Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Book XV
 Book XVI
 A partial dictionary of proper...

Title: The geography of Strabo
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065780/00007
 Material Information
Title: The geography of Strabo
Series Title: Half-title The Loeb classical library. Greek authors
Physical Description: 8 v. : front. (map) ; 17 cm. --
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Horace Leonard, 1879- ( tr )
Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, 1851-1914
Publisher: W. Heinemann
G. P. Putnam's sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1917-33
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones ... Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett ... --
General Note: Greek and English on opposite pages.
General Note: Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxix-xliii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065780
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000608778
notis - ADD7916
lccn - 17013967

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Book XV
        Page 1
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    Book XVI
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    A partial dictionary of proper names
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Full Text












Printed in Great Britain


BOOK XV . . . 3

BOOK XVI . . . 193

MAP OF ASIA .. . ... .. 374








1. Ta w7epiXe tro'oeva TjSF 'Ao-Iaq e'Tt TO 6'ICTO
vTOO Tapov, '7rGlv KXtudaL ical IIakuvXtaq Kal
Avicda, 7Thx d1 b TrT, 'Iv&,Ki)c iedXpe NedXov pTeraf v
T70r Tafpov iat Tip; e'O OaXadrTyri ; 7TF0 voov
Keljieva. LeLra 8~ Trv 'Aola-v i Atlvr iEar, T repE
ei dpovftev ao-repov, v0v 8' dtV rTg 'Iv8ucrj
apKcTeov 7rpwrTI yap ficicerat 7rpto TaLt avaToXavF
Kal /ueyio-T1.
2. Ae 8S' eyvw/uovw covetv 7repi a r aTV ic' al
yap ar'rerwa'w o e Kal oo 7roXXob T v r?'erepwv
KcaTrmr'revaav avTrjv ol 8 Ical 18ovTre ppi'py TWra
el8ov, T\ B nrXe) XeyovaiL 4e dUKo1q Kail elSov
84, ev irap68o aoTpaTrTMu/cy Kal Spo' KcaTelLaOov0
Sto7rep ovbS Ta avTa rpt Trcp v avTrov Eayye'X-
Xovae, Kal TaGra ao-vyypdaravTrefq s v 7re0ipov'rtr-
'Lev priTaar'/7a eva, Trev 8' avrv IcaL o^V(rparev-
aavTe ciXXrjVot Icai o-vveTrtb1tpjO-avTEr, KaOdaiep
ol 'AXe'dv8po aovyKcaTraopetfdpevot Trv 'A-rlav
aXx' eicaoToo decdo-T) rdvavrTa Xyet 7roXXKiact.
1 ', before aicd, the editors omit.
1 i.e. the Indian Ocean.



1. THE parts still left of Asia are those outside
the Taurus except Cilicia and Pamphylia and Lycia,
I mean the parts extending from India as far as
the Nile and lying between the Taurus and the
outer sea on the south.' After Asia one comes to
Libya, which I shall describe later, but I must now
begin with India, for it is the first and largest
country that lies out towards the east.
2. But it is necessary for us to hear accounts of
this country with indulgence, for not only is it
farthest away from us, but not many of our people
have seen it; and even those who have seen it,
have seen only parts of it, and the greater part of
what they say is from hearsay; and even what they
saw they learned on a hasty passage with an army
through the country. Wherefore they do not give
out the same accounts of the same things, even
though they have written these accounts as though
their statements had been carefully confirmed.
And some of them were both on the same
expedition together and made their sojourns
together, like those who helped Alexander to sub-
due Asia; yet they all frequently contradict one


ob'ro 86 7repI T7ov opadevTrw o'TO) 8tacbepovTat, T7
Set vo/klewtv 7rep' TC7O daKOjiCO ;
3. Kal aIlv o8O' ol 7roXXol1 nroXXol Xpovotv
vatTepov rovyyp aTfravTe' 7rep' TroVnT v, oU8' ol vPv
TrXeOVTev diceKL ac7ro aIvovTai 't dcKpte i.
C 686 'ATroXX68copov yorv o Ta' IapOtch 'Trotroaq,
pIeivr]t7voF KIca T2iv T'V BaKTrpavrlv daroTIaT-av-
rwv 'EXXirvov 7rapa Tryv ivptarcov 3aaotXeov
T7v .tro ,e.EVficoV Tro NuICtaopoI, r4,oa jLnE
arobv avblOevras Ertfdeo-Oat cal 7y^ 'IvSti"j
ovS8v U TrpooaavaKaXuwTTe TuV TrpoTepoV yvow-
pIevwv, dXXa ical vavrtoXoyeq irXhew 7ijV 'IvSt(cjv
eKceivovs f, MarceSovar icaraoTrpao- 'raoat X'ywv.
ESiKpatISav yov rodXet XtXla? bv' eavT p ',eivX
dceZvoL 8 ye y avrIa Ta /Ierayb E'Ov TroD T
'TSada'rov Ka'l Tro 'TTravto" Tov AptOtbyv vvea,
roXEtv Te a-XeLv revTatcco-iXtXaa,, dv / y8elav
elvat K.W T^? MepoT'isov O d Tr77'w ravTrv 8B
iraaav T71 X(;pav K cao-Tpe*d'revov 'A\Xdav8pov
TrapaBoDvat HIIdpp.
4. Kai ol vPv e8 4E Aly6rrov V rX'OVTEr
ropLcOpIKOt T(7 NelXic Kal T7 'Apapli3[p KTrTt
feuXpI T7~9 'IvScj T ra'vitoLt v Kcal 2 reptTre7rXev-
Kaut UCXpI TOD rayYOv, Kcai ov'rot ltS1ora /tal
obSVE 7rp6o laToplav TWOV TOTWrV Xp i oIpt.
KcKiceiev 6eP 8 ebVo TOTTroV Kal Trap' evo'
3aoitX&w, IIav8lovov, Ial a'Xoov3 I(Lpov, IjKc
1 roXXoi, which Corais and the later editors eject, Jones
2 Kit, omitted by Cmoxz.
8 Before Kal &Axov Groskurd inserts 4, at the same time

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 2-4

another. But if they differ thus about what was
seen, what must we think of what they report from
hearsay ?
3. Moreover, most of those who have written any-
thing about this region in much later times, and
those who sail there at the present time, do not pre-
sent any accurate information either. At any rate,
Apollodorus, who wrote The Parthica, when he
mentions the Greeks who caused Bactriana to revolt
from the Syrian kings who succeeded Seleucus
Nicator, says that when those kings had grown in
power they also attacked India, but he reveals
nothing further than what was already known, and
even contradicts what was known, saying that those
kings subdued more of India than the Macedonians;
that Eucratidas, at any rate, held a thousand cities
as his subjects. Those other writers, however, say
that merely the tribes between the Hydaspes and
the Hypanis were nine in number, and that they had
five thousand cities, no one of which was smaller
than the Meropian Cos, and that Alexander subdued
the whole of this country and gave it over to Porus.
4. As for the merchants who now sail from Aegypt
by the Nile and the Arabian Gulf as far as India,
only a small number have sailed as far as the Ganges;
and even these are merely private citizens and of
no use as regards the history of the places they
have seen. But from India, from one place and
from one king, I mean Pandion, or another Porus,
there came to Caesar Augustus presents and gifts

conjecturing Kar' kAAovs, which latter is followed by Kramer
and Meineke; but the XAhou seems needed in view of the
Porus mentioned in 3 above.


Kca KaTaIcavwaa eaTrov 'AObjv'at caotcar-r
'Ilv6S, ca0d7rep ical 6 KdXavog 'AXedvSp(Y T7'v
TotavTr v Oeav evrLtEeidttvo.
5. El Trovvv raGT' d6els rtV ryv Irpb Tr1?
'AXedv8pov TrpaTeia9 e7rti3Xe7rot puvfi7v, 7TroXv
av efpoL T rovTo TvdXorrepa. 'AXVav8pov ,Jev
ovv rtoTrevewY T70L T70OUtrOt EKI/o, TreTVfx7O jeOV
TraZ Too-avTat ebTv)uxats. fra-io yovy NeapXog
cltXovetic oas avrTv 8t TV FrieSpwoOra;a yayeiv
Tr7v orpartiv, Ire'CrvuaO vov 8trLT Kcal Clae/pa/itt
ea-rpaT evaev edr 'IvSo'b /cal Kipov, &XX' i ; 1 e
Adveorpere, 4e6yovaa .p.Ta ewiKacL v8pinrwv,
ICeetwoF 8U peL' crilrd a ;eI' v rO,1 Eiee. I
rooraDra raOovrTOv, abrovy Kal 2 orpaTOvre8ov
8aowaucrat erAa LvtK'r) 8ta' T' avrTv e0v6v re ical
TO7rwrOv EICvo' ~Lev 87 eJTarO7Tevov.
6. 'Hiyv 8e rTLi Av Sucala 'yvoSLTO 7rir-LT rrepI
TWV 'IvtK(Oyv ex TC7j TOtavTrrl?9 OparetaF TO7
Kvpov riT- Se Aip8LotSo; rovvaroaLverTaI 8e
TTow ,cal Megyaa'Oevy,' TWI X\oy roVTW, KeXEvwO
aTrterlE Tals apXaiat 7Trept 'IvS0wv laroplat" oTre
yap rap' 'Ivswv W o rTalvai rTore a-Tpariav,
oir' e7reXOetyv goeev xal /cpar arat, 7rX'v 7T7)
feO' 'HpaXedov9 cal Atovr'o-ov Kal T?7 vvv /eCTa
MarKe8vwv. wcaiTOL r-OTrpiv pIEV ToY A'lyv7rTov
Kca Tedpicwva rTv AliOorra ow; Ebp67r]p 7rpoeX-
C 687 Oeiv Naporco8po-opov 8\ rov rraph XaXSatiot
1 For aYvbv Trd Capps conj. (rvEYPd TI.
2 (ca, omitted by Cmoz.

1 See 15. 1. 73.
2 For a similar statement, see 15. 2. 5.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 4-6

of honour and the Indian sophist who burnt him-
self up at Athens,1 as Calanus had done, who made
a similar spectacular display of himself before
5. If, however, one should dismiss these accounts
and observe the records of the country prior to the
expedition of Alexander, one would find things still
more obscure. Now it is reasonable to suppose that
Alexander believed such records because he was
blinded by his numerous good fortunes; at any
rate, Nearchus says that Alexander conceived an
ambition to lead his army through Gedrosia when
he learned that both Semiramis and Cyrus had
made an expedition against the Indians, and that
Semiramis had turned back in flight with only
twenty people and Cyrus with seven; and that
Alexander thought how grand it would be, when
those had met with such reverses, if he himself
should lead a whole victorious army safely through
the same tribes and regions.2 Alexander, therefore,
believed these accounts.
6. But as for us, what just credence can we
place in the accounts of India derived from such an
expedition made by Cyrus, or Semiramis ? And
Megasthenes virtually agrees with this reasoning
when he bids us to have no faith in the ancient
stories about the Indians; for, he says, neither
was an army ever sent outside the country by the
Indians nor did any outside army ever invade their
country and master them, except that with Heracles
and Dionysus and that in our times with the
Macedonians. However, Sesostris, the Aegyptian,
he adds, and Tearco the Aethiopian advanced as far
as Europe; and Nabocodrosor, who enjoyed greater


e SoKt1ltjcravTa 'HpaKrXdov? ptXXov Ica't cwv
ET7'XIOv dehdacr /6Xpt Lpv v) Sevpo ical' TeadpKwva
dcf Ke'a.r EKEvov 8e Cal K t r 'I77pia< el Trjv
OpaKyxv Kal TOV II6nVov dyayeV T?7v orpaTtadv
'ISdvOvpaov s8 rTv IcvO'rlv Trmtpalfelv T~'i 'Aacria
IpeXpt ALy'rvTov Tr7F 86 'IvSbKcj,; /I7reva TOVTwv
iiar'art Kalt egalpal.tv arrolavelv wrp T)?
dTrtXitp~epjaewv IIepcraa Sea Jta0o9o6pov; pev dic 'T?79
'IvStcK uteTa7rei'rtaeaOa "TSpaKa?, dice Se p,17
aTpaTevo-at, dXX' ,yyvb I'8ei0 dvovov, "vitca Kipog
qIjXavev erI MaarayTras.
7. Kai TA reopt 'HpaKtXeov Se Kalt Atovv~r ov
MeyaaOci9VnY I pev / ~T oX/ywv 7rtrea ,17e67at, TWV
8' d'Xwv ol 7rXelov, wv e ET ical 'EpaTroe0r'vT,
a7rto Ka Kal /ltvOeo7, xaOadrep Kcatl Ta rapa T70O
"EXXro-tv. piev 'yap dv Trat Badbat raTag
EbprtrlSov Atvdwvao9 TotavTa veavie vear
Xt7r nv 8 AvSov Ta arvoXvXp orovw y7a9
Ppvy7oV re lepa>crv 0' Xtofp XrTov 7wrXdicav
BdICTrpd Te TelCXr rrjv Te S6a-XE tov X)06va
M'85wv 6e7r lov 'Apal3'av ebSaIpova
'Adav 7e 'raoav.
rwapah oooikXe? 8 7L Eo7 7 v Nuo-av2 Ka0vtpvwov,
71s To Atovq2 KcaBtepw)/Ivov o6pog"
60ev Kare80ov T27v fep3aK)Iltwt6'v27r
3poTroait XetIV v NDo-at,3 i ov Soepwa
"IaKXoT avT7 pIalav 'l'SlTr7Y vPe/l1,
o7Tov 7i9 i'opVt oVX i Xa'y/dve ;
Kal 7~ e~iq. Kal MrpoTpa4fn S\ XEye7at4 CKa
1 Tedpov, F. 2 NOirav, C, NWarav other MSS.
3 Norav, the editors, for Nbaro-v.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 6-7

repute among the Chaldaeans than Heracles, led an
army even as far as the Pillars. Thus far, he says,
also Tearco went; and Sesostris also led his army from
Iberia to Thrace and the Pontus; and Idanthyrsus
the Scythian overran Asia as far as Aegypt; but no
one of these touched India, and Semiramis too died
before the attempt; and, although the Persians
summoned the Hydraces as mercenary troops from
India, the latter did not make an expedition to
Persia, but only came near it when Cyrus was
marching against the Massagetae.
7. As for the stories of Heracles and Dionysus,
Megasthenes with a few others considers them
trustworthy; but most other writers, among whom
is Eratosthenes, consider them untrustworthy and
mythical, like the stories current among the Greeks.
For instance, in the Bacchae 1 of Euripides Dionysus
says with youthful bravado as follows: I have left
behind me the gold-bearing glades of Lydia and
of Phrygia, and I have visited the sun-stricken
plains of Persia, the walled towns of Bactria, the
wintry land of the Medes, and Arabia the Blest,
and the whole of Asia." 2 In Sophocles, also, there
is someone who hymns the praises of Nysa as the
mountain sacred to Dionysus: Whence I beheld
the famous Nysa, ranged in Bacchic frenzy by
mortals, which the horned lacchus roams as his
own sweetest nurse, where-what bird exists that
singeth not there?" And so forth. And he is
also called Merotraphes." And Homer says of
1 13 ff.
2 Quoted also in 1. 2. 20.

4 Kal e. yTEas, Meineke ejects.


t rotrjri) 7repI Avco7pyov 70oi '"H8wvou qaLrtv
09 wore 7TO atvvoEotL o AOwvvo-oto TtO7rva'
crefe ica' r3ydOeov Nvao-iov.
TotavTa I zev rT 7rep Atovvaoov 7repi 8 'Hpa/cXeov?
ol reyv 67rr6 avavTra Ipovov pevXpI TOWV COTrepwv
7repaTwv lnTopovo-w, ot1 a' eca Tepa.
8. 'EIc 8 7i&v rotoVTwv Nvoalov- 8av Tva?
eOvo, rpoo-wvoaiaaav Kal 7rXItv trap' avroi,
NiUoav,1 Atov-aov icrTo-pa, cal OppoP TO uTrep TIh;
vr6XeOw MsIpov, aLTtao-adlevot lxa Tb abTo0t
Klaa-ov Ka\ a/'TreXov, o08o Ta'Ti}v Tre\ XaxapTrov
airoppe ylap o fPoTpvy 'irpv 7repKco-at S&a T70W
6t'ppov r TO' a177V'" Atovo-ou S' aTro7yvrou T70o
v8Spdaca9,2 aTro Tfjq a/ 7rAXov T9 'rap' avTro; KCa6
T'& 7TroXvTreX(v eoowv, /3aicxc(to Ta 'F T eica'rpa-
C 688 Teia9 rrotovu4evwv T&V /aartXe'ov cal Ta,; aXXa;
eiO6ovV ?eh Ta TvUpravto-'ov ical cbavOok> o'TroXF'
6'7rep etvTroXde icKal 7rapa roL axXots 'Iv8oiq.
"Aopvov 8E Ttva 7TrTpav, 4? Ta pXLaq of 'Iv ?
VTroppel rhrXoiaov TW V 7rr7-?yv, 'AXe(v8pov KaTa
utdav 'Ipoaf3oxkv EXoVTro, O-CeLWfvovTre d'ao-av,
Trv 'HpaiXe'a T7p? uepv rpoo-paXei.V T 7 rpa
TavTr, rptl 8' adrolcpovo-urvat. Tcv o8 cotvwvr}-
cravrwv avTo. T727 (UpaTeiaLa asroyovov; elvat
Tovw $1/3a;, o-vi/3oXa TO7v yEov; crO-ovTa;, TO Te
Oopha etAre'eao-Oat, icaldTrep TOv 'HpaKXtca, Kal
TO a-cKVaX cfopelv Kali eri7TKavcaOalt ovoil Kal
il rovots porakov. 8e3paroiv'at S8 TOv 1.00ov
1 Nirrav D.
2 Zvspduas, C, 'O~tSpatas 26paKas, s, 'OEupdaas other MSS,

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 7-8

Lycurgus the Edonian as follows: who once drove
the nurses of frenzied Dionysus down over the
sacred mount of Nysa." 1 So much for Dionysus.
But, regarding Heracles, some tell the story that
he went in the opposite direction only, as far as the
extreme limits on the west, whereas others say that
he went to both extreme limits.
8. From such stories, accordingly, writers have
named a certain tribe of people Nysaeans," and
a city among them Nysa," founded by Dionysus;
and they have named a mountain above the city
" Merus," alleging as the cause of the name the
ivy that grows there, as also the vine, which latter
does not reach maturity either; for on account of
excessive rains the bunches of grapes fall off before
they ripen; and they say that the Sydracae are
descendants of Dionysus, judging from the vine in
their country and from their costly processions, since
the kings not only make their expeditions out of their
country in Bacchic fashion, but also accompany all
other processions with a beating of drums and with
flowered robes, a custom which is also prevalent
among the rest of the Indians. When Alexander,
at one assault, took Aornus, a rock at the foot of
which, near its sources, the Indus River flows, his
exalters said that Heracles thrice attacked this rock
and thrice was repulsed; and that the Sibae were
descendants of those who shared with Heracles in
the expedition, and that they retained badges of
their descent, in that they wore skins like Heracles,
carried clubs, and branded their cattle and mules
with the mark of a club. And they further confirm this

1 Iliad 6. 132.


TODTOV Kal d6K T4v repI TOb Kacao-aov Kal T71v
Hpo/yifa" Ical yap Tavra I6eTevCrvoXacrov ic TOO
HIlo6 ov Seipo aro' itKpav 7rpoado-eos, 1~ovrev
cr-'rj2atov dv TOv Ilapo'raJ-tatt-ats epov* Toroi
'yAp eveSvctavro Ilpo/jlFe'o9 ecr/Wriptrov, ical
Se&po dA(Ya/e'vov TOv 'HpaicXca err. 'r7v EXevOepw-
o-tv TroV IpoEoXil0 iat TOVTOv eltvat TOv
KacKaaov, ov "EXXive HjpoO'ldews Sec-Por7'ptov
9. "OTNt 8' E-T 7rdXao-d/aTa raGTa TOOV KcOa-
IcevovTwv 'AXV4avSpov, 7rpwTov p T v de 70Ti )tU
d oXoyedv dXXijXot9 TobV o-vyy/pa1eaq SlXoov, AXXA\
TObW J v Xeyeitv, TO k 86\ tRzr' jrrX(t)& jeluvfjoat"
o a yAp eltcKo, TA OVTW0 b'viooa Kal T6vov 7rX'rpr1
/L 7rerrvao-at, we7rvo-aat p.ev, u i data 66 {ivrl
v7roXa/eiv, cal Ta7Ta TOV; 7rMaTOTrdTOV; avr&v'
e'cetra ejc 70T /oD1 TOVb 1uEraO, t' wv e'Xp pv 7r]V
de 'Iv0ob toLt etv yeve'a-atl TO? 7repl T y tvvaov
ca TOv 'HpaKtcha, ur8cjv Xyetv reK/.ic4ptov Peitcv-
vat 74S dceivwv 6 o8i 8ta T7S oaeCrepa? 7yi. cal
T7 TO) 'HpaKcXovg 86 o-TOX\ ; TOtav'71 7rroXl\
veCOwTpa T79 Tpo9tuci LvP/rf eari, 7rXdaoJa T&v
TvV 'HpdKbXetav 7rotqo'a'dvwv, eiTre THeloav8po pov,
l'T' aXXo? Tt9" Ta 0' apatpXaa oava ovT orw
10. '8~ dv ToE; TrotoTO(t ov aTro8xeoa0at Seat
rayv To\ e['y'ryTW U 71o-TeW. 6Troto-rdae a 8' ixe
Ial ev TO9? 7vrpTroV Xodyot9 TO"? "r'epl yewypa [atT'av, jv 8vvaTOrv V, Trepi TOVTWV Icatl vP
eiceivot re dT eroI/JT v XPrirleOea, cal eTepa

1 Adventures of Heracles.

'GEOGRAPHY, I5. i. 8-io

myth by the stories of the Caucasus and Prometheus,
for they have transferred all this thither on a slight
pretext, I mean because they saw a sacred cave in
the country of the Paropamisadae; for they set
forth that this cave was the prison of Prometheus
and that this was the place whither Heracles came
to release Prometheus, and that this was the Caucasus
the Greeks declared to be the prison of Proihetheus.
9. But that these stories are fabrications of the
flatterers of Alexander is obvious; first, not only
from the fact that the historians do not agree with
one another, and also because, while some relate
them, others make no mention whatever of them;
for it is unreasonable to believe that exploits so
famous and full of romance were unknown to any
historian, or, if known, that they were regarded as
unworthy of recording, and that too by the most
trustworthy of the historians; and, secondly, from
the fact that not even the intervening peoples,
through whose countries Dionysus and Heracles
and their followers would have had to pass in order
to reach India, can show any evidence that these
made a journey through their country. Further,
such accoutrement of Heracles is much later than
the records of the Trojan War, being a fabrication
of the authors of the Heracleia,1 whether the author
was Peisander or someone else. The ancient statues
of Heracles are not thus accoutred.
10. So, in cases like these, one must accept every-
thing that is nearest to credibility. I have already
in my first discussion of the subject of geography2
made decisions, as far as I could, about these matters.
And now I shall unhesitatingly use those decisions
2 2. 1. 1 ff.


