-ov 3ap6Tepai re Ical icovo'oepat
Sevpo K dAIcKEe 7rXEkoev. 7rpbs S, 'r irWXoVrw TrV
KaTayo/tLevYO eicaTrpwre et' re Tov ica'ra OdXaarav
XtLpea Kal ce TOPv tpvaFov, ical TO evdepov cttov
rr-peiao'eco; do-Ttv 80 Kal T auvr ovt93alvet 8ca TO
adpiKXVCvaTrov cal 7T eicatpov 7i0- ava/3da'ewo TOV
NeiXov. at /iev yap a'XXat 7irohet at errl Xtcvwv
L8pvUiteva, 3apei Kcal rvityc8eteXO e'xovt roUv aepa9
ev Tol, Kavia aott Tay Oepovv" eTri yap rTOF,? Xelhec-tv
at XILvat TeXaraTOvv'at 8t1 7a v rc Trov 1'XlOwv
dva6vtjlao-tv" /oppop/3a ovT o v dva epolfvump
oavTolj' licU/ao8;, voo'a 77 6 dJp "Xicerat ical
Xotoitsicv KcardpXe 7'raOiav" tv 'AXegav8pela 8e
T0O Oepovq apXofvlov rXq7pov/jevoV 6 NelXov
7rX 1po' ia T7V ljv v /cal obvSa v ea TeXp.aTroe?
TO Tr avac opv a 'roijrov2 /oX0ylpcdv TOTe S8
acal 01 E'ilo-at 7riveovov ei TV/opELwv Kal TOV)
I Ofpclat 7rvov-t
Toaovrov redXayov9, o-re a~c ico-ra TOi Oepova
'AXevav8peiy &ttyovo-v.
1 Mapias MapE&ts E, Mapls .. .MapairtjT other
MSS. 2 ,roiiaov moz, waoir'rav other MSS.


north by the Aegyptian Sea, as it is called, and on
the south by Lake Mareia, also called Mareotis. This
is filled by many canals from the Nile, both from
above and on the sides, and through these canals
the imports are much larger than those from the sea,
so that the harbour on the lake was in fact richer
than that on the sea; and here the exports from
Alexandria also are larger than the imports; and
anyone might judge, if he were at either Alexandria
or Dicaearchia1 and saw the merchant vessels both
at their arrival and at their departure, how much
heavier or lighter they sailed thither or therefrom.
And in addition to the great value of the things
brought down from both directions, both into the
harbour on the sea and into that on the lake, the
salubrity of the air is also worthy of remark. And
this likewise results from the fact that the land
is washed by water on both sides and because of the
timeliness of the Nile's risings; for the other cities
that are situated on lakes have heavy and stifling
air in the heats of summer, because the lakes then
become marshy along their edges because of the
evaporation caused by the sun's rays, and, accord-
ingly, when so much filth-laden moisture rises, the
air inhaled is noisome and starts pestilential diseases,
whereas at Alexandria, at the beginning of summer,
the Nile, being full,, fills the lake also, and leaves
no marshy matter to corrupt the rising vapours.
At that time, also, the Etesian winds blow from
the north and from a vast sea,2 so that the Alex-
andrians pass their time most pleasantly in summer.
1 Now Puteoli.
2The Aegyptian monsoons, here called the "Etesian"
(i.e. "Annual") winds, blow from the north-west all


8. "ETrre & xXa/ISoet86e Tob o-Xi a T70 dT d covf
7rij 7r0o-eew oi Ta Ue 67Trt rl ICIo o rrhevpd eort Tar
apt tLKXvcTa, 00o- oT7pidcoVTa earSitwv xovra 81d-
.eTrpov, Ta eL tXado o lo-6pot, eTrTarl OKTcw
oraSiwv ~Kaciepov, a~ yydt voL oq p.iv V;rT 06aXrT-
T7'?7, T7- 6' no7rto T;)3 X/iv>] aTrao-a uev 68oF,
KaTaTeT/Lr/TatL IrTrrlXdTot /Ical apptatTr ydrotV, 8vo-C
8 7rXaTrvTa'rat9, 6N 7rXhov ?'I 7hopov avawerrTra-
e'vatF, a' 8 8 Xa Kal 79rpo9 opO'v re'uvovo-rv
aXXf'Xav. EXit 8' 7TrXt reTfE'Vrl Te COLva icdKX-
Xto-Ta cKai Ta /ao-tceta, TeTapTov I Kcal TptTOv
TOi0 ravT's 7reptI/3Sov 1e1po 'V Tov 'yap /3ac-rXwv
eraaoro' Wo-Trep TroEIS 1owtolT vaorlj.tao rv poore t-
XoiXdCeft Tiva K6do'pov, o T Kcal olic~o-rv 18ta

1 According to Plutarch (5. 11), the shape was like that of
a Macedonian chlamys, or military cloak; and the plan was
designed by "Diochares" (probably an error for "Deino-
crates"). Likewise, "the inhabited world is chlamys-
shaped" (see Vol. I, p. 435 and footnote 3). See Tarbell,
Classical Philology, I, p. 283, for a discussion of this passage
as bearing on the shape of the chlamys.
2 Strabo is thinking apparently of a line drawn from the
centre of the skirt of the chlamys, which was circular, to
the centre of the collar.
3 According to Philo (In Flaccum 973A) the city was
divided into five sections, which were designated as Alpha,
Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon. Beta apparently com-
prised the palaces, including the Museum, the Sema and
many other buildings ; Delta, the Jewish quarter (Josephus,
Bell. Jvd. 2. 8) ; but the sites of the three others are doubtful.
On the dimensions of the city, ep. Josephus, Bell. Jud.
2. 16. 4 (30 X 10 stadia); Philo, In Flaccum 757 (10 stadia in
breadth); Stephanus Byzantinus, s.v. 'ANeS'vperia (34 X 8,


8. The shape of the area of the city is like a
chlamys 1 the long sides of'it are those that are
washed by the two waters, having a diameter of
about thirty stadia, and the short sides are the
isthmuses, each being seven or eight stadia wide and
pinched in on one side by the sea and on the other
by the lake.3 The city as a whole is intersected by
streets practicable for horse-riding and chariot-
driving, and by two that are very broad, extending
to more than a plethrum in breadth, which cut one
another into two sections and at right angles.4 And
the city contains most beautiful public precincts and
also the royal palaces, which constitute one-fourth
or even one-third of the whole circuit of the city;
for just as each of the kings, from love of splendour,
was wont to add some adornment to the public
monuments, so also he would invest himself at his
own expense with a residence, in addition to those
and 110 in circuit) ; Pliny 5. 10 (15 miles in circuit); and
Diodorus Siculus 17. 59 (40 in breadth), who obviously
means by "breadth" what others call "length," and seems
to include suburban districts on east and west.
4 The main longitudinal street ran straight through from
the "Canobic Gate," or "Gate of th- Sun," on the east to
the "Gate of the Moon" on the west. Its site has been
identified in part with that of the present Rosetta Street
(see A. M. de Zogher, J~tuzdes sur L'Ancienne Alexandrie,
p. 11); but Dr. Botti (cited by Zogher) takes a different
view. "The most important of the latitudinal streets was
that of the Sema, which had on its right the tomb of Alex-
ander the Great, and, on its left, very probably the Museum.
Then it crossed the Canobic avenue, passed the Adrianum
and Caesareum on the right, the temple of Isis-Plousia and
the Emporium on the left. and ends on the quay of the great
maritime port and the place of embarkation, near the two
obelisks" (Neroutsos-Bey, quoted by Zogher, p. 15). See
Map at end of volume.



reptea3dXXeTo rrpbo TaF; Trapxov'aatq, wo're vv
e4 TpwTv rep' Ea'Ttv
a'ravra /LfVTroL uvvaij> Kal aXX2Xot' Kat r7
XLeVub, Kal b'oa e'`c aTroD. T&V S /3 aaXeit)
/xepo E'orTI Kca TO Movaoeov, e'Xo 7urepTra'Tov ia'
C 794 ife8pav Kalb oIlcov ueyav, ev ,o TO uvo-'bTltov Tv
f.reT7eOVTrv T70 Movreiov C cXoXo'ywov dv8pv.
COre Tt Tf7 O-rvvd8() raTry cat Xp4p ara Kowva cal
Iepevk c d'rt1 T7 Movaelt, TEray/pevo; TOTe a(v
v7rb Trv /ao-,LtXov, vvv 8' w'7 Katoeapon. piepoV
8\ Trv /ao-a eiLtX v r't caal TO KaXo\ogevov Ifela,2
o 7repiPoXo iv, v al T&v 83ao-thWv rafal I Kal
t 'AXedavopov e~0is Tap To aoua adeXo/verov
IHep&/cKav o Tro Adyov -ITroXe/pao9, IcaTaKco/i-
`ovra eic 7ii~ Ba/3vX5vov Kail edcpe7rOf.evov TraVr
Kara 7rXeovef~ av Ical e'istao-,'v ri7 AlytVrroV"
1 irJ Dhi.
2 :i/a, Tzschncke, for S2/ua; so later editors.

1 Od sscy, 17. 266 (concerning the palace of Odysseus).
2 i.e. on the promontory called Lochias (see 9 following).
3 Cp. the structure described by Vitruvius, De Architectura
(5. 11 2): "Spacious exedras within three porticoes with
seats, where philosophers, rhetoricians and all others who
take delight in studies can engage in disputation." Suidas
(s.v. eSpa) seems to make the Exedra a building distinct
from the Museum: "They live near the Museum and the
4 i.e. "Tomb" However, the MSS. (see critical note)
read Sona, i.e. "Body." And so does the Greek version
of the Pseudo-Callisthenes (C. Miller, Didot Edition, Scrip-
tores Rerum Alexandri .Magni III, 3. 4): "And Ptolemy
made a tomb in the holy place called 'Body of Alexander,'
and there he laid the body, or remains, of Alexander "; but


already built, so that now, to quote the words of
the poet,' "there is building upon building." All,
however, are connected with one another and the
harbour, even those that lie outside the harbour.
The Museum is also a part of the royal palaces; it
has a public walk, an Exedra with seats, and a large
house,3 in which is the common mess-hall of the
men of learning who share the Museum. This group
of men not only hold property in common, but also
have a priest in charge of the Museum, who formerly
was appointed by the kings, but is now appointed
by Caesar. The Sema also,4 as it is called, is a part
of the royal palaces. This was the enclosure which
contained the burial-places of the kings and that of
Alexander; for Ptolemy,5 the son of Lagus, fore-
stalled Perdiccas by taking the body away from him
when he was bringing it down from Babylon and
was turning aside towards Aegypt, moved by greed
and a desire to make that country his own.6 Further-
the Syrian version (Alexander the Great, trans. by E. A. W.
Budge, p. 142) reads: "and they call that place 'The tomb
of Alexander' unto this day." But more important is the
statement of Zenobius (Proverbia III, 94): "Ptolemy (Philo-
pator) built in the middle of the city a mnenia (Uvi)ia oico-
otcriras), which is now called the Sema, and he laid there all
his forefathers together with his mother, and also Alexander
the Macedonian."
5 Ptolemy Soter.
6 The accounts vary. According to Diodorus Siculus
(18. 26-28), Arrhidaeus spent two years making elaborate
preparations for the removal of Alexander's body; and
Ptolemy I went as far as Syria to meet him, and thence took
the body to Aegypt for burial. Pausanias (1. 6. 3, 1. 7. 1)
says that Ptolemy I buried it at Memphis and Ptolemy II
transferred it to Alexandria. The Pseudo-Callisthenes (I.e.)
says that the Macedonians were at first determined to take
the body back to Macedonia, but later, upon consulting the


Kat 8 Kal adn-Xero 8tacgapei vrro' Trow -orTparw-
TwV, EJreX oTro; ro- 700 ToXefzaov Kal IcaTaKXei-
(ravTO( avrTv ed V17Gp EpWLy7 Efe~Kvov p)EV OUv
(dTreavev ep'/replrrpe6'1 TaL oaapto'aat d7TrX-
O'VTrcv e'T avrov2 7wv O-rparT7u 7v, aVv aVr7
86 ica l ol /3ao-tXei 'Ap8Sao'V '6e Kaal 'Ta ratSLa
Ta 'AXecdv~pov, Kcal 7' 7vp? 'Pw7davrP da'7rpav els
MaKceSovtav To Sea 8- iu a Tro'AXeciv8pov KO/ta1a,
o fli-ToXe/auLoV elic Sev ei 'n 7 'AXegavSpela, o'rov
PPv e T KceTat* ov 7?7v eL 7Tj aVT,7 7Truvk vaaXlv
yap avTr, iceKlvof 8' ev Xpvaoj KtaTE07lCvev- eOr-Xo-e
8' a"RvT 3 K6KcT r /cal IHapeto-aTcro dE'TrtrKXrl e6
IIToXe/zao, Vic rTi) vplap e' reXOoP cat e~irearo
e6OB9, wio-' avovl7'a abvrTi T a\3a yeveao-at.
9. "EO-rt dv T7 / eyadX X(/, lev KaTa EVP TOP
efo-7rXovv EI 8eta i vjo1-o0 vcal 7 rrp'yoT,6 apo ,
KaTrt 86 'rlv erepav Xeipa at 'e Xopd 6ev Kal 17
1 rEpvarapeis Corais. 2 ir' abuT srpartoTwa Dhi.
3 avTrv Emoz, ablTr other MSS.
oracle of the Babylonian Zeus, all agreed that Philip
Ptolemy" (surely an error for "Philip Arrhidaeus," the
immediate successor of Alexander, or for "Ptolemy I")
should take it from Babylon to Aegypt and bury it at
Memphis; and that he took the body to Memphis, but, by
order of the chief priest of the temple there, immediately
took it to Alexandria. There, according to Diodorus Siculus
(I.e.), Ptolemy devised a sacred precinct (1reevos), which in
size and construction was worthy of Alexander's glory.
When Augustus was in Alexandria, he saw the body, having
had the coffin and body brought forth from its shrine,
penetrali (Suetonius, Augustius 18); and he not only saw the
body, but touched it, whereupon, it is said, a piece of nose
broke off" (Dio Cassius 51. 16).
1 Perdiccas first attacked Ptolemy on the Pelusiac branch
of the Nile "not far from a fortress called 'Camel's Wall,'"

GEOGRAPHY, 17. i. 8-9

more, Perdiccas lost his life, having been slain by
his soldiers at the time when Ptolemy attacked him
and hemmed him up in a desert island.1 So Per-
diccas was killed, having been transfixed by his
soldiers' sarissae 2 when they attacked him; but the
kings who were with him, both Aridaeus3 and the
children of Alexander, and also Rhoxan6, Alexander's
wife, departed for Macedonia; and the body of
Alexander was carried off by Ptolemy and given
sepulture in Alexandria, where it still now lies-not,
however, in the same sarcophagus as before, for the
present one is made of glass,4 whereas the one
wherein Ptolemy laid it was made of gold. The
latter was plundered by the Ptolemy nicknamed
" Cocces and Pareisactus," 6 who came over
from Syria but was immediately7 expelled, so that
his plunder proved unprofitable to him.
9. In the Great Harbour at the entrance, on the
right hand, are the island and the tower Pharos,
and on the other hand are the reefs and also the

where he was unsuccessful; and then later near Memphis,
where his soldiers mutinied (Diodorus Siculus 18. 33 ff.).
2 Long Macedonian pikes.
3 Also spelled Arrhidaeus.
4 Or, possibly, "alabaster." Cp. the so-called Sarcophagus
of Alexander" found at Sidon and now at the Ottoman
Museum in Constantinople.
5 i.e. "scarlet."
SLiterally, "Pareisactus" means "one who has been
brought in (i.e. upon the throne) privily," i.e. "usurper."
But scholars take the word to mean "Illegitimate" (i.e.
"Pretender") in this passage and identify this Ptolemy
with Ptolemy XI (so Tozer, Selections, p. 350).
7 This must mean "immediately" after his violation of
the tomb, for Ptolemy XI mounted the throne in 80 .c.
and, so far as is known, he was never expelled till 58 si.c.