apoujcrolev, b'co-v Mv Seve 86o, rpo rTNv o-a a -
vetav. JUakX ra 8' 4'c1 Ti? 8talTI79 e46ce1 7T-;
TOTE 7rlOTaTraa elvaC Ta rO TO 'Eparoo-u'vovv
EV 7r Tp7PLT Trv yewypaCIoKCv icre0evTa iceoa-
XatrwoF irep'l T7rF TOTe votIoEvhyT?; 'IvSt ?j,
vlKa 'AXfeavSpo 4e7r1\0eXE' Ka' v 6 'Iv8s? 5optov
TaVTr?.re T alt r T 'Apiavir fv e~0 e' p 7rpO Ti
C 689 ecnrepa icetqipevYv iepcrat areLXOv So-rCpov 'lap
8 / Ka 7l T 'Aptavr~ 7roXXrv EXov ot 'IvSol
Xa/p3oreT 7rapa ToV Maxce8ovro. eo-Tr e 8otava,
'a Xe'e 6 'EpaTroo-Obev.
11. T'lv 'Ivrt/cv 7epOiptLicev ad'ro v Tow
apKicT TO7 TaVpov Ta oa-Xara adro T19( 'Apiavri
LEXpt Tj7r, eowa. OaXaTTi),, a7rep oe e7rrX;(pto
icaTa 1 poV HIapowTradnuov re cal 'Hyto8vo cat
"Iuaov3 Kal atXXa ovotadiovUrt, MaxeC veY 8B
Kav~caaov- 1ro 8 T1) e7J rpac 6 'I 'v r7rorapk*o
TO 8 VOTIOV Kcal TO rIpoaeoiov 7rXevpOv, wroXb
elow 7rwov TepOv &'vra, 7rpoTre7rTcKev el' T
'ATravrTtKLcov 'reXayo, Kal ylveTac po pofoeiSes TO
TI; Xwpa' aXjipa, Trov ieetlOvwOv irXevp6v eica-
TEpov 7rXeoveKcrovvYTO rwapa TO a7revaVTlov rXeuv-
pov Ial vTpLoaXXloL( a'TaloL', oo-wv4 ECTL TO
KOLVOVb aKpov Tj? TE &OivfsP 7rapaXiam; Kal T'I?
fecrippipjw, FW rrpoer6mTicKO E! Wr77 e; exd-
Tepov rrapa Trv aXXirv rtova. 7'T7 oiZ v ov E'T7re-
pLov irTevpa a7ro TOiv KavKcaa-tov Opov Er1 T7v
VOTtLV 0BdaaTTav O-Ta(rd8tol /d -Ta XeyovTrati VpLOt
1 y'?K, Corais, for dK ; so Meineke.
2 ~o-vepa F, Jeireplt other MSS.
3 *Ilaov, E, Maov OF, Mdor Dhzz.
SScowv, F, Siov other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 10-I1

as accepted, and shall also add anything else that
seems required for the purpose of clearness. It was
particularly apparent from my former discussion
that the summary account set forth in the
third book of his geography by Eratosthenes of
what was in his time regarded as India, that is,
when Alexander invaded the country, is the most
trustworthy; and the Indus River was the boundary
between India and Ariana, which latter was situated
next to India on the west and was in the possession
of the Persians at that time; for later the Indians
also held much of Ariana, having received it from
the Macedonians. And the account given by
Eratosthenes is as follows:
11. India is bounded on the north, from Ariana
to the eastern sea, by the extremities 1 of the Taurus,
which by the natives are severally called Paro-
pamisus and Emodus and Imlus and other
names, but by the Macedonians Caucasus "; on
the west by the Indus River; but the southern and
eastern sides, which are much greater than the
other two, extend out into the Atlantic sea, and
thus the shape of the country becomes rhomboidal,
each of the greater sides exceeding the opposite
side by as much as three thousand stadia, which
is the same number of stadia by which the cape 2
common to the eastern and southern coast extends
equally farther out in either direction than the
rest of the shore. Now the length of the western
side from the Caucasian Mountains to the southern
sea is generally called thirteen thousand stadia,

1 See 11. 8. 1 and footnote 3.
2 i.e. Cape Comorin.


TrptatrXioL 'raph TOV 'Iv6o'v wroTa/ov [/LPb "'ov
fc/poX&v avTovD" r-' adrevavTrov 1o wOPwv 7r poo'-
Xaf8oDo-a Tob? Tip allcpa Tpto-atXiov dae'rat
tVpl(v Ka, cal Ceto-)6(X lwr orat wv. TOUTO p E
01 IrXa709 7I 'X (TTOV lca T \0
oVv rAaTo? Ts Xwpaq TO T T kaxo("or ecat To
/e'yitoaov. tpJico 8 7T a7dr T7' eo-7repaq E67ri T'r7
eW( TOVTOV S TO tv pr piup IIaXf3d6pwv 'Xot
T7t av /3e3atOrEpwo etretv, icaTae~e7pr7Tai y'ap
aovios,1 xical ea'rtv o1 /Sa-tXtiKc o-Taea3ov
,Vpiv.2 Ta 8' E'KKetva uToxacryi Xa1.at/3dvTa
81A T(V avc7irXop 70"v T Iv OaXadTThq 8h r0D
Frayou 7oarr o0al o .e'Xpt TIaX /36powv e'fir 8' a'v
T7L3 or7alowv faKtacXXtlolv. eTrat 6$ TOb rav,
rj 3paXvTarov, tivpl v e'aKicto-a twv, (A( e'c re
7Tr) avaypa1b 7T(Wv oaTaOlp(ov Ts 7rre7rt raev1evr)l
padXtcrTa Xap/3ev'EpaTroaOevry 'qal' Ical Me-ya-
a06VbfV OVrT0 avvaTro/altverat, HIarpoKXcXj; &
XLlot eXhaT'TOv 070t1. 7OVTW 08 'n wdXt T7 8ta-
C-TrarTt 7-pooaTeOv TO Tr9 afcpaq SldaTO-Tra TO
7rpo7ri7rTOV 4 e7 TrXeoP 'fpbo 7T a OvaToXa'd,
7Pto-lXtktot aa8tOt 7rot' ovaot TO /.LeytI arov /IjKOq
"7 7 aT 0b 7r(1 EKv 0xpohv 70o)'Iv6ov
6'0'Tt 06 7TOTO To TrO TWV Eic3o\CP TOD 'IVoD
7roTaltov 7rapa T7v eTj7f ftova, IP'XpI Ti) XEXO8eio-17
dapa Kwcal T7WV vaaToXKiWv abTrjl 7eppbo1wv oixcov~r
8' evTaboa ol KovraKool KaXovZgevot.
12. 'Etc 8e 70ov7Tw '7raeo-i opv p oov Stac-f)
pouwvC at 7(YV a~XXIwv rod(f-et;, KTro-lov pev
obK c dXaTT dr T7 v XX 7 'Aao-la TV "Iv Sticiv Xl-
1 iXovlots, Corais emends to eXotvots.
2 vpl v, Casaubon, for Swiuvpfwv ; so the later editors.
3 ai t, CDFh ; TI omitted by mox-.
A wrpoWirvov, Corais, for rpoa-ritrov : so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 11-12

I mean along the Indus River to its outlets, so that
the length of the opposite side, the eastern, if one
adds the three thousand of the cape, will be sixteen
thousand stadia. These, then, are the minimum
and maximum breadths of the country. The lengths
are reckoned from the west to the east; and, of
these, that to Palibothra can be told with more con-
fidence, for it has been measured with measuring-
lines,' and there is a royal road of ten thousand
stadia. The extent of the parts beyond Palibothra
is a matter of guess, depending upon the voyages
made from the sea on the Ganges to Palibothra;
and this would be something like six thousand
stadia. The entire length of the country, at its
minimum, will be sixteen thousand stadia, as taken
from the Register of Days' Journeys that is most
commonly accepted, according to Eratosthenes;
and, in agreement with him, Megasthenes states
the same thing, though Patrocles says a thousand
stadia less. If to this distance, however, one adds
the distance that the cape extends out into the
sea still farther towards the east, the extra three
thousand stadia will form the maximum length;2
and this constitutes the distance from the outlets
of the Indus River along the shore that comes next
in order thereafter, to the aforesaid cape, that is, to
the eastern limits of India. Here live the Coniaci,
as they are called.
12. From this one can see how much the accounts
of the other writers differ. Ctesias says that India
is not smaller than the rest of Asia; Onesicritus that
1 Or, by a slight emendation of the text, in terms of the
schoenus (see critical note and of. 11. 14. 11).
2 i.e. 19,000 stadia.



yyoVro?, Ovt-CKpirov & TrpLTOV /Iepo, rt oliov-
perv), NeiPXou Se jLJvCv o8by OTrTTapWV T7V
C 690 abroi 'roD renlov, MeyaaOeoov 8' caic A(tl-daXov
,ie7rpaaVdwTv iptaXXov, bTrep yap Sta~lvplovi
nT9aCr a lraiov Tob &arb iO 7 voTov O aXalTT (
r'l 7T)Tv Kavicaoov, AiOyluaXao 8' 'rEip TroU
Tpto/jLvppovg (carT eOVv To0rov~ 'jrpov ov9 eL TOEL
'rpT'rOtc X6hdot1 efpiTrat. vPvv &S To'Orov el7reEv
ltcavov, OTr iKa TavDa o-vvi7yopep TOq atrov/' vou'
vwyyPvwCyl7v, Ear T 7L rep Tco, 'IV8iLKc Xe'OVTre; IL?
13. "Airaoa 8' e'o-Ti caTappvTro TroTrapot 7
'Iv8tic, TOL' I1EV EL S'vo Trov /I.fyoTrovU avppyPyvv-
PiCvotr, TOP re 'IvSbv aic TOy a Tv ]v, TO? 8e /car'
18ta o da Sra dic8t8oDv -IV el' OdXaT'av-
irravTeC 8' a7ro TOO KavcKdaov nTv dpxiv 'Xovot
cal (bepov'raLt p.ev e7r Tr~ v ufOae j.ppl'av T\O rrpJrTov,
esZ' ol /.pv /pvovoa-w dEt T9 abrj9 (aopaip, Kcal
jdrX-Taor ol eI? TOb 'Iv38v ov-p3adXXOreV ol 8'
Ert'a-rpe ovTat 7rpb' ew, KaOdrrep Kal 6 rdyylF
7rOTa/,oV. OVroV? 1ev oiv KaTa/3cai; cK T7)? pewvifp
freriah a'Tra TC&v eTrCoI', CrpaTrpEa irrpo eco
Kal pve9 rrap a rh IIaXl3opa, ey tTrlv TrOXiv,
'rrpoeLtov 7rrL rv TavTry, daTTav ical plaav
EiK/3coXYv IrotelTa, eyiaTroq wOv T&OV Kara Tr7V
'IV P8LKV VroTa/piv. 86\ 'IvJP8? 8vCI aTOu1aact els
T7v /IcO-rjttPP1 8ptV'V 'C7rlrTe OaXaTTar, e/17ept-
Xapf3advov rTv IIaTaXrlvlrv KaXov/tevlv xypav,
7rapavrX'a lav T7 Kat' A'yvTrrTO AEXTa. Kc 8A
T7 4vavtalvdoa-e T w T oaoVTV 7rOTa/joaV Kcal
Ec 7T&V eTr7o-)V, r) 'EpaTroOe'rvys 0l70rl, /3peXTrat
1 a6bTO, Meineke omits.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 12-13

it is a third part of the inhabited world: Nearchus
that the march merely through the plain itself takes
four months; but Megasthenes and Deimachus are
more moderate in their estimates, for they put the
distance from the southern sea to the Caucasus at
above twenty thousand stadia," although Dei-
machus says that at some places the distance is
above thirty thousand stadia;" but I have replied
to these writers in my first discussion of India.' At
present it is sufficient to say that this statement of
mine agrees with that of those writers who ask our
pardon if, in anything they say about India, they
do not speak with assurance.
13. The whole of India is traversed by rivers.
Some of these flow together into the two largest
rivers, the Indus and the Ganges, whereas others
empty into the sea by their own mouths. They
have their sources, one and all, in the Caucasus; and
they all flow first towards the south, and then,
though some of them continue to flow in the same
direction, in particular those which flow into the
Indus, others bend towards the east, as, for example,
the Ganges. Now the Ganges, which is the largest
of the rivers in India, flows down from the moun-
tainous country, and when it reaches the plains bends
towards the east and flows past Palibothra, a very
large city, and then flows on towards the sea in that
region and empties by a single outlet. But the
Indus empties by two mouths into the southern sea,
encompassing the country called Patalene, which is
similar to the Delta of Aegypt. It is due to the
vapours arising from all these rivers and to the
Etesian winds, as Eratosthenes says, that India is
1 2. 1. 4 ff.


TOE 0epItVOZ; 8i/3poL, 7' 'IV8iKc, ical Xtuaoe'tv ra
weia" v fi ev oiv TOv"rot9 TroL, O'itpotS Xtvov
a'retpeTrat Kal IcCyXpov;' 7po ToVrot Torj-altov,
opvya, 3a'o-puopov. T70' S XVetl/epLEOL KaLpoFl, 7TV-
pot, Ktpital, "o-7rpia Kal d\-ot Kaprrol eAotIoL,
wv rre'L a7Trepot. aXbv S' rots O v Atltomra
cal IcT a' A'tuYr7ov T a avarc d(veTaL Kcal v i 7
'IvSticj, ical TWV ev TO w?, roTaxyoZS, 7rTXv 'rTrov
'roTa/dlouv, Ta ~ XXa dfPpova' ical ot 'Iv8tLcoL'
'Ovo-]iKpLro & cal TrovS o 7 ITTrov ytivecr-al 0bo-t.
TWV S' vp9pr ol v ol v eo-yu,8pPViP T'
AltloJyv elo-v 'tv oolo KarTa T7 Xpotav, c arT 8e
T27V 6J*v Kcal7 Tjv pl'yweitv Trol aLXot? (oT8o ayap
ovXOTpLXovOt Sa h 'rv vyporTp'a TOD alpov), ol 86
fopetot TOtE Ayvr'rTioL.
14. Tj)v 8c Ta7rpop/dvtv 7reXaylav elval ao-rt
vPoov, a7reXovaav TOWv vorTLrdW'Tr T71) 'Iv8t(IC)S
T4& ica'ra TobS? KwvtaKcobv 7rpto tzeoa-Jj/3ptav
l/tepCv e TTa rhXovv, pLicKO; uiev c oKTaiCLtco-XtQa v 1
aTraSiwv 7r'i Tlv Al Lto7riavY 'Xev 8( Kcal ~X4qav-
TaS. TotavDraL jlv al 7rv 'Epa'roaOevov dr7ro-
do-sev. ,rpocare9el'oat ic&al at TA ov XXwv, e''
C 691 roV Tt 7rpoaafcptpoDiowv, iSoTro07T0rovao- 2 T
15. Olov 7rrept Tr? Ta7rpo)3dv; 'Ovro7litKpTo
rlo1't, /E/yeo6 tt\Ev eLvat 7revTaKtcrioLXt~'i v Ta(Slv,
obv topel-av /ALK/Co ov8' 7rTXaTOq, StiXeeiv C 6 T7^9
ri7elpov 7rXoDvV fp.epv elkodtcoo- XXa cKaKcorXoefv
1 3KTaicatrxiw v, Meineke, following Groskurd, emends to
rcpvataicirXLtWv (see Groskurd, Vol. III, p. 117, note 2).
2 For iioroio-rovori, Corais and Meineke read elSorroti-

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 13-15

watered by the summer rains and that the plains
become marshes. Now in the rainy seasons flax
is sown, and also millet, and, in addition to these,
sesame and rice and bosmorum,i and in the winter
seasons wheat and barley and pulse and other edibles
with which we are unacquainted. I might almost say
that the same animals are to be found in India as
in Aethiopia and Aegypt, and that the Indian rivers
have all the other river animals except the hippo-
potamus, although Onesicritus says that the hippo-
potamus is also to be found in India. As for the
people of India, those in the south are like the
Aethiopians in colour, although they are like the rest
in respect to countenance and hair (for on account
of the humidity of the air their hair does not curl),
whereas those in the north are like the Aegyptians.
14. As for Taprobane,2 it is said to be an island
situated in the high sea within a seven days' sail
towards the south from the most southerly parts of
India, the land of the Coniaci; that it extends in
length about eight thousand stadia 3 in the direction
of Aethiopia, and that it also has elephants. Such
are the statements of Eratosthenes; but my own
description will be specially characterized by the
addition of the statements of the other writers,
wherever they add any accurate information.
15. Onesicritus, for example, says of Taprobane
that it is five thousand stadia in size," without
distinguishing its length or breadth; and that it is a
twenty days' voyage distant from the mainland, but
1 See 18 following.
2 On Taproban& (Ceylon), cf. Pliny 24 (22) ff.
3 See 2. 1.14, where Strabo says five thousand (see critical


Tra vaiv, 0av'Xw& /ev larToTreTrotr~oYe'vav, KaTe-
aO evaatievaa Se daMjoTCpao0v1 oyIKxoXIwv t ulorp0v2
'Xpk' elvai Se Ical aIhas vraovq avT PLErTa
Kal T7q 'Iv8tFC ;, voTLOrdTaTv7 8' eEIevjv. icKr7T 8
Adpftia 7rep at7rv rlveoasat, Ta' ,eV P/ovai, TA
S' 'irroir, Ta 8' AXXoe? Xepo-aot? EotKoTa.
16. NeapXo? 8' rrept 7rT 'ic TJv 'roTra/ovv Errt-
XorlF 7rapaSefLy/uaa 'peps TA TotaDTa, OTt Kal TO
"Epwov, Kcal KavorTpov 'reStov cal Mataidvpov Kal
KaicKov 7rapa-7rX o-Ir o etpyTrat, Sta TO3 T ev7rTio-
pov1UevCyv T70oEL 7reot XoDv a'fEv aIdv a pt XXov 86
yevvav, e4K TW(v opv Icaratepovuievyjv, oa0- ei'yeo
tKa l paaKrj icarafepetv S Tov? 'roTa/aov, woTre
Tro7VTrV o a V yevwVyaa v7rdapyet TA areSia, cal
e6 Xe'eaOat, OTr TO rovwv erTr a '-reOia. Trovro 8
TavTov eart 7T oo TOV roo Hpo8O~ov X6EyOVTI Esr
ToD NeIXov ical T e7r a1br& 7T7, ont 4 'ceivov
8pdov oeo 8th ar TOTO 8' pO&; Kical OUWvY/UV1OV Ty
Aly-7 cr 0folal XeXrplvaa TO NeZXov 6 NeapXoq.
17. 'Apo-ToovXOXov 86 uova Kcat iveaoat Ka
v eaOa TA Op7 cal a 7 v7TpeIav 2t'a, Ta Wre8la
8 6cal oi3pwv oopotwo t7ri'dlXaXd ai Kal vtCferTv,
EiitKXvec;9at 8\e povov KaTra al dva/3daeiet
T&)V roTa/tov' vtl ea 0at 1e oLv Ta opi
Kara XTetjuiva, TOO 8 a apo apyoxoevov Ical

1 Before yicoiAiwav Meineke inserts rpcdpats.
2 tLpwTvP, DFh.
3 T-, Corais inserts ; so the later editors.
4 4r', Kramer, for r' ; so the later editors.

1 Pliny (6. 24 [22]) says, navibus utrimque prorae, ne per
angustias alvei circumagi sit necesse (" the ships have prows

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 15-17

that it is a difficult voyage for ships that are poorly
furnished with sails and are constructed without
belly-ribs on both sides;1 and that there are also
other islands between Taprobane and India, though
Taprobane is farthest south; and that amphibious
monsters are to be found round it, some of which
are like kine, others like horses, and others like
other land-animals.
16. Nearchus, speaking of the alluvia deposited by
the rivers, gives the following examples: that the
Plain of the Hermus River, and that of the Cayster,
as also those of the Maeander and the Caicus, are so
named because they are increased, or rather created,
by the silt that is carried down from the mountains
over the plains-that is all the silt that is fertile
and soft; and that it is carried down by the rivers,
so that the plains are, in fact, the offspring, as it
were, of these rivers; and that it is well said that
they belong to these. This is the same as the state-
ment made by Herodotus in regard to the Nile and
the land that borders thereon, that the land is the
gift of the Nile; 2 and for this reason Nearchus rightly
says that the Nile was also called by the same name
as the land Aegyptus.
17. Aristobulus says that only the mountains and
their foothills have both rain and snow, but that the
plains are free alike from rain and snow, and are
inundated only when the rivers rise; that the moun-
tains have snow in the winter-time, and at the
at either end, in order that it may not be necessary to tack
while navigating the narrow passages of the channel ").
31eineke, following the conjecture of Kramer, emends the
words of Strabo to make them more in accord with those of
Pliny (see critical note).
2 Cp. 1. 2. 29.