Aoxtaq ciKpa, Eovaa acOieitov. eirarXeva-avTr
8' ev api-repa dea'r aovvex T ro ev T^y AoXitdt
Ta Cv8orTpa /3ao-PXeta, wroXXa, Ical 7wroucXha
'xovTa 8Satlra cal K aXa9i TOVUTOtv 8' bTrocetTrat
Te opvK-rovs Xtitiv eKa'i KxpVTw'ro1 '&Sto' T'rov
0 T6 e ZPUKT I X~lqV Icat IcpVTTOd, 8101 T) V
laOrtea'wv, ial ij 'AvrippoSov, vrc'ov rpoteBiLEvov
TO7 opvIcTov Xttievo9;, Rao-lXetov ala cKa Xtpeviov
x tovr edXea-av 8' OfT-Ow, c8 Av Tr 'PS .p vad-
utXXov. br pieptrrat 8' rovrov To 8earpov etTa
0b IHo0'e8 ov, AyKYov Tvd &rb ro T 'E"TPropiov icaXov-
pi vov *jpo'n-erw~mi Xwv lepov floo-et8iovoq-
wrpoaeets; XYoxa 'AvTCrotoq eTt iaaXXov 7rpovevov
et; CiCov T8 O Xtte'va 7retl T I atp KTearKevaae
StatTav 3ao-tXticjv, 'v Tktwvlovv rn-poorITjpevre.
TOTro 8' 6Trpae Tb TreXevTaoov, Ivica 7rpoXetp0e'o
V7rb TWV claXWv alripev elbs 'AXfedv8petav uerT
riv ev 'ArC'TI KacoTrpaylav, TtLiuvetov2 aurT)
xpivaq TOV8 Xoiroyv 9lov, bv tdeItv e'teXXev e'p7.Lot
T ov ToaoIrTv 'Xonwv. el'a TO Katordptov tcatl T
'Epiiroptov cal al aTtroaTaroeat Kal 'Tr aTra
Ta vewpta IPEXpL 70V errTao-raGiov. Ta"ra phv
Ta 7repL TOry eyav Xqtpva.
10. 'ESfj 8' EvvoarTov Xli)v Pie'rb r E'rrra-
C 795 a r68tov icKal vTrp TOrTOv o pvic7xT, v KIat
K3pTor c KaXoDaiv, xowv K al avTo vewOpta. 8evo-
TEpW 70 roV70V L&opv 7rXoTr\ LEXpt T7~7 XIL'Vy7
1 Kpurrdos, the reading of all MSS., Jones restores, for
iK\rTds. Corals and the later editors.
2 Tiutiveov E, TI vov other MSS.
s at, Corais inserts ; ical &caroard~~ro E.

SCp. 6 above. 2 31 .c.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 9-10

promontory Lochias, with a royal palace upon it;
and on sailing into the harbour one comes, on the
left, to the inner royal palaces, which are continuous
with those on Lochias and have groves and numerous
lodges painted in various colours. Below these lies
the harbour that was dug by the hand of man and
is hidden from view,1 the private property of the
kings, as also Antirrhodos, an isle lying off the
artificial harbour, which has both a royal palace and
a small harbour. They so called it as being a rival
of Rhodes. Above the artificial harbour lies the
theatre; then the Poseidium-an elbow, as it were,
projecting from the Emporium, as it is called, and
containing a temple of Poseidon. To this elbow of
land Antony added a mole projecting still farther,
into the middle of a harbour, and on the extremity
of it built a royal lodge which he called Timonium.
This was his last act, when, forsaken by his friends,
he sailed away to Alexandria after his misfortune at
Actium,2 having chosen to live the life of a Timon 3
the rest of his days, which he intended to spend in
solitude from all those friends.4 Then one comes to
the Caesarium and the Emporium and the ware-
houses; and after these to the ship-houses, which
extend as far as the Heptastadium. So much for
the Great Harbour and its surroundings.
10. Next, after the Heptastadium, one comes to
the Harbour of Eunostus, and, above this, to the
artificial harbour, which is also called Cibotus; it too
has ship-houses. Farther in there is a navigable
0 Timon the Athenian was nicknamed the "Misanthrope."
Antony, like Timon, felt that he himself also had been
wronged and treated with ingratitude, and therefore hated
all men (Plutarch, Antony 69).
4 He slew himself in 30 n.c.


reTra/evr riv MapecLrtio6?.1 e'cw tv6 o5v rTi
Swopvyo0 tpIcpov ETr Xe irer7t 7T? 7TroXe e4' 1?
NeTKpTroXtv?2 T7b rpodaTreov, ev K)TiroI re
7roXXot Kal Tata l a Ia KaTaywyal 7'rp9 Tra
TaptXelta TiWV ve cpcov eeTrtj4etaL. EVTrb S& 7r1
St'Ipvyov TO re Iapdciwov KaL AXXa rey Avr] pyaxaa
eXiceXetipq~va trrw 8ia 7 -T TVop VIOV 3 iKaao-KevJv
7rov & Nutcovr6Xet cal yap ac i f9arpov ,Kal
a'driov tia ol revreryptioKo aywve- e ceL avvre-
XoDvratL ra T 7raXata w 8' elwrrev 7 7roXt? avaLrEpae o-i v Avantadro, iKal
Iep&v" KckiXtirTOv 8 Tr IyvopvdotLov, #eitov9 )
o-Ta8tala e-'Xov TaV oa'rod. EV /ter6o) BS TO re4
8iKacr7pLovIO Kal ra AdXar. 'Ti E Ica ia Hvetov,
U rOq Ti Xetpotro17ToV cTpo/SiXoetSe9 di epe't C o6'X
7.erpoSeI 8ta KoXXIoV Tlj Av avalt3atv Xov- a7ro A e
T7F icopvUIjF ES0rtiv acrrtv o'Xrv 'rjv 7rroXv brno-
Keti/evrv aVru 'arravyaxoev. aro oe rj T Neicporo-
Xec)? dl rb T ii T1 coq 7rXaTera tSareTvet rrapa TO
yvtvda'tov teXptI T'7 7rtvrA 770 Kavw3tcT elW'
'IrrT7r popo9 KaoaXouevo6 "?or icat al rrapacel tevat
daXXat p/eyXp r7js ti)pvyo9 7TF Kavw/ tic,. 8at
1 MapedraTos E, Mapai rSos other MSS.
2 Emoz read Kal after NecpdroOAs.
Svdwv, Groskurd, for rvKpiv s, vYcv other MSS.
4 arods. y JivCyf S \rd T J, Corais, for c 5D (?) and the editors before Kramer add at before &xhat.
Kramer conj.that caToucidat, or some word of similar meaning,
has fallen out after &hati. Meineke conj. Kahctal ("wooden
dwellings"), Vogel that ("salt-works"), for xhhat.
1 Cp. the Nicopolis near Actium, and its sacred precinct,
and its quinquennial games (7.7. 6 and footnote 1).
2 Of the city, not the gymnasium.


canal, which extends to Lake Mareotis. Now out-
side the canal there is still left only a small part of the
city; and then one comes to the suburb Necropolis,
in which are many gardens and graves and halting-
places fitted up for the embalming of corpses, and,
inside the canal, both to the Sarapium and to other
sacred precincts of ancient times, which are now
almost abandoned on account of the construction of
the new buildings at Nicopolis; for instance, there
are an amphitheatre and a stadium at Nicopolis, and
the quinquennial games are celebrated there; I but
the ancient buildings have fallen into neglect. In
short, the city is full of public and sacred structures;
but the most beautiful is the Gymnasium, which has
porticoes more than a stadium in length. And in
the middle 2 are both the court of justice and the
groves. Here, too, is the Paneium,3 a "height," as
it were, which was made by the hand of man; it has
the shape of a fir-cone, resembles a rocky hill, and is
ascended by a spiral road; and from the summit one
can see the whole of the city lying below it on all
sides. The broad street that runs lengthwise4
extends from Necropolis past the Gymnasium to the
Canobic Gate; and then one comes to the Hippo-
drome, as it is called, and to the other (streets ?) 5
that lie parallel, extending as far as the Canobic
3 Sanctuary of Pan.
4 See 8 above.
5 Both the text and the interpretation are doubtful. 6Sol
(" streets") is not found in the MSS. ; but, although it is the
natural word to supply, just as 68ds must be supplied above
with TAa-ela ("broad"), it hardly suits the context, as
Kramer, who conjectures KasroLlda ("settlements"), insists.
Vogel (see critical note) simply emends Aati (" other ") to
Iaa (" salt-works").


Se roi 'Irrospoltov 8teX\6vrzt ) NtLdrol-oXi ETiv,
'xovUra KaTrotLav e rOaXtdrry XeoT OVcK ELTmW
7rptadKov a 8 edo-tv dA'rO T 'AXe!avSpeda a'rdtor.
roirov eripT/rlev 6 e/3aO7Trb Karo-ap rTv
TOTrov, OTt evravOa vica T7 uXy, TOUv reeov'ra
ar7' aivrbv tera 'AvTrwvov iKcal Xapwyv e4 ef680ov
T7'y hTXIlv jvd'yKae a 'rv Avev 'Avrowvtov gavrov
8taXetplraaalat, 7rjv Se KXeo0rdrpav joarav eXGev
el? rv ovUaOav ui.LKpb vGo-ipov KicLAcKIV eav7rr
dv 7~F Ppoupa 8tieetplaaaTo Xadpa SBrjyart dao-Trrlo
capdi aKCr 'rI'tptO0 (Xey"Trat yap dOiOTe'pOf),
Kca avvei,8 KcaTaXvObrvat Trv T ov Aaytiov dpX~v,
7roXXa o-vtJeivactav erT7.
11. HIToXeuaZo yap 6 Adyov t e'~8aro 'AXCe-
av3pov, Eicevov 86 6 FLtXadXeXo9, TOvTrov Se
EuepyeT r, el' 6 tXoTrdTwp 6 'Tri 'AgyaloKc'day,
edo' E ETrtavvr' eW' o 4(XO jTWP, 7raL9 7rapa
-rarpbv de'l taa6SeyXeV6evo i TroT 8' d a8EXo Ste-
3daro a &Sevepo" Eivepye'rv, Iv ical' () caKWva
7rpooayopevovoat, TODrTOV 6 Adcovpov e7rtcXk;0E69
C 796 TroXkeuaiov, ToTrov S' o AblXr'yqT 6 ca8' ~pafL,
oao-'?p 7v T1j KXeorarpav 'rarTjp. aTraVTEq pev
obv ol ehTa rTo 7pirov IIToXeaiaov bV7r Trpvcflj
S3teOappievoi XePpov e'roXtrev'aavro, Xeipi~ra S'
STTraprTOV Kalt e3Souo /calb i6 VraOro, 6 AXlT?'v"
08 Xwpl<; 7TrF a\X.p ?o-eXyela? )opavXelv I'a oxoe,
1 Xopauve E, xopac7~v other MSS.
1 Joseplus (Bell. Jud. 4. 11. 5) says "twenty."
2 Cp. Plutarch, Antony 80.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. i. 10-II

canal. Having passed through the Hippodrome,
one comes to Nicopolis, which has a settlement on
the sea no smaller than a city. It is thirty stadia
distant from Alexandria. Augustus Caesar honoured
this place because it was here that he conquered
in battle those who came out against him with
Antony; and when he had taken the city at the
first onset, he forced Antony to put himself to death
and Cleopatra to come into his power alive; but a
little later she too put herself to death secretly,
while in prison, by the bite of an asp or (for two
accounts are given) by applying a poisonous oint-
ment ;2 and the result was that the empire of the /
sons of Lagus, which had endured for many years/
was dissolved.
11. For Ptolemy the son of Lagus succeeded
Alexander; and he in turn was succeeded by
Pliiladelphus, and he by Euergetes, and then he by
Philopator the son of Agathocleia, and then he by
Epiphanes, and then he by Philometor, a son always
succeeding a father; but Philometor was succeeded
by a brother, the second Euergetes, who is also
called Physcon, and he by the Ptolemy nicknamed
Lathurus,3 and he by Auletes of our own time, who
was the father of Cleopatra. Now all the kings
after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious
living, have administered the affairs of government
badly, but worst of all the fourth, seventh, and the
last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentious-
ness, practised the accompaniment of choruses with
3 i.e. Ptolemy VII. Strabo here skips Ptolemy IX
(Alexander I) and Ptolemy X (Alexander II), who ap-
parently had no place in the official list of legitimate kings
(cp. Letronne edition, note ad loe.).


ica de' a (' ye 1 eaoEpvPvvero 2 roovrov, or'T oV'K
ijKvet avv'reXeiv Aylwvaws ev Tos /ao-tXet'ov;, els
otW -rapfyet 8tLa/uLXXaexdUL evoV TOF avrayownrat9.
Tovrov p ovv ol 'AXe!av8peF e'ep8aXov, rpiov
8' abri Ov6yaTrepwv ovbrOv, wv /pia ryvrlaia 97
7rpeao-f/VTaT?, ravlT7v ave4eitav /aao'Xto-arav, ol
viol S' abToD Svo v 7T tor T 776 ypela E Tirrov
TeXew). T7 B c KaTacTaOea .ri ,eT7re/ifraPTO avSpa
ic T7v Supita Kv/3toao-d&Ec V Tivd, 7rpoa'rotrla-d-
ILevov 70P evlovq elvat TcL)V UiptLaKc)v 3aa-tX'iwv
ToroDiov f1v owv AXrywv j pepov d'rero-payydXto-ev
) f3aio-Laao-a, ov ce'povaa To 8civavoov Kcal TO
Aveev69epov. cKe S' Avr' Edceivov 7poo-7rotada-
pevov Kala aliT eZvat MOptI8dTov vio Troi
Ev7rdTopov 'ApXe'ao 0o? v atv 'ApXeXa'ov vie
TroU wpob EuXXav &ta7roXeto-avTO t Kal perTa
TaDTa Tt)LIS7EVTOI; UTrO Pw/aliwv, 7raTrTro? 6e T70
/aoctXevo-aPTO9 Karmra&iicov burTdrov iKae' faivv,
[epebi 8 TOV dv I6Tv1r Kofzdvwv. FafpltvL 8c
To0e crV8Le'TPterv ( avcTo-paTrevrowv ri 6 L ap-
9valovq, haBiv 8~ ToDrov ro coiffTat Std TrWov
elV 7V /8aalt'Xc-aav Ical vaSeitKvvTa ra /ao-'Xevf.
ev 70ToVT 7T0) AXTr'7v uticopeV riov el 'Pwj7V
&eC IevoI; lHOrrjitov Mayr'vo avvloTsjt T7j o'v'y-
1 ye, Corais, for se. 2 Ca have eri before roaoOTov.
3 KvSricradKTj C.
1 Hence Auletes (" Flute-player ").
2 According to Dio Cassius (39. 13), this was Berenice
(IV). She reigned with her mother Cleopatra Tryphaena for
one year (58-57 B.c.) and then alone for one year.
SLater, Ptolemy XII and XIII.
4 A nickname, Salt-fish Dealer." Dio Cassius (39. 57)
says, "a certain Seleucus."


the flute,1 and upon this he prided himself so much
that he would not .hesitate to celebrate contests
in the royal palace, and at these contests would
come forward to vie with the opposing contestants.
He, however, was banished by the Alexandrians;
and since he had three daughters, of whom one,
the eldest, was legitimate, they proclaimed her
queen ;2 but his two sons,3 who were infants, were
completely excluded from service at the time.
When she had been established on the throne, they
sent after a husband for her from Syria, a certain
Cybiosactes,4 who had pretended that he belonged
to the family of the Syrian kings. Now the queen
had this man strangled to death within a few days,
being unable to bear his coarseness and vulgarity;
but in his place came a man who likewise had
pretended that he was a son of Mithridates Eupator
-I mean Archelaiis, who was son of the Archelaiis
who carried on war against Sulla and afterwards, was
honoured by the Romans, and was grandfather of
the man who was last to reign as king over the
Cappadocians in our time,5 and was priest of Comana
in Pontus.6 At that time he had been tarrying
with Gabinius,7 in the hope of joining with him
on an expedition against the Parthians, but without
the knowledge of Gabinius he was brought by
certain agents to the queen and proclaimed king.8
In the meantime Pompey the Great, having received
Auletes, who had arrived at Rome, recommended

5 12. 1. 2.
6 On this Archelaiis, see 12. 3. 34.
7 Proconsul of Syria, 57 B.c.
8 He reigned only six months, being slain in battle by
Gabinius (12. 3. 34).

KX7TOt /,caIt tavrpdTTreTat icdOoov pyEv 7TOUTj, T0WP
8 7Trpeuieo a v T7V rXearTT0, Egcarov oVTwv, oX6epov
Trcov KaTa7apeo fevradvTOv avTovD TOvrTWV (v Kal
Alwtv 6 'AKa8ra aLKot', apXt7rpaer3evTr, lyeyovP9.
KcaTaxOe't oi3v b7Vb 'a3tviov I'roe Tpai o 7v 76 e
'ApXeXaov AvaLpet Kia Trv OvyaTepa, Xpovov 8"
ob 7roXbv 7j /aOtXEeia Prpoopcels 7revU7, vo r',
KaTaXt7rwcv 0Svo pEv vietz, 80o se Ov'yacepa;, 7rpea-
vrdTaTYV 68 KXeowcr'rpav. ol ptev oiv 'AXe6avSpeZi
a7irSeCfav LjaaAtXcda rov 7re 'rpeofT3repov r0v
tra'8iv Kcal TrIv KXeorrapav, ol ,e 0vvdov0r 7)
rratr8 Icarao'TaatdavraVTT ee'/3aXov T7v KXeo-
7rdrpav, Kal t'nri-pe ebTa T7 ? a(3SeX6X e d 7rV
:vplav. Ev TOVTi Ic Io/7rr4to? Md'yvo 'icKe (evy(wv
ic H aXatpfapa-doov Trpk T0 ITIrXovtoov Kcal 7T
Kdrioov1 5poT. TODTOv p~v obv 8oXo ovovo-iv ol
/erTa 70ro /aatexwo erEXOh)V BS Kaoa-ap TOV 7r
/etpaKIdlcoP taa60elpet Kcal cabta-rlo-q7t 72T Ai-
7yTrTov Pac-iXto-aav T7V KXeo7rdarpav, eTL6Tare6/-
*Ia4tperov K 7ic 7i9 vy-j 9* c-v,3aa-tXevetv (' aire'ete
7TV XotTrOv aS~efb aTyJ7, vOV ra7vT6ave ov a.
C 797 e7T'ra 8 7T KalaoapoF re7evT1v ial Ta T v (~rar-

67Tr w7rXcov 71"v KXeo7rdrpav, w(aTE 0 a y vvawKa
e/cple Kal reTKVO7ronqioaaro 6E atrj79, 7TO re
'A/cTtaxov 7ro'deov ovvpaTro e Ely Ial ovvfi vye,
Kat ie7rT 7avTa 'naKOoXovO9jcra 0 Se/aaTO'r
Katcrap ait/OT rpovv KaITeCaE'X Ka' Tr7v A'yv-wrr/ov
eTravae 7rapowvov/uev2v.
1 Kdcov Dhr, id~a-iov other MSS.

SSo Dio Cassius (39. 13).

GEOGRAPHY, 17. i. 11

him to the Senate and effected, not only his
restoration, but also the death of most of the
ambassadors, one hundred in number, who had
undertaken the embassy against him,1 and among
these was Dion the academic philosopher, who had
been made chief ambassador. Accordingly, on
being restored by Gabinius, Ptolemy slew both
Archelaiis and his own daughter. But before he had
added much time to his reign, he died of disease,
leaving behind two sons and also two daughters,
the eldest daughter being Cieopatra.2 Now the
Alexandrians proclaimed as sovereigns both the
elder of the boys and Cleopatra; but the associates
of the boy caused an uprising and banished Cleopatra,
and she set sail with her sister to Syria. In the
meantime Pompey the Great had come in flight
from Palaepharsalus to Pelusium and Mt. Casius.
Now Pompey was treacherously slain by the king's
party, but when Caesar arrived he put the lad
to death, and, having summoned Cleopatra from
exile, established her as queen of Aegypt; and
he appointed her remaining brother to reign as king
with her, although he was exceedingly young.
After the death of Caesar and the battle of Philippi,3
Antony crossed over to Asia and held Cleopatra
in such extraordinary honour that he chose her
as wife and had children by her; and he under-
took the battle at Actium with her and fled with
her; and after this Augustus Caesar pursued them,
destroyed both, and put an end to Aegypt's being
ruled with drunken violence.

2 Th'e famous Cleopatra. 8 42 B.C.


12. 'Errapxa 8c vv dort, OoOpovq pfIev reXoo-a
&4toXoyovI?, bT7r OO pfpOvWP 8 V8pCOV tp I LOIKOVuEvIY?
TW7 reEpiLrotjevowv errdpXov aet. o pev ovv
7rre/ ./iseT 7 V TOV /8actLXcO, e'e TaiXv' vir' aVTi
8' o-'rtV 68tIcatodSoTr, 6 T7V 7roXXAOv Xic KpLc
IcKvpLo t aXXo9 8' eC'iv o Trpoo-ayopevo/evoV
i8ohoyo ,'1 9 TWV 8eao'TroTwV ca'I T'o el9
Kaio-apa 7irrTEL opeXO6VTwv J!eraocTar'T e'o-Te
Wrape' ovraL S TOVrTOt a7ereXeM0epot Kato-apo' ical
olcovo/lot, Le 6Lt ical e' dTTo 7reL7rIUTvtevfY ot rpdy-
para. eo-Tt 8 ical oTparTtwTrl o rpla 7ratiaTa,
eiv rb v Ka.ah r9v wJXtv t8pv-at, raXXa 8' dv
rT Xgepa" Xwpls S& TOVTWV eyvva pep elor o7retpat
'Pwoakwv, prpeiv; tev cpv r rr~Xet, rpeZv 8' err
rWv OSpwv Tr? Asl07ia' ev v IVvr17, Opovpa TroK
7T0rotv, rpeL 8~ 7~ar t rTv aXXiv xwpav. el i
8 ical lwrrrapXlat 7peol 1eolo9 8tareraypetvat
KaT roT dTrixatplovu TodTrov'. Tc7v S' e 7rtXwpoo
apXoTWV Ka7Ta 7rOXlV /LEV 8 7 0 T )YT7 '-TtL,
7ropf pav aL.TreXo/Iervo? al lewv 7rarpiov9 7ttua
tcat, e7ripe jetav TWV 7T r 6t XPe lyo-/wC, Kal o
v7ro/vLJflaTO7ypdaCo Kial o apXt8tKao-UI7, TerapTov
8E 0 vvKTcepIv9 crUTpaT7yo?. j7crav zev owv ica'
E7rr TWv /acrtXieov arTatl t apXal, KcaKcw 8&
iroXLtevoilevwo TWov Sacret)Ewv 'ifavfTero cal qI
7r 7~roXEOws evicarpla 8ta rTv avoiatav. 6 ,yovv
IIoXl3to ,yeyovF d'v r 7rXet e38? evTTeXat T~-v
1 1aidAoyos, Corais, for t~cplcs ohdyov s, fatos Adoyos other
1 e.g. Strabo's friend Aelius Gallus (2. 5. 12).
2 Juri dicendo praefectus.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 1~

12. Egypt is now a Province; and it not only
pays considerable tribute, but also is governed by
prudent men --the praefects who are sent there
from time to time. Now he who is sent has the
rank of the king; and subordinate to him is the
administrator of justice,2 who has supreme authority
over most of the law-suits; and another is the
official called Idiologus,a who inquires into all
properties that are without owners and that ought
to fall to Caesar; and these are attended by freedmen
of Caesar, as also by stewards, who are entrusted
with affairs of more or less importance. There are
also three legions of soldiers, one of which is
stationed in the city and the others in the country;
and apart from these there are nine Roman cohorts,
three in the city, three on the borders of Aethiopia
in Syen6, as a guard for that region, and three in
the rest of the country. And there are also three
bodies of cavalry, which likewise are assigned to
the various critical points. Of the native officials in
the city, one is the Interpreter,4 who is clad in
purple, has hereditary prerogatives, and has charge of
the interests of the city; and another the Recorder; 5
and another the Chief Judge ;6 and the fourth the
Night Commander.7 Now these officers existed also
in the time of the kings, but, since the kings were
carrying on a bad government, the prosperity of
the city was also vanishing on account of the
prevailing lawlessness. At any rate, Polybius, who
had visited the city, is disgusted with the state of
SA kind of "Special Agent," or Procurator," of
4 Interpres. 6 Scriba publicus.
6 Judicum praefectus. 7 Praetor nocturnus.



TOTe KaaTOTraatv, Ical 4eqc 7rpla yevtI TIv 7rtXtv
otieiv, To Tr Alyvr'rToV Acal 1 e'7rtXptov (cPXov,
v4 ,ca't ATroXLtTtAc ,2 Kal Tb juaoOo optc6v, /apv
Kal3 7'roXb calt divc-yyov* 'E ~9ovu 'yp 'raXatob
e'vov; e'peTPoV Tovg? T bo7rXa eX'OVTa, ap)ewv
/LiXXov 4 apXeo9Oat 8eSiLaypTevov' t8h r7v 7TV
/3paaXwov ovbvetav rpLrov S' 'yv I/voV To TqO&V
'AXegav3peov, o~t' aTbO efcKptIwi 7roXtrIcovy 8Sth
Tag avTaV atTiag, KepeTTrov 8' 6eceivOv Suoi cal
yap el yitdSeVL "EXXyrvev o/oVw dvei'caOev o-aav
Kca' EIeLV?7/ vro TOV KOiVOi To & 'EXXv'VO e'oiv.
i4avtrvie'vov 8 Kca TOvTro TO 7TrXtOovv, taXtoarTa
C 798 vror TO) EbepyE'Tov TO7 0 (i6 O-Kd vo, icaO' Soy s'ev
els ;V 'AXeeav8peiav 6 HoXv3itog (IcaTraTaaca6d-
pEVOv y'ap 0 (1IotcKW 7rXEordIctK 4 TO (CTpaTo-Tat;
efiet Ta' 7TXi4l7 KCal 8E0eIB pE), T010TWV 6rj ,
]7latV, OvPToV T7 el TVj 7r6Xet, Xovtror v v rT VTIL
At1yvrTodv' I'rat oXtoXv ooov apyaXeC'v Te.
13. Toitaia 8' 7v, el /L X'elpo, ical TA TV
vaTepov /3aao-Xe'wv.6 'Pwiaiot 8' e(i Uva~tiv, C4
eLiTet, EPrr7lvwpwoav Ta 7roTXd, Tr)v upv 7rdXtv
8taTrdavTe 6V elZrov, KaTr 8 7y Tv Xwpav
1 Except F, the MSS. read rd before eriXcptrv.
2 Before roxArm iv (MSS.)Tyrwhitt conj. o6; Kramer conj.
&aroAkXtrudv; C. Miller oXAsritKdv.
3The words Bapb icat are found only in C.
4 WroXd\as moz. 5 F has Kat after *I4.
6 Except Fx, the MSS. have fKa before 'PwTator.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 12-13

things then existing; and he says that three classes
inhabited the city: first, the Aegyptian or native
stock of people, who were quick-tempered and not 1
inclined to civic life; and, secondly, the mercenary
class, who were severe and numerous and intractable
(for by an ancient custom they would maintain
foreign men-at-arms, who had been trained to rule
rather than to be ruled, on account of the worth-
lessness of the kings); and, third, the tribe of the
Alexandrians, who also were not distinctly inclined
to civil life, and for the same reasons, but still they
were better than those others,2 for even though
they were a mixed people, still they were Greeks
by origin and mindful of the customs common to
the Greeks. But after this mass of people had also
been blotted out, chiefly by Euergetes Physcon, in
whose time Polybius went to Alexandria (for, being
opposed by factions, Physcon more often sent the
masses against the soldiers and thus caused their
destruction)-such being the state of affairs in the
city, Polybius says, in very truth there remained for
one, in the words of the poet, merely
to go to Aegypt, a long and painful journey." 3
13. Such, then, if not worse, was the state of
affairs under the later kings also ; but the Romans
have, to the best of their ability, I might say, set
most things right, having organised the city as
I have said,4 and having appointed throughout the
1 The MSS. omit the negative (" not "), without which one
would naturally interpret 6fi as meaning "acute" rather
than "quick-tempered."
2 i.e. the first class.
3 Odyssey 4. 483. 4 12 above.


e rtaTpaTrlyovi Titiv xcaU volYuapXa a tial etOvdpYxa
caXov/iEvovv dTroSel'avTre, 7rpayptdirwo o0 1Leya-
Xov E'riaTaTre EOaCYVWlpov;. T7 8' evlcatpia;
79 Kfcar'a rTwv r oXtv Tr eyta-Tov -'TI, 07 TT)(
AlyTn-Trov 7dcra y trovoq Eo-TTtv oIrTOV 6 0'TOTrO 7rpo
I I ,
auLju w Te hvicw; EU, Ta re 6Kc Oald'TTV &au 'TO
AiLpevov, kcat 7a d6K 7T7? yXpay, oTt 7ra vra
e7ap ra o wroTa/O9 '7TopOLpe eV avvayEL e re lf
TOtOVTOV Xo0ptov, o0rep ~O ere7or a p-T L7rpto Tf 7
oLiCOVpLEVr?; ea-TL.
Ti9 paev ovv rro'Xecwv ra'Tav v aV Tr XVyot Twv
apeTa'r r T AlyV7rrov 8' -Tr 7rpoa-'Sovo 1 g'
TLtv X6-yep KceKpwOv ipdiee, ja'o-a; caT' evtavrob
7T 7T1); KXeor6Tpna jraTp't 'r Alvrjry wrpoc-
Cepea-Oat 0S pov TaXahpvTv wpupIwv oa-XltXirwv
rePvTraoo -iwv. o6rov oiv o gcaLac-Ta iKaL paOvio6-
rTaa Tr/v 3aartXeIav &8OIKiov ToaaVra 'poaw-
SfevET, r7 Xyp, vopulat Ta vtv, Sth 'Too'avTr
ertlJeXelac ol/covoaov/jleva Kacl T r 'Ivtuccov
e/TroptO&v sa Kai T TpwyXo8SvTrt~ v e'rry Crv [ePvwv
r67r TOaoVToov ; 7rpoTepov f/L 'ye ovS' ei'coar- '7Xoa
f'Odppet TOa 'Apd/3iov K6X7rov 8tareppa, wc-re ew
'Tv 'ePVV v7repicvrtew, Pvv SA cal a-TOXOIt
1eyaXot oaTrXXov'Tat pL yp TLV, 'IvSKucL Ical T aKcpc TeVP AlOwtorucCov, e^ &v 6 d rroXv'TtoTarov;
1 Except E, the MSS. have is after 7rpoo dovr.

1 Strabo seems not to have known that the office of
Epistrategus was in existence as far back as 181 B.C. (Victor
Martin, Les Epistratiges, pp. 11, 173, Geneva, 1911). But in
the time of the Ptolemies only the Thebais had an Epistra-
tegus (l.c. p. 22), and, as the title indicates, he was a
Military Governor. The several Epistrategi appointed by the

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 13

country officials called Epistrategi 1 and Nomarchs 2
and Ethnarchs,3 who were thought worthy to super-
intend affairs of no great importance. Among the
happy advantages of the city, the greatest is
the fact that this is the only place in all Aegypt
which is by nature well situated with reference to
both things-both to commerce by sea, on account
of the good-harbours, and to commerce by land,
because the river easily conveys and brings together
everything into a place so situated-the greatest
emporium in the inhabited world.
Now one might call these the excellent attributes
of the city; and as for the revenues of Aegypt,
Cicero tells about them in a certain speech,4 saying
that a tribute of twelve thousand five hundred
talents 5 was paid annually to Auletes, the father
of Cleopatra. If, then, the man who administered
the kingdom in the worst and most careless way
obtained so large a revenue, what should one think
of the present revenues, which are managed with so
much diligence, and when the commerce with the
Indians and the Troglodytes has been increased to
so great an extent ? In earlier times, at least, not
so many as twenty vessels would dare to traverse
the Arabian Gulf far enough to get a peep outside
the straits, but at the present time even large fleets
are despatched as far as India and the extremities of
Aethiopia, from which the most valuable cargoes

Romans, however, were given only administrative power,
being wholly deprived of military power (I.e. p. 57).
2 "Rulers of Nomes (on the Nomes," see 17. 1. 3).
3 Rulers of Tribes. 4 No longer extant.
5 Cp. Diodorus Siculus (17. 52), who says six thousand


KofuIetrat (6pro, el T jv AlyvrrTov, Ka VTEr ev
rXdtv o e Tov ?X KTre axxreoTat TOT0rovv" waTe
'T Tef 7 & StrXdata orvvdye7at, rA p~v eltaywylKd,
Ta Se gayowyitcd Trwv 86 3apVTw'wv 8papea ical
rA TeXy. Ica yAp ta Ka' ptovorwoias e'Xetf ovy
yAp f] 'AXedv8peta r&wv TOtO'T(.orwv drl 'T
7roXV Kal bTro8oXe^ov o'-ri Kca Xopr yeE To 0
EKCTO'. e'rTe 6 iLaXXov Ka'TtS7 v e'o-Tt T7 V ebvUtav
TraT'7v 7repLto8Ivov7t 7Trv 3pav, /Kal 7rpWTOv r~v
*rapaXiav Apjaptatvv aro TroD Kara/3aofioD
/IeXpt 8evpo yap eaTIzV AL'yvu7rTo, I4 8' if
eiart Kvprvata tcal o0 7rEptoiKCOvre /3cipP3apot
14. 'Arrb \/0 v oiv KaTa/3aOpuoD elt IIapat~drvov1
ev'vrXroovvD'r cTTa8iwv erC-iv evvaKorIvov 6 Spodo'.
TroXts 8S' eCrT0 Kal Xt/)v gTLyaq TET-rapiaovrPd rov
C 799 o-~Ta l ov KanXotrt ol pLv HapatTovtov ~T2
7roXLv, ol S' 'AuLowvlav. -erTapv S ? -e Al'yvurTwv
Kcit Ktalt s Alvr]qrio vpa 2 aicpa, Kcal Tvvdpetpot
oTKo7reXot, vr)]it8ua TerTapa eXovra Xtjpeva" e0'
e4H itacpa Ap6eravov icat vPaoo Alvrjli'Trre7a
Xovara Xitteva KaL Icc ktv 'AT7r, A O' AF ft /el v
IHapatwLrvov Cr'TaStoit earov, elV bE "ALftpwvo
0869 'piepuv 7'revT. A7ro B6 rob HapatToviov evl
'AXE~ev8petav 4 Xlktol rrov i al 7ptaKocrtot Trda-
8oto. pTerafb 8 \ *rrpwrov etv aKcpa XeVKioyetos,
AevKcx aCKT7T KaXovpevLJ, ejtremta GotvtucoOI XtcLv
1 napa'Trdtov E, napard4vov F, naparrc6viov moxz.
AlvloPiapvpa, Xylander and later editors, following
Ptolemaeus (4. 5), for v7railppa F, PvatciLrpa other MSS.
3 Cviaciaita DEFhi, dviLaro1rEa Cxz, viararnia r, v oireta m,
virraea o, Aivl atri)7r Ptolemaeus.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 13-14

are brought to Aegypt, and thence sent forth again
to the other regions; so that double duties are
collected, on both imports and exports; and on goods
that cost heavily the duty is also heavy. And in
fact the country has monopolies also; for Alexandria
alone is not only the receptacle of goods of this
kind, for the most part, but also the source of supply
to the outside world. And, further, one can per-
ceive more clearly these natural advantages if one
travels round the country, visiting first of all the
part of the coast which begins at Catabathmus-for
Aegypt extends as far as that place, though the
country next thereafter belongs to the Cyrenaeans
and to the neighboring barbarians, the Marmaridae.
14. Now the run from Catabathmus toParaetonium,
if one sails in a straight course, is nine hundred
stadia. It is a city and large harbour of about forty
stadia.1 Some call the city Paraetonium, but others
Ammonia. In the interval, one comes to the
village of the Aegyptians, to the promontory
Aenesisphyra, and to the Tyndareian Rocks, which
latter are four small islands with a harbour; then
next to Drepanum, a promontory, and to Aenesippeia,
an island with a harbour, and to Apis, a village,
from which the distance to Paraetonium is one
hundred stadia, and to the temple of Ammon, a
five days'journey. The distance from Paraetonium
to Alexandria is approximately one thousand three
hundred stadia; and in the interval one comes first
to a promontory of white earth, Leuc& Act&, as it is
called, and then to Phoenicus, a harbour, and to
1 i.e. in circuit.
Sels 'AAEdavSpeiav, inserted by Mannert and the editors.