Tov? O/j3Ppov evpXdpea at, Kal ael Kal aiaXXov
Xa/.d/3vev e'7rtoortv, TroZ; d'Trrloats'1 Ka
LaoaXeTerrs(E vVKTcp Kal uze9' yptepav CdlcXfo-at
Kat Xlippovw geo -T-roX(TOj 'ApICrotpov 6K TE
r TrOv Xovcowv Kal TOW Vuerwv VrrXfqpov/.Yevovs
TroTra/ov 2 7rorTleIy Ta vreS&a. IcaTavorOlrjvat Se
raOTa ica vb' e"avToD iaal vro ToWv aIXMv fo-aLV,
pIJc7KOT6WV uv els' y 7rv IvSticv a rwo Haporrajtaa-
o&v /e6Ta 8va-uph TlX'rSwv, Kat laTpftdvITc
IKar a 7V "peyvh i'v re T7^ 'Traa-owv Kal rt
'AaoraaKavoDi3 Vry~ Tov Xtcwva, TOo 8' -apo-
ap(opuEov ~ caTrae/3,K17Twv elv r 7reSa Kal rrwXtv
TdctXa evJte'ye 8, evTeCOev 8' c' 'Tdoaiv Kal
Trv ITIpov Xo(pav' TO 70 pv oui X~tfyc^von v8wp
obKc 18etv, a xah Xtova pd'vov' E' 8 TOS7 TatXot
7rpOJTOv bo-Oijvat, Kal dTretic KaraTaca-tv e'7r TOv
'T3do-niv Kal vriKcjo-aaan HIpov 8o8 fv Eri 7 TOP
'"Traypv i pbs KcdIe0ev E'rl TOv 'Toda7rv
rdXitv, Ge-Oat ovvex6j, Kcal /ha'Xtr'a Tots ETI-
o-art, E7r(TelXaVTOv ~A 'APICropov, yeve'Y at
'aGDXav' SaTptiravTas 8\ wept Tly7 vavT7r?7lav
E7r 'T3au7ry Kal 7rXELv dpc apavovs rrpo U;tafo
IIXuti3Eo' ov wro\Xal fEi/cpats, Ical TO (0tvOrrwpov
7riav ialt ov tXetpova Ial Tob ETrtlov ap Kcal Oopos
C 692 e'v T7 carTTrrX w-rpa7y~aT-evevTav Oedk V el Te V
HaTraxlviv 7rept Kvvrbs rrerTokXrv 'Ka /.ev S'
TO7 Kaatrdrov yev' o-Oat jvas', obaloDf S3' veTO^V
aloO'c'Oat, oS' ore en7-vrTKJaa oav ol e rTorla, 7Tv 86
wroTa/tov 7rXrpovu9v&pv 'T 7reSia ~KXveao0at, T27v
1 Tros 5' rTrnrtats, Tyrwhitt, for Tols BS ri~s ftair; so the
later editors.
2 Woapjovs, inserted by Groskurd ; so the later editors.
3 'Avraxiavo^, Corals, for MovaUIavo9 ; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 17

beginning of spring-time the rains also set in and
ever increase more and more, and at the time of
the Etesian winds the rains pour unceasingly and
violently from the clouds, both day and night, until
the rising of Arcturus; and that, therefore, the
rivers, thus filled from both the snows and the rains,
water the plains. He says that both he himself and
the others noted this when they had set out for
India from Paropamisadae, after the setting of the
Pleiades, and when they spent the winter near the
mountainous country in the land of the Hypasians
and of Assacanus, and that at the beginning of
spring they went down into the plains and to Taxila,
a large city, and thence to the Hydaspes River and
the country of Porus; that in winter, however, no
water was to be seen, but only snow; and that it
first rained at Taxila; and that when, after they
had gone down to the Hydaspes River and had
conquered Porus, their journey led to the Hypanis
River towards the east and thence back again to
the Hydaspes, it rained continually, and especially
at the time of the Etesian winds; but that when
Arcturus rose, the rain ceased; and that after tarry-
ing while their ships were being built on the Hydaspes
River, and after beginning their voyage thence only
a few days before the setting of the Pleiades, and,
after occupying themselves all autumn and winter
and the coming spring and summer with their
voyage down to the seacoast, they arrived at Pata-
len6 at about the time of the rising of the Dog Star;
that the voyage down to the seacoast therefore took
ten months, and that they saw rains nowhere, not
even when the Etesian winds were at their height,
and that the plains were flooded when the rivers


86 O9aaTrav i"nXovv elvat Trv atvwv dvrt-
,7rveT6wv, voTyaiaSo 1 8' ly8e/tacL~ 7rrvo detc8ea-

18. ToDro jtav oiv aVr b2 can'tt Neapxyo Xeyet,
7rept ~e T&rv Oepwvv y/3ppWv obX d oyet, aXXa
braiov VeaO-as Ta Ire8ta Odpov', Xeiftlvos 8'
avop ipa etvat. Xe'yovo-t 8' apOTepOt Kcal Ta'
Ava/3ao-?etV TCrv roTaptav. 6 /cev ye Ne'apXo9 TO)
'Aiceo-ivov wrXrolov a-TparoTre8evovTa!,3 ?oartv
avaylcaa-Oivat /aeraXa/3eFv zTOrov a'XXov bvrep8e'tov
KaTr T V Lvvd/3aoaiv, yeve'oaa- S TOrTO /caTa
feptva9 TpoTra'' 6 8' 'Aptr-Tor/ovXov ical. tte'pa
T7i5 ava/3dao'ews crtLeOCTaL TeTapaicovra 7r'Xetg,
V TOVV / EV etelcootV VTrp TO 7rpov7rdpxov 3da'o'
rXrlpovv /1e'pt XelXovq T pe9pov, Tro 8' e'coa-v
vrepyvatv elvat ely Ta Tre8ta. o/',oyoova- 8 Ical
8t10T avrvi3avet'vEt vl-itetV Ta? 7wrXet n etrdvw Xuid-
Twv lSpuvzeva, Ica0drep ica ev AlyvrrT ial
Alitorla, trTa KB 'Apicroipov aveaOas T7r)
7rXr~jiuvpav, dvro/3alvovTro o70 ve8aTro' e'T
I/f rKTOV arelpceOasa rav ryv, VTrO5 TO TX-
77-16 v O T IVX-
ovTOv6 opvIKTOv xapaxyeioav, Kcal o/uc? doveaOat
Toy lcapTrov rTeeCov Kak icaXov. Trv 8' opvidv
(ro-aL 6 'ApiUOT/3oXov oTrdv& vat iS V8at cXeLcrTo ,
rpao-tai 8' elvat TA, eXovcra' avTrV' Vr" 1Y TOO
vTroV reTpa7TrvXv, TroXo-7TaX e T- cal 7roXicap-
trov' Oeplteo-Oat & 7rep6 8i'iov HIX'?tdo9 ical
1 &wroyatar, Corais, for ar!b ,yalas ; so the later editors.
2 avbd, Xylander, for abwol; so the later editors.
3 (rfpa-roTr~vovTas, Tzschucke, for 'rpa7niovra E, (TpaTro-
7TreS6ovos other MSS.; so the later editors.
4 Tois dE F(?)xz Tzschucke and Corais.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 17-18

were filled, and the sea was not navigable when the
winds were blowing in the opposite direction, and
that no land breezes succeeded them.
18. Now this is precisely what Nearchus says too,
but he does not agree with Aristobulus about the
summer rains, saying that the plains have rains in
summer but are without rains in winter. Both
writers, however, speak also of the risings of the
rivers. Nearchus says that when they were camping
near the Acesines River they were forced at the time
of the rising to change to a favourable place higher
up, and that this took place at the time of the
summer solstice; whereas Aristobulus gives also the
measure of the height to which the river rises, forty
cubits, of which cubits twenty are filled by the
stream above its previous depth to the margin and
the other twenty are the measure of the overflow
in the plains. They agree also that the cities
situated on the top of mounds become islands, as
is the case also in Aegypt and Aethiopia, and that
the overflows cease after the rising of Arcturus,
when the waters recede; and they add that although
the soil is sown when only half-dried, after being
furrowed by any sort of digging-instrument,' yet
the plant comes to maturity and yields excellent
fruit. The rice, according to Aristobulus, stands in
water enclosures and is sown in beds; and the plant
is four cubits in height, not only having many ears
but also yielding much grain; and the harvest is
about the time of the setting of the Pleiades, and
1 Cf. 7. 4. 6 and footnote on digging-instrument."

r6 d, Corais, for ard ; so the later editors.
SrUTVX~To, E, 6XXOVros other MSS.


,r7laeo-Ocrat l T e' 7 etai' 0vel0at &8 Kal ev Ty
BaKcrptavyj cal Bap3vXowva Kal CovOI8t, Kal 7'
KaTW e vpta 6vet. Me'ytXXo 8& 7v o'pvYav
o'-vetpea-Oat pjv 7rpo r&Tv S,83pwv rjo-lrv, Ap$ela'
Se Kal (v7Tta 2 SeWiat, aTro TJ V KXEIetl'T
'roTt0opu6vy7 vda'wv. 7rept & Tro /3ooa-upov 3
frioiv 'Ovr7aticproq, St&r~ -O7ro4 Eo-Tt pltoTepo0
T70 7rupoD' yevviaTat 8' dC Tal E, p o'orovoTaiatq.
(/pvyeTat 8', errav aXoTlOj, 'rpoojivvv'Trv '7r
ad7oLOeiv a'rvpov e'i 7T) a"Xw TOVO yi; e'aiyeao0at
19. TI)v S' otioIoTl7Ta 7- Xwpa, TavTi7' 7*rpoq
r'e 'z'v A nr'ov icat 'rlvy AlOtorav ica 7ra'Xtv
T6 77V AtK^WVTTOV Kai A Wto~rav Kal Tra7 t v
T7V evavTtoTr7a 'rapavlel 6 'AptroTpovXo9, 8torT
T7 NeldX, pv di 7Wo voTrwv ,/3poU v daO'rly
7X'rpwaO t, Tot 'Iv8tKoi 8co S7roTatoo a7rOr Tcov
0 693 dpKtIKCV, c 17T, 7r]Te, t0o ol peTa T'rro oV KaTrofi-
/SpofvTata oiVTe yap ?'j O ,/3at9 L'Xpt ~vjv4 Kal
T ^V e'yyb? Mep69ly, oivre T79 'Iv8tiKj9 TA a7ro 7
IIaTaXrlnv' pa Xpt 70r 'T8dae'rov. rTv 8' bv'reip
7avTa Ta pLepr]y Xpav, Ev ~ Kal t8pfpot ial
vtCI6T0t, raparX 'qatiwc yewpyef cat T1 akXXy
Ty7 eaW Ti)9 Iv8 tic XpWa' o07T~eo-Oat yap EiK TOV
ojp3Spwv Kal xtovwv. eiKoq 8' ol? e'tpiKev ovTro
Kal evao-eaTov elvatl T7v Yiv, xavvovirev?)v Vr To?
wroXXhg9 bypaaolav Kal e'Kpriypuaa XaA)3dvovaav,
ware xal pe~iepa roraawv aXXa'rco-aat. 7reIIs0eIb
/yov deirl Tiva Xpefav iSeiv r7utv EplFuoMeW aav
1 W7n-rl-eoO8at, see. man. in D, for wrtiea-Oa CEFxz, 7rfagee0a
sw; BaVTrl~earOa m.
2 Corais inserts /dA before ElTBear ; so Meineke.
3 b, after joo-udpov, Corais ejects; so later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 18-19

the grain is winnowed like barley; and rice grows
also in Bactriana and Babylonia and Susis, as also
in Lower Syria. Megillus says that rice is sown
before the rains, but requires irrigation and trans-
planting,1 being watered from tanks. Bosmorum,
according to Onesicritus, is a smaller grain than
wheat; and it grows in lands situated between
rivers. It is roasted when it is threshed out, since
the people take an oath beforehand that they will
not carry it away unroasted from the threshing-
floor, to prevent the exportation of seed.
19. Aristobulus, comparing the characteristics of
this country that are similar to those of both Aegypt
and Aethiopia, and again those that are opposite
thereto, I mean the fact that the Nile is flooded
from the southern rains, whereas the Indian rivers
are flooded from the northern, inquires why the
intermediate regions have no rainfall; for neither
the Thebais as far as Syen8 and the region of Meroe
nor the region of India from Patalen8 as far as the
Hydaspes has any rain. But the country above
these parts, in which both rain and snow fall, are
cultivated, he says, in the same way as in the rest
of the country that is outside India; for, he adds,
it is watered by the rains and snows. And it is
reasonable to suppose from his statements that the
land is also quite subject to earthquakes, since it
is made porous by reason of its great humidity and
is subject to such fissures that even the beds of
rivers are changed. At any rate, he says that when
he was sent upon a certain mission he saw a country
1 See critical note.

4 aoro, Epit., Ow-rTds other MiSS. ; so the editors.


Xipav rXovet o Xtwv ie 'v r o-v v Kwc1patV,
edXttr oVr To70 'Iv800o T olIcelov Pe'Wpov, E'rKpa7ro-
JLivov 8' el T e" repov dv aptarTepi Kcotorepov
7roXv, Kca otov Kcaappadav70r 6? 7Tv ATroXetf-
Oeiarav ev 8ef$t Xapav tj lI'rt 7roTri'fOat 7aT
v7repXvceotr, fiLereOpoTepav ovcrav o T70 peItOpov
T0o K cavo yd6vov, aXXa Kcal TVpv repxvo-eOv.
20. Ta, Se TWCV rorapLv vrXflpwao-o-E c al T7
TOV (aTro-yalovt p/ Irvelv dooXoyt ical 7 XeXe'v
vro 70TO 'Ov7]ea-tpiLTov Tevayd87r iydp ic-tv elvat
T7v irapaXlav, cKal /aXto-Ta Kara Ta o-TroaTa TCOV
ToTalwlv, s8td e rv' XyoDv Kical T? &rXhp/upiSa
Ital Trv Tc7v reXayto v veim ertipaTetav.
Meyaor'vri7 73 Trv evbat1Loviav Tr 'Iv8tiKc
enrta~tfatveralt 7T' Slcaprrov elvat ica' 8itopov
Kaadarep IcKa 'EparociTOeNii? e'4i, TOiPv fEV el7iTW
7Tropov Xe tIeptvov, TO7v 6B feptvo, ical 8bipov
opolWoc o"86v yap ToT evt'pifoKceaeoat 0 'zrp.s
AdOOTIrpovI Kairpovt dvoa/3pov 'Cor' ele&Tplav p c
TTOVoU rovLpL/aivetv, d&d6pov /fl8re'OTe~ T71 yi9
oVO-var T0OW e v UXvov c KcapTrovs yevvao-aat
oroXXob' Kal 7 Ta pia 7 'V UVTiOV, Kail /daXtora
T*oV zeydXwv KcaXdlfwv, 7XvKicia- Kall 0va-eL Kal
4 ro-1je, XXtaLvoaevov 7TO vaTOa' TOw 7jXlot3 TO7
T7 ei/rTrcrTOv ~ dK Alts Kai TOV 7roTa~blov. Trpo7rov
'4 rtva Xe'yetv /3ovX Ta, 8OTIL 7rapa TroEt aXXot?
XeYOptLev) d7eLS ical K apvrwv cKai Xvt&wv rap
t eivos ret, e&Ti, Kica Ka'TepydaeTrat TOo-Ovov
e6s evoar1opeazvO, uov icai 8ta wrvpok- 8t Kcai To'ro
icXadov rcilv evcKa/reai- elval TWOv 8e'v8pwv, Ce

GEOGRAPHY, 15.. 19-20

of more than a thousand cities, together with
villages, that had been deserted because the Indus
had abandoned its proper bed, and had turned aside
into the other bed on the left that was much deeper,
and flowed with precipitous descent like a cataract,
so that the Indus no longer watered by its overflows
the abandoned country on the right, since that
country was now above the level, not only of the
new stream, but also of its overflows.
20. The flooding of the rivers and the absence of
land breezes is confirmed also by the statement of
Onesicritus; for he says that the seashore is covered
with shoal-water, and particularly at the mouths of
the rivers, on account of the silt, the flood-tides, and
the prevalence of the winds from the high seas.
Megasthenes indicates the fertility of India by say-
ing that it produces fruit and grain twice a year.
And so says Eratosthenes, who speaks of the winter
sowing and the summer sowing, and likewise of
rain; for he says that he finds that no year is
without rain in both seasons; so that, from this fact,
the country has good seasons, never failing to pro-
duce crops; and that the trees there produce fruits
in abundance, and the roots of plants, in particular
those of large reeds, which are sweet both by nature
and by heating, since the water from the sky as
well as that of the rivers is warmed by the rays of
the sun. In a sense, therefore, Eratosthenes means
to say that what among other peoples is called the
ripening," whether of fruits or of juices, is called
among those people a heating," and that ripening
is as effective in producing a good flavour as heating
by fire. For this reason also, he adds, the branches
of the trees from which the wheels of carriages are


v ol TpoXol* K cS 7Ti? aVFFj alrTiag eviJoe Kal
E'ravOelv eptov. CeI TOVTOV 8K NeapXo,? 4ot"t TAe9
eVTplov 4atvfea-Oat tv80'vas, TroV7 8 Ma/ce-
S6vas vr 7 Kvaicd~ohX v avrois Xp1o'-at Kial Tro?
C 694 a-dyaao-rt cdy -"2 rotaG7a 8' ical Tah ~7pucad, 'ec
7'tvev iXotiv ,atvoLe'v'iv /3ova'ov. etprqlce 8 cal
rTep' 'Trov IaX.dtwv, 7Tt 7roLOVfoL utX, IeXtlo-'oW
,7 oo-(ov c Kal\ ya/p4 6eSpov elval Kaprro6ppov,
eK Se TO iaprroD o-vvrWOeoa at /ieXt, 70o; S
dayo'vrag woaov Tro Kap7rov5 1e0ivetv.
21. HoXXa 7yap 8 iKcal 86vSpa rrapdSoaa 1'
'IvSt&cI 'rpee, 0v Jarrt Kai rTb KcWT vevovras
exyov TroY /cXasovg, Ta 8 AXXaa v a acriSo obvc
eXarr7 OvrtIKcproL' SA Cal reIprepI7orepov T"a
ev Ty^ MovaoiavoD S&etdwv, a rl' voDTworava
elval Tr7j) 'Jvtrtc, 8tiyelrat /feyaXa &Bv8pa rtvd,
ov ToW Kad8ov a VItev'Ta, e7rl erjXeL Ka
XapJLdvetv, o a~v KaTaKa/n7rTro/jtvovV, '9 av
i owrvrat 7T y79- C'retra Kara 7~v Sta8od0vTra
ptoira-at o dOol'wo rat i KaropvWtv, eir avaSoL08vra9
-cTeXeXoDva-aOav o 'i rdiXwv opow9 Tj7 a)rajo-et
KaTaKa/jibe'v7Taq a XXilv Ka/arpvya Irotelv esT
aidXXv, calb ovTo 6 e'i), wo)T da' Ev0b 86evSpov
aeld Stov 7ylvecrat7 paicpov, 7roXvoTV9o aoKicVy
1 Kvaipci\v, CF, Kvap4iAv other MSS.
2 odyis, Tzschucke, for edyiv ; so the later editors.
8 Kai, EFx, oi other MSS.
4 ydp x omits; so Tzschucke and Corais.
5 avvieOTOal t.aprov omitted by all MSS. except EF,
but quoted by Eustathius (note on Dionysius 1125).
6 KaaTcaa cp'iOas, Corais, for IKaraKaAtO EVTa.
7 'yvEYoat, Corais, for yevi oea ; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 20-21

made are flexible; and for the same reason even
wool blossoms on some. From this wool, Nearchus
says, finely threaded cloths are woven, and the
Macedonians use them for pillows and as padding
for their saddles. The Serica 2 also are of this kind,
Byssus 3 being dried out of certain barks. He states
also concerning the reeds,4 that they produce honey,
although there are no bees, and in fact that there is
a fruit-bearing tree from the fruit of which honey
is compounded, but that those who eat the fruit raw
become intoxicated.
21. In truth, India produces numerous strange
trees, among which is the one whose branches bend
downwards and whose leaves are no smaller than a
shield. Onesicritus, who even in rather superfluous
detail describes the country of Musicanus, which, he
says, is the most southerly part of India, relates that
it has some great trees whose branches have first
grown to the height of twelve cubits, and then, after
such growth, have grown downwards, as though
bent down, till they have touched the earth; and
that they then, thus distributed, have taken root
underground like layers, and then, growing forth,
have formed trunks; and that the branches of these
trunks again, likewise bent down in their growth,
have formed another layer, and then another, and
so on successively, so that from only one tree there
is formed a vast sunshade, like a tent with many
1 i.e. cotton.
2 i.e. the threads of which the Seres make their garments
(see Pausanias 6. 26. 4 and Frazer's note thereon).
3 By Byssus Strabo undoubtedly meins silk, supposing
it to be a kind of cotton (see Miss Richter's article on "Silk
in Greece," Am. Jour. Arch., Jan.-March, 1929, pp. 27-33).
4 i.e. sugar-cane.



ooLotov. Xeryet S8 Kcal pLeyE'O' 8ev8pWv, 0&a-T re vre
dvOpd6Tirot' 8vo -replXT7'rTa eZvaL Tih O-TXe'Xe icar -
8e TOv 'AKceo-ivrv Kal fT'V Ov-QoXiv 'zoN v Tz rpbs
'TdpwrTv Kal 'Apto-Tr/3ovXo et'pTice 7rept TW&
KaTaKaL7TrTO.evov; eXo 6VTov TO;u KXXa8ov; Kal
rept T 7ro0 Ileye'ov, 00o' 4 e 8 v8pY /p, eo'/A-
3plpeiv oaicLago1evov9 lIrrear; c reVT7frrjKov7Ta- O
Se rerTpaicoo-iov'. Xd'yet 8 6 'ApIaOrdTov'Xo; ,ca
AXXo 8IvSpov ov' ELya, XoTrob 1 'Xov, q &' Kvdauos,
8eKaSa/criXov TTOb /iiKog, rv i'pe6; /.eXTO"' TobV'
Se' )ayOvrTag ob Aaico; aodeao-Oat. airavras 8'
v7repf3h3vrTa& 7rl TOD IE OVrepr L To)1 T ev S pwv
ol fWoavreF eOpaciaet *rrepav TOo 'Tap-rtio's
8evSpov otvo ictatl Tral; fie eo-0 3platv 7r6evra-
Tard8tov. Kcal 7Trv Ipto/oxpaOv 89vSpov T)o-]Lv oi'ro
TO avo0; 'XetV Truptj)va* 'atpeOevTro'; 8 TOVrTOV,
!aiveorOa TO XoLroVv o/joloes rat(? epeai;.
22. 'Ev 8\ T^r Mova-scavoD ca' o-Trov acTroT$u)
X'yeI 'rvp, ,rrapaTrXao-tov Kal a'p7reXov, WO-T
olvofope6v, TrV aXXwvy ioVov Xeyorwv 7"TV
'Iv8ticrKJv dOTe /p78' abXov elval KarTa TOv 'Avd-
Xapoiv, /IT' TaXo 2 TWv /ov-tLic5v o'pydv'ewv p778e
7rX'v IvcKvpL,/ v Kcal Trvlrav(ov Kal KCpoTaXwv, a
To';s avt/aTorrotovL IcecKT)Of ait. cal woXvcidp-
/alcov ea Ical roXVpp4tov T70V 7re oWT17pL'l Kal
TOV evavTLO wcarep Kal 7rovyp(/PaTOV Kal
OVTO9 eprpKce, xal aXXot ye. 'rpOTLO r O70-t 8' auroV,
oTt cal volpo etrl TOYbv c~vpOTra Ti T7v oXeOpitv,
eav t 7r rpoaavetpy al TO alcog aVTov, Oava-
C 695 TovOatar avevpov8ra Se TtIJI'; TVyyXdaveiv rapa TolE
1 oy e'yaAoertiLTrLaTarovs CDFh.
2 F reads -T after dhxo.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 21-22

supporting columns.1 He says also of the size of the
trees that their trunks could hardly be embraced by
five men. Aristobulus also, where he mentions the
Acesines and its confluence with the Hyarotis, speaks
of the trees that have their branches bent down-
wards and of such size that fifty horsemen-accord-
ing to Onesicritus, four hundred-can pass the noon
in shade under one tree. Aristobulus mentions also
another tree, not large, with pods, like the bean,
ten fingers in length, full of honey, and says that
those who eat it cannot easily be saved from death.
But the accounts of all writers of the size of the trees
have been surpassed by those who say that there
has been seen beyond the Hyarotis a tree which
casts a shade at noon of five stadia. And as for the
wool-bearing trees, Aristobulus says that the flower
contains a seed, and that when this is removed the
rest is combed like wool.
22. Aristobulus speaks also of a self-grown grain,
similar to wheat, in the country of Musicanus, and
of a vine from which wine is produced, although the
other writers say that India has no wine; and there-
fore, according to Anacharsis, it also has no flutes,
or any other musical instruments except cymbals
and drums and castanets, which are possessed by
the jugglers. Both he and other writers speak
of this country as abounding in herbs and roots
both curative and poisonous, and likewise in plants
of many colours. And Aristobulus adds that they
have a law whereby any person who discovers
anything deadly is put to death unless he also dis-
covers a cure for it, but if that person discovers a

1 The banyan tree (Ficus Bengalensis).


/3aatevoatv. xyetv 8 ICalL Kivda/iwov Kcac vap8ov
cal T7a dXxa Adpipara Tvy V' tOV 7Y V ToJv 'Iv8t1kCv,
p/olwa waTrep T~Jv 'Apa/3aav Kal Ty v AlOtor-av,
iXovaedv Tt eupepe dceivaL' KaTa TroV n70 IXo
Cac/-ov, ,oo-
ta epetv 8e TO w'Xeovacrpq, rTv VOarv, wOa-
ertiuov etlval yo adpa Kac TpotL/OwT1epoV rapa
70DrOO aKi yovit/ov p/aXov, 6cq 8 avTW) xaKt T7v
y v KCaTO' b /S~p- 8~ 1 /cat Ie0 Tu TrdE epcrCaa
TWV O w cal Ta KaO' i8aroT Ta d, 'IvSogr Tw&v
7rap iXXotv epto-iecr9aE-a Kai TrOv Neihov 8' elval
yovIov i aaXXov &rCpwv Kcal feyaXov7i2 yevvav
cal TrXXa cal ra auplfta, Tav re yvvatcaq
E'O' 07T Kal Trerpadvia 7TUCTEi Ta,' Al/7v7Ta'.
'Apto-TOrTei; 8e rtva Kal Erard8avua3 tlropEL
TeTOIcevat, Kal arTOq 7oroXyovyovo KaXov 7TO NeJXov
Kal T po)UIOV Si a T7v TfW 1YrXLWV VeTpav t rcrtv,
avir KaTaXet7ro6vTov 4 TO 7pdop1itov, TO 8 rIeplTTOv
23. 'A-'b 8c Tij avTj; airla icKal TroTO crvpl-
Salve v euKO, 6orep rjalv ovTro~ oTr T79 lo/eit
Trvpu 6bfet TO 7015 NeiXov iow)p A Taa tXXa. ooc
8' ye' riret TO IEv T70 Nelhov vi'p 8V' eBOeLta
ETreCaCt 7roXXrv Xwpav Kat arTeV 7 Kal p EraiaXXcc
'roXXa KXic aTara Kca rroXXob' dApa; 7r 8' 'Iv8rtc
pevLaTra e' re8t a avaxer7at uteao Kcal 'rXaTrvTrpa,
eLtaTrpl/3ovra 7roXvv Xpovov TOL' avTO' IXi/Ipact,
1 a5, Corais, for 87i; so the later editors.
2 p yaxoopvu, Xylander, for ieyaxoupvev; so the later
a For brTrdtvpa, Corais reads 7reitsvuia, following Gellius
10. 2, and Aristotle's Hist. An. 7. 4 and De Generat. 4. 4.
4 KaTraxetlrdrV, Corais, for Kaira-XirdvTwv; so the later

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 22-23

cure he receives a reward from the king. And he
says that the southern land of India, like Arabia
and Aethiopia, bears cinnamon, nard, and other
aromatic products, being similar to those countries
in the effect of the rays of sun, although it surpasses
them in the copiousness of its waters; and that
therefore its air is humid and proportionately more
nourishing and more productive; and that this
applies both to the land and to the water, and there-
fore, of course, both land and water animals ii India
are found to be larger than those in other countries;
but that the Nile is more productive than other
rivers, and produces huge creatures, among others
the amphibious kind; and that the Aegyptian women
sometimes actually bear four children. Aristotle
reports that one woman actually bore seven; and
he, too, calls the Nile highly productive and nourish-
ing because of the moderate heat of the sun's rays,
which, he says, leave the nourishing element and
evaporate merely the superfluous.
23. It is probably from the same cause, as Aristotle
says, that this too takes place-I mean that the water
of the Nile boils with one-half the heat required by
any other. But in proportion, he says, as the water
of the Nile traverses in a straight course a long and
narrow tract of country and passes across many
" climate 1 and through many atmospheres, whereas
the streams of India spread into greater and wider
plains, lingering for a long time in the same
" climate," in the same proportion those of India
are more nourishing than those of the Nile; and on
1 i.e. "belts of latitude" (see Vol. I, p. 22, footnote 2).
5 wrpl i'ci Trd, Kramer, for repr 7ic ro F, irupl Eisro I)
rupl f4cirat other MSS.


Troo-Soe etceva Trovo TpoOcI(eTpa, 8t( Kcall Ta
ICriTrj /eilQw Te Ical rXel ial e v Triv veb60fv Se
e00bv 8 e1 o-0al TO MOwp.
24. ToDro 8' ol plv Trep' 'AptO-iAT/ovov OVbI
Savr vyXwpolev ol 'Ovo-icKplT 86 80oe6e To'8e T Lo8wp a'riTov elvat
T;wv dv T7Ot cOt 18twLitdrov, Kal pet o-ipFetov
TO Kal Ta, Xpoa T)V 7rtwOrTv o3o0-Kvi'liaTwv
fe v IKv aXXaTTe-Oat 7TpO' TO e7rtX(i plo. TOVTO
1EV oVv ev" oviceTtL OA cal TO TO /ujeXavav elvat
Kial ovX6TrptXaq rovv AlOioTra, dv JXoi? TOts
N8aort Trb al'rav TtOEvat, f~ie'icerOal 8' rv Oeo-
c8xTcrv els avTov Trv T iXtov dcva epovTa TO a'rTov,
o;s 7o-wlV OVTWs,
oi, a XlTepi)ov qXtog &8 piXaTrv
O-KcoTtVOV avov EEXypwore Xytvvoo
el piopcfatv avavjTO YOt o~VTarraq 7rvpov.
eIxo 8' av Trva Xo'ov* irclt yap fiArTe e'yyvrep(w
TOL, Alio'ftv elvalt rov IjXtv Tol ai\Xot?, dXXa
/a(XXov Kara ICKaOeov elval Katl 8l TOrTO e7rl-
ialeaoat 7rXadov, t0oT' oic eCf XdyecrOat dYXLTp-
piova avUTot TO\V "jtov, i'tov 7rdvTwOV 8lXovTa,
1rJTe TO OBaXTro elvas TOV TOLOVTOv 'Trdqov a'rtov*
C 696 178E ry p TOLE dv yaOrTpL, Wv oVy 6al7TTeTat oXtoq.
e8XT7ovq U8 ol ToVy jitov alTt6rCevot Ical T7\v 6(
avTro1 e7riKavaov, KaT' eTrlrXe&tyv 0oo8ptyv T7s
ITTroX;? t'Lcxa8o* KIa0' o ical rTovs 'IvSo0V /I)

1 rhyv i aCro;, Casaubon, for r yv avroD, CDFhiw, TvY abrov

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 23-24

this account their river animals are also larger and
more numerous; and further, he says, the water
is already heated when it pours from the clouds.
24. To this statement Aristobulus and his followers,
who assert that the plains are not watered by rain,
would not agree. But Onesicritus believes that rain-
water is the cause of the distinctive differences in
the animals; and he adduces as evidence that the
colour of foreign cattle which drink it is changed to
that of the native animals. Now in this he is correct;
but no longer so when he lays the black complexion
and woolly hair of the Aethiopians on merely the
waters and censures Theodectes,i who refers the
cause to the sun itself, saying as follows : Nearing
the borders of these people the Sun, driving his
chariot, discoloured the bodies of men with a murky
dark bloom, and curled their hair, fusing it by
unincreasable forms of fire." But Onesicritus might
have some argument on his side; for he says that, in
the first place, the sun is no nearer to the Aethiopians
than to any other people, but is more nearly in a
perpendicular line with reference to them and on
this account scorches more, and therefore it is incor-
rect to say, Nearing the borders the sun,"
since the sun is equidistant from all peoples; and
that, secondly, the heat is not the cause of such a
discoloration, for it does not apply to infants in the
womb either, since the rays of the sun do not touch
them. But better is the opinion of those who lay
the cause to the sun and its scorching, which causes
a very great deficiency of moisture on the surface
of the skin. And I assert that it is in accordance
1 Theodectas" is probably the correct spelling (see I. G.
II, 977).


ovXoTptiXeLv 0a/tEv, aJLq8' ovtwr a7re~Ectfaevw'
ETriceKavraG at Trv XP'av, SrT vypov /cowvovawv
A'pov. ev 8e 7 ryao-Tpl 218s icaTA o-rrep.LaTTICv
Sedtoov 2 TotavTa ylv~rTat, ola T~ yevvwOvPTa' Kca
yap lrd~~fl oveyevtct OVTW X'eyeTat Ktalt aXat
ojiOtOT'Te6o. Kai TO 7raVTWv 8' t'iov a7rcXte V TOV
'Xtov 7rps a~of-crtv Xe'/erat, oV WrpO? Xhoyov" cal
rrpby aYeaLy-tv, oyX ; vX'Xerv, dXX' (6 Oayev
aoyEelov Xoyov XEytv 7)v 7ly jrpop. 77v 70rV T 7Xlov
ocalpav bewel rpdo rye 7rjv rotavl'lv a'eo-Oaiv,
tcaO' Alv O dXrov7 ; vr PTXaI/3av~ie0a, e'yyvev p~hv
t.aXXov, 7roppwOev e 77TOV, oI o 0 o7w0 8'
dyXt7ep/iopv 6 '(Xto Xe'yerat TOR AIlioftv, obX
) 'OvYPo'tcLpiTi Se'80oTat.3
25. Kal TOUTO 8e TV ,4ov oXoyov/YO vtuv ea(o Kca
T5V aow dVTCv rYjv 7rpo1p T)v At~V7Trov o/1OtoT17ra
Kcal Tv AlLioirtav, oT(, T&v 7reS(lwv oa jp
ericX Tra, aicapTrd i s 8tl 7Tv aVv8plpav.
NeapXO 8E 7o 17T0roV/po V rporpov7EPO' errl T70
NeiXov, 8Oev trX 'pwo-is av;ToD, 8tSda'cewv cfq
Trov 'IvS8tcov; 7roTa/yovu, OTt dc T&v OCepLV v
olt/pwov avip/alver 'AXe'avSpov 8' ev p1tv T7
'"T8da'Troy poKco8eiovb 186vra, v 86 T7 'Arceaitv
KvdUaovq AlyvTrTov;, evpr7Kevat 86oat Ta9 Toy
NetXov 7rT7ryay, Kcal rapaaoKev4da-cat oGrdov el
7v A'VTrrTO, 40g T7 7T roTao/j, 70TV'T f eP /t' ceI e
1 vre(Pelagvws, Meineke, for werrvaIAws Dh, rwer vceiaovs
zz, wervictLaws other MSS.
2 t8idoorw, F, 5,a'eory other MS8.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1, 24-25

with this fact that the Indians do not have woolly
hair, and also that their skin is not so unmercifully
scorched, I mean the fact that they share in an
atmosphere that is humid. And already in the
womb children, by seminal impartation, become like
their parents in colour; for congenital affections and
other similarities are also thus explained. Further,
the statement that the sun is equidistant from all
peoples is made in accordance with observation, not
reason; and, in accordance with observations that
are not casual, but in accordance with the observa-
tion, as I put it, that the earth is no larger than a
point as compared with the sun's globe; since in
accordance with the kind of observation whereby we
feel differences in heat-more heat when the heat is
near us and less when it is far away-the sun is not
equidistant from all; and it is in this sense that the
sun is spoken of 2 as nearing the borders of the
Aethiopians, not in the sense Onesicritus thinks.
25. The following, too, is one of the things agreed
upon by all who maintain the resemblance of India
to Aegypt and Aethiopia: that all plains which are
not inundated are unproductive for want of water.
Nearchus says that the question formerly raised in
reference to the Nile as to the source of its floodings
is answered by the Indian rivers, because it is the
result of the summer rains; but that when Alexander
saw crocodiles in the Hydaspes and Aegyptian beans
in the Acesines, he thought he had found the sources
of the Nile and thought of preparing a fleet for an
expedition to Aegypt, thinking that he would sail as
1 i.e. of Onesicritus. 2 i.e. by Theodectes.
3 jKScrat, CDhigvxz.


Trhevo/E-vov, /ircpvy S' ia'repov yvwvat 8to'T ob
S'vaat 8 ?fXrrto-e
eo-oCB1 ytap 6teydiXot roraJot cal etvw
'lQ ceavbr lev t rpTorv,

ely 8v eictsaa'tv ol 'IvtiKol 7rdvTe9 roTaool"
e'reTa 'Apiav' tcal IIepao cLr xdXTroa Ka l
'Apdaito Kcai abrTl 1 'ApaL/3a Kal ii TpwyXoSv-
TA L opv riv 'epo Trv Adv jov ica) l rTV n6.1/pCv
TOta8ra Xe7yerat ~Kal r7q 'IrX1 pwo-aE w 7Tr w orTa-
Wcv Kal T~7 eirrtXvi o ew 7TrV re8lov.
26. Aed 8e ica' ra Kta0' eicaaa rept 7Wov
7roTrat&ov el7relv, bo-a 7rpbr 77V yeowypaolav Xp I-
ao-pa Kal orawv larTopiav 7rapeitXrijbaiev. AXXr,
re ryap ol rroTra/ol, (vorKol Trve9 Spot Kcal iueyed9&v
ical aGXrnJiaTWv 7T7] Xpa ovTre', e'7rtyerlOTrlTa
7roXX)v 7rape'ovut 7rpok b'XnV Tr vvv b7rdofectv
C 697 6 8\ NeiXo cait ol' carT TtJV 'Iv8tK6iv 7rXEoverKTcrl
I 'Xovaet rapa To aO TEXXovu 8ia TO 77Tjv Xpav
doIKlrTOV eLvat Xoaplq aurTv, rrXW&orv alia Kal
7yewptro-ytpov oaaoav, Kal /-7' 'o8eoev& at 8vva-
/fevrqv a iXwco, f7i' oLrKeF-Oat TO rrapaTrav. TOv
p1v obv elf TOy 'IvSoby caraCIepo/devovv lo-TopPOvDev
7ro0v alovU tvrptr Tov 8' aXXOw ectv a'yvota rrXeXELv yvgo-tv.
'AXav3pov Tyap 6 taiXt-ra ravr' vacaXv'ra;
Kar apxaq flev, ?Ivica ol Aapewov SoXoaovlo-avreT
Aptpzrcav e7Tr Trv 7r-i BacKTptavjl atrrOTRaaaiv,
'yevw 7rpovpytaTraTrov oV SIoKetv Kial iaraXveiv

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 25-26

far as there by this river, but he learned a little later
that he could not accomplish what he had hoped;
" for between are great rivers and dreadful streams,
Oceanus first," 1 into which all the Indian rivers
empty; and then intervene Ariana, and the Persian
and the Arabian Gulfs and Arabia itself and the
Troglodyte country.
Such, then, are the accounts we have of the winds
and the rains, and of the flooding of the rivers, and
of the inundation of the plains.
26. But I must tell also the several details con-
cerning the rivers, so far as they are useful for the
purposes of geography and so far as I have learned
their history. For the rivers in particular, being a
kind of natural boundary for both the size and the
shape of countries, are very convenient for the pur-
poses of the whole of our present subject; but the
Nile and the Indian rivers offer a certain advantage
as compared with the rest because of the fact that
apart from them the countries are uninhabitable,
being at the same time navigable and tillable, and
that they can neither be travelled over otherwise nor
inhabited at all. Now as for the rivers worthy of
mention that flow down into the Indus, I shall tell
their history, as also that of the countries traversed
by them; but as for the rest there is more ignorance
than knowledge. For Alexander, who more than any
other uncovered these regions, at the outset, when
those who had treacherously slain Dareius set out to
cause the revolt of Bactriana, resolved that it would
be most desirable to pursue and overthrow them.
1 Odyssey 11. 157.
1 pdeoy, Corais, for giero moxz, ieay other MSS.


EdcelvovL. i6e ptEv ov 7Tjv 'Iv&cq rT 0o-1ov 8t'
'Aptavdv, d 8 el? abrTvv ev 8ette vLrepep/3 r7v
FIapoTradftuov elt ra 7rpoto-aptcra pepy Kal Tr7v
BaKTrpavjv" Karacrrped/frdevos S TraKEt ce rrev'a,
oaa )v bTrb IHepocat', IKal t' Wrrelw, Tr6' ij8 /ial
7T9 'IvLtcj, (apC'X0r, XeyOVTrwv 1LLv 7rept avrT,
w'7oXXiv, ovi uaojt Se. 4veao-pe4te S' obv V7repOEL
Ta abura 6p Kcar' \Xa V 9 doSovi iertroJW7Tpa(;, ev
apt arepa e"X0 rv IvScKy, eL7r eTE-rpefev e80v
E 'r avTrp Kal arov; opovu roV9 eTr e epLov' av r?
Ka, 1 rTv Kcbnv 7rOTa/.ov Kal TOv Xodor7-7v, Oq
E61 Troy K(7oiv eji3dX\et 7rOTa/uov KaTr nfi7-
ptvprov 2 TroXti, puel rapa Irpv8a,3 aXXjv 7rTOhv,
Keal 8et(Lv rTjv re BavSoPrvrv Ical T-v Fav8a-
pirtv. e7rVVadvero 8' olKicrt/J0ov elvat pduXtora
iKa ebvcapTrov Trv opewLPv rcal Tpoo-apKIctovW 7)v
Se vortov 7T7 V tiv avVSpov, T)7v 8 'rorapTo'XvrXVrov
Kal TreXCe eKTrvpov, yplrot 7re T i\XXov avOpo-
7roVt ov/t.Lerpov. wpptlaev orV 'r2v eTratvovuJevyrv
/cara-TacFoat 7rporepov, a&pua Kal Tov9 I'orTa/iouV
a t
evTreparorepov vo oLo-a rTov 7ri77rcv rX?)o'ilov, obv
ava'yKawov 'v Staf3alvetv, eiicapo-lov; ovra; Kcal
Te/ivoYTra v 7rpeT2e y7jp. a/La 6a Ical ijlcoveev
el v wrhXelov9 avvtovTa" pev, cal TOUT' Cl Ical
iaXXov o-v l3alvov, oaw rYh7r ov el,; T7O rpoa'oev
Trpotolev,4 ear' elval Sva-reparore'pav, ical ra7ra
v wrXhocov a2ropia. Se8'Wi; ov rovro Se,3'7 rTv
KI( rqjv, Ka K/careorrpE'ero Trv opertv7v, bo77
EreTparTro 7rpo, e).
1 Kard, after Kal, Corais ejects ; so the later editors.
2 lhiy6ptov s and on margin of OF, nmklXpiov moxz.
a rdpuSa i, rdpuvS other MSS.; so Corais and later editors
4 Irpofotl, Corais, for rpotp E, TpoLSeir other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, r5. I. 26

He therefore approached India through Ariana, and,
leaving India on the right, crossed over Mt. Paro-
pamisus to the northerly parts and Bactriana; and,
having subdued everything there that was subject
to the Persians and still more, he then forthwith
reached out for India too, since many men had
been describing it to him, though not clearly.
Accordingly he returned, passing over the same
mountains by other and shorter roads, keeping India
on the left, and then turned immediately towards
India and its western boundaries and the Cophes
River and the Choaspes, which latter empties into
the Cophes River near a city Plemyrium, after
flowing past Gorys, another city, and flowing forth
through both Bandobend and Gandaritis. He learned
by inquiry that the mountainous and northerly part
was the most habitable and fruitful, but that the
southerly part was partly without water and partly
washed by rivers and utterly hot, more suitable for
wild beasts than for human beings. Accordingly,
he set out to acquire first the part that was com-
mended to him, at the same time considering that
the rivers which it was necessary to cross, since they
flow transversely and cut through the country which
he meant to traverse, could more easily be crossed
near their sources. At the same time he also heard
that several rivers flowed together into one stream,
and that this was always still more the case the
farther forward they advanced, so that the country
was more difficult to cross, especially in the event of
lack of boats. Afraid of this, therefore, he crossed
the Cophes And began to subdue all the mountainous
country that faced towards the east.
1 Historians and geographers who accompanied him.