Ka HvTeIyeb i c ,uy.' etra v-,o HIr9SovlaI XieLva
eXovara, e 'Av T pat utlycpov arcorepeo rH79
0aXdaTrr. a7raaoa pLev j i pa aWT? oVKI eiVoivov,
7rXeito SeXOpvou roV Kepapov ~ d iXarTav olvov,
ov 84 Ka -ovtrL At3vicov, 8' KIca' 7T v02 TO
7roX' piDXXov XplTra TV 'AXe!avSpewv' a-cKco70rovrat
pijdth a ai 'AvTid)pav e'9' o A'ppt 3 Xt rv,
cKahXolevoq oi;TWo &S T7V 7rrX27o0ov 'irrpav
LaeXatvav Seppet eotv .av vood'ova-t 8e xcalu
ZeOvptov Trbv 'rX7'alov Tr7rov, eIT AXXov XLt/jlv
AeviaOn-r Kv cal aXLot 7rXeitovU etra Kvvb a jia"
etTa Tado- etpt%,4 oie del aX6adry, 7rwav tvpwL
SeXOPievr 4ieydXAIv. (tcal dXX\I 8' eao-r Taro'retpvt
7rercetva 7~TI? rOewfv ilcavg9.) aITr i) '7h rXi7o-ov
rnerpc$e errt 77 0OaXadr XOwplov, ical a'o
SeX 6 vov !TOXXobV robv aCLadorTac5 ia a -racav
opav EToVr Eo el' XLiv0Lv276 KalC NILKL' ICK(6i
cal Xeppo6v'aro (povptov, rhrXalov j/y 7TjV
'AXeaavSpela ical T7~ NeiporrXeaw dev Solirj-
covwra aoraSotv. 7 Se Mapcla7 Xlvri 7rwaparei-
vova-a upeXpt Kca Seipo TrXadro'v I 6Xet w7rXEI ov
1 Ziorpia Cmoz.
2 C690c, Xylander, for vyy.
3 A'pp.s EF, Alpts other MSS.
4 Tappdoetpis Ehi, Tanderetpts with ( above vr, D.
SaiKd(ovrTas, the later editors, following conj. of Tyrwhitt,
emend to KwiaiovrTas.
6 nlioovqij DEh, nhAL8v7 CFx.
? MapEla E, Mapiva F, Mapia other MSS.
1 i.e. apparently, as distinguished from the two other
classes of people at Alexandria (see 12 above), and not
"most of the people at Alexandria," as others interpret it.
2 i.e. because of the bad wine. 3 i.e. a "hide."
I i.e. like that mentioned in 16 below.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 14

Pnigeus, a village, and then to Pedonia, an island
with a harbour, and then to Antiphrae, which is at
only a little distance from the sea. The whole of
this country is without good wine, since the wine-jars
receive more sea-water than wine; and this they
call "Libyan wine, which, as also beer, is used by
most of the tribe of Alexandrians; but Antiphrae
is ridiculed most.2 Then one comes to the harbour
Derrhis, so called because of the black rock near by,
which resembles a derrhis ;3 and the neighboring
place is also called Zephyrium.4 Then to another
harbour, Leucaspis 5 and several others; and then
to Cynos-Sema; 6 and then to Taposeiris, not on the
sea, which holds a great public festival. (There is
also another Taposeiris on the other side of the city
and quite far from it.) And near it 7 there is a rocky
place on the sea where likewise crowds of people in
the prime of life 8 assemble during every season of
the year. And then one comes to Plinthin6 and
to the village of Nicias, and to Cherronesus, a
stronghold, where we are now near Alexandria and
Necropolis, a distance of seventy stadia. Lake
Mareia,10 which extends even as far as this," has a
6 White-shield."
6 "Bitch's Monument" (cp. Vol. III, p. 377).
7 The translator understands "it" to refer to the first
Taposeiris, and parenthesises the preceding statement
accordingly, though "it might refer to the second (cp. 16
and 17 below), in which case the parenthesis should end
with "season of the year."
8 The later editors, except Muller-Dibner, very plausibly
emend the text to read, "crowds of 'revellers'" (see
critical note, and cp. 16 and 17 below).
9 i.e. continuing from the first Taposeiris.
1o Also called "Marcotis" ( 7 above).
1 i.e. Cherronesus.


i7j '7enrVjovTa Kcal KarTOy rablwv, Jl-,Cov 8' eXar-
TOVWV 'j 7ptaicoo-Icv. e, 8' oICr v)crov- ical Tr
KVICKc ) rrvrT olKov/eva xaXLoW' ebvotva 7r e07r
7rept roWv TOTOV, (cre Kiat 8taXedorat 7rp
rraXaiwocrv Tvb MapeOrTv 1 olvov.
15. Q(fterat 3' &v T70t AilyvorrtaKov Xe'CI Kaal
raiq Xtivatp i' 77e T/3v oo Kal 6 A'lyrWrtoW /ca/osv,
he oi TOb KLt/3ptov, aXe86dv r lio-oi eEL p133o
6kov SeKca7ro&e. dXX' u pev /383Xo&s *frtX pi38o
0Tarlv Er' abcpo aliTf'Yv Xovo-a, 6 e xcva/iov Kara
7roXXa piqpbt (AjbXa Kal 6vf07) E'KC'pefI KCa Kap7rov
iOLOv Tor "Trap *iv vtKU/ipw, CAeye e povov Kal
,yevoaet SaXXaTovTra. o0 ov0v KvaicojveF 7je6av
rsv Tu rapexov at Kal 7Ep JL TO7L deveealtaOat
l3ovXolzhvot eroXovvrat' e'v r/ctdatc? OaXapy7)-
yoE0, evSZ;ovr7e' el 7To Trvlcvwp/Ia Tr&v iuaVdwv V Ia
C 800 aKtadtaeo rot To0 OAvXXot. L' Et 'yap acd6pa
fteydXa, aO07r Kcal (ITl oro7Tpilwv Kal Tpv/3Mwv
XpfjaOat" e6et 7yp Ttva Kal KOLXOT77ra e'l7rtT7 Yav
rrpoV TOVTr' Kal 83i Kal sj 'AAXe!dvSpeta ttear
TOUVTcOV o-Ttr 1 Icara epyaO-TpIa, I) aKeVeaot
XyfwpeVwv Kai ol dypol tpav 7rIv TW V 7rpoOOWV
iKa TavTr1v EXoval TIPv a7ro T70V)P vXXO.v. a pI
837 Kicaov rotoIDTo" Bea /3p o/3 Xo &raOa acv ob
WroXXi f d6erat (ob ya'p aaKelTrat), e'v 3e Toi
KaDrw t epe60r Toi AT dra rroXXhl, Itv XEepwov,

1 MapadTriv CDEhI, MapfGrit Fmoxz.

i e. drawn off from the lees, not merely once or twice, for
early consumption, but time and again, with a view to age-
ing it into old wine of superior quality. The special name

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 14-15

breadth of more than one hundred and fifty stadia and
a length of less than three hundred. It contains
eight islands; and all the shores round it are well
inhabited; and the vintages in this region are so
good that the Mareotic wine is racked off with a
view to ageing it.1
15. The byblus 2 grows in the Aegyptian marshes
and lakes, as also the Aegyptian cyamus,3 from which
comes the ciborium ; 4 and it has stalks approximately
equal in height, about ten feet. But though the
byblus is a bare stock with a tuft on top, the
cyamus produces leaves and flowers in many parts,
and also a fruit like our cyamus, differing only in
size and taste. Accordingly, the bean-fields afford a
pleasing sight, and also enjoyment to those who
wish to hold feasts therein. They hold feasts in
cabin-boats, in which they enter the thick of the
cyami and the shade of the leaves; for the leaves
are so very large that they are used both for
drinking-cups and for bowls, for these even have a
kind of concavity suited to this purpose; and in fact
Alexandria is full of these in the work-shops, where
they are used as vessels; and the farms have also
this as one source of their revenues-I mean the
revenue from the leaves. Such, then, is the cyamus.
As for the byblus, it does not grow in large quantities
here (for it is not cultivated), but it grows in large
quantities in the lower parts of the Delta, one kind

" Mareotic" indicates both the quality and the wide use of
this wine.
2 The Aegyptian papyrus.
3 i.e. "bean."
4 i.e. the "seed-vessel," of which drinking-cups were made
(cp. Horace, Carmina 2. 7. 22).


S 8E /3eXTIVM, 7 lepaTrci'] KIvCralJa 84 TIle? 79 t
Ta 7Trpocro0ouv ea r eCletivE 3ov e V o/jivwv EeT)rjveTyICa
rv 'Iov8aitclv evrpe'etav,1 'v ceI voi 7rapevpop
erLt T70oV (oLvco (Kal uzdea'rra ro0 icapvwTro) Icat
roO 3aXo-4auov- ov yap eoal 'WroXXaXobD 6eo9at,
T7- S& rarivet TI/TV eTrt evre' T)v 7rpoaoSov
OUVTV2 aviovar, r7yv e KicowLv Xpelav 8taXu-
16. 'Frv Sefta Se Tj Kavwat3ci), Tt,) iJetOrVTC
1 8etipv; ec'7rv I' Erl KvaOP/3ov avvd'rovoa T7;
Al/v* 7arv 8 Ical ei'L YXe8'larv 6d vXowD J7rl roy
uteyav ToTaa/ov ical krin TOPV Kdvw83ov, p'7Tprov
7ri Trv 'EXevolva* CaeaT S' avT?7 iKaTrotcLa 7nXhyio
Tvj re 'AXeSavSpeia cal r'vT Ntuco7r6oewv ETr'
abry r~ KavCO/3PucK SoUpvy KeI~t/evr], etarTra
Xovuaa cxal dErrd~tre ToT icar-vpletvw lovXouzevoi~
Ical avSpd&ao Kati 'vvatciv, dpX TI< KavwPta'tof,
icat 7TF diceL XapVplaq. arro Se 7Tj0 'EXevoVo3
7rpoeX0ovat /iutcpov 6v Seia EoTCrw 8tiwpv; avd-
1 For ?vrpe'xlav, Cobet conj. Ka.vcrpe4'Xciv, citing 7. 3. 7.
2 vrTws CDFhnsx; aSrois, Corais.

1 i.e. the kind "devoted to sacred purposes." The superior
quality consisted of the middle and broadest (about 9j inches)
strips of the plant; but though originally called Hieratica,
it was later called Augusta in honour of Augustus (see
Encyclopedia Britannica, s. v. "Papyrus.")
SDr. F. Zucker (Philologus 70, N.F. 24, 1911, pp. 79-105)
shows that the Romans established a government monopoly
of Aegyptian papyrus; but his conclusion that under the
Ptolemies there was no such monopoly and that Strabo's
words, some of those who wished to enhance the revenues,
etc.," mean that a number of large proprietors misused their
power, and through limiting the cultivation to their own

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 15-16

being inferior, and the other superior, that is, the
Hieratica.1 And here, too, certain of those who
wished to enhance the revenues adopted the shrewd
practice of the Judaeans, which the latter had
invented in the case of the palm tree (particularly
the caryotic palm) and the balsam tree; for they do
not allow the byblus to grow in manyplaces, and
because of the scarcity they set a higher price on it
and thus increase the revenues, though they injure
the common use of the plant.2
16. On the right of the Canobic Gate, as one
goes out, one comes to the canal which is con-
nected with the lake and leads to Canobus;3 and
it is by this canal that one sails, not only to
Schedia, that is, to the great river, but also to
Canobus, though first to Eleusis. Eleusis is a
settlement near both Alexandria and Nicopolis, is
situated on the Canobic canal itself, and has lodging-
places and commanding views for those who wish
to engage in revelry, both men and women, and is
a beginning, as it were, of the "Canobic ". life 4 and
the shamelessness there current. On proceeding a
slight distance from Eleusis, and on the right, one

advantage and to the injury of the public produced a rise
in the price of papyrus," is vigorously opposed by Professor
J. P. Mahaffy (Hermathena, 16, 1911, pp. 237-41), who
rightly understands Strabo to refer to "certain chancellors
of the exchequer (61toc1?TaI) who had to meet a sudden demand
by raising money as best they could." However, in a later
article (Philologus 74, N. F, 28, pp. 184-85) Zucker retracts
his former interpretation of the passage, accepting Mahaffy's.
See also Wilcken, Pauyruskunde, Gruadziige I, 1, pp. 255-56.
3 i.e. "connected" indirectly, by a short tributary south-
west of the city.
4 i.e. the luxurious life at Canobus, which was proverbial.


yovoa E'7r 7Trv SXeo a. 8~iXEL oCe TTpdra otvov
r1F; 'AXWeavrpelaen q ZYedla, KaiotKca troewa,
ed 7 TO vavara!Ta/ov rV v OXa!A/aywv 7rXolwv, e'
olV o eljtlovev el'y "Tv avco X)pav ava7rXeovr v
E'vravOa 8a /caL To T7ve X vv 'TOV a"vr Oev Karaayo-
lptevwo Kta avayo/Evwv" o0 Xadptv cal aXreia
eevcTat EtTl 7w Taroap w, 7i' 1 Kcal TOvWO"opa
rT7drT. /LETa Trjv StLopvya Triv ETr' SXeblav
ayovaav ~efi~ 'l Tov Kdvw/3ov 7rXoDv E; 'T
7rapdAXXlXoq Tt 7rapaXla Ty7 dro7 dpov lXp,
ToV Kavow/3tcoDv aroiarov, oevrT yap TLv Tratvia
/eracTa &tKet TO7 Te 7rerXdyov ical ral, 8o;)pvyo0,
ev w Eorv Te pi cpd Ta o'\retpr fer6T rTTv Ntc6-
7roXtv Kca TO Zefvptov, aicpa vatducov 'xovaa
'Apavodrj' 'A poil'r'TO c S L aV a tacbv cai @wviv
Ttva rr0X v evraZvOa Qpaarv, e rrvvtYov rov
3ao-tXe'w To0 8efapue'ov Meve'aov re Ka 'EXe6'zv
4evia. 7Tepl oiv 'TWV 7Ti) 'EXkvqy OapPduicwv
C 801 r77c-tv OV.TOr) 7TO0L7Tr7'-
eaOdX, iT 0o1 HoXtoa/~va 7ropev 0&vov 7rapd-
17. Kdvc/3oo 8' doTt 7rodleX v E ico lal eaIcaTo
aTaSiotS aTro 'AXeav8pelia; reyl) loaotv, eropvvfuo'
Kav(dpov 7TO MeveXaov icv3epvrjTov, a7roOavovTo"
avrdot, 'Xovoa TO T70O) apa7Ttoo lepov 'roXX~
dayto'rea rTteI7 /vov ical epa7relaq e'Icepov, weOe
Kal TOL'1 eXXOytLtTwrdrovT av8paw 7rtO'TeveLv Kca\
1 See 24 below.
2 i.e. "raft" or "pontoon bridge."
3 Thonis was situated at the Canobic mouth of the Nile,
and in early times was the emporium of Aegypt (Diodorus

GEOGRAPHY, 17. 1. 16-17

comes to the canal which leads up to Schedia.
Schedia is four scloeni1 distant from Alexandria;
it is a settlement of the city, and contains the
station of the cabin-boats on which the praefects
sail to Upper Aegypt. And at Schedia is also the
station for paying duty on the goods brought down
from above it and brought up from below it; and
for this purpose, also, a schedia2 has been laid
across the river, from which the place has its name.
After the canal which leads to Schedia, one's next
voyage, to Canobus, is parallel to that part of the
coast-line which extends from Pharos to the Canobic
mouth; for a narrow ribbon-like strip of land ex-
tends between the sea and the canal, and on this,
after Nicopolis, lies the Little Taposeiris, as also
the Zephyrium, a promontory which contains a
shrine of Aphrodite ArsinoE. In ancient times, it
is said, there was also a city called Thonis here,3
which was named after the king who received
Menelaiis and Helen with hospitality. At any
rate, the poet speaks of Helen's drugs as follows:
" goodly drugs which Polydamna, the wife of Thon,
had given her." 4
17. Canobus is a city situated at a distance of one
hundred and twenty stadia from Alexandria, if one
goes on foot, and was named after Canobus, the
pilot of Menelaiis, who died there. It contains the
temple of Sarapis, which is honoured with great
reverence and effects such cures that even the most
reputable men believe in it and sleep in it-them-
Siculus 1. 19); and King Thon was the warden of the
Canobic mouth in the time of the Trojan war (Herodotus
1. 113).
4 Odyssey 4. 228.