27. 'Hv 8oe /era rbv Kcdiv 6 'Iv8o', elo'
"T6ao-Trnq, e0' o 'AKcea-vq Ical 6 Tapor0 vora-
Tro 8' d "'Travts. 7repatrepO yap 7rpoeXOelv
eK(icXVX?, 70too t eV /avTeorew TtOt rrpoe'xcwv,
T70OT 8' VTTOr 71; o-rpa'rt aTrhlyopevicvias 8ri
7rpo6 Tou 7rovovU avayca4-cEly u Xto-ra 8' ed
r7,v VSdrwv 'eKlaov, o-vveXi voJ6evoi. TarT' olv
ye'veTro yvLptlca W~tiv r&Ov CewOtvwv Tr 'IvSiUCj
C 698 -epov, ocra dvrv Troi 'Twdr ov?, /cat el Tva
7rpoo-t0-Toplo-av o0 ter cicetvov r'epairepw To7
'Trdavto rrpoeXOdv-reF /eXpi 'Tro Fdyyov ical
HaXtca0pwov. /eTa Ue' oVv ro7 Kwrojv o 'Ivgo
eTl' UT r e p erav' TOV7WV TCov 8veVw 7rora)wov
eXovatv 'Ao-racrjvol re cal Maciavo1 ical Nvo-aot
cal TrdOaort 2 el0' j 'Acr-aKcavov, orrov Mao-ya 3
7r6X(, Tb f3ao-rietov T^ Xopaq. S&6 S6e srp', 7T
'IvSai 7rdciv aXX' r roXt IHevcoXa'rt(, 'rp yN
(ei ya yev?7eOv c'repaicoce r7v arpaTtav.
28. MeTa 8' roO 'ITv8o ical TroD 'TSdcrov
TdatXd E0rT, 7TroXL~ Lel'ydcif Ka' evoIowrdT, Kca
? 7repcetiuevfr X)dpa oav(vY Ical a-b68pa ebSaiawv,
'& o-'vvadTrrovaa Kal TO'g TreSlotg. EdSeavr re 8'
tiXavOpdw7ra TO v 'AXdeav8pov ol AvOpw-rot Kal t
iacrsXeub avTwv TalXi) eVV ruXyovr 7Te rrXovv 1j
avro1 7rapea-ov, on-Te G0oveV rov MaKeSovag
Icab Xeyjev kY oKl ElXEV, 9 EtOLtev, 'AXerav8pov,
obV evepyeTroa't rrp- v 86/r27 i' rO 'Iv86v. cao~ 6'
elval Trve" rrT7v Xwpav ravrrlv Al1y1Trrov teiova.
1 Bactavol Dhi.
2 'Trditoi, Tzschucke emends to 'Irnrdcioi, Corais to
S Mardya, Tzschucke and Corais emend to Mdia'aya; the
MSS. of Arrian (Indica 8) read Mdoiacaa.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 27-28

27. After the Cophes he went to the Indus, then
to the Hydaspes, then to the Acesines and the
Hyarotis, and last to the Hypanis; for he was pre-
vented from advancing farther, partly through
observance of certain oracles and partly because he
was forced by his army, which had already been
worn out by its labours, though they suffered most
of all from the waters, being continually drenched
with rain. Of the eastern parts of India, then,
there have become known to us all those parts which
lie this side the Hypanis, and also any parts beyond
the Hypanis of which an account has been added by
those who, after Alexander, advanced beyond the
Hypanis, as far as the Ganges and Palibothra. Now
after the Cophes follows the Indus; and the region
between these rivers is occupied by Astaceni, Masiani,
Nysaei, and Hypasii; and then one comes to the
country of Assacanus, where is a city Mesoga, the
royal seat of the country; and now near the Indus
again, one comes to another city, Peucolaitis, near
which a bridge that had already been built afforded
a passage for the army.
28. Between the Indus and the Hydaspes lies
Taxila, a city which is large and has most excellent
laws; and the country that lies round it is spacious
and very fertile, immediately bordering also on the
plains. Both the inhabitants and their king, Taxiles,
received Alexander in a kindly way; and they
obtained from Alexander more gifts than they
themselves presented, so that the Macedonians were
envious and said that Alexander did not have any-
one, as it seemed, on whom to bestow his benefac-
tions until he crossed the Indus. Some say that this
country is larger than Aegypt. Above this country


1Vrep 86 TavTf l v EV TOi~ pertv I 70Tr 'A,8tcrpov
X, pa, 7rap' w 8po 8padovTa ard TyyeXXov ol 7rap'
avTOvi r-pecoaerts Tpec l -at, 7TOVy EV y8oi7KOVTa
7rrXCv, TOV Se TeTrapadiovTa 7rpo? TO? eicaTOr, 6T
etp'pIev 'OvYo-liptTo 8yv ob'c 'AXeadv8pov ioXXov
4 TCw 7apa86joav apxitKVepvpjrv 7rpoo-etrOt Tt4
av. 7raVTe' pv .yap ot rept 'A7 Xav8pov TO
OavuaCrTOv aVT' Trd! oi0ov aedS'XovTro pjiaXXov,
Trep3pdXXea6at 86 So8ce? -Tob TO 0TOV9 eCKceiV
77 TepaToXoytla. Xedye1 S' oiv Ttva Kal artOava
Kcat pJLvri?1 atia, owa( e Kal a7rttrTOvvTl a p
7rapeXOeiv aVTa. 7 ep' 8' oiv TW)V SpaKlovTrv Kal
ahXXot Xaeov-tv, OTI ev TOIt 'Htuw8o7, opetI
0l7pevorovaotv Ka Tpc V a-TrXalo'9.
29. MeTao) Uo ToD 'Tda-Trov cal TOi 'AKcealvov
1 re TOD HIopov Ea-T7, 7ro XX Kal dIya0j, aXe86v
TL Kal TpLaKoCOitov 7ro'wv, Kal 7 r po TO9
'HwoZBOO 'pea-tv VXi7, e'h ? 'AXE'aav8pov a9 aryaye
T7 Tddo'-ry a K~la9 eXdTrv Tre 7roXkIv ial 7rev7cyv
Kaa' KcSpov Kal al Xa 7ravTroa o-TeXe'X? vavr ry -
otLa, e (v oTrdXov Karea-KeevdaaTo e7L 7')
'TSda'yrp a'-po 7ai9 e7tcr/-ivatL? v avrov TroXea'tv
Jo' ecKarepa TOf 7ro'rat)ov OTov TOv Hwpov evtKa
8ta,/av0 wv T?7 IvE BovKeba\Xlav AwvoJlacarev a7ro
702TO rovraVTO Lnrvo KaTa Triv idaXy7v TI7v rpko
Toy HT&pov (dicaXETo &6 Boi6ovcadXa? ATO TOV
7rXaTdou TO7 r perwov' 7roXE/JILaTj9 )v 7yao'q,
C 699 Kcal ae TOVTf) eKEyXP 7TO KaTa 7rov aywovag), T2rv
U8 Nlicatav ad7r 77,7 tic; eKacXea-ev. ev 86 7T7
XeXOel'y iTXy tca \ TO V KepKotI0v cp jco Kv 8t77yoav-
1 \ yei, Corais, for Adyetv; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 28-29

in the mountains lies the country of Abisarus, who,
according to the ambassadors that came from him,
kept two serpents, one eighty cubits in length and
another one hundred and forty, according to Onesi-
critus, who cannot so properly be called arch-pilot
of Alexander as of things that are incredible; for
though all the followers of Alexander preferred to
accept the marvellous rather than the true, Onesi-
critus seems to surpass all those followers of his in
the telling of prodigies. However, he tells some
things that are both plausible and worthy of mention,
and therefore they are not passed by in silence even
by one who disbelieves them. At any rate, others
too speak of the serpents, saying that they are
caught in the Emodi mountains and kept in caves.
29. Between the Hydaspes and the Acesines is,
first, the country of Porus, extensive and fertile,
containing about three hundred cities; and, secondly,
the forest near the Emodi mountains, from which
Alexander cut, and brought down on the Hydaspes,
a large quantity of fir, pine, cedar, and other logs
of all kinds fit for shipbuilding, from which he built
a fleet on the Hydaspes near the cities founded by
him on either side of the river where he crossed and
conquered Porus. Of these cities, he named one
Bucephalia, after Bucephalas, the horse which fell
during the battle with Porus (the horse was called
Bucephalas 1 from the width of his forehead; he
was an excellent war-horse and was always used by
Alexander in his fights); and he called the other
Nicaea, after his victory. In the forest above-
mentioned both the number and the size of the long

1 i.e. Oxhead.



Tat 7rA00o6; vbrep/3AXov Kcalt TOb /.eyeO op-6olw,
woatre Trov MaKieSvav woTre, 18ovTa1 ev rt rTv
dlcpoXopiatc iJrtXa~ &e'rTraq dev Taet Kaica
jie'onov 7roXoios (Kalt yap AdvpworovovOTrarov
'evalt TO iov, obX fTTOV TOjV eXedCOVwv), vrTpaTO-
Tre'ov Xap/3v cavTraaav Kalt opplr'at ,Lev er'
av7rov, wC TroXepACovc, ia ovra; 8&e 'rapa Ta4~Xov,
aUVVOVro To 7T(re r ao-tXel, 747v axkOetav 7ravfao--
Oat. i 0 9~pa TO 70 ov Sr&TT'7 .l77IrtIctv K
icai el rL Ta vSpa ava aevKTriKco ol oiv O 7pevovTev,
e7rav 't8owatv eir 8 evpoPv iSpvplevov, ev 6b*et OreV
rpvp/3Xov rwp eXov,, ToV eavTCOv of90a xovc;
evaXelfovatv E' avrov eLT', dAVT TOD 0oaTOq
lou r7pvlTlov Ofevrev, a'rtrr'a ica XoX&ocr roppw-
Oev 7av ra KaTaTrr87jaa TcO j27apov pL y'pltcrr7Tat
70TOO loD, KaTraicvavTO 8 OXrS' 7roX0Of1 T 3e-
0apa, eBrrovre9 twY/povaOt. elfq le ouv2 TpoTro.
ouroF, &aXo 86e" Lvro8vo a'1evot OvXdicov,, cov
avapvpl8ay, as ao-t, dXXov I KaTaXL7'PTv e
aoease, Ta 1ETOv KeXPLptoivov9 1~* v'S UPra Ta
els aVTbro pqt8Lo alpova-t.
30. Kai T27v Kdaatav3 84 TV9 Kca4 Tr2V
WorrelOovq, 7Wv voiapxw)v Ttvoq, KaTr 7T'jve T71V
Learo o7Ta/ltav TrOEaa-tv"* \Xot S Kcal TOV
'Alceo-ivov 7rpav Kial 'ro 'TapTiot80o, 'JtoPOv 7Ty
Iolpov r70ov eepov, o9 V aveitoyE TOV bor' 'AXe-
adv8pov aXvoTO9' KatXoO-re 8 Ffav8apl8a Trlv bro
1 Instead of &vroA?\7e, CDhixw read aroheirpet (corrected
to &aroAi1pOp in Dh); aNEul oi mo, Casaubon and Tzschucke;
SraXeioOji, Corais.
2 oZv omitted by all MSS. except Dhi.
3 KdiOaav, Tzschucke, for KaOeav; so the later editors.
4 Kal, Corais inserts (citing Diodorus 17. 91).

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 29-30

tailed apes 1 are alike described as so extraordinary
that once the Macedonians, seeing many of these
standing as in front-line array on some bare hills
(for this animal is very human-like in mentality, no
less so than the elephant), got the impression that
they were an army of men; and they actually set
out to attack them as human enemies, but on learn-
ing the truth from Taxiles, who was then with the
king, desisted. The capture of the animal is effected
in two ways. It is an imitative animal and takes to
flight up in the trees. Now the hunters, when they
see an ape seated on a tree, place in sight a bowl
containing water and rub their own eyes with it;
and then they put down a bowl of bird-lime instead
of the water, go away, and lie in wait at a distance;
and when the animal leaps down and besmears it-
self with the bird-lime, and when, upon winking, its
eyelids are shut together, the hunters approach and
take it alive. Now this is one way, but there is
another. They put on baggy breeches like trousers
and then go away, leaving behind them others that
are shaggy and smeared inside with bird-lime; and
when the animals put these on, they are easily
30. Some put both Cathaea and the country of
Sopeithes, one of the provincial chiefs, between these
two rivers,2 but others on the far side of the Acesines
and the Hyarotis, as bordering on the country of the
second Porus, who was a cousin 3 of the Porus cap-
tured by Alexander. The country that was subject
1 The species cercopitheces (for a fuller description see 15. 1.
2 The Hydaspes and Acesines.
3 Or "nephew."


TOVTCO yopav. E v T6 T7 KaOaal iaravoraTov
IOrTopeiTrat TO rrept Tro Ka'XXoUv, 'iTt Tt aTal
Sta0iepoPTOvr, (9 'TrTrro Ka lc Kvvo;v' aotXea Te
yap Tov IcdXtorTov alpet Oal cqorjtv 'OvyriKpvro9,
yev1.eLevv T raiv Tre aat ?o 81/Jvqov KpivecrOat
r'juoot'a, 7rorepov EXot T7jv Pvofov tPop(fiv cKal
T70Oi yv av, 7 ov' icptsO'vTa S' v' ro 70 aTro-
SetX'VTo;q aPXovTro; v 9) O'avaTroOcrOar d3a7reo"-
Oai re rroXkoZ? ebavOeCa-TaotV Xp4aO- aa T rov
7rcyoova; avrov TOTOV Xadptv, KaXXortoop~evov;'
TOVTO 'c Kal IaXovT2 Trotetv EiTtfpLEXt o'6vXvou
TI 'JIv3~v (Kat yap 8 04epetv T"v X6cpav Xpdoa'
OavuaoarTaF) Kcal Optl icKal aog'r To 9? 8' avOpw-
rovw T'a &lXXa t'v eVbreXAe elvat, fiXoKocro-ov 8'.
'it'ov &e rwv Ka9Oawv3 icaM TroOTo ITropelPra, TO
alpeo-Oat v ov ta vvIo stO vK i v aXX' Xov? Kcal TO
avyKaTaKaica ~Oata 7-e6eort TOE9 aciv3pdit Tah
yvvaFica9 KaTa TOtav'7Tv aLtLav, OTL Epooal 7roTr
C 700 TOv vPewv a0dc 'raVroT 4 rTCov av8p ov apLpaKeoiLev
avTOv9' vopjov obv OdcOae TrovTO, aC) 7ravo-opevr,;
T7) cfapptaKEcla. ob rtO0av I4 pev ovv o vOfLo?,
oh' ;7 alria X'Vyerat. faoa 8' iv T7 coITreov',
Xwpa opvcKr&v AXov opo9 eZvat, appKiev 8vvazevov
oy T7? IvitKy Kal Xpvreea Se xal adpyupe'a ov
7roX a7TrrwOev dv aXXOL ot OpeaLov lrope7aL Kad,
w4s ediwoa-e Thpyo a '/eTaXXCVT f;. ol 8' 'IJvSo
PeraXXetla Kal Xwvela9 a7rerpepo9 eovPres, oh8' ov

1 KaOati, Tzschucke and later editors, for KaOla.
2 &EAovs, his, &X\ws other MSS.
3 KaOafwv, Tzschucke and later editors, for KaOSwv.
4 dpoalatvTro, Corais and later editors, for adiOriav'To.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 30

to him is called Gandaris. As for Cathaea, a most
novel regard for beauty there is reported; I mean
that it is prized in an exceptional manner, as, for
example, for the beauty of its horses and dogs; and,
in fact, Onesicritus says that they choose the hand-
somest person as king, and that a child is judged in
public after it is two months old as to whether it has
the beauty of form required by law and is worthy
to live or not; and that when it is judged by the
appointed magistrate it is allowed to live or is put
to death; and that the men dye their beards with
many most florid colours for the sole reason that
they wish to beautify themselves; and that this
practice, is carefully followed by numerous other
Indian peoples also (for the country produces mar-
vellous colours, he says), who dye both their hair
and their garments; and that the people, though
shabby in every other way, are fond of adornment.
The following too is reported as a custom peculiar
to the Cathaeans: the groom and bride choose one
another themselves, and wives are burned up with
their deceased husbands for a reason of this kind-
that they sometimes fell in love with young men
and deserted their husbands or poisoned them; and
therefore the Cathaeans established this as a law,
thinking that they would put a stop to the poison-
ing. However, the law is not stated in a plausible
manner, nor the cause of it either. It is said that
in the country of Sopeithes there is a mountain of
mineral salt sufficient for the whole of India. And
gold and silver mines are reported in other moun-
tains not far away, excellent mines, as has been
plainly shown by Gorgus the mining expert. But
since the Indians are inexperienced in mining and


eviropovio-v itoao-tv, dXX' 47rXovo"repov IeTaXerpl-
ovTra To7 rpary/pa.
31. 'Ev 8' T-- 2mwrelOov tcal 'Te Triv KVVcoV
(peTa; 8ty7oD;vTa 8avpaudTa-7 Xa/3pev yoVv 7Tv
'AXeav8pov rraph 7ro0 owTrelovW? cvva, 7revT]j-
Kcovra /cal etcarov 8tarepa9 8e Xcyp X a OVT
K 1 1 2 8 ^ t
7rpocaaev'Ta1 vo0, KpaTovufevwv2 arvTv, 6vo
XXovs e'7raetwat' Tore o' 8s ica eoKa -r rwv elf
vriT7raXa, rob ov e wWTreOl e KeXeLaGrat TIV Kcvve
eva ca'ro-7rav rov o I Xov? TW7A Xa/36jievov, eav
8\ p14 vjra/covy, %arore/eiv r Iv 'Ae'av8pov 86
Ktar apXa fev ov avwyX(wpetv a7roTCr/et, et8o~ftevo
Tro KVVrPo, eL7oTror 8', 7r-t Tr77apa avrt1SQow-)
0ot, c1vyyx o-pjrat, ica TOYv Kvva 7repttieev Adnorttl-
Oe'ra To o-ceXo' /3pa8eta TO70/1, 7rpiv avedvat To
32. 'H ueav obv pdLet 70o 'Tr8&-ov O6So
Tb 7rXeov v e7rwl fieao7t/ppiavY, 71 8' evevoe
7rp 0) / akXXov /eXpL TOV 'T7Tarlvo, aTraaa
1 T79 vrowpela; /aiXXov 7q TWV Tres8Lov eXo-
Cpe'v. d 8' o'v 'AXe'av8po9 a'7ro" TO 'T7rdvio'
avao-Tp'pera, 'rl 7TO 'TSdo'&c7r7 Kal TOb vav-
O'TaOlUov, 7pTlrcpOTel TO7b 0CTOrOV, e677 rXe7
7T 'T8~Ordary, 7rTYTe 8' 0o XeCOe'Xev -roTauol av/-
dlaXovartvl e' a TOy VIv80ov vo 'Ta7ro0 8' 6 TTrav
revPTeKaL8EKa S TO7 ov/; ravTraV o-vppelv aaot,
T70o ye a&toXo'yov 7rX7pwOeB19 etc 7raVWV
wr -e Kal e eKaTov cra8lov9, o; ol pf fL7Tptad-
fOVTC'1 iaao-v, evpvve-at ICa7ra TtVas TO7rTOVo,
I Tpoaeir/ros CFwx, rpoua0Evra moz.
2 ', before abTv, Corais and later editors omit.
8 Instead of lp'T1Kpd67T, F reads qp7Tipons (sic), C ilpTLK6T

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 30-32

smelting, they also do not know what their resources
are, and handle the business in a rather simple
31. Writers narrate also the excellent qualities of
the dogs in the country of Sopeithes. They say, at
any rate, that Alexander received one hundred and
fifty dogs from Sopeithes; and that, to prove them,
two were let loose to attack a lion, and, when they
were being overpowered, two others were let loose
upon him, and that then, the match having now
become equal, Sopeithes bade someone to take one
of the dogs by the leg and pull him away, and if
the dog did not yield to cut off his leg; and that
Alexander would not consent to cutting off the dog's
leg at first, wishing to spare the dog, but consented
when Sopeithes said that he would give him four
instead; and that the dog suffered the cutting off of
his leg by slow amputation before he let go his grip.
32. Now the march to the Hydaspes was for the
most part towards the south, but from there to the
Hypanis it was more towards the east, and as a
whole it kept to the foothills more than to the plains.
At all events, Alexander, when he returned from the
Hypanis to the Hydaspes and the naval station, pro-
ceeded to make ready his fleet and then to set sail
on the Hydaspes. All the above-mentioned rivers,
last of all the Hypanis, unite in one river, the Indus;
and it is said that the Indus is joined by fifteen note-
worthy rivers all told, and that after being filled so
full by all that it is widened in some places, according
to writers who are immoderate, even to the extent
of one hundred stadia, but, according to the more
(corrected to rtnvepdcL)t), Dh hpTrKTpdTry, i apT7KpdrRi, and other
MSS. and editors before Kramer auvvcpdiri.


aC 8' ol /iTpteWTepOt, 'TrePTrgCOVTa TOb rXkel-crov,
edaXtrrov a4 erTa (xal 7roXXat 'vrj Ka~l rocket
ei1 11 7e'p4t 2), e'retra 8voa1 CerTO6atv el6f Tjv vorlav
CI'c81wot 0dhXarTav xal rTjv HaTaXra vPv 7rpooa-
ryopevotev17v 7rorei v'~iov. raTvrl 8' erXe T,7V
8tavotav 'AXE4av8po,, aiel, ra ?rpo eSw pepr]
7rprov tpv StA 7b ic wXvuObvat 8ta/plvat rOv
"Twavtv, 'eretTa cKal *~ev8 caraTaua(ovr 7V T relpa
rTO 7Trpo/raTEXOVra Xoyov, o4 eKKTrvpa e'l xcal
OTplots ptaoXXov oi~Kcj-tta Ta dv 70rT 7TreiotLv'
AvOpwatrel iye've-L SLdTep Opp~-rr ev el Tavra,
dfels iceiva, Ce TC Icala ceVroy Tara drP'
ef/evwv e7Tr 7rreov.
33. 'H p~v ov AeTrabvr To 'T7rdvio xIcal TOD
C 701 'T8dcrarov Xe'yeTratL evva 'eXewv ovy7, r erXe; 8
e6 NrevraKtco-7aKyXa oK deXaTTOnv KM T) J Mepo-
r8*So'; SooiKed rpby b7rep/3poXv elpfcr-at TO
rXro00. 17 86 peLrav ToV 'Ivo Kai Tcl O 'T&BdoTov,
etp47ratL O-Xev Tr, bo' (v oliceTrat T v 'Flwv
puvrj L7I. KI ai 8' eI t elav o'" re 'S ,at Xey6pLEvot,
Vrept wv Kat 7rp6repov eptvaOr77pev, Kal MaXXo0
Kal Ev8pxata,3 ,eeydXa Wivp. tcal MaXXot piev,
trap' ols aCrolaveEv. eKWvUveOvev 'AXe'avapo,,
Tpwoel0 'v AX Oeit 7roXlXVy~? Triv6, 2v8pd caL4
84, ob 7 TO Atovvaoov avyyevetF e"Oapev uetv-
evro-Oat. nrp6, avnTj 8' 077i Trj llaTaXljvy TriV
re TO7 MovOrtKavob Xe4youvr t K -al 7v 27a6ov, ov
1 ela DF, dvai other MSS.
2 Kal roh& r4 pt, Meineke ejects, following conj. of
3 Ii8pdHxat Dhi, 'Ouvapiacai E.
SZSpaircat F (corrected in margin to 'OvSpdeaz), 'Ovupiicati
other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 32-33

moderate, fifty at the most and seven at the least
(and there are many tribes and cities all about it),1
it then empties into the southern sea by two mouths
and forms the island called Patalene. Alexander
conceived this purpose 2 after dismissing from his
mind the parts towards the east; first, because he
had been prevented from crossing the Hypanis, and,
secondly, because he had learned by experience the
falsity of the report which had preoccupied his mind,
that the parts in the plains were burning hot and
more habitable for wild beasts than for a human
race;3 and therefore he set out for these parts,
dismissing those others, so that the former became
better known than those others.
33. Now the country between the Hypanis and the
Hydaspes is said to contain nine tribes, and also cities
to the number of five thousand-cities no smaller than
Cos Meropis,4 though the number stated seems to be
excessive. And as for the country between the Indus
and the Hydaspes, I have stated approximately the
peoples worthy of mention by which it is inhabited; 5
and below them, next in order, are the people called
Sibae, whom I have mentioned before,6 and the
Malli and the Sydracae, large tribes. It was in the
country of the Malli that Alexander was in peril of
death, being wounded in the capture of some small
city; and as for the Sydracae, I have already spoken
of them as mythically akin to Dionysus.7 Near
Patalen6, they say, one comes at once to the country
of Musicanus, and to that of Sabus, where is Sindo-
1 The words in parenthesis are probably a gloss.
2 i.e. to turn back from the Hypanis. 3 See 26.
4 See 14. 2. 19. 5 28 above.
6 8 above. 7 8 above.


Ta rv8o 6ava,1 Kal TIe rTv loprtKavov Kal
aXXwv, Cv KpapdTvw-ev nrravTro 'AXeav8po9, 7~v
Tro 'Ivooi 7rapotucovTowv 7roTrautav, 'r-TaT9 8
T79} I alTajXnV?7q, AfV o 'IVSot70, 1-P8o-0elt eI'
8vo 7rpoXoap 'Apwro/3ovXAo' Ilv oiv e 1 XtXiovV
orTa8lov; &e'XetLv atXsXcov ro hv avTa;, NeapXoT
8' odicoaoiouv 7rpoartOr)70tv, 'Ovrlo'iKptroT 8e Tr
7rXevpav eKdaGryTv T77 roXatLavoE'v ny vqijov
7rptycl ov T\ o-yX ta Sto-yXtXf)v, Tro e 7roTaipo
TO rrXaTO'?, KaO' 'o pX?7Tat eGl Ta TO/TLaraT, o-oY
8taicoo-tvr2 Kaiei 8e T27V vijaov AE\Ta, KaI o-1rv elval ToD KIcaT AtlVrTov AENTa, OV;I aXi ve
Troro XeTaov. To yap KcaT' AiyvrrTov Ae'\Ta
XtXiov IKal rptaticoO-v XyeTrat o-raStov ex'et
T7lV /3dctv, ra SU 7rXevpav KcarTepav E'dTTr TV);
P/3'Cews. Jv 86 T7i HIaTaXrvj^ 7ro'Xt eUT d'0 &d-
Xoyo9 Ta IId'raXa, d4 *' cal 7a v7 To-o KaXetrat.
34. 'Is 8' Ov lo-LrtpTO? 7Trv rrhicrrXrT rapa-
XIav TV TaVTr, 7rOXi rbTO TevaycoSeev Xet, IKa
iLaXId Ta KaTa Ta aToLarTa TOV 7roTra.yc v, Std r
T V XoDv Kal Ta\ 7rX/i/~LvplG8a? Ka T\O 7vrrVEr
aTroyalovq,3 jXX' Vro Trov 7reXaytlev avepxov
KarTeXCoeat TOVrTOV9 TOV TO7rov' TO 7rXeov. XtVyeI
8e Kxat 7epI rT7 MovtKavoov Xopa e'rrl 7rXAov
eyKwwttO t av avrjv, wjv Tiva. cowta Kal aXXolc
'IvioZl iarlopTrat, v TO t/acppo/3ov, waoe Kal
TptaKovTCa 7rt TOL eK7aroV rrpooaXa~f3aveit (Ical
1 oaboTra atvsovatav rnoz; lraso~ra osvwoAiav sw; crdouv &
tvsovdpAa CDFh, Tzschucke and Corais; 2dBov, Tra 2trv6arav
Meineke, and so Kramer, who, however, inserts oV after
2 For aKoaicocy' Groskurd conj. lKoot, Kramer (citing
Arrian 5. 20) EKaTrv.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 33-34

mana, and also to the country of Porticanus and
others, who, one and all, were conquered by Alex-
ander, these peoples dwelling along the river-lands
of the Indus; but last of all to Patalene, a country
formed by the Indus, which branches into two
mouths. Now Aristobulus says that these mouths
are one thousand stadia distant from one another,
but Nearchus adds eight hundred; and Onesicritus
reckons each of the two sides of the included island,
which is triangular in shape, at two thousand, and
the width of the river, where it branches into the
mouths, at about two hundred; and he calls the
island Delta, and says that it is equal in size to the
Aegyptian Delta, a statement which is not true.
For it is said that the Aegyptian Delta has a base
of one thousand three hundred stadia, though each
of the two sides is shorter than the base. In Patalene
there is a noteworthy city, Patala, after which the
island is named.
34. Onesicritus says that most of the seaboard in
this part of the world abounds in shoals, particularly
at the mouths of the rivers, on account of the silt
and the overflows and also of the fact that no
breezes blow from the land, and that this region is
subject for the most part to winds that blow from
the high sea. He describes also the country of
Musicanus, lauding it rather at length for things of
which some are reported as common also to other
Indians, as, for example, their length of life, thirty
years beyond one hundred (and indeed some say

3 &aoyaaovs, Casaubon, for asrb -yas CFmoz, &ar yaias Di,
bvro'yasa i, vroyalas sx.


yap Tobv SCpaq ert TorovW /iaKpofPtoTepovV TTiVE;
Oat) cKal To 7Xt'Lrov Ical TO vytetvov, KatITrEp
T, X(pa( db00oviav ar ndvr(v EXOVo y. I'rtov 86
To avo-olva u Iva Aatcovtca avTol~ elvat 8'77 ooa-a
oa-tovuJe'vwv, o'~a 8' eic Orjpa e'XOvrwO ical To
XpvUa" 1p0 Xpqj~r-at, fM48' apyvp'p, t/eTdAXr v
OVTrOW' Kia TO aV' SovXwV To ??e acaJ/cy Xpjo-Oac
veo'v, co KpT0re pt.ev TO7F 'Apagt rwatq, Adlrvev
8c Tros EXt'xoa" fU d!KptL/3oiv rha Ta rtoe'r-Tza
7rX v taTptKEj 7 d TiVWVo' yap icalcovpylav elvat
C 702 Tr eV t ~ rrXE'ov aa l'roTc-, olov eTr' T' 9 roXe/t/tic1V
cat Tr of doolv. SiKry 8e /Lt elvat ~rX~v 0 vov
Kai 1,peo9" obK d7r' avb' 'yap T 7z- raalv
ravTa, Ta 8' e' TO oav/j,3oXaLotI E7r' avTbp
eiaoTrY, wo-Te avexecrOal e, Ev 7Tr9 7rapa/3P
77v TlaTIrV, aXXa Kalt 7poo'eXyet, 07T 7rtCTevUTOV,
Kal ,t 8ttiKv 7rXrjpoDv 74rv 7rT0Xt. TaDra e'fv ol
PeCT' 'AXe;dvSpov o-parVao-avTre Xehovotv.
35. 'Etc88oiat 8~ Tts Kal KparepoD Vrpo Tr v
VYlqTrpa 'Ap-tuoTrdTpav drTUTroXr 7roXXA re a .Xa
'rapd8$oa Opdovca Kcal oby o.oXoyovT-a ov8evl,
Kal 8; Kaic TO' I-yXPI TOy I'yyov '7rpoeX6etv Toy
'AX4eavppov. avTOdv Te f7O-av I8lv TOV 7roTaubov
IKa! KIrT Tva E7r' avb^ Kal pey'Oo9 Kal 7TrXTOVq
ical /3dovT roppw 7rLoT6EOW? iLaXXov aj yyysx. 5OT
pev yap dP/yt-tro? Twv 0 pvr9jovevoptevwv icar0a Ta
Tpet 177re6povV, Ka'l prT avTov 'I Ivy TPITO0
SIc al TeTapTro "IO-Tprpo c Kal 6 NedXog, lcav&o
1 Trs roAhWtP.s EF, Tros WroAeprsots other MSS.

1 See 10. 4. 16, 20.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1. 34-35

that the Seres live still longer than this), and their
healthfulness, and simple diet, even though their
country has an abundance of everything. Peculiar
to them is the fact that they have a kind of Laconian
common mess,1 where they eat in public and use as
food the meat of animals taken in the chase; and
that they do not use gold or silver, although they
have mines; and that instead of slaves they use
young men in the vigour of life, as the Cretans use
the Aphamiotae and the Laconians the Helots;2
and that they make no accurate study of the sciences
except that of medicine, for they regard too much
training in some of them as wickedness; for example,
military science and the like; and that they have
no process at law except for murder and outrage, for
it is not in one's power to avoid suffering these,
whereas the content of contracts is in the power of
each man himself, so that he is required to endure
it if anyone breaks faith with him, and also to con-
sider carefully who should be trusted and not to fill
the city with lawsuits. This is the account of those
who made the expedition with Alexander.
35. But there has also been published a letter of
Craterus to his mother Aristopatra, which alleges
many other strange things and agrees with no one
else, particularly in saying that Alexander advanced
as far as the Ganges. And he says that he himself
saw the river and monsters on its banks, and a magni-
tude both of width and of depth which is remote
from credibility rather than near it. Indeed, it is
sufficiently agreed that the Ganges is the largest of
known rivers on the three continents, and after it
the Indus, and third and fourth the Ister and the
2 See 8. 5. 4 and 12. 3. 4.


crvtiwoveTatar Ta icaO' ecao-ra 8' AXot a wXX o
rept avTrov Xebovatv, ol ,Lfv 'rpItaova rTaolov
ToXXtLOrTovT 7rXadrTO o01 e tal rptov, Me/yaa-OB~y
o8, oav rpoo cal elt i'carov evpvvero-at,
/3dOo 8 e'f~roart pyIvtWJv TobvadXtl-rov.
36. 'Eri 6 7r Tf avtl3oXv o roVrov Tre cal Tr
aLXov roTaJDov1 ra HaXfl3oOpa iapva-cat, oraTaIwv
ySoi8KO IVTd p c, TO T rXaT? 8 revTeKaleKca,
Ev 'rapaXXi7Xoypd~jp aqcutXaTt, WXtvov 7repl-
3oov 'eovaav icaraTerppievov, wa re 8th T&WV
obr6v Troevewv 'rpoKicEx at Se Kcai Tdapov 4vXarci)
Te Xdptv Kal V'Troo080X T&)ov dicr 7 roXe6 ? arop-
poItwv TO 8' 08vov, dv & i] 7r6\TX aVrT?, KaXaeiaatr
Hpaa'lov?, 8tabop.'TaTov Trov ravTwvO rOv 8'
/aoatXevovTa Ev,'VLOV 8e"V2 T^? 7ToXL6e elvar,
HaXti3o8pov IKaXo/jevov sFipm T' 181 Si T7^ eK
yever"i'< ovot art, Ka9cTrep T-ov av picKOTTOV, 7rpo9
ov JKCev Meyao-O'fvr 7re/lLo0e. 'TtoDVT 86 Kal
To 7rapa TOF9 HapOvalot"' 'Ap icaKat yap KaXoDvrat
7rv7Te6, 181t 8e\ 6 piev 'Op8ily?,3 86 86 DpatdiTr, 0
8' aXXo T(.
37. 'Aplaorr 8' oolo'yeTat rraa-a 21 o "Tor'Tdvwto
7wepav" oVK d/cpttovrTat S8, atXXa 8tah 74v a votav
tal TO\v "ro"TIc/.bv XoYETat .r.avT.' .Il TOb yeov
1 After ororauoi Meineke inserts 'Epavvolda, following
Arrian, Indica 10.
2 5Be; F, Wei other MSS.
3 'Hp&687s moxz.
1 More than twelve miles.
2 About 120 feet. "According to the latest calculations,
the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or
with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 35-37

Nile; but the several details concerning it are stated
differently by different writers, some putting its
minimum breadth at thirty stadia and others even
at three, whereas Megasthenes says that when its
breadth is medium it widens even to one hundred
stadia 1 and that its least depth is twenty fathoms.2
36. It is said that Palibothra lies at the confluence
of the Ganges and the other river,3 a city eighty
stadia in length and fifteen in breadth, in the shape
of a parallelogram, and surrounded by a wooden wall
that is perforated so that arrows can be shot through
the holes; and that in front of the wall lies a trench
used both for defence and as a receptacle of the
sewage that flows from the city; and that the tribe
of people amongst whom this city is situated is
called the Prasii and is far superior to all the rest;
and that the reigning king must be surnamed after
the city, being called Palibothrus in addition to his
own family name, as, for example, King Sandro-
cottus to whom Megasthenes was sent on an em-
bassy.4 Such is also the custom among the Parthians;
for all are called Arsaces, although personally one
king is called Orodes, another Phraates, and another
something else.
37. Writers are agreed that the country as a whole
on the far side of the Hypanis is best; but they do
not describe it accurately, and because of their
ignorance and of its remoteness magnify all things

the sea, 20 m.; breadth of channel in dry season, 11 to 21 m.;
depth in dry season, 30 ft." (Holdich, in Encyc. Britannica.)
3 The Erannoboas (now the Sone), according to Groskurd
(who cites Arrian, Indica 10) and the later editors (see critical
4 See 2. 1. 9.


?l To TeparwSoraTepov* ola 7d TCrv Xpvo-wpi~VXw
Iuvp/1iKcwv Kal d wov OBplwv re Kal Av6p7rrwv
l1to,6Lpowv Ial 8vvdea'l toav r'XXaTyevwv
WC? TOw ijpaF ,uacpo/3Pov9 baa-,, irepa Kcal
8taKocoa-v ercwv 7rapaTel7 ovraq. Xeyovat e Kcal
apta-TroKpaTtIcCric va o-vratv 7roXtTerla abrTo9
~Ic 7rveraKtcr-Xtlov fPovXevUrjv avveoro-av, 'v
C 703 ecaOrov 'rape'Xec-at r7 tcowtvyo e'avra. Ical
TVypelt 8' Ev roZ IIpaTo-lov /io-Lv o Meyao-acrev7,
/eyl/o-Trov ylvealat, Xo-eS6 86 TI caKal SrXaaIoovq
Xedvrwv, SvvaTobV e', Care rCwv tpepcv wrtva,
alyo-tevov rb TerrdpapW v, r7 bto rtO-, o-ceXe Sppaad-
faevov 7,utcvov, /3itaoacr6at al eXvo-at 7rpoq
eavTov" KepicortrOIKov Se pIUelovq TWrV iey1LrAo
KvvWv, XevicobV, 7x r 70v ro rpo&rrov ToDro 8'
eZvat E'ekav (trap' dXot 68' iva~rakiv), 7a9 8S
KcepKoV pIe. ovU; 8vev 7rxeov, /6epW07rTOV9 86
ical ob KcaKorift 7repti e~Ttierer1 Kal Ka OrIdXor
XiOovs 8' oprTreaOat X\itav6dpovu, yXvicvripovq
Ocrvxv r fLeXTroo9 aXXaXov 8E r Se 8T7Xet, et
Lb'evo7rrepovL, (owarep al vWTreplSe9, Katl TOVrov
8 vVICTWp 7reTealal, oaraXay/tovf a(~/evTrav ovpwv,
TO 86e ISpW~iWv, 8taori7rovraV rTv Xpwra TOv pro
vXagae'vov" ical ao-cop7rIov; elvat 7-rTvov;, vrrep-
/3ad'ovTra, jefyeOeat-r pveorfOa 8S Kal '83evov"
elvat 86e cal Kvvas aXKcilovs, ov 'rporepov pIeliev-
Tas b Tro V, tpiv el robV 16tlvas v8oSp tcara-

1 See 2. 1. 9.
2 Apparently an imaginary creature (sometimes called ant-
lion ") with the fore-parts of a lion and the hind-parts of an
ant. Herodotus (3. 102) describes it as smaller than a dog

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 37

or make them more marvellous.1 For example, the
stories of the ants that mine gold 2 and of other
creatures, both beasts and human beings, which are
of peculiar form and in respect to certain natural
powers have undergone complete changes, as, for
example, the Seres, who, they say, are long-lived,
and prolong their lives even beyond two hundred
years. They tell also of a kind of aristocratic order
of government that was composed outright of five
thousand counsellors, each of whom furnishes the
new commonwealth with an elephant. Megasthenes
says that the largest tigers are found among the
Prasii, even nearly twice as large as lions, and so
powerful that a tame one, though being led by four
men, seized 3 a mule by the hind leg and by force
drew the mule to itself; and that the long-tailed
apes are larger than the largest dogs, are white
except their faces, which are black (the contrary is
the case elsewhere), that their tails are more than
two cubits long, and that they are very tame and not
malicious as regards attacks and thefts; and that
stones are dug up of the colour of frankincense and
sweeter than figs or honey; and that in other places
there are reptiles two cubits long with membranous
wings like bats, and that they too fly by night, dis-
charging drops of urine, or also of sweat, which
putrefy the skin of anyone who is not on his guard;
and that there are winged scorpions of surpassing
size; and that ebony is also produced; and that there
are also brave dogs, which do not let go the object
bitten till water is poured down into their nostrils;
but larger than a fox." Strabo elsewhere (16. 4. 15) refers to
"lions called ants."
8 The Greek word suggests seizing with the claws, not with
the teeth.



XpvTva* Ev'ovU; 8' bTo 7rTpovylaq 'v T, 7S Tj'yLaTI
8taTp'rpeoeat Tobls oaf0aX/uo,?, TO70 86 Kalt EK-
ri7reiv KcaTao-ye71pvat 8 ical e'ovra v7ro xcvvob
Ka Travpov, TObv 8 Taapov Kal aTrolaveFv, cpaTodv-
eUvov T70 /PyVouV, rpOTrpov A7 alfeO7lvat.
38. 'Ev SE 7Tj peiv. l'av rorabv elval, w
l6Y6v 6'7rtrXe*i A7p6oicpt'ov p~vy oiv d'rtoTelYv,
aTe IroXXv T)79 'Ataia wTrerXavr7l i'ov Kal 'Apt-
`TOTeX7 Q Se aWkreltTt, cKal7rep2 aepv ovrYwv
XerrTWV, ol; oVbev eTOXetTal er7rV]v* 'Tn 8 TW)o
avafepophevo)Vr aTI V E6'~TaoraoCriTol TItvE eliT
7pbE CavTOv i Kal olov Po0riTco1 ToD V7r epTeTovoD,
0) 7TO Xe'eKpov T700 avpov Kai' c 1 at-1pET(? TO0
at8pov Tdia 8e tcal KaO' i8aTO9 TOtavTra TLrve
elev av Uvvaptet;. TavTa pEiv oi~v pvo-oXoyL'aq
exeTam Tio? Kal T? 7rep TiWV oXovi eLvwv 7rpa-
y IaTeta9, daTe ev KceWvot; e to'Kice'7rov vl 8'
e't Ica Ta-ra rrpoaXli7rTl'ov Kcal o'a XXa T?7
'yewypalaa Ey7iY/vTpOW.
39. c(aD 8' ToV T6(V 'Iv86v 7rwX20o eI de7TTa
/Iepr 8t~ypcrOat, Kal twp6Tpov ev A TO'9 o Io-
a60fov elval Ka ra TrupA, dXaXICo'ovI 8' KaT'
aptpLov Xp"ojacrt 8' aVcroZ9, i8Ia ptz v eKcaOr
TOWb vovora9 q TOVB9 evayfo0v7a, Kiotvy 8B TobV
jSaortXea Kcaa T77v /LecydX'yr XeyoYdrvfY aiVvoov,
KaO' 'v TOoU veovU erov aTraVTe's ol tXO6'0o(0t
T7 jt3aaotXet ovXveX 0reV err 8vpa;, o 0t av avrov
1 ~thav Epitome, SiAtav other MSS.
2 DFw omit ica before iapwv.
1 This clause is obviously ironical, unless, as others suggest,
the text is corrupt.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 37-39

and that some bite so vehemently that their eyes
become distorted and sometimes actually fall out;
and that even a lion was held fast by a dog, and
also a bull, and that the bull was actually killed,
being overpowered through the dog's hold on his
nose before he could be released.
38. Megasthenes goes on to say that in the moun-
tainous country there is a River Silas on which nothing
floats; that Democritus, however, disbelieves this,
inasmuch as he had wandered over much of Asia.1
But Aristotle also disbelieves it, although there are
atmospheres so thin that no winged creature can fly
in them. Besides, certain rising vapours tend to
attract to themselves and gulp down," as it were,
whatever flies over them, as amber does with chaff
and the magnet with iron; and perhaps there might
also be natural powers of this kind in water. Now
these things border, in a way, on natural philosophy
and on the science of floating bodies, and therefore
should be investigated there; but in this treatise
I must add still the following, and whatever else is
closer to the province of geography.
39. He says, then, that the population of India is
divided into seven castes: 2 the one first in honour,
but the fewest in number, consists of the philoso-
phers; and these philosophers are used, each indi-
vidually, by people making sacrifice to the gods or
making offerings to the dead, but jointly by the
kings at the Great Synod, as it is called, at which,
at the beginning of the new year, the philosophers,
one and all, come together at the gates of the king;
and whatever each man has drawn up in writing or
2 On the caste system in India see "Caste" in Encyc.


eKaa-'ro TO9 vPTdy r ptciO 7v Tp7O-7 7i-p
everr7pav ncapr&ev K'e icat ,wv KIcal 7rept 7oXt-
Tetaq,1 7Tpof2peLt2 TOOT' elj TO /eFov o 8 v
*TplCi eevual voL' a X, VyL0ov 1 o(0TT7 aYv 8a 8~tov"
C 704 Tobv 86 caropsclaavra d' opov Kca'l rAj Icpivovaot.
40. Aevrepov 8, piepog elva T TV iT yeCOpyJyv,
o'0 rXeto-roi T elol K( ,ca neleorTaTro, ao-Tpa-
Tela Kcal a8ela T70O pyodeo-at, 7roX AL 7rpoo--
LovTeF ri'8 aXX L XpEl /L78 oXXo-eh L cotvw
TroXXUactI yoODr e To7 avTo Xpov. Kal TroTr TOrL
p E rrapaTredaXOat avpjflalvet ical 8taKiV8vevetv
Trpol; To9 7rOXe/Iovq, o poDv-V 173 oKa'rcTovaOw
dKLVSvwIV 7rpotaXov? '6XOVTe rICEIKOVS. E'crTt
1 X;Pa /3aa-tLXKi rao-a- iro-Oov 8' arTiv Tr'i
T6TapTrait EpyadovTra TjV Kap7rCv.
41. TpiTrov Trb T ov 7rotdvwv ical O7peu VTv,
olf pUvOLcF eG'eoT(t Opevetv Kacal pepiaTorpoCei v,
avea Te 7rapex~ev Kal ao-Oob evyfr (ay' 8t 8 7ro
T'iV ,yfv dXev0epo Di Or'piwv al T7v a7reppoXoywov
opveow perpovvrat Trapa To 7 f/a-trXeos aoirrov,
7rXadvrra Kal orK'rl)7VTV veflo.evot / Lov. T'r7OV
8 c Kal Xe'eavra Tp&detv OcK e7'eaTtV 8t'ry?*
/aoltKXOv 8' dicairpov vevofpto-a'at TO icKrifa, Kal
elov- avrTov eJ'Tt/ILyXTaL.
1 Kal CWv Kal p l roXv'relas, Corais and the later editors,
for Kac COwv Mal Wro ALeas.
2 vpooepes, Corais and later editors, for rpooep'pL.
3 Instead of i, w and Corais read mai.
1 Perhaps the more natural interpretation of the Greek
would be, the farmers cultivate it for wages, on condition
of receiving a fourth part of the produce," whether wages "
and "fourth part" are appositional, or "on condition of"
means, as it might, in addition to." But Diodorus Siculus

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 39-41

observed as useful with reference to the prosperity
of either fruits or living beings or concerning the
government, he brings forward in public; and he
who is thrice found false is required by law to keep
silence for life, whereas he who has proved correct
is adjudged exempt from tribute and taxes.
40. The second caste, he says, is that of the
farmers, who are not only the most numerous, but
also the most highly respected, because of their
exemption from military service and right of free-
dom in their farming; and they do not approach a
city, either because of a public disturbance or on
any other business; at any rate, he says, it often
happens that at the same time and place some are
in battle array and are in peril of their lives against
the enemy, while the farmers are ploughing or
digging without peril, the latter having the former
as defenders. The whole of the country is of royal
ownership; and the farmers cultivate it for a rental
in addition to paying a fourth part of the produce.1
41. The third caste is that of the shepherds and
hunters, who alone are permitted to hunt, to breed
cattle, and to sell or hire out beasts of burden; and
in return for freeing the land from wild beasts and
seed-picking birds, they receive proportionate allow-
ances of grain from the king, leading, as they do, a
wandering and tent-dwelling life. No private person
is permitted to keep a horse or elephant. The
possession of either is a royal privilege, and there are
men to take care of them.
(2. 40. 5) says, (" the rentals of the country they pay to the
king but apart from the rental they pay a fourth part
into the royal treasury "). Hence the translator agrees with
Tozer (Selections from Strabo, p. 317), who quotes Lassen
(Indische Alterthumskunde II, p. 721).