eyKcottpac'lat av'rov' Vr'p eavTrv A eppovfu
o~vyypdovo-'t S TIve; Kcal T, OepaTriav, dXXot
Se apeTa TCOv evTralv a Xoylwv.1 av7T rdarT
8' Earo T 70 V 7tavyptrlTCV XXO TXo ;v EK TSV
'AXe!av8pelaq IcaTtroTovw Tj SudIpv'yL' 7raoa yap
j#tpa Kal rri a vbi TrX7 r0Vet TWV .lF e2 ev TOL?
7rXotapiot' KxaTavXovp evov Kcal KcaopXOVIIE v
avc87v 3 /ierT Tr; ECo- xdr'? aKcoXaat-la, cal av8pcov
Kal yvvaLtcwv, 'rwv 8 v aUvT 7r Kavw3rp Kara-
y6)ia EoVeTov e'Trucetyl/vav T7 7 wpvyt eV6veEf
7rp.oT Tr2v TotavTrI aveartv Kal evw xav.
18. MeTr 8& TOv Kdvo~P3o'v eOT TO 'HpadiKXeov4
'HpacXe'ov e'xyov lep6v- elra TO Kavowruc8 v -Tot/a
Kcal TOi p 70T AEhTa. T S' ev 8e6ta Ti4
KavocSKfj' Stpvyo'Y 6M MeveXat7v EOfrTt voPzo
arW TO7) aJeXXo 7d0e- pov ToTo Xepaiov KcaXoV-
ervov, aob ft Ala 7ro 5 TOq tpwov, &q evlo oto aatv,
wv ral 'ApTreCt8wpov. /zeTA 8 TO Kavo 3tKov
`Tor/a ECO- TO BoX/h3tvrov, EtTa TO eP/3evvrVTtKv,
K a TO APaTwLTICK6, TpLTOV V7rdapov T /Ie67EfEL
rrapa T'a 'rpwra 8vo, ol, wptraOa TO AeAXTa Kcat
Ap ou 6 roppw T7rj KopvqF cOXterTat elt TO evPTo
TO0 AeXTra. TO) &e aTrviTtWc V avvd'TTel TO
Mevrbo-tov, etTa TO TavetTLKoV Kal TeXevrTalov TO
II\ovo-altAC. ' (9 av ar *ev8So0('ro/aTa, do-ra oTrepa eyXet /eP obv
1 a&peaAoyhiw CDFh, &peroxo'ytiWv rtpa X.oy'yiwv i.
2 p~v, Corais inserts.
3 &avisv h, and second hand in D ; avaLsrv other MSS.
I Td, after 'HpdKcetov EZ omit.
6 &rd EF, 67a other MSS.
6 o F, ovbd other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 17-18

selves on their own behalf or others for them.1
Some writers go on to record the cures, and others
the virtues, of the oracles there. But to balance
all this is the crowd of revellers who go down from
Alexandria by the canal to the public festivals; for
every day and every night is crowded with people
on the boats who play the flute and dance without
restraint and with extreme licentiousness, both men
and women, and also with the people of Canobus
itself, who have resorts situated close to the canal
and adapted to relaxation and merry-making of this
18. After Canobus one comes to the Heracleium,
which contains a temple of Heracles; and then to
the Canobic mouth and the beginning of the Delta.
The parts on the right of the Canobic canal are the
MenelaYte Nome, so called from the brother of the
first Ptolemy 2-not, by heaven, from the hero, as
some writers say, among whom is also Artemidorus.
After the Canobic mouth one comes to the Bolbitine
mouth, and then to the Sebennytic, and to the
Phatnitic, which is third in size as compared with
the first two,3 which form the boundaries of the
Delta; for not far from the vertex of the Delta the
Phatnitic splits, sending a branch into the interior
of the Delta. Lying close to the Phatnitic mouth
is the Mendesian; and then one comes to the
Tanitic, and, last of all, to the Pelusiac. There
are also others in among these, pseudo-mouths as
it were, which are rather insignificant. Their mouths
1 Even Moses advocated this practice (16. 2. 35).
2 On this Menelails see Diodorus Siculus (20. 21-53) and
Plutarch (Demetrius 15-17).
3 The Canobic and Pelusiac.



eliacywyya's Ta rTodara, taX' obWL evCves, o0Ve
t/eydX otn TrXo(otv, aXX' VtrrypertiKo 8ta Toa
/3paXe'a elval Ka4 ewsX r. padXrcra /,L'VTOL TI
Kavw3ictK aro'rtaTt eXpw&Vo a; e/jTropiA, TWV
caT' 'A e dv8petav Xt/eivwov (1TroKeKcXettevPO)V,' (
7rpoeitro0/,v. MarC & T BoX/3t'rvov aTofra er'

KaXE7Tat 8' "A yvov icKpav edw' Hiep"o-w acowr'
ical TV MeXiy-'coVr TeFXo' 'WrXeo-avTre' yap E"l
Taptrn'Xov Tptadcov'ra vavol MItXjato (Ka'rh
Kvajdpr 8' oZro? o v Tbv Ml8ov) carTCoXOv els bT
aTota T' BoXjt'nvov, eZ'' KcdvTaev T9 F riXtca TO
XeXOev KTiLcraa. Xpo6v 8' varXevavtre e i 'rTOV
Sati'Tcor votJov KaTavav/.aryl avTe6~ 'Ivdpowv 7roXtv
C 802 o'KcrTrav Nav~pan T ob roV T70 XSa eI~ a VirepOev.
pe~Ta 8 b TO)V MtX?)o-aB Te X0o e Tr 'O ep/3evvv-
TtKov 7rpOtovTt2 TTO/a XltvYat ecL L, wv f e'epa
BovTIciK Kcaa\eTarE d7ro BoTrov roXe(CO, Kai a 7
se/3evvvTtrucj 8\ r7oXt0 X ca I 77 Si, il?7Trp6roXt 7rTi)
KcaTeW Xcpa?, E ~ r TLrotL Trjv 'AO?7vayv w v 8 8 7
lep, avT )' ?7 O27lK] KIeatil ToD 'a /jta.rTiXov.
replyl 8 r Trv BoiroV Kcal 'EplioD 7roXt ev d v?)a
KeeI/vp iV 8 7?1 Body' AAroT09 o'rte Iav'reov.
19. 'Ev 8e /T^E o eo .'yeiL y brep ToO E70 /3vvV-
TIKcoV ical (aTVtTtKOv o-ToTaTO; OtI eCoTT Kat
vio-o? Kcal v'TXL9 E' ,J(7) 2e3e9vvVrTK) voUp. eoTLr

1 &TroKeXicre qwv D, &ro xOcAqselvwY other MSS.
2 rpoYdvrT E, vrpourdvTi other MSS.

1 i.e. to foreign imports ( 6 above).
2 Meaning "Willow-Horn," apparently.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 18-19

indeed afford entrance to boats, but are adapted, not to
large boats, but to tenders only, because the mouths
are shallow and marshy. It is chiefly, however,
the Canobic mouth that they used as an emporium,
since the harbours at Alexandria were kept closed,'
as I have said before. After the Bolbitine mouth
one comes to a low and sandy promontory which
projects rather far into-the sea; it is called Agnu-
Ceras.2 And then to the Watch-tower of Perseus 3
and the Wall of the Milesians; for in the time of
Psammitichus (who lived in the time of Cyaxares
the Mede) the Milesians, with thirty ships, put in
at the Bolbitine mouth, and then, disembarking,
fortified with a wall the above-mentioned settle-
ment; but in time they sailed up into the Saitic
Nome, defeated the city Inaros in a naval fight, and
founded Naucratis, not far above Schedia. After
the Wall of the Milesians, as one proceeds towards
the Sebennytic mouth, one comes to two lakes, one
of which, Butic6, has its name from the city Butus,
and also to the Sebennytic city, and to SaYs, the
metropolis of the lower country, in which Athena
is worshipped; and in her temple lies the tomb of
Psammitichus. In the neighbourhood of Butus is
also an Hermupolis,4 which is situated on an island;
and in Butus there is an oracle of Leto.5
19. In the interior above the Sebennytic and
Phatnitic mouths lies Xois, both an island and a
city, in the Sebennytic Nome. Here, also, are an
S Herodotus (2. 15) appears to place the watch-tower at
the Canobic mouth.
4 "City of Hermes."
5 On Leto's shrine and oracle in Butus, see Herodotus
2. 155.


Sc Kal 'Epl 7ro rdXts Ka'l AVcKOU 7rX1 KalCa Mev i,
o7rov Vbv tava rTtloo'- Kal T&CO v &V TpadYov*
5 oe Tliv8apdv c4rl7a, ol Tpdtyot e' vra0a yvvatt
Mcv8rr7a 7rapht cprYvov Oakada-qr1,
o-Xarov NeiXov Kcpav, aly/tf3dat
O0t 7pdyot yvvat i pIlacyovTat.1
rIXialiov & & Me'SyTro icai At( 7roxt( icab at 7repE
arvyv Xipvat ial AeovroTroXtv' et' aTrwOrepw 1
Bov' cpLv ;rdL'Xt d'V 7T BovCrtpt'T vow, ical Kvv
TroXt. o- ~ 'Epa-roase'iv irowvov pv elva
Tro, /3apf3dpot,; raotv '9 T'o v evyrXaa-av, rob;
8' AlyTvrTlov eX'hyXcrfoOat Sta rTwv 7repti rv
Bouo-tptv fq.LvSevp yovv edv T~ BovOatpi'T vow,
8ta/pdLXetv 7jv 1 4eviav /3ovXo/eVvwov TOO TOr7ov
TOrTOv TOr ov'Tepov, oVb paculXew, h Ala, o' '
Tvpavvov yevolpevov TIv BovaiptSo"- 7poa-eTt-
iwpucrOaQvast 8e cat TO
Alyv7rTOv8' Ie'vat 8oXtv 68~v pyaXLrlv re,
'npoaXapl3dvovTro; 7rpO? Troio 7rdpTroXv icat Troi
aCLXte'vov icatl TO7V fL78e TO\V 6ra Xlqdeva JvelxOal
Tov 7rpb 7 T T7 tdp, ppovpe~a-at 8' '7rb 3ovKic6Xw
X7oT'CV deTtTee6/ievW TOE9 rpoaopTptt7op. Ivoitv
KapXy8ovov v 8 a KIcaTarovovTO, e'' TVr 7t ov E'VO
el6f ap8o 7rapa7rXevaoetev ij 6jrl S'ThXav" th 8a
1 The words M v687Ta p yo'rat are not found in EF.
Kramer and later editors reject them.
1 "City of Lycus." 2 Frag. 201 (215), Schroeder.
3 So Herodotus (2. 46), who also says that "In the
Aegyptian language both the he-goat and Pan are called

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 19

Hermupolis and a Lycupolis,1 and Mendes, at which
place they worship Pan and, among animals, a he-
goat; and, as Pindar 2 says, the he-goats have inter-
course with women there:3 "Mendes, along the
crag of the sea, farthermost horn of the Nile, where
the goat-mounting he-goats have intercourse with
women." Near Mendes lie also a Diospolis4 and
the lakes in its neighbourhood and Leontopolis;5
and then, at a greater distance, the city Busiris
in the Busirite Nome, and Cynospolis.6 According
to Eratosthenes, the expulsion of foreigners is a
custom common to all barbarians, and yet the
Aegyptians are condemned for this fault because
of the myths which have been circulated about
Busiris in connection with the Busirite Nome,7 since
the later writers wish falsely to malign the inhospi-
tality of this place, although, by heavens, no king
or tyrant named Busiris ever existed; and, he says,
the poet's words are also constantly cited--"to go
to Aegypt, long and painful journey"-the want
of harbours contributing very much to this opinion,
as also the fact that even the harbour which Aegypt
did have, the one at Pharos, gave no access, but was
guarded by shepherds who were pirates and who
attacked those who tried to bring ships to anchor
there; and the Carthaginians likewise, he adds,
used to drown in the sea any foreigners who sailed
past their country to Sardo8 or to the Pillars, and

S" City of Zeus." 5 "Lion City."
6 "Dog's City."
7 The mythical king Busiris sacrificed all foreigners who
entered Aegypt, but at last was slain by Heracles (Apollo-
dorus 2. 11).
8 Sardinia.


TaOG Ariare7-ara Ta 7roXXh To Ja7rept[ v Kal
roW IIepo-a 8 KIaK/c Ijyetao-at ro r7rpea-/3ccrg
Tat; 'o80 icKVKCX Kal Sta 8va-Kcwv.
20. Uvvdadret 86 Icait 6 "'A0pptl3rF VOl0? KECal
"A9pt/st rrot Ka Icat e H pocwWrirT?7 vo/ytov, ev
'Apo8Trrq; 7roXL. inrep \ r7b MervBo-tov
ord)ua ica TO TavrtKOi XV lpvr /ydX77 Kcai 6
MeCvoo-ulo 0'-rt vo6 icail 6 AeovrTrooXlTr? ca
roXtv 'A ,'pooiT? AKai 6 capP/rTrlrT? vofIO6 eLTa
T\ TavrtcoVy cor7A/, 8 TiveV XaircLKv Xe"yovot,
,cal o Tavirrvp vopb Ica' 7roXt dev ayTr Ifteaydr
21. MeraJ 86\ Tro TavWTtxo icaa ro I7 HXov-
o'ta/coi Xlpavat Ka~l ai 1eyaXa ical ovveXi Kc6tua9
7roXXt9\ CXotora. Kal abrb 8e r7 Hl)XoVoItov EcdcX;k
C 803 rrepltce/lueva yesxt 6, & TwtVre Bdpa'pa KxaXoo-i,
ical TeXa'ra' Kcro-Tat 8' 7r- O0aXrTTrrq ev
'rXelaoow e'icoart cOra8'ot, rov 8e Kic Kov ,eX
TO7 TreCLovu a-rabiwv eticooatv* voyaao-rat 8' adro
ToD 'rr7XoD icatl Trv reXjirTwv. rTaVrr Se Kcal
Svao-elaoX~6v '- a v i Ai'vrrrov fcK r&v JwOWv&v
Toror v rTCV KaTa C owlvicv Kial Tr 'IovSaiav, Kal
dCK Tjv 'Apag8a{ 86 Ti, NaiSaralwv, 'irrp errr0
7rpo-aeXj 8ta ro vrTW e'rrT T)v Aiyv'rrovly 869.
SSee teCraFv 0ro NelXo i al roD 'Apa/9ov KOXrrov
Apa,8a piev er-T(, Kal eir rye TWV arcpov av.T1F
'8pvrat Tr IIHXovo-tov, aXX' .p.poIO a71aoa ea'Tr
ical a/arov arparoTre'8. o 8\ AETratb laop.t;
H1Xiovoiov Kalc roD pIvXoDv r70T aO' 'Hpc6wv rr6Xtv
kxtlwv 1 UEv errt oara8twv, k o HlooetdcIvtcd
1 tiLwv (as in 1. 2. 29 and Herodotus 2. 158, 4 11),
Epitome and editors, for dvvacoaiwi.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. 1. I9-21

it is for this reason that most of the stories told
about the west are disbelieved; and also the
Persians, he says, would treacherously guide the
ambassadors over roundabout roads and through
difficult regions.
20. Bordering on this Nome is the Athribite Nome
and the city Athribis, and also the Prosopite Nome,
in which is a City of Aphrodite. Above the Men-
desian and Tanitic mouths lie a large lake and the
Mendesian and Leontopolite Nomes and a City of
Aphrodite and the Pharbetite Nome; and then one
comes to the Tanitic mouth, which some call Saitic,
and to the Tanite Nome, and to Tanis, a large city
21. Between the Tanitic and Pelusiac mouths lie
lakes, and large and continuous marshes which con
tain many villages. Pelusium itself also has marshes
lying all round it, which by some are called Barathra,'
and muddy ponds; its settlement lies at a distance of
more than twenty stadia from the sea, the wall has
a circuit of twenty stadia, and it has its name from
the pelos2 and the muddy ponds. Here, too, Aegypt
is difficult to enter, I mean from the eastern regions
about Phoenicia and Judaea, and from the Arabia of
the Nabataeans, which is next to Aegypt; these are
the regions which the road to Aegypt traverses. The
country between the Nile and the Arabian Gulf is
Arabia, and at its extremity is situated Pelusium;
but the whole of it is desert, and impassable for an
army. The isthmus between Pelusium and the recess
of the gulf at Herobnpolis 3 is. one thousand stadia,
but, according to Poseidonius, less than one thousand
1 "Pits." 2 i.e. "mud."
S" City of Heroes."