42. @jpa SE T7tO Ol'qplwv roVTOV Totade. Xwplov
rtXb'v o-ro TeTrdapwv p 7TreE ara8t'ov T-4ppo
7reptXapdeavreV /3a0eia yevpoio't rTfv e't-oSov
a-TevoTrdy t ye )paq eZt' eloractao-t 0Xela'; Ta',
?71tepwaraTaT 7pe6f j TerTrapag, abTro 8' ev KaXv-
P/3ots~ KcpUvrror, vroKadOlv-rat XoXC7jre-. litepa,
phv oiv o0 rpoa-t'aao-t ot ayptot, vu6icrp 8' e'
9va TrotowvTat TJv eiooSoovl e lo-IvrT v S, KIcelovoa
7r7v ea-'o8ov Xd0pa, eira Tr v "pEpov dOXIrv
Toby aXlctiOTardTOv eaio'd-yovr Sta/ItdXOvTat jrpo,
aTov's, ata ical XItp KaTrarovovvre*' 74S' 86
Ka/Pvdvowv, o0 eLBapo-('ra Tot r ov dVtOX&V Xd0pa
KaTraalvoevTE9 broSvwovaevw aa~t c ro 7 yaarp
Tro olKceov oxdyiaTro;' opPtluevoF 8' v v8o e Vrro-
8vvet 7k daypti) cal o- /U7ro8a 8eaeF* 7yevoyetvov
86 Torov, KcevovctOV TOL TlaeoLot TVr7TTEiV TO v?
o-V.roo8tOfvTav, ewv Av r'wao-trv lelN rTV 7yjv,
erro-ovTrwv (Lzoot/3ol lty/ co-t 7rpoaoXap.3tavovTat
ToV, avbyva a avrCv 7rpbs Tob 'V TWV rtOaelov
tva 86 1j2 aEcto/oevot TroUv avaf3atvetv er' avrovU
e7rtetpoDvTa; abrroelotvTro, TOZ TrpaijXXotq abVT V
aUBLiXXovrat KKxX TrotaUd, Ial KcaT auTaa Trov"
tzavTra9 7repirteaartv, wo-"' 'w d 'Xy8ovwov et'Kic
TOI 8eo-oLto, Ial a o-\v)X'ew TWV 8' d6ovrwv
a7roX iavrTe9 TOV9 7rpeo-83v7povi! A VeWTCpov T r70
Xpeia; TOiW Xotoro~v a7radovo-tv el To19 -TaO-
1poi, 84a-av7-e 86 To? 70 jBv Thord'8aI 7rp1o JX,-
Xov?, TOV? Se axve'va 7rpo icKtova e1 reTr7riyoTa,
C 705 8aydtovo-t XtL'y 7Tveta XXdy KaXdca tov ical rda?
dva\api/3cdvovo-t" /teT be TavGa "ret9apXeyv 8t-

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1. 42

42. The chase of the elephant is conducted as
follows: they dig a deep ditch round a treeless tract
about four or five stadia in circuit and bridge the
entrance with a very narrow bridge; and then, letting
loose into the enclosure three or four of their tamest
females, they themselves lie in wait under cover in
hidden huts. Now the wild elephants do not
approach by day, but they make the entrance one
by one at night; and when they have entered, the
men close the entrance secretly; and then, leading
the most courageous of their tame combatants into
the enclosure, they fight it out with the wild
elephants, at the same time wearing them down also
by starvation; and, once the animals are worn out,
the boldest of the riders secretly dismount and each
creeps under the belly of his own riding-elephant,
and then, starting from here, creeps under the wild
elephant and binds his feet together; and when this
is done, they command the tamed elephants to beat
those whose feet have been bound until they fall to
the ground; and when they fall, the men fasten
their necks to those of the tamed elephants with
thongs of raw ox-hide; and in order that the wild
elephants, when they shake those who are attempting
to mount them, may not shake them off, the men
make incisions round their necks and put the thongs
round at these incisions, so that through pain they
yield to their bonds and keep quiet. Of the elephants
captured,- they reject those that are too old or too
young for service and lead away the rest to the stalls;
and then, having tied their feet to one another and
their necks to a firmly planted pillar, they subdue
them by hunger; and then they restore them with
green cane and grass. After this the elephants are


Sado/coval, ToV'9 fev 81ta XAyov, Troibe 8 u I6eXo-jp
TMt Kal TV/LTravico-yic Kr7Xovre6T ordavtiot ol
8vr-Tadoa-evroto cov-er yap Sda'cevTra, rrpawo' Kca
/epOap, worT E'yy/V elvat Xo'yi ol 1 Ka
falbiovi 7TOU ivLdtoXouv~ e TOtS adywot 7reVoUoTa
aveX6olevoit ,Ucovacv 6ec TrJ LdXIE7, roVb 2 ,63
vbro8vVray IeraLTa rov rrpoa0lwv 'roSv ,rr-epua-
Xo6fevot 8teocwrooav 7rTOv e XOPTroj6pwv ical 8ta-
o-iAKcwv ei rtva 7rapa Ovpolv a7rTreK vav, oirwT
ernrro9oDrtv, Ciot V'r' vr' avia9 care xe0at rpof';,
eUT 8' Cre cal a7rrocapTepev.
43. BtRPd'ovrat 8c$ ical r-iTrov'Ov, cb> "L'Trot,
r7V eapo0 udXIa-Ta Ko atpbo 8' 'arT 7'T puev alppevt,
eTretial o'o-Tpp, KaTca 7Tra /caal dapta~v Tore
8 7 Kal Xl'ov4 T1 8ta Tr)d atvarrvofi avi r tv, 7v
XetL4 raph TOV? IpOTapr ova Tra 8o O6rXeLat<9,
OTav o aVTro OVTO? 7ropog avey/w( T YarX .
KVOUVL0 8' TOr? ,ev 7rXE1tcTOVU ; OKICTCKaSeK/a prWva?,
Xa^l'o-Tov? S' 'cacaiecKa' T7pefs 8' i' UT)riP k
e'Tr i ^ot, 8' oaov /taRpo/3t(TraTOt avOppwrrot ot
vroXXoi, Tr? 6 caat e'rri SitaKiooa 8taTelvovo-iv
'rfn' roXz'voo-ot 86 Kca 8vo-aiTO. A/co? 8e rrpo'
&o0aXLlav /ev po6etov ydXa 7rpoarKchXv/vov,
TOFS WrXeBlrTTO 8 e Twov vooprI arTCV a6 /eXa, olvof
TrrIVOlVOS, Tpavjaot OTO o piev 3oTvUpov
1 Instead of of B8, moz and Corais read Trzvs ydp.
SInstead of roVs, moz and Tzschucke read oi.
3 Before blrovras Dhimoz insert Kat.
4 Instead of XEt, F and Meineke read tayrXt.

1 The so-called "must (frenzied male) elephant discharges
an abundance of dark oily matter from two pores in the
forehead (see Elephant" in Encyc. Britannica). True,

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 42-43

taught to obey commands, some through words of
command and others through being charmed by
tunes and drum-beating. Those that are hard to
tame are rare; for by nature the elephant is of a
mild and gentle disposition, so that it is close to a
rational animal; and some elephants have even
taken up their riders who had fallen from loss of blood
in the fight and carried them safely out of the battle,
while others have fought for, and rescued, those who
had crept between their fore-legs. And if in anger
they have killed one of their feeders or masters,
they yearn after him so strongly that through grief
they abstain from food and sometimes even starve
themselves to death.
43. They copulate and bear young like horses,
mostly in the spring. It is breeding-time for the
male when he is seized with frenzy and becomes
ferocious; at that time he discharges a kind of fatty
matter through the breathing-hole which he has
beside his temples.' And it is breeding-time for the
females when this same passage is open. They are
pregnant eighteen months at the most and sixteen
at the least; and the mother nurses her young six
years. Most of them live as long as very long-lived
human beings, and some continue to live even to
two hundred years, although they are subject to
many diseases and are hard to cure. A remedy for
eye diseases is to bathe the eyes with cow's milk;
but for most diseases they are given dark wine to
drink; and, in the case of wounds, melted butter
on occasion male elephants get into the stage called musth,
the symptoms of which, and possibly the cause, are certain
head glands. Musth has no connection with sex, although
this is commonly thought to be the case" (Major A. W.
Smith, Atlantic Monthly, November 1928, p. 632).


(4'yet yap ra o-at84pta), T-A 8' AKrc uapiv betaIt
Wrvpt Jaiv. 'Ovy7ricpIro S8 Ka8 l o ; TplaKoaIwv
E&Wo yv ( 7ota, arrdvOov 8i Kal '( ? 7revra/VoOaiv,
KcpariTtrovT 8' elvatr ept TA 8taioaoa er'l, cv't-
artceaoat Se 8ecaertav. peCiovv Se TCov Atl3vciov
Kial EppwGoevearepov' ; ~elvoJ Oe eTpce T ical dcXXov
Trat oyv 7rpoo/30 o-citv 7radrE e Kalatpetlv tcal
86vSpa avaa'wrav rpoppita, 8cavisoratpevovv E
rov70i, O7rsr ov; r78aS. NeapXor & ical 7roSd'ypa;
Ev TaF; 04pat' rTieaOat Ka Tca rvaq auvva8pfiov;
r7jal, ovveXavvea-Oa 8' Vro TWY rtOaaw v TOV;
ayplov eti TaVrav;, KpeIrTovwv Tovv Kal 'vtLO-
xovueavov. oV rr 8' etirao-e vrovs elvai, crre
Ical XLdcev e'rtl o-Ko7YTOv IuavO'vew ial '7rXot?
XpaOatr vev re KfacXXXi ra: /.EyLcOrTO re voti-
ecaat Kicrjta eXeCdvrwv appta' dyeaOat 8' wbro
Tvy r1 ( t2 \ca Ka cajXov"' yvvaila 8' E;G8octf/ev,
el Xadfot' rapa epaarov .86ipov e 6e'avra. orTov
6 Xovyo ov'X o61oXoye 7T 0jo-avrt povwv 3 ao-at-
XCov elvat /crT a I'rrov Icai eeXCavra.4
44. TSwv 86e vpptLicOwv rWo Xpvo-wpvXwv 8epPjiara
18elv L7y0tv oV5ro? rap8aXeat olpoLa. Meyaacoevv
C 706 SA -repi rOv lvp~u cKwv orw r roaly, ofI ev AepE8ats,
e'Svet PteyaXy rwv 7rpo-eywv ical opeaivov 'Iv v,
opo7reLtov eC77l rptPyXXLWv rTrw ToV ,cKVKOV o-ra-
I Cvydv CDFh, vCuy@ other MSS.
2 &s, Jones inserts from conj. of Tzschucke and Groskurd;
Corais emends Kal iaEfiovs to &XaAivovs (" without bridles ");
Kramer and Meineke merely place an asterisk before the two
3 ydvwv F, ipvov other MSS.
oros . ..Xavra, omitted by moz, is probably a,

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 43-44

is applied to them (for it draws out the bits of
iron), while ulcers are poulticed with swine's flesh.
Onesicritus says that they live as long as three
hundred years and in rare cases even as long as five
hundred; but that they are most powerful when
about two hundred years of age, and that females
are pregnant for a period of ten years. And both
he and others state that they are larger and stronger
than the Libyan elephants; at any rate, standing
up on their hind feet, they tear down battlements
and pull up trees by the roots by means of the
proboscis. Nearchus says that in the hunt for them
foot-traps also are put at places where tracks meet,
and that the wild elephants are driven together into
these by the tamed ones, which latter are stronger and
guided by riders; and that they are so easy to tame
that they learn to throw stones at a mark and to
use weapons; and that they are excellent swimmers;
and that a chariot drawn by elephants is considered
a very great possession, and that they are driven
under yoke like camels; and that a woman is
highly honoured if she receives an elephant as a gift
from a lover. But this statement is not in agree-
ment with that of the man who said that horse and
elephant were possessed by kings alone.2
44. Nearchus says that the skins of gold-mining
ants are like those of leopards. But Megasthenes
speaks of these ants as follows: that among the
Derdae, a large tribe of Indians living towards the
east and in the mountains, there is a plateau approxi-
mately three thousand stadia in circuit, and that

1 On this clause see critical note
2 41 above.


8'ovW vTickfeijevv SC TOTrO ) pvUWpvEL0v), 01
[e'TaXXeuOvTe9 eZLv ivp~irce, Olpla' a!XEwreKwv
obV 'dXTTo, TaXO '7rep~vWs ovra /calt vra 2
arTo O~5pa" opvT7ret 3 XILCtvt 77v yTjv, cT- pevet
Te Vrpo TO oaTrotplots, KaOd7rep0 ol dcudXaK'e~
*'rflyia 8' earo Xpvwaov utttpasq lro'ew 8etolevov*
0ro0' BTro0'vyLotl /erIao'tv o 7rXrwhyna Xwpot XAdpa"
Oavepwo yAp 8tadXovwrat Kcal 8Udicovo-et ceviov-
Ta%, iKa'TaXaS3vTreq e StaXp&Wvrat /cal abTobv
Kal T b7ro0v/ta' 7rp? &e Tb Xa7ev Kpda
Opera Tporeiao-c KaTa t eprl, 7reprLarao-Ofevwv
8' dvatpoivvrat TO *l^jypua icatl roD TYvOVTo
TOeZ epropoit apPyov 8taTl0evTaL, XOVvevI OVL

45. 'Erwe6 8' Iv TD 7rept' rv TglpevTwov Xohy Ial
7rep TWV rlpIv evfrj-ryLev, 0v re MeyaaOe'v];
e 7re Kal laXXo, 'rpoo'e'T~ov /acal Tava. 6 /tev
lyap NeapXo TOv TCOv JpTrerT&v Oavc deet rXGOov0
Ica Tiv IcaKtav davacevyeiv yap dic Trv rerP6lw
elt Ta KIcaTrotai Ta'r 8taXavOavovaap ev Talf
ertKX/vaer't Ial 7rXypov Trov; oit'covur S 8
TOVTO Ka cal b*7X' rrotefo-Oat TA XXtva%, e'o"r
8' o're Kal dCoi'KelOat -7rXeovaa-dv'rwv' el 8E & ]
T WO 7Xb 7r0T w'ovX q v'rb 7T& Ov b8a Ir SteiOeltpeTo,
Kav cpl7uLrOrivat TIWv Xo'pav. Kal T7'v pIKpoTrrTa
8' avTwov eltva XaXe7rrv icalt Tv vrepr/3oX\v 70o
I/eEyeOo, T7 ptEv 81ta TO 8vaUovXaKTrov, T7v Se S'
1 O7pia, Kramer and later editors, for BOnpLv.
2 'Xorva Kal (Ca a, Kramer and later editors, for XovrEs
3 OpVTTrovL Eh.
4 Owpeaovas E, drwrdAaKes Xylander and other editors
before Kramer.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 44-45

below it are gold mines, of which the miners are
ants, animals that are no smaller than foxes, are
surpassingly swift, and live on the prey they catch.
They dig holes in winter and heap up the earth at
the mouths of the holes, like moles; 1 and the gold-
dust requires but little smelting. The neighboring
peoples go after it on beasts of burden by stealth,
for if they go openly the ants fight it out with them
and pursue them when they flee, and then, having
overtaken them, exterminate both them and their
beasts; but to escape being seen by the ants, the
people lay out pieces of flesh of wild beasts at
-different places, and when the ants are drawn away
from around the holes, the people take up the gold-
dust and, not knowing how to smelt it, dispose of it
unwrought to traders at any price it will fetch.
45. But since, in my account of the hunters and
of the wild beasts, I have mentioned what both
Megasthenes and others have said, I must go on to
add the following. Nearchus wonders at the number
of the reptiles and their viciousness, for he says that
at the time of the inundations they flee up from the
plains into the settlements that escape the inunda-
tions, and fill the houses; and that on this account,
accordingly, the inhabitants not only make their
beds high, but sometimes even move out of their
houses when infested by too many of them; and that
if the greater part of the multitude of reptiles were
not destroyed by the waters, the country would be
depopulated; and that the smallness of some of
them is troublesome as well as the huge size of others,
the small ones because it is difficult to guard against
them, and the huge ones because of their strength,
1 A species of the Spalacidae.


loa-vv, 7r ov al EicKaLSKa'iTr l et' XL'8va; opaFat.
edrw8obv 8S 7reptIottdV laSat re7rrTEV/evYovs,
SKat elvat aoXea6v 7r 1j6vpv TaVTiv laTptKLcv' jV8
eAp voo-ovu devat roXXa Stah Tiv Xhi7roTa 'Tr
8taairrT1 Kail T7v owvlav' elt 8 yEoevroI 1aaoat
ToW9 oobt(o-rTa. 'Aptro-683ovXo3 86B TvV OpvXov-
pevwv jpe7ye6ov obs8e iSe v riwv, egtovav 86 povov
evea 7rqX)oV Kal o~TmSa~,v;. ical ILueZ 8' ev
Aly6trTip K01tao/ elTav eICElev T1)XtKa6Trv 'WC0;
e '8opev. Ixets S8 roXXo' (fv qt roXh b dedroV
Kcat daowrrSa, aecopTrov S' Lue7ydXov;, ov8Ev Se
TO6TOWV ovTWe doS'Xv 6o1 Ta Xe7T9a o' eJoia, ov
{eelo a-Tralatailaov" eBplo-cearat 7yp dv Ko-cyvatF,
ev aKceveatv, ev 9ptiLyoL'1 7KcepvuptIeva, ToWV S
rXiy/e'vTav alpoppoeav dic ravr?'9 ropov ier
'rw8vvia", et7re7a avroOvrjaKcev, el at ?Soliaoet
TL EVO v' T7v Se /3poj9etav paqlav elvat &ah aiv
C 707 aperTv Tiv 'IvStLKv p(o ical cfrappicKov. IpoKo-
SelXooV TE o6Te wroXXob oU e T3Xa'rTIKTobv v9ppO-
7rrwV ev T! 'Iv8, 0atV eIplao-cearOat, Kal Tah aiXa
8e a TT"Ta 7rXeZTa Ta avd a'rep dv r& NeLXB
yevvaoOat ?rXl7v t'77rov 'oraLov. 'Ovat.icptro'
e ical. 7TOVT0 v frJtL ye/vvirdaat. To4V Eic
OaXadTT7rr] ~I7itV' 'ApTrdT"ovXo0 ely /.Ev T6v
NeiXov atvaTrp~extv fpj'v ,Ow Oplacr ; Kcal Kea-
TrpwO, cal 8eXfivov 8t St TO' IpoKoSelXov, ev
1 Instead of Opvy-yo7s, CDEFhisw read Optois (" rushes ");
x reads Opryyylos, and Corais Opstyors.
1 Or baggage." 2 See critical note.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 45

inasmuch as vipers even sixteen cubits long are to be
seen; and that charmers go around who are believed
to cure the wounds; and that this is almost the only
art of medicine, for the people do not have many
diseases on account of the simplicity of their diet
and their abstinence from wine; but that if diseases
arise, they are cured by the Wise Men. But Aristo-
bulus says that he saw none of the animals of the
huge size that are everywhere talked about, except
a viper nine cubits and one span long. And I myself
saw one of about the same size in Aegypt that had
been brought from India. He says that you have
many much smaller vipers, and asps, and large
scorpions, but that none of these is so troublesome
as the slender little snakes that are no more than a
span long, for they are found hidden in tents, in
vessels,' and in hedges 2; and that persons bitten
by them bleed from every pore with anguish, and
then die unless they receive aid immediately; but
that aid is easy because of the virtue of the Indian
roots and drugs. He says further that crocodiles,
neither numerous nor harmful to man, are to be
found in the Indus, and also that most of the other
animals are the same as those which are found in
the Nile except the hippopotamus. Onesicritus, how-
ever, says that this animal too is found in India. And
Aristobulus says that on account of the crocodiles
no sea-fish swim up into the Nile except the thrissa,3
the cestreus,4 and the dolphin,5 but that there is a

3 Apparently of the genus Trichiuridae (cutlass fish), or
else Engraulidae (small herring-like fish used for pickling and
4 Apparently of the genus Mugilidae (grey mullets).
4 The dolphin, however, is a mammal, not a fish.