(ao-'tv, dXartr'vov 7 X,,iiv' Kal 7revPraKcoa~eL
7rpo 8 7e T a vv8po etvat Kcal attzIwoSl ep7erTov
7rrX00o0 e'Xet TO7 afIJLOU8vr&v.
22. 'ATro 86e XeS~ia avaarXovav dr, M'etiv
ev Setia L ev elo-t Tra/pIroXXat KicoatL JeXpt 7rT
Mapetla1 hlujivv, ov eo-t icatl j Xappptov KOprl
KaXovfuie'vp, 67T 8e T& 7TO'Tayu IEpltov 7ro'dtLS e0-"
eIra Pvvatxcwv 7r6X KaiCa voogb rTvvatLxoroXtTI'rt
Se0qf S8 MtlAe tqc Kcal, MOwe iT171r VOt09
perra;vh 8 &opvyev r'Xelov ei 'r T2v Mapefortv.
01 SC Mo/et/zc raiTat T- 'AppoirTr'qv rt~uao, ,cal
7pierat r4Xeta PosF Iepd, icad'rrep ev M'dtet
6d Artv, ev 'HXlov 86 7roXet 6 Mvei0t" o5Trot t1u
oVv 6eo1 volU'lovTat, o~ d a raph rol liXot's (rrapa
wToXXo9, yAp 87 ev T e Tj AdrTa icai 1?' avroD
TOI /tEP aipp77v, rols 8E' 8rXeta Tpe6'e0Tat), o7-ot 8B
0eol 1-vE o vob cjIovT'ra, lepot 84.
23. 'T7rrp 8e M(e / uje elo-t 8o vt'rplat
rnXeio-rov vIrpov eX'ovo'a Ical vobO" NTrpu(-
T oy. rtla rat EvravOa o ldpa7rty c al 7rapa
!povon TroVTroT OTe'rat dv Atlyvrrcp rpo3parov"
7rrlaiov 86 ical ev'rafa 7ro'Xt Mverk'ao, dv
aplarep4 86 vi 7T Ae\ra 6il pe'IV 7 r 0oTaA
NavcKpanT, Avro Se TOoi rro 8ra 0loXoovvov i-
Xovaa 17 ait-. Kical pUiKp TavLry719 irepe 700
'Oaciptoo darvov, ev iceo'irat Trov "Oan'piv
0aoaw. d/ato(ofr3TovDcOi 8' T70VTOV TroXXol, ical
t dXtO-ra ol TrA IDtXav oicovv'rey Ta vrep vr?)vrl'
1 Mapeai E, Zajuapeias DA, ~aupaaias CF, Mapias mosucz.
1 "City of Women."
2 "City of the Sun."

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 21-23

five hundred; and in addition to its being waterless
and sandy, it contains a multitude of reptiles, the
22. From Schedia, as one sails towards Memphis,
there are, on the right, a very large number of
villages, extending as far as Lake Mareia, among
which is the Village of Chabrias, as it is called;
and, on the river, one comes to an Hermupolis, and
then to Gynaeconpolis1 and the Gynaeconpolite
Nome, and, next in order, to Momemphis and the
Momemphite Nome; but in the interval there are
several canals which empty into Lake Mareotis. The
Momemphitae honour Aphrodite; and a sacred cow
is kept there, as is Apis in Memphis and Mneuis
in Heliupolis.2 Now these animals are regarded as
gods, but those in the other places (for in many
places, indeed, both in the Delta and outside of it,
either a bull or cow is kept)-those others, I say,
are not regarded as gods, though they are held
23. Above Momemphis are two nitre-beds, which
contain very large quantities of nitre,3 and the
Nitriote Nome. Here Sarapis is held in honour;
and they are the only people in Aegypt who sacrifice
a sheep. Near by, and in this Nome, is a city
Menelaiis; and on the left, in the Delta, lies
Naucratis, which is on the river, whereas Sais lies
at a distance of two schoeni from the river. A little
above Sais is the asylum of Osiris, in which the body
of Osiris is said to lie ; but many lay claim to this,
and particularly the inhabitants of the Philae which
3 The ancients meant by nitree "native sodium carbonate,
not potassium nitrate saltpetree), the present meaning. Pliny
(31. 6) mentions the various kinds and their uses.


icat Ti') 'EXecaavTivr. ,iv0eCovovt 'yap 84, 8OTtr
i '"Pla- KcaTa TroXXob" T'orov KaTao yi)9 & f77
-opow T70 'Oa-iptSoo (1la 8e TOVTWP v ieova-a
rbv "O0-tpv, cfiav rTc-rit), ToDTro 7rrpdSete
Xa0etv 3ovXo/ e'vri T OV Tv EdKpicp ee Tb aiopa T7F O/ icl;.
24. 'A TO 1i4v 8' T7r0 'AXetav8pela, Trr 4 v
T70 A'XTra copvo v aT 7ry 7 7reptiy7-rI, 7o-'1t s' o
'ApTreqISwpo a"XOb'vov OcKTrW Kta, edIcooGt TOv vd-
C 804 r-Xovv, TOVTO S' elvat o Taloouv ocTaKcoc-lovy
TeTTapiaKOVTa, XOy/t~lOeroV TpiaKOVTaa-T r tov Tr v
aC(oEvov' F'iv p Terot 7rXE'ovO-t aXoT' aiXw
pETpT XPO~/peVO T(7)V XOyVO )OV abTreSooav Ta
8taorT7j/IaTa, E't /pEItov9 KaTa TrovT 6V pOXoyeE / Oat 7rap'
avT(ov,. Kca 8tdI Trapa TO ? AtVYrTOtiotq oa-TaTov
Eo-T TO T?)7 O-XOvov IeTpov, aVTOs o 'ApTe/u'-
SWpo Ev TOE e9 l 7lXol. irbo zev 'hap Me'Ep w
/eXPt @rp/3atSoo; Tpy) ayolvov eicdoa'riyv a'V elvat
orTaoev e~icaTOV elKcoo-tv, adro o T7?) Orp3aL8oo
/Iept :Vp V7v9 i'tcKOVTa, an7o So H-lXrovTa-ov 7rpO'
T7v avT7v avavrXe'ovot Kcopvcy )v O-XolvovV tev
TrevTe Kcal etKLicot i7c, orTab iowV S ETraKOo-L'Ov
7rEveTCovTa, T( aVTy /p.erp9p Xprad/eTvoT. 7rprTT77v
S' deT T)0 lh'Xovrlov 7TpoeXCOov-v elvat 8topvya
T 7V 7rXipoaOav TaO Kara Ta eqic KaXovLEva;
XVIvaq, ad 38o p e'I Clo-v, ev AptaTepa 8' KevTat
TO) ueya'Xov vorTap(o br7Trp TO H17Xo'0VrorV v T7y
'Apa/a" Kcalt i'Xa 68 Xdyeit Xt~vaT KaL Stupvya,

x So Diodorus Siculus (1. 22. 3).

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 23-24

is situated above Syend and Elephantine;1 for they
tell the mythical story, namely, that Isis2 placed
coffins of Osiris beneath the earth in several places
(but only one of them, and that unknown to all,
contained the body of Osiris), and that she did this
because she wished to hide the body from Typhon,3
fearing that he might find it and cast it out of its
24. Now this is the full description of the country
from Alexandria to the vertex of the Delta; and,
according to Artemidorus, the voyage up the river
is twenty-eight schoeni, that is, eight hundred and
forty stadia, reckoning the schoenus at thirty stadia.
When I made the voyage, however, they used
different measures at different times when they
gave the distances, so that even forty stadia, or
still more, was the accepted measure of the
schoenus, according to the place. That the measure
of the schoenus among the Aegyptians is unstable
is made clear by Artemidorus himself in his next
statement; for from Memphis to Thebais each
schoenus, he says, is one hundred and twenty
stadia, and from Thebais to Syene sixty, and, as
one sails up from Pelusium to the same vertex of
the Delta, the distance, he says, is twenty-five
schoeni, that is, seven hundred and fifty stadia,
using the same measure. The first canal, as one
proceeds from Pelusium, he says, is the one which
fills the Marsh-lakes, as they are called, which are
two in number and lie on the left of the great river
above Pelusium in Arabia; and he also speaks of
2 This goddess was both sister and wife of Osiris.
Typhon came to be identified with the Aegyptian god
SSet" (brother of Osiris and Isis), who murdered Osiris.


Er ToFT aruoZt /iepeo-tv '~e TO AeXTa. eoCTt
cKa voo1Lb SeOpwr LT77 rapa T?)V eTepav Xhl'vv' eva
8 r T&vV Sle'a TrV jv 7TO) AATra 8taptpeiTraL Ical
TOVTOv* el6 8 TatV avrTa'1 X;l iva, aovuiaXXova-
Kali XXaL Sdo S&wpvyes.
25. "AXXi? S' orTrv exc8oiTSo-a el r ~v 'Epvupav
IKa 'rv 'ApdStov rKXorov KcaTr2 ~ rOhv 'Apo-trv,
7v wvrot KXeo7raTpi8a KcaXoDut. 8tappeZ 8 ieal
&tA T &v wtrcpiv icaXovulvowv Xtipvv, at 7rprepTfov
/1v 4ceav rttcpal, TrZrlfa'r-i 87 Ti Stopvyo- T7r
XEX60el-7rf; /eTe6TdXov TO 7 T, Kpdteit TO 7roTapoDv,
Kal vvv elta-V eiO\rOt, PEO-Tal 8'e ca' 7TV XtLyvaltC
opvewv. rT/1Ori ~e' &C wpv car apXT p~ev
7ro IecrwaCptos *rpb TWCV TpwIuciwV ol SB n-b
TOO Paap/ptritov 7rat8o', Apapu~evov fIvov, er'
d/CXt7rrOV-TO To fl /3iov' va pov Vr Aapelov TroD
I t I
8o S6!fyj 4evtet ere7Tacels a (ice 'T 'pyov repi
acvverXeiav 1T)r' ere'ia-Or) yap eTewpnePorpav elvat
Tr 'EpvOpdv 0dXaarav Trs AlytrT'rov Kca, ei
StaKo7rei'7) 7Trc 6 pieraf6v la-Opo1', 'rctKXvcOlj foeo-0a
-T^j 9a\dTr 'v A'IYVr-Tov" o0l evrot IIToXfepaiKco'
/3aktXeis StaKc6av'res icXetoaT-rv drolrjaav ryb
evpl7rov, Wo1Te, Ore 3ovXoSoT, e K7rXeV aKcaVTW(;
elt T7v 'W O dharrTav Kal elo-rXeiv idXLv. etpr.rat
1 T&h abTds Groskurd, for ra6Tras ds Ex, Trora:ras other
MSS. So Kramer and later editors.
2 KaTwr, Brequigny, for Kni; so the editors.
S tCTBaAovTro, x and the editors, for pErEBdCAAovTo.
SDhi insert Kal before 4.

1 The others are named in 18-20 above. Pliny (5. 9)
names still more.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 24-25

other lakes and canals in the same regions outside
the Delta. There is also the Sethroite Nome by
the second lake, although he counts this Nome too
as one of the ten1 in the Delta; and two other
canals meet in the same lakes.
25. There is another canal which empties into
the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf near the city
Arsino6, a city which some call Cleopatris. It flows
also through the Bitter Lakes, as they are called,
which were indeed bitter in earlier times, but when
the above-mentioned canal was cut they underwent
a change because of the mixing with the river,
and now are well supplied with fish and full also
of aquatic birds. The canal was first cut by
Sesostris before the Trojan War-though some say
by the son of Psammitichus,2 who only began the
work and then died-and later by Dareius the
First,3 who succeeded to the next work done upon
it. But he, too, having been persuaded by a false
notion, abandoned the work when it was already
near completion; for he was persuaded that the
Red Sea was higher than Aegypt, and that if the
intervening isthmus were cut all the way through,
Aegypt would be inundated by the sea. The
Ptolemaic kings,4 however, cut through it and made
the strait a closed passage,5 so that when they
wished they could sail out without hindrance into
the outer sea and sail in again. But I have
2 i.e. by Necos (Diodorus Siculus 1. 33. 9), or Necho, who
lost 120,000 men in the effort (Herodotus 2. 158).
3 So Diodorus Siculus (1. 33. 9).
4 "Ptolemy II" (Diodorus Siculus 1. 33. 11).
S"At the most advantageous place he built a cleverly
contrived barrier" (Diodorus Siculus 1. 33. 11)..


86 ical nrepp 7riv 7TV ;s8drwv ETtiavelas Kal ev Trol
7rpwrtOLF vro/uvljiaoCt.
26. HIIXo'lo 8 74 'Apotvowq, Kai ca1 TiV 'HpOwv
i'rT roXtF Ical 17 KXeo7raTrp' e Tv pvyI To7
C 805 'Apa/3ov cX7Tro 'rT 7'rpo AtiyvTrov ical lXtipev Kal
KaTroutiaat StcpvIyeC T1e 1 rXelovL? ai i/.Lvat ,rXqao'd-
ovoaat To0roIVt' erTal8a 8' Eo-T07 cat 6 'ayppopto-
TroXlTr]i voJtj c Kai wT6oXt? (aypoptqdroXt'. 1 86
apX) T)l 8 ipvyor T?7f eICtSouVI o- e'? rTv 'Epvepav
a7ro KI p,17; apXe7Tat 4atKouoC-a-% ?, crvve'XjF ea Kal
fl (iXNwov K(iOpy 7rXdaToF 8' eXct 7rJowv ecarbTo 1
Stupvf, /Bdo, 8' orov apKeiv /zvpios6pw v71" o0iroi
8' otl OTrt 7rXI]~cbovat 7 /'copv/py Tro AeXra.
27. AiTro 8' Kcal 17 Bo3aTrro9 7rdoXt Kcat o
Bov/aor-TiT7 voposc' Kal 7Trep avrbv o 'HXto-
WroXIT17r po6o-?. vTraG a 8' eo-rv 7' T0D 'HXiov
7rXtv Erl Xdlarov aFtoX6yov KeIe vi, TO lepV
'Xovo-a Tro 'Hllov ical rTv 83oVv rTv MVyeiw dv
o-7K ) Ttvt 7peCpO/ieov, 6F 7rap avro a vevotrlv at
0fe6, wo-Qrep Kcal ev Me'4pet o 'A7rt. wpoKeTrat
e TOV7 XI-"aTos Xhtlvat, 7T)v davaXvotv 71j
7rXvolaov 8t1pvyo' e'Xovoat. vvvI /tLV ov da-rt
Taveprfioq 17 7r6sXtI, To lepov eovo-a 7T AIyvnr7wl
Tp7r(p /caTearcevac-ievov drpXaZov, eXo 'o roXXa
TretcpKIpta T'j, Ka14uPcaov p avla's Kca teporvXlas,
o0 T7a I v Trvpt, Th 8 tov87p 8teXwo03Tro rToi
tepwov, a~rpwrptadOwv ial Irepitcalwv, KcaOa(rep ical
T70V bo3eXtioKovU' wv &Oo Kal elt 'PCtlv eKo-
ii-oOei7av ol pi KcelcaKOwftevt TeXNo, a' Xot 8' e i-1
Kaicei lKa ev 04jpatl9, T71 viv ALoO-TroXE' ol LEv
eoTWTe9 r dicq 7rvpi/3pWotO, ol & ical Kcetievor.
1 T, Corais, for de; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 25-27

already discussed the levels of the bodies of water
in my first commentaries.'
26. Near Arsinoe one comes also to Heroonpolis
and Cleopatris, in the recess of the Arabian Gulf
towards Aegypt, and to harbours and settlements,
and near there, to several canals and lakes. Here,
too, is the Phagroriopolite Nome and the city Pha-
groriopolis. The canal which empties into the Red
Sea begins at Phacussa, to which the Village of
Philo is contiguous; the canal has a breadth of one
hundred cubits and a depth sufficient for very large
merchant-vessels; and these places are near the
vertex of the Delta.
27. Here are both the city Bubastus and the
Bubastite Nome; and above it is the Heliopolite
Nome. In this Nome is Heliupolis, which is
situated upon a noteworthy mound; it contains the
temple of Helios, and the ox Mneuis, which is kept
in a kind of sanctuary and is regarded among the
inhabitants as god, as is Apis in Memphis. In front
of the mound are lakes, which receive the overflow
from the neighboring canal. The city is now
entirely deserted; it contains the ancient temple
constructed in the Aegyptian manner, which affords
many evidences of the madness and sacrilege of
Cambyses, who partly by fire and partly by iron
sought to outrage the temples, mutilating them and
burning them on every side, just as he did with the
obelisks. Two of these, which were not completely
spoiled, were brought to Rome, but others are either
still there or at Thebes, the present Diospolis-
some still standing, thoroughly eaten by the fire, and
others lying on the ground.
S1 1.. 20 and 1. 3. 8 ff.


28. T3' 8 lcaTao-cevj' T'v lepGv ) SdL9ecat'
'otaVT*- Kicara T7rv ela/poX v rv el' b 7T 'r/Lvo?
Xt6o'rprOv O-Trw tv uapo, 7rXaro' ev o-ov
'rXe9ptatov i Kal h aTTOV, i4f/co S ic al 7pt-
7rXao-tovr cal reTpa'rdLa-tov, CiV OTrbrov Kca l leidov
caXeZTrat S 0 TO7TO SpoLo';, KaOadrep KaXXi/taXo
0 8pOjoO lepo' o5"TO; 'Avo/tiSo;.
8th a 70ro' ricKov; 7raTvrO ei j 4 bc'repa Tro
rrXarTov o; -t'Y16r 'Zpvvra& X'Lvat, wrrj'x eti ioa-v
q icpi rkp rXkelov? r' awXT jXaj v WeXovaoat, &'a'
eva UEv Eic 86etoiv evat o'riXov TWV cr1 yytov, va
8' e' svwdjwv /erTa 86 Tal; alyya,; rrp6o'rvXov
/eLya, e a\XXo rrpoeXOov'rt 7rpo'rvXov, elr' aeXo'
V0b eo-Tt 86 S&1 o-por1evoa'; ApiO/o ov'e Tr7w
rrporrvXwv OvfTe Tr&v aolyy7V, aXXa S' dv aXXot;
lepoLT, wo-r'ep ical Ta /TK TI Kcal T 7 rXTaTid TW
SpdfOwv. PeCa Ta rrporrvXata 6 vew; 7rpovaov
'Xov peaya Kcal a6o'Xoov, Tor SA IO`7KV av/-
teTrpov, aoavov 8' ovtev, 7 oKc AvOpwr07r6opoov,
aXXa TrWo dxo,,ov ~,owv TWIO'v' T70 86 rpovdov
7Tap escaTepov 7po/KfeTa Ta -' eyO/,eraval Irpdu
Co-T 86 TaDva i1 ov*lj T7 yew TelXy ) vo, iKar
C 806 apaXh /zpv atBeo'r&rra ir' aXXrXWov /tKPOpbv 2 7rrXeov
70 TO 1rXaTo9 '-Tt T7 j K/prJZSo' T0' veO 7T~e'tT
Ei To rpoo-rev Irpo'tiwT t ia edTrtVvovaa;3 ypal-
1 Instead of tAE-yJva C reads vtyda. 2 niKp4I Dz.
SrwevAtvoas, Corais and Groskurd emend to &rovEvoecras.
1 Strabo means the Aegyptian temples in general.
2 A sketch of the plan may be found in Tozer's Selections,
p. 356; but cp. the sketch of the pronaos in the Corais-
Latronne edition.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 28

28. The plan of the construction of the temples 1
is as follows:2 at the entrance into the sacred
precinct there is a floor paved with stones, with a
breadth of about a plethrum, or less, and a length
either three or four times as great, or in some cases
more; and this is called the dromus,3 as Callimachus
states: This is the dromus, sacred to Anubis." 4
Throughout its whole length are stone sphinxes
placed in order on each of its two sides, at a distance
from one another of twenty cubits or a little more,
so that one row of the sphinxes is on the right
and one row on the left. And after the sphinxes
one comes to a large propylum,6 and then, as one
proceeds, another, and then another; but there is no
prescribed number either of propyla or of sphinxes,
and they are different in different temples, as are
also the lengths and the breadths of the dromi.
After the propylaea one comes to the naos,6 which
has a large and noteworthy pronaos,7 and to a
sanctuary of commensurate size, though it has no
statue, or rather no statue of human form, but
only of some irrational animal. On either side of
the pronaos project the wings, as they are called.
These are two walls equal in height to the naos,
which are at first distant from one another a little
more than the breadth of the foundation of the
naos, and then, as one proceeds onward, follow
3 Literally, "course" or "run."
4 The Aegyptian Anpu, worshipped as "'Lord of the
6 Literally, Front Gate" ; but, like the Propylaea on the
Acropolis at Athens,the propylum was a considerable building
forming a gateway to the temple.
6 i.e. the temple proper.
7 i.e. front hall-room.


/zep9 pXpt riXyv w7revT kovra e4iJKovTra awvay-
Xrvaq 8S' X'ovcro ol Trorgo o rot teytXOVr eid8hwv,
o/ olwv Toq TvppPrjvKOl' Kal ro? dpxalov o068pa
Trv rapa r7To "EXX to-t 8'tpovpysyp',rwv. Cor
eC T; ical 7roXvo-TrvXo oZlco, caa'drep bv MeL et,
apap3aporicv l 7zv TV Kao-Kevprv rwXfv yap TO7
/e'ydkwv elvat Kal. roXX6ov xal 'TroXuvo-Tcrlc TOPv
avXOJwv 1 obi8v e'XL Xaplev oe8' ypaoticov, aXXa
aaaratoroviav qf4 alivet pMiXXov.
29. 'Ev 6' 7Tj 'HXMov roXet cat' oi'covV et'8o/pe
CieyAdov;, dv o0 81iTpcLov ol [epe"' pdXtIra yap
8 TavTqV tcaroticLav (epe W yeyovevac caal TO
7raXatdv, ctXoa6-wc v dvSp&v cal do'rpovo/iLK1ovw
eKCXhXotre 8 /cal ToOTro vvvl b ao-o-Trripa Kat 1
ao-K a7I-. etcel /) obv oV' SelF lq v i' eeicEKvrVo T7?
TroavTr adoTco-ecow poeo'ro6i, dXX' ol iepoprotol
'ovov iKa a erlyqrac Tro? evoL~ rwv "rep Ta tepa.
7rap~7coXovOet 8e Trtt 4 'AXefav8pelaq avaTrXedovrt
el T1v A'ltyvrrov AlXkl IdXckX TW '/yeflYov
Xatpsjwov rovvofia, nrpoo7rTotov1Aevo TotaVTrr7 Tiva
e7rtIO'rqJ/-yv, yeXlevo9 o To 7 rXveov &o adXaVov
ICa t'9tco eIC S' oi3v '8e ICK TO o' re6 T~
leowov olito Kal nHXdrovo ical Eo4'.ov SaTrptlal'
o-vvave'1 yap Si 7rT ITIdrwove EI5ofo &eipo
Kal o`vvStLiTpfav TOT lepeaiDv evravfa eKdevroI
Tpto-KalS8eca e'Tn, Jc esprrai Tto-' 7reptTroFv 'yap
ovraq icara TrV ertrr~O-T vR Tco ovpavlwv, /IVort-
1 moz change all these genitives to accusatives; so Corais.
1 i.e. in the Etruscan tombs.
a Hardly Chaeremon the Alexandrian philosopher and
historian, as some think. Aelius Gallus made the voyage

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 28-29

converging lines as far as fifty or sixty cubits; and
these walls have figures of large images cut in low
relief, like the Tyrrhenian 1 images and the very
old works of art among the Greeks. There is also
a kind of hall with numerous columns (as at
Memphis, for example), which is constructed in the
barbaric manner; for, except for the fact that the
columns are large and numerous and form many
rows, the hall has nothing pleasing or picturesque,
but is rather a display of vain toil.
29. In Heliupolis I also saw large houses in which
the priests lived; for it is said that this place in
particular was in ancient times a settlement of
priests who studied philosophy and astronomy; but
both this organisation and its pursuits have now
disappeared. At Heliupolis, in fact, no one was
pointed out to me as presiding over such pursuits,
but only those who performed the sacrifices and
explained to strangers what pertained to the sacred
rites. When Aelius Gallus the praefect sailed up
into Aegypt, he was accompanied by a certain man
from Alexandria, Chaeremon2 by name, who pre-
tended to some knowledge of this kind, but was
generally ridiculed as a boaster and ignoramus.
However, at Heliupolis the houses of the priests and
schools of Plato and Eudoxus were pointed out to
us ; for Eudoxus went up to that place with Plato,
and they both passed thirteen years3 with the priests,
as is stated by some writers; for since these priests
excelled in their knowledge of the heavenly bodies,
about 25 B.c., but that Chaeremon was a tutor of Nero after
A.D. 49.
3 The Epitome reads "three years," and Diogenes Laertius
(8. 87) "sixteen months."


KOV~ Se' tcal 8vu- cTaS0oTOUr 7, XpOv Kca' rata
Oepa'e'atvaiq ekndprioav, wn6e ria TWVP OecOpf-
uLdTwV o aaopcwat TA 7roXXA Se aeTrecpv'favo ol
/dp8/apot. o0rot US Tah e'rtTpexovra T p Ie'paq
IcKat T9 VVICTO'7 tuopLa Taq 7piaKoataFO L 4rjKovTa
7revTe 7i/tcpav; el&9 TV ICcrX7rpOaV TOV Eeviavalov
Xpw'ov vrape'dSoav. AXV' 'fyvoeZTo TEIes eVav-
Tbo ?raph To "EXEawtv, t) xKal aXXa 7rXeo,
w4; ol veoTrepot (oTpoXoyot rape'\a/ov 7rapa
T'ov O1eeptr7pevavTrwv el; TON 'EXX1rvtKcOv TA TrOv
lepewv v7rolopJraTa*' al a E vviv rapaXaf pv-
ovo't Ta 7r' d icevwv, OOIw xa K ral To Xrv XaX8ak(v.
30. 'EVT evDOe 8s'1 NeiXd E dTTw b7TrEp TOV
AXTa' a VroVrov T8 A leNv 8eIth aXooct At,3v6v
ava'rXEovrt, wirrep Ical TA Trept Trjv 'AX~dv-
8perav ical T2v MapeCoTiv, Tr 8' dv ApurTepa
'Apaglav. j pu'v ov'HXliov 7r6X ev &7rT 'Apa,3a
EoTiv, Edv 7T~f At/3vy KepKca-ovpa Or6XtLv Kca
C 807 Tdre EU38~ov icep'vy7 actOarda' Se'cvvrat -ap
acrKonTj rtF rpp i 7r 'Hlov 'IoX ew4, KcaOdrep cKal
irpo 7-fj Kvitov, rpo 1'v e-arl/atouDTo E ceVO 7rTV
ovparwov r'ivaq coTEL' 6 8 voUo? A0]TOTO X 779;
o paVLo)V TIP' q KW 0 6 u'q A"-o.-oX'. .
oVTro. avaTrXevravTt 8' orTI BapuXdv, ppovptov
epvpvov, aTroo-TarVTOV cvTaiva Ba/pvXwvlov Tt )v,
1 Instead of 4, Dh read 5'.
1 As stated in 46 (below), they divided the year into
twelve months of thirty days each, and at the end of the

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 29-30

albeit secretive and slow to impart it, Plato and
Eudoxus prevailed upon them in time and by
courting their favour to let them learn some of
the principles of their doctrines; but the barbarians
concealed most things. However, these men did
teach them the fractions of the day and the night
which, running over and above the three hundred
and sixty-five days, fill out the time of the true
year.1 But at that time the true year was unknown
among the Greeks, as also many other things, until
the later astrologers learned them from the men
who had translated into Greek the records of the
priests; and even to this day they learn their
teachings, and likewise those of the Chaldaeans.
30. From Heliupolis, then, one comes to the Nile
above the Delta. Of this, the parts on the right, as
one sails up, are called Libya, as also the parts
round Alexandria and Lake Mareotis, whereas
those on the left are called Arabia. Now Heliu-
polis is in Arabia, but the city Cercesura, which
lies near the observatories of Eudoxus, is in Libya;
for a kind of watch-tower is to be seen in front of
Heliupolis, as also in front of Cnidus, with reference
to which Eudoxus would note down his observations
of certain movements of the heavenly bodies. Here
the Nome is the Letopolite. And, having sailed
farther up the river, one comes to Babylon, a strong-
hold, where some Babylonians had withdrawn in
revolt and then successfully negotiated for permission

twelve months added five days (so Herodotus 2. 4), and then
at the end of every fourth year added another day. Diodorus
Siculus (1. 50), however, puts it thus: "They add five and
one-fourth days to the twelve months and in this way complete
the annual period."


erTa Sta7rpaea1,eAvaw v E'vTava KaTroLKiav rrapa Trcv
/3ao-tXCwv vvvl 8' e')iI a-parTTre8ov Evb' TWv
7ptwv TayldTwTv 7TOV povpwvppovmw 7rjv AtlV7rrov.
pa~XL 8' Erriv a7rro TOi o0TpaToTreCov icai pLeXp
NeiXov Ka0?jKovlaa, 6S' 7 TO r 7roTaapov
TpoXot icatl coXXlal TO vi8op avayov~atv, avSppov
eicarov 7revrrlcovra epyaopbevwv Seao-liwv' ad-
opwvrat 8' vCe'v6e TrXavyw/ atl rvpayliSe v T~
7repala ev Me'1/et icai eldoa rr7Xralov.
31. 'Eyyvg 8e Ial if Me/tov avirr, Tb /3aolXetov
TWv AtyvTrrTwv' e'o-ri T p ato roy ACXTa rpl yot-
vov tel ar7rjv. e'Xet S8 lepd, TO Tre T7 "ArSov,,
60 dEr-v atrbo ical "Ootpt(, 0T0rov & /3o fi
'Art d)V e0ro7iA TII rTp ECTal, Oe6o, &; 'drv,
voliMtopevo', StaXevico1 To /ierTcrov iKa a~XXa tva
tLitcpa Tofi o-r4aTrov, TrXXa Se tLCXav olh ay-
p eLOc del Ktpi l vo- TOrv ETrtL8etov el; r7'v 8ta-
SoXiv, ArroyevoLfievov Tro 7riv Ttrityv e7XO'roY .
ea'-t av\X rrpoiceietyev17 roV aiecov, ev 7 Ica
aXXog oricKOb T71v jrlTpbov 70T /3o00' el? raVTl7v
Se T71 avX)v eCaoidcr- TOV o'Arrtv cKal' pav rtva,
ical paXta-Ta 7rpo eTrr'ietitv TOEL e'votv' opoWa-
Iev .yap Kcal 8ta OvpiSoT v To 70nKi, 8ov'Xovrat
Be ita e' T a7roocipTijo-avra S' ev aVT? pttecpd
dvaXa~p3advovo-t 7rdXiv e? 7rv oLKe6Lavy ('rdoTav.
1 Strabo's statement is too concise to be clear. He refers
to certain Babylonian captives who, being unable to endure
the hard work imposed upon them in Aegypt, revolted from
the king, seized the stronghold along the river, and gained
the concession in question after a successful war (Diodorus
Siculus, 1. 56. 3).
2 i.e. to Babylon.
3 The pyramids of Gizeh, described by Herodotus (2. 124 ff.)
and Pliny (36. 16).

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 30-31

from the kings to build a settlement; but now it is
an encampment of one of the three legions that
guard Aegypt. There is a ridge extending from
the encampment even as far as the Nile, on which
the water is conducted up from the river 2 by wheels
and screws; and one hundred and fifty prisoners are
employed in the work; and from here one can
clearly see the pyramids3 on the far side of the
river at Memphis, and they are near to it.4
31. Memphis itself, the royal residence of the
Aegyptians, is also near Babylon; for the distance
to it from the Delta is only three schoeni.5 It
contains temples, one of which is that of Apis, who
is the same as Osiris; it is here that the bull Apis is
kept in a kind of sanctuary, being regarded, as I
have said, as god; his forehead and certain other
small parts of his body are marked with white, but
the other parts are black; 6 and it is by these marks
that they always choose the bull suitable for the
succession, when the one that holds the honour has
died. In front of the sanctuary is situated a court,
in which there is another sanctuary belonging to the
bull's mother. Into this court they set Apis loose at
a certain hour, particularly that he may be shown to
foreigners; for although people can see him through
the window in the sanctuary, they wish to see him
outside also; but when he has finished a short bout
of skipping in the court they take him back again to
his familiar stall.
4 According to Pliny (36. 16) the pyramids were seven and
one-half miles (i.e. sixty stadia) from Memphis.
5 On the "schoenus," see 17. 1. 24.
6 He is black, and has on his forehead a triangular white
spot and on his back the likeness of an eagle (Herodotus
3. 28). Pliny (8. 71) says, "a crescent-like white spot on
the right side.".


Td6 e S) Troi "ArT86'q e-rtvf lepov, rapaicelpevov
T7 'HcatOrel~, Kat avTro 7r 'Hcalt.retov r-oXv-
TcXi~i KareaT-Kcvao-pEvov vaoV re /hIUyeEL Kal Trot
'XXotI. TrpodKerat 8' ev T(, 8po/p1, Ktat pfovdXl0o,
/coXoO-ro-o' W'o ; 8' eo -T v Tre Spott 7TOVTort
Trapwv aylwva, avvTreXco-Oat 7pboa AXXijXovs, ob'
ETri978e'; rpCfoval TIve, waTrep ol Ir7rorp6fot'
CV/3dadXXovote yap el'i i-dyXr anVkr7, 6 8e KperT-
Twv votOaOel6t; a'LOo Tovyx veI. '6rT 8' dv Md 6et
ical 'A/po'r); ltepov, Oea' 'EXX~wt8o0 vo/pto/,Eydri'
TtweV o 8 ,EX4v, 1 tFpov elfvai Oao-tv.
32. "EOrt 86 Kal YapdaTrov ev ainct8et c oTrr,
of68pa, wa- T' tvr' devLwov Ova'; a t/Jov awpever-
Oat, 6o' cv at ao0-tyye at /~yV Kail /EXpti KBcfaXi;
Mwpivro v;(' ?lp ov tKaraKe(Xwagie-vat, at 8' "/i( a-
ve .e J iv EaeldaeLv 7rapl 'rv Cvb 8vvov, el TO)
/3a&iovrT 7rpb TO l epov Xa hXa r T'nre-ot. roXtd
8' O-TIr /eydXq T6e Ial eviav8poa,2 aevrepa /eert
'AXeadv8pelav, ttly'd8wv avSpov, KaOarr~p Kal 7Tr
dKet avvepKo-tievwv. rpoIceiKTat E Ka a' XtPva,
T7 7TroXdhe( cal T&V P/aoatXe )v, a vovv pv KaT'-
C 808 arraaTat Ial a trrv ep714a, 'Spvwat 8' 40' ,frovg
KaOiKcovra /-eXP' TOV KaIrC 7T T TrX; A6o? J8df)ovu;
avv7oraei 8' aXo-o aure cal Xipv7y.
33. TeTrapadiovra 8' a 'rd 7rT Xro he OTalov;

1 For :.EAvs, Nolt conj. 'EA'Pys, citing Herod. 2. 112.
e2 (eteJrpos E.

1 Diodorus Siculus refers to "images made of one stone,
both of himself (Sesostris) and of his wife, thirty cubits high,
and of his sons, twenty cubits, in the temple of Hephaestus
at Memphis."

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 31-33

There is here, then, not only the temple of Apis,
which lies near the Hephaesteium, but also the
Hephaesteium itself, which is a costly structure both
in the size of its naos and in all other respects. In
front, in the dromus, stands also a colossus made of
one stone;1 and it is the custom to hold bull-fights
in this dromus, and certain men breed these bulls for
the purpose, like horse-breeders; for the bulls are
set loose and join in combat, and the one that is
regarded as victor gets a prize. And at Memphis.
there is also a temple of Aphrodite, who is considered
to be a Greek goddess,2 though some say that it is a
temple of Selene.3
32. There is also a Sarapium at Memphis, in a
place so very sandy that dunes of sand are heaped
up by the winds; and by these some of the sphinxes
which I saw were buried even to the head and
others were only half-visible; from which one might
guess the danger if a sand-storm should fall upon a
man travelling on foot towards the temple. The
city is both large and populous, ranks second after
Alexandria, and consists of mixed races of people,
like those who have settled together at Alexandria.
There are lakes situated in front of the city and the
palaces, which latter, though now in ruins and
deserted, are situated on a height and extend down
to the ground of the city below; and adjoining the
city are a grove and a lake.
33. On proceeding forty stadia from the city, one
2 Herodotus (2. 112) refers to the temple of the Foreign
Aphrodit at Memphis and identifies her with Helen; but
see Rawlinson (Vol. II, p. 157, footnote 9), who very plaus-
ibly identifies her with Astarte, the Phoenician and Syrian
SGoddess of the Moon.


TrpoeXOB6v7 opezvrn T(? 8opv; o'-TrlV, e'>j' 7roXXal
pev elo-t rvpatylSer, Trdcot0 TO v /3aateX wv, erpev
8' aEtoXoYot' Ta? 8e 'so To' TOt)V Icat e~ TO; erTa'
0edaaac icaTapltOpofvrat' ela 'ya p o'Ta8taiat TO
viro;, Terp'ywrot Toy a nj/iaT, T '7 TrX6evpav
ecKao-Tr7 p1cp) p./1eo TO vlfro0 eXuovuoat' ptIcp
a xcaU s5 eTepa T74 eTe'pa ea7Tt 1eliv iOv- XE 8'
ev ibrel IeacnO ITro 1 TWrIV 'revp6iv Xl0ov eatpe'-
atIov" apB6V7-ro E aSP'Ypty d~ar ocoXta tLeXPL Tr
1 Letronne conj. yIas after rws; Groskurd, Meineke and
others so read.

1 Cheops. a Khafra.
3 i.e. "high up, approximately midway" (horizontally)
"between the sides" (the two sides of the triangle which
forms the northern face of the pyramid). This is the mean-
ing of the Greek text as it stands; but all editors (from
Casaubon down), translators, and archaeologists, so far as the
present translator knows, either emend the text or mis-
interpret it, or both (see critical note). Letronne (French
translation), who is followed by the later translators, insists
upon "moderately" as the meaning of ye'aws ,rws (translated
above by "approximately midway between "), and errone-
ously quotes, as a similar use of ti4o-s wros, 11. 2. 18, where
there is no MS. authority for rws, and translates: "Elle
a sur ses c6t6s, et a une 616vation mediocre, une pierre qui
peut s'6ter." The subsequent editors insert pLas ("one")
before Tr& rAevupav (" the sides") ; and, following them, even
Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie in his monumental work (The
Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, p. 168) translates: "The
Greater (Pyramid), a little way up one side, has a stone that
may be taken out." These interpretations accord with what
are known facts; but so does the present interpretation,
which also brings out two additional facts of importance:
(1) It was hardly necessary for Strabo to state the obvious
fact that the stone door was moderately high up one side"
of the pyramid (originally "about 55 feet vertically or 71
feet on the slope," according to a private letter from Petrie,

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 33

comes to a kind of mountain-brow; on it are
numerous pyramids, the tombs of kings, of which
three are noteworthy; and two of these are even
numbered among the Seven Wonders of the World,
for they are a stadium in height, are quadrangular
in shape, and their height is a little greater than the
length of each of the sides; and one1 of them is
only a little larger than the other.2 High up, approxi-
mately midway between the sides, it has a movable
stone,3 and when this is raised up there is a sloping
dated Sept. 16, 1930), as compared with the height of the
vertex (nearly 500 feet), or that the one door was on one
side of the pyramid. What he means to say is that the door
was literally high up as compared with the convenient position
of an entrance close to the ground, knowing, as he did, that the
Aegyptians chose a high position for it in order to keep secret
the passage to the royal tombs ; and, through his not unusual
conciseness in such cases, he leaves the fact to be inferred.
The wisdom of that secrecy is disclosed by the fact that
when the Arabs, ignorant of the doorway, wished to enter the
pyramid, they forced their way into it from a point near the
ground through 100 feet of solid masonry, and thus by chance
met the original sloping passage and discovered the original
doorway. Moreover, this movable stone," which was either a
flap-door that worked on a stone pivot (Petrie, I. c.) or a flat slab
that was easily tilted up (Borchardt, Aegyptische Zeitschrift,
XXXV. 87), must have fitted so nicely when closed that no
one unfamiliar with it could distinguish it. (2) "The sides"
here must refer to the north-west and'north-east edges of the
pyramid, not to its northern face-much less all four faces--
just as "sides" in the preceding sentence must mean the
four sides of the base, not its plane surface. Hence, Strabo
means that the doorway was purposely placed to one side of
("actually 24 feet," again according to Petrie's letter), and
not at, a central point between the two edges above-
mentioned, which is the fact in the case-a most important
part of the ruse, as was later evidenced by the fact that the
Arabs began to force their way into the pyramid at the
centre (see the Horizontal Section of the Great Pyramid"


0irjFci7. aT7al /eLv ovqv eyyvq aXXSX)v e0-1i1 'TO)
aTir eTrnre~o' aTrwoe'po 8' ETo-rv ev biee pie'IovI 2
T?7 opeV79; 17 TpiT' 7roXb A dTTWv Tr& 8velv,
7roXv' Se pteoovo 8Sa7rdvyp KarelcKevafer) vi' avo0
yap OePEXICwv 1lCXpt ~ iecrov OeoCv Tr /peXavo9
XlWov dao'r, E' oi5 ical Trav Ovtav icaKaaKeUdaovUot,
cKO VTloPTe9 7jrppwOev' a7ro ya'p TWVi 7T9 Alleotrwta
opov, Kal 7t -cXsrpov 6elvat ical vo-icare'pyaaoro;
wroXvTeXj 7rv 7rpay /taTeiav 7rapE`aXe. Xdyerat 8
T7 eT alpaq T 7o ye76yovc'W b7ro TioV epaorTwv, ,v
a'nrt ape'v, i T- fVEieXwv 7TOL'r7pa, icaXe Awplixav,
epowpevsrv TO d 8eXbofD auv'Ht Xapdov ye7yovvLav,
otvov icaTaryovrov el Nadrcpa'tv AeQap lov icaT
dwTroplav, eXXot 8' ivottuiovat 'PoSiTrtv'3 /uv-
OEfovart 8', OTt, Xovo/.Le'vYr aVrT,?, eV TOrv VTro8i7-
iToWV abT7) apwraio-a? adeTo8 rapa 71j Oepa-
'alvr]Fi o/lO-etev elG Meip'tv IKa, TO D 8ar-tXh'wo
Sucato8oroDvrT; v7ratoplov,4 yevopJevo9 Ka'ca Io-
pvj'v aVTOVD i.erte To V7rd8 fl/a el6 TObv KodX7rov

1 9ri, before Tr, Meineke inserts, following Kramer; ?v,
2 dieovI moxZ, FIelf~ other MSS.
'8Po irTi, Corais, for 'PdSoirv EF, 'Pogvriv other MSS.
4a braopitov, Kramer; Ev abalfOpp x, inraflptos other MSS.

in Richard A. Proctor's The Great Pyramid, opposite p. 138).
In short (1) pieas rws cannot mean "moderately" in a
matter of measurement (if indeed it ever means the same as
erTpLws) and naturally goes with *rav 7rAvppcv, not ev Sbi';
and in fact some interpreters utterly ignore the rws. (2)
The insertion of uita is not only unnecessary but eliminates
two important observations.
1 This passage sloped steeply down through masonry and
solid rock for 318 feet," passing through an unfinished vault

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 33

passage to the vault.1 Now these pyramids are near
one another and on the same level; but farther on, at
a greater height of the hill, is the third, which is much
smaller than the two, though constructed at much
greater expense; for from the foundations almost to
the middle it is made of black stone, the stone from
which mortars are made, being brought from a great
distance, for it is brought from the mountains of
Aethiopia; and because of its being hard and difficult
to work into shape it rendered the undertaking very
expensive. It is called Tomb of the Courtesan,"
having been built by her lovers-the courtesan
whom Sappho 2 the Melic poetess calls Doricha, the
beloved of Sappho's brother Charaxus, who was en-
gaged in transporting Lesbian wine to Naucratis for
sale,3 but others give her the name Rhodopis.4 They
tell the fabulous story that, when she was bathing,
an eagle snatched one of her sandals from her maid
and carried it to Memphis; and while the king was
administering justice in the open air, the eagle,
when it arrived above his head, flung the sandal into
(subterranean chamber) "46 feet long, 27 feet wide, and 10.6
feet high," and "ended in a cul-de-sac," being "intended to
mislead possible riflers of the royal tomb above (Knight,
i.c.). Petrie's translation of pdXpt' rjs 0 s ("to the very
foundations," instead of "to the vault") is at least mis-
leading. In the very next sentence Strabo refers to the
" foundations (ee iewv). Since Strabo fails to mention the
vaults of the king and the queen high above, the natural
inference might be that he regarded the subterranean vault
as the actual royal tomb; and in that case one might assume
that the tombs were rifled, not by Augustus, but before his
time, perhaps by the Persians.
2 Frag. 138 (Bergk) and Lyra Graeca, L.C.L., Vol. I, p.
207 (Edmunds).
3 So Athenaeus, 13. 68.
4 See Herodotus 2. 134-135.


6 86 Kcal 7T- PvOJ( roD v7roirjuaTo' Kcal 7T
vrapadep ic'Ovrle; rep tre/I'etev e ELV TvJ Xtopav
KaTa *Tt7rj-av T*9 bopopo-r davp Opdrov T oVTro"
e6peeZaa S' Iv T'7 rVXet wv NavKpaTrTowv
AvaXOdly ical yvotVTO Lyvv. ToO /3aoIXfwTi, TeXeuv-
Troaaoa S 70o XOe'yvrov rvXot T'riov.
34. 'Ev 8e Tt Toyp opae'vTwv v? '' rPW v Tav~
7rva ps- apa v oKc aliov 7rapaXTreiv. ic
yap T70 XaTV7rr?7 rOpoL TrLeV 7rp TWov 7rvpajc8ov
Keivrat* ev TOVTO' 86' euplO-ceTai r~yipara cal
TVITr Kai ,eye7'Oedt acot8a Ko 6r 6 ot e Ka cat o av
rnTLo pa olov ?/ItXe7rtoi-rv vroTp6yeXCt1 aao 8'
atroXt1wOjvat Xel^rava T1V7 TOV Jpya ocivo)wv
rpoFn' Oic areotl/Coe2 8e' Kal yap OL/cL Trap
1?p.1v X6 poc eo-TLV v 7re)8L) wapa/ aLljrKc, OVrTO; 8'
eOr'i EIpeo-'TO; fwv (aKoeSwtov XiOov rwpopaey 3 Kcal
ai OaXaTTiaL ical at 7rorCdtat *rfot oi6eS6v TI
Tr7v avT?7v abroplav b7royppdovrvo-v XX' aC ra gLeP
C 809 ev Ty KItvPrei 70 71t 8 TOD pevflaTo evpeco-toyiav
Tiva eXovertv, Eicel 8' a7ropowTpa 7 a'K^cris.
etprTrat 8' ev aXXot 1 Kal ~8OTL rep TO /TraXXov
T;V XOcOwv, ed Wv al 7rvpaflSec yeyovaLtv, ev
bfet4 Tals rvpaiatutv wv 7rpav dv Tyf 'Apa3a,
Tpwticov TI KaXe -Ta 77rcTpe6o 9 Iav o6poT Kai
a7rrl)Xata v7r' avT7 Kal KI(Ic rl rX~r7Jov KaI TOV-
TOLV ial 7 WroTat/.p, Tpoia KaXovtLuvr), KaTotiKa

1 dnrLpeXeL s, Corais following.
SFor r ouLce Letronne conj. dcotKce.
3 *wppass, Meineke, for 7ropias DEF, rwpias other MSS.;
rwpivov Siebenkees and Groskurd.
P4 Uei, Corais, for 6 iE ; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 17. I. 33-34

his lap; and the king, stirred both by the beautiful
shape of the sandal and by the strangeness of the
occurrence, sent men in all directions into the
country in quest of the woman who wore the sandal;
and when she was found in the city of Naucratis,
she was brought up to Memphis, became the wife of
the king, and when she died was honoured with the
above-mentioned tomb.
34. One of the marvellous things I saw at the
pyramids should not be omitted: there are heaps of
stone-chips lying in front of the pyramids ; and among
these are found chips that are like lentils both in
form and size; and under some of the heaps lie win-
nowings, as it were, as of half-peeled grains. They
say that what was left of the food of the workmen
has petrified; and this is not improbable. Indeed, in
my home-country,' in a plain, there is a long hill
which is full of lentil-shaped pebbles of porous
stone; 2 and the pebbles both of the seas and of the
rivers present about the same puzzling question; but
while these latter find an explanation in the motion
caused by the current of water, the speculation in
that other case is more puzzling. It has been stated
elsewhere 3 that in the neighbourhood of the quarry
of the stones from which the pyramids are built,
which is in sight of the pyramids, on the far side of
the river in Arabia, there is a very rocky mountain
which is called "Trojan," and that there are caves
at the foot of it, and a village near both these and
the river which is called Troy, being an ancient settle-
1 Strabo was born at Amaseia in Pontus (Introduction,
Si.e. tufaa."
I Not in Strabo's Geography; perhaps in his History (see
Vol. I, p. 47, note 1).


7raXata Tr& MeveXda ac-rvyaracoXlovflcfavTv
altXyaXaTwv Tpcowv, IcaraeitvavTwv 8' aviordO.
35. Mera Se MEM tv "AKcavOo 7ro6Xtq doolos
ev r At/RP Kic Toal rTO 'OriptSo,9 lepov Ical TO 7T
a/civa r io-o7 I78a 6E 7'1b I crTOo .
eO' 6 'A po8toroo"iri vopo9 KCal ofvv5 o
wroXtd eV T7 'Apa3la, ev r X\evic po9vk leph
Tpefcerai. el0' o 'Hpa/cXewrTi9 voob9 Ev v a)
eydaXy, Ical' r ? 8ript; eTrv ev de1a e6t T1v
AtivrIv e'rr To 'ApatvotTrrl VOLpo, oarTe Kca
BLr-Totov eZvat Triv 8upvya, /iera'u; pUpov9 TwO'S
Tq? vrfaov wrapeLLTri'Tor0T7. ear7 8' o vo/Iow
oros TO9 atoX0oyoTaTo TV a'7raVTat E KaTa re V
S'tv ical rTv t pe'rv ial T rv icaTrao-Keevi' Aao-
IVTO' re yap Iovo &eo4 /AeydXot ical T6EXelo t9ev -
8peo-t Ka IcaXXtcadprot9, el 8' ouyIco/Ltot iaXo5;
TIV, icaU eve'ato OXLtyWpouPTreC 86 TO'TOV 7roX
ieJv 7rotoDovw vXaov, Jioxrqpbv 8' Kcar Trv 3~814iv
(' 8' 'XXi Atiyv7/roI AveXato' 'O-Tr 7-rXv Trv
ica'" 'AXedv8petav icirvov, o'' pleXpi 70D Xalav
Xopw'yerev tlavol elotv, eXatov 8' oIbX VTrovpyoVaO-v)
otvov T'e obi o6'yov edicfepet o-t'v re Kial oarpita
ca ra aXXa ao-rdppa'a 7rdltLwoXXa. aviaaorTv
c8 Kia rrlv Xl iLvv e et rrlv Moiptios 1 caXovtevryv,
'reXaylav 7r iUeyle'0e Kal T7 ypoa 8aXaTroetL r*
Kial rovq aiytaXouq 8o EciaT opawv EolIcTaos TOL
OaXarTTrotq G vTrovoetv Ta' abra 7rept TCWV Kcara
1 Moiptos Ew, Movptros other MSS.

SSo Diodorus Siculus 1. 56. 4. 9 i.e. Mimosa Nilotica.
i.e. gum arabic. See 37 below.

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