86 r& 'Jro 7rX9j0o' TvO 8e iKaptloyv r T IuE
fJicpag fjeXpt opou'1 avaOepv, Ta 8'e /Itey/aXaq
peXPt TCo ao-vy~ 3o v roV Te T 'Ivoi Ka 6rov
'Alceolvov. 7rep' pt16v ov TCOV OnplOwv roo-aVra
Xe'yerat' e'ravtovrTe' e7rl 'v Meaya- rvr
Xe'ycowev Tat E 7s, &v aTreXLsro/,ev.
46. MeTa y7p TOU 6ljpevTarF Kal Trob; 'roe'vag
TETapTrov rnjle elvat 1e'pov 7ov0e Jpyafopevovf
Ta r eYva Kical Tro1 IKca7rr)Ltcovo; Kat oIl 9 a7ro 7TO
Orwa'rov 1 epyaoala- ov ol jev 6pov reXoDO- Ka'c
Xetrovpylaav 7rapexovrat TaIcrdT, ro? 8 orrXo7oL-
oZ xKal vav7r?7'yozit ptiOo Kal 7pofat 7raph
/ao-aLeto e'KKEc TaL" jtt6v "yap pyiov-rat
vrapexe 8Ca Ta Ip v 6'7rXa rol or-parTtcTatg o
a'rpaTro70fXa, Ta? 8U vai3 /fjtoaoD T-ros 7rXeovotv 6
vavapxo iceal TOt 7ro6poIt.
47. IIeltrr ovT 8' 2 a't Tb TO rOv 7roXe~urrTov, ot
Tov aiXXoo v p v O v aVXOXl icat ToroTt' o l o;'
E '-T, etc T70D 3aoLticov 8tatrOulo.evOt, WOUTe Ta
e6o8ovr, b' rav ? Xpela, TaXyoe' TrotelfOai, 7rXn v
r7Cv W(o -LLCIdTWV I786v a'XXo icofIIovTag r-ap
48. "EI/rC 8' E10'4 01o .opot' Toroi;e 8' E7ror-
Tevetv 8e8o07a Ta urpaT-opreva Kal avayye'Xf.ew
Xcdpa 7T /3ao-tXae, cvvepyov's 7notov~tLevot Ta
eTaLpag, To0L9 Iv Cv Tny roet ra e'v 'r 7roXet,
T70 86 d V cTrpaToTreOdw Tra avTrot" ca0a'OTavTat
8' ot 'aptaro TO at 7trt-ToTa Tt.
1 For opovs, Groskurd conj. 7Tv oprv, Corais Opwav.
2 8', before arl, Meineke inserts. 3 n z, eIr other MSS.

1 Of the genus Caridea (shrimp, prawns, and the like).

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 45-48

large number of different fish in the Indus. Of the
carides,l the small ones swim up the Indus only as
far as a mountain,2 but the large ones as far as the
confluence of the Indus and the Acesines. So much,
then, is reported about the wild animals. Let me
now return to Megasthenes and continue his account
from the point where I left off.
46. After the hunters and the shepherds, he says,
follows the fourth caste-the artisans, the tradesmen,
and the day-labourers; and of these, some pay
tribute to the state and render services prescribed
by the state, whereas the armour-makers and ship-
builders receive wages and provisions, at a published
scale, from the king, for these work for him alone;
and arms are furnished the soldiers by the com-
mander-in-chief, whereas the ships are let out for
hire to sailors and merchants by the admiral.
47. The fifth caste is that of the warriors, who,
when they are not in service, spend their lives in
idleness and at drinking-bouts, being maintained at
the expense of the royal treasury; so that they make
their expeditions quickly when need arises, since
they bring nothing else of their own but their bodies.
48. The sixth is that of the inspectors,3 to whom
it is given to inspect what is being done and report
secretly to the king, using the courtesans as col-
leagues, the city inspectors using the city courtesans
and the camp inspectors the camp courtesans; but
the best and most trustworthy men are appointed to
this office.
2 "A mountain" is unintelligible. The only plausible
emendations yield "the mountains or the Uri (a people
mentioned by Pliny 6. 20, 23). See critical note.
3 i.e. of political and military officials.


49. "ET3o0uot 8' ot aZlp3ovXot KCa' a-vvepot 7ro
a/3atXe'w, f wv Ta ApXela Kal 8tcaaTrirpa Kal 17
86tolrt t'; 7yo- wv owv. oviK eT'o 8 ov'Te yayeiv Et
aXxov (yevov; ohT' drnrij eva oT' epyaatav
iperaXapLfdvetv a\XXrlv dj a XX?, ob Se rXeovi
fIeTaxeitpl ecOa 7TO aTv;7, 7rX?'v el TWV 4tXo-
odOcwv rt'; e' decaaOat yap roDrov S6' Ape7iv.
50. T&v S' apxovrwv ol .p elatt ayopavopot,
ol 8' daCvvoIJ.o, ol 8' enr Tv a~parurvTt cWT W o
!a6v 7TroTatov9 efep adov1rat KCa avate7Tpovart 'riv
yrjv, '; Jv AlyTrrTy, Kail T'a" KXeiaTa< 8cpvya's,
a"' wO eli Tc"a X6Teela-; TapuevefTa TO vi68p,
e7TIoKc7TrovIV, 07TW; c' 1'97a; '*rao-iv 7 rw) v8a'r0v
C 708 'rapeli Xpot';. ol 8' aV'ro' Kal Tr'v 077pevrwov
e7rtt,/X0oVTUra Kat TIa' Kal KcOXLde'; e it KVJcptot
roZ'; 4'ratloV' Kaal fopoXoyoIort 8e Kal Taq re'XPa;
TA, 7Tepi T7v 'Yi jErtLPX/37rovcrtv, bXorTOLwv,
reicrovwv, xa-K'wv ; LerTaXXev(rwv* Soo8rotooal 6s
KalKaa7ra 8eKa Trird8a CrT Xqrv rtOEaot, Tra9
eicrpoTra; Kaa 7ra 6aoalr ara 687Xovaav.
51. 01O da'Trvvdot Cei6 irevdTSay 8q'prTvar
KaL of LEPv ra 7TUtovpytKa KOC7Trovrtv, ol 86
evoBoxovoatv Kal yap Kcaraywyi;a vetiovat Kal
r70o p/loij ; rapaKoXovOovort, '7rap68povq 867vTe,
Kal 7Tpowrietrovo-r v 71 avTov; j ra Xprjpara Twv

SThe city commissioners (daTevo[.ot) at Athens (ten in
number) had charge of the police, the streets, and the public
2 i.e. the market commissioners.
3 i.e. when the inundations destroyed the landmarks.
SSee 40 above.

GEOGRAPHY, 15..1. 49-51

49. The seventh is that of the advisers and coun-
cillors of the king, who hold the chief offices of state,
the judgeships, and the administration of every-
thing. It is not legal for a man either to marry a
wife from another caste or to change one's pursuit
or work from one to another; nor yet for the same
man to engage in several, except in case he should
be one of the philosophers, for, Megasthenes says,
the philosopher is permitted to do so on account of
his superiority.
50. Of the officials, some are market commissioners,
others are city commissioners,1 and others are in
charge of the soldiers. Among these, the first 2 keep
the rivers improved and the land remeasured,3 as
in Aegypt, and inspect the closed canals from which
the water is distributed into the conduits, in order
that all may have an equal use of it. The same men
also have charge of the hunters and are authorized
to reward or punish those who deserve either. They
also collect the taxes 4 and superintend the crafts
connected with the land-those of wood-cutters,
carpenters, workers in brass, and miners. And they
make roads, and at every ten stadia place pillars
showing the by-roads and the distances.
51. The city commissioners are divided into six
groups of five each. One group looks after the arts
of the handicraftsmen. Another group entertains
strangers, for they assign them lodgings, follow
closely their behaviour, giving them attendants,5
and either escort them forth or forward the prop-
erty 6 of those who die; and they take care of
5 i.e. partly as advisers, partly as spies (Tozer, op. cit.,
p. 320).
i.e. to their relatives.


a7rolavovTwvo, voao'VTov rte ETLt/ieXoDurat Kcal
aTroOavPora Od' rTovat. opiTOt 8' ela-lv, of Ta
/yevr'el ical Oavadrov Ta Crciovoal, 7ro're Kcal 7rw,
ToW 7re 6paOv Xdp V Kal oTrTrS JL) aavel, elev
at K~cpetTov Kaca Xeipovw yovai Kca Odva'rot.
TrTapTro 8' 1 0' 7repb Ta, /carTXelag Kcal f/eTa-
/3odXa; otf pErpWoYv ieXe /cal TW rov palav, oT7rw
a,7T0 avaa-ro7pov rwXaoiro. OViC a'-c o 8 rXc'wem Tor
aVrTOv /eTra3dXXeao-at, 7rXlv el 8tTrob? v'rorvTeXo'l
jdpovw. 7re/fT7rot 8' oi vrpoeCaor~Te T&~o S8Vtiovp-
,yovterwv Kalt ra XovVT' Tre av TaO7t crva-Oarpov,
Xwpilt P TI L a taitva, Xwpig 8 ra T 7raXata" i' 7
AiIYvvVirre Se 7ldia. icTOIt 8 Kcal Toraiot ol Tag
SecaTras E'cX'yovrE;i 7rjV wXov/UievWV Oavaro 86\
T7 KXce'avr-t To TTeXo. 181a /zev ecao-rot TaV7ra,
KcoLvY S' e7rtiLeXAofTai TrVa Te 11So icalv Kai
7rotXtitcwv Kal iT)- TOVZ iStioo-LO v 67rto-tcevZ9,
Tt/xV 2 T ae Kal t ayopat ical Xt/cvwv cal lepv.
52. MeTr Se Tov; darvvod'jove 7pirpiT7 eC
avvapxla 7 7rep Ta UTpartMi)ua, Kcal acirTv Ta
'revrdoatv aXy Stpto-p'nCv'06' wv Trfv fev / tera
T70 vavdpxov TarTrovo-, Tr v S& ~UETa TO- EtL 7TWV
foi c&vy evycuv, St' &v /pyava Kco/ieirat cal
Tpo j\ abroZv re tc cal Ki c verc tcal Ta i-aXa TO
Xpja-ija 7i? aTrpar-ta. oVTOI SE Kal TroV' Sta-
1 8', before of, Meineke inserts.
2 TIjY, Meineke (following conj. of Kramer), emends to

1 i.e. "the stamp impressed on weights and measures,"
which were tested every six months "(Tozer, op. cit., p. 320,
quoting Lassen, op. cit., II. p. 572).

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 51-52

them when they are sick and bury them when they
die. The third group is that of those who scrutinize
births and deaths, when and how they take place,
both for the sake of taxes and in order that births
and deaths, whether better or worse, may not be
unknown. The fourth group is that which has to
do with sales and barter; and these look after
measures and the fruits of the season, that the latter
may be sold by stamp.' But the same man cannot
barter more than one thing without paying double
taxes. The fifth group is that of those who have
charge of the works made by artisans and sell these
by stamp, the new apart from the old; and the man
who mixes them is fined. The sixth and last group
is that of those who collect a tenth part of the price
of the things sold; and death is the penalty for the
man who steals.2 These are the special duties per-
formed by each group, but they all take care jointly
of matters both private and public, and of the
repairs of public works, of prices,2 market-places,
harbours, and temples.
52. After the city commissioners there is a third
joint administration, in charge of military affairs,
which is also divided into six groups of five each.
Of these groups, one is stationed with the admiral;
another with the man in charge of the ox-teams, by
which are transported instruments of war and food
for both man and beast and all other requisites of
the army. These also furnish the menials, I mean
2 i.e. the taxpayer who cheats the government.
3 Meineke emends the Greek word for prices "to that for
" walls (see critical note), thus making "walls, market-
places, harbours, and temples in apposition with public


icVovo 7rapeXovar, Tv/w7avr-T', Ico8wvo0dpovp ,
e T Se Kal t77roKOlctovs cKal jlXavorrotobv Kal To70
ToVTrw vT7r7peTav' eCrkf17rovaU Te rpo8 I K;8wvaq
TOv0 XopToXoyov9, TLuji Kal KOdXa'et To axoO
cKaTraacevaot Ievo KaT T"v da'aXetav. 7pplTOt 8e
elatv ol Trwov 7reCrv ETrieXoJA'evor TETrapTrot ol
T(WV ITI7rTor' wrerI7rotL apUPa'Trv eTO Cr 8' EXe-
advroWv. /3aCnrtXtKo re TaOo't u c Kal 7r7rot K'al
0 709 GOploti, 3aaOtXrKOYv e Kal orrXo)vXadxctov "rapa-
~iwaOt yap 6 OrpaTt(r)T 71TV Te UKEV3c V el; TO
d7rXo)vXKictov Kxa TO'V 'r7r'ov et TOV 17mOva Kal
TOb O1plov d~/oiw'L XpwoTai 8' daXaXiv)rot;. a
8' aptara ev Tral 68oZ0 836e e XKovUIy, ol 8S
Tirrot (ro op/3eii dIayovTat Tro fu rapeJt7rr-
7rpauaat Ta o-ce'Xl, /yq8 TO 7rpo'vtuov aTvrv
TO v7ro TOL' ap/.paatyv ap/3Xve'rat. Svo 8' elat-
Crri T~ ap/Lan 7rapa/a.rat 7pO. rT ?vo'yP 6 S0
7ro0 Aef avTro vioXoI reTrapro%, Tpel9 8' ol air'
avrov TofevovTrv.
53. EtTelXes ac Kara Tv Slarav'Ivolt 7rdvreq;,
Ua.XXov 8' Cv Tat' a-Tparelatv" obS' Y'XXo rrTeprtT
XaPpova-c 8toIrep evlcoTiovat. TrXeTiel7 8' eKeXEL-
pta rrep Ta, C KXo7ard' yevo'pevof Iyovv eDv T
2avapoicirrov a-paTrow7r i 0o-lv o Meyaacr'vY,;,
TerrapaKOVTa ptvptdSov rrXj0ovv 1pvtpvov, Va oe-
palav fpjepav ie~ Ey avveypfva KXEi'ciara 7rXetovwv
8j taKaocr-v )paXpowv icta, Adypdafots Kal TaTra
voYtot? XpwMIevot?. oB/' 'yap 7patIpara elS~lvat
1 yev ytcvos, Tzschucke and later editors, for yevoz'Povs.
I i.e. the elephants. 2 i.e. of royal ownership.
3 i.e. before they are used in battle.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 52-53

drum-beaters, gong-carriers, as also grooms and
machinists and their assistants; and they send forth
the foragers to the sound of bells, and effect speed
and safety by means of reward and punishment.
The third group consists of those in charge of the
infantry; the fourth, of those in charge of the horses;
the fifth, of those in charge of the chariots; and the
sixth, of those in charge of the elephants. The stalls
for both horses and beasts 1 are royal,2 and the
armoury is also royal; for the soldier returns the
equipment to the armoury, the horse to the royal
horse-stable, and likewise the beast; and they use
them without bridles. The chariots are drawn on
the march by oxen; but the horses are led by halter,
in order that their legs may not be chafed by harness,
and also that the spirit they have when drawing
chariots may not be dulled.3 There are two com-
batants in each chariot in addition to the charioteer;
but the elephant carries four persons, the driver and
three bowmen, and these three shoot arrows from
the elephant's back.
53. All Indians live a simple life, and especially
when they are on expeditions; and neither do they
enjoy useless disturbances; and on this account they
behave in an orderly manner. But their greatest
self-restraint pertains to theft; at any rate, Megas-
thenes says that when he was in the camp of
Sandrocottus, although the number in camp was
forty thousand, he on no day saw reports of stolen
articles that were worth more than two hundred
drachmae; and that too among a people who use
unwritten laws only. For, he continues, they have
no knowledge of written letters,4 and regulate every
SBut cf. 67 (below).


aVTrov;, dXX' 7rrob yrjf Ka7FCa a L8toieufOat"
ev7rpayelv1 8' S0io;w 8ta Trv d'nrXOTrTra ical TV
erv etxeav* olv6v re ryap ob 7rivetv, dXX' E' Ovaoiatq
PtOVov, rrlvetv 8' a7r' Opv~ vrI v pT KpILOWv O'vvt-
e'vara" Kai aoTtra 8e TO rr7-eov 6opv'av elvat
por 4~jr7v. ical ev TotS vo/tot 8 ical a-v~/3oXai'ot'
ri7v darrX6'Tr\ a e'dlXe -Oalt C 70C T roXv&Siovq
edva T ob're yap vTroOjic1, 2 ov7e 7rapaicaTraljicr'
etvat GiKaw, ovbS p'aprTpwv obSe aopayyitwv av'rot
Sev, dXXa rt1'rreew 7rapa/3aXhodOivovvi Kal r
oicoi 'TO 7r r rXeov A(povpetv. TaDTa u' 8'
a o poviKt, TaXXa ob8' 3 v rt? atoSe3at-ro'
To pUovovqv Statr'ti-Oat del Ta o u T plav elvat
7rra-cv wpav KOtIVV 8einrvov TE Kal apiaOTov, dAX'
87TW O eKci`rw ,IXov rr pwS yap rOv KOtvwrVIKcv ical
Troy roX0nKov /3tov eKeleCo icpeLTrov.
54. Pvlavao-iwv4 Se f' td aaTa 7Tpitiv oc s-
,adovas ical aXX9)q Kalt 3aa -KVTaXrl8o v jE3evivwv
Xeiwv 'otuaX[lov'Tat rT a'coptara. ITa\l r a Kal
al TraalK ical ytcpa Xa')/ara. v7revavrT l Se Ty
adXXy XtrT6TrTL KOO-,JODvTa. XPvo-o0poac-t yap
Ka StaXle0 icooa/u Xpyp rat a-tvSova' rTe 0opovr-v
ebavOeiZ ical o-Ktd8ta avTlroq eTreTav TbO yap
KiXdkXO rTt/LJovrT dCKcoDvfiv ocra iaXXwtoret TjV
lfrtv. aX40eitav e o/tOlS ical dperijv aro-
GXOvra StOrrep obvSe 7Ty tiia TW(v yepOV'rT
Trpovopiav StSoaaLv, av tr Kca T~W c/poveV TrXeo-
1 e pay,!ie F, (0 rpd*x'rT other MSS.
2 bro8iKis, Tyrwhitt and later editors, for i rt08-'s.
s Instead of obS', mxz and Corais and Meineke read ov.c.
I ruotvaciuv E, rupvdowov other MSS. ; so Corais and

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 53-54

single thing from memory; but still they fare happily,
because of their simplicity and their frugality; and
indeed they do not drink wine, except at sacrifices,
but drink a beverage which they make from rice
instead of barley; 1 and also that their food consists
for the most part of rice porridge; and their sim-
plicity is also proven in their laws and contracts,
which arises from the fact that they are not litigious;
for they do not have lawsuits over either pledges or
deposits, or have need of witnesses or seals, but
trust persons with whom they stake their interests;
and further, they generally leave unguarded what
they have at their homes. Now these things tend
to sobriety; but no man could approve those other
habits of theirs-of always eating alone and of not
having one common hour for all for dinner and
breakfast instead of eating as each one likes; for
eating in the other way is more conducive to a social
and civic life.
54. For exercise they approve most of all of rub-
bing; and, among other ways, they smooth out their
bodies through means of smooth sticks of ebony.
Their funerals are simple and their mounds small.
But, contrary to their simplicity in general, they
like to adorn themselves; for they wear apparel
embroidered with gold, and use ornaments set with
precious stones, and wear gay-coloured linen gar-
ments, and are accompanied with sun-shades; for,
since they esteem beauty, they practise everything
that can beautify their appearance. Further, they
respect alike virtue and truth; and therefore they
give no precedence even to the age of old men,
unless these are also superior in wisdom. They
1 Arrack is the name of this beverage.


veIKTcrT(. 7roXXa 8c 7yajoDo-'tv vTah a 7rapa Tov
yovewv, Xa/3padvova-l Te avrE'8t8v'reSq 'eyo /3ocov,
awv pT xv ev7retC9eIa1 Xdptv, a 8' AcXaq
j8ovo~s xaZ 7oXvTCrfeKaq' el 8/' aw-oppovev
C 710 dvay/cd-atev, rropveetv ea-'Tr. e&l &et ovSel
ea'e Tavawoevo, obv86 OvBup oSv a-lrcvSei, o...
acdrT~ovu-t Tor lepeLov, ,XXh 7r lyovo-w, iva 1.6
XeXol/3'ULevov, aXX' 6 ocKXrjpov StBCTat Tr Oe,.
*4ev8o~papTVpia, 8' 6 a'Xovb d4KcpWT7ypidCera, 0 re
7rrT7pc~oaa ob Ta ar'Ta p6ovov avT7oTrad-yet, AXXa
tca XEtpoKOTreFTat. eav Se Ka 7eXv67Tv Xeipa
o00axlbv df'X 77Tat, aavaTOV0at. 8ovXotv? 8
oViroq ie'v 9riat f77Sdva 'Iv8 v XpQa-Oat, 'Ovq-
tluptrTOC & TroV eV T 7 Movao/cavo T7UT' 'iStov
dTro Ialve, cat 69 KcaTrop9owpd 7ye KasdOrep ical
tkXa 7roXXa Xedyet T79 Xpa Ta Try KcaTopO1b-
LatTa, WI evvop CTrdaTV.
55. TU 8acatXei 1 /16v Tro o-uco/aTOV Oeparela
Sth yvvaticav eTrtv, v I)JTrwv ical avrwCv Trapa r(ov
rraTrpwov 'i w 8\ TMv OvpIv ol aco/aroovXa/Ke5
Kcal TO hXTorrbv paT i wrcov" /teOvovra 8' KcTelao-a
yvr /acr-tX'a ye'pa, 'et Lavvevat T7~ fiCevorv
8ta&eFaievpwY 8ta8eXovTat 8' ol raFSeV. o'8'
vnvol pte0' j p pav d 8aa-AtXev, ical vvxICrp 8
KaO' Cpav Jvayiccierat Trv KuCOiL'rY aXXa'drTe 81
T'rT 7rt/3ovXdu. TWoV re p 2 iaTah w7roepov eo-
S&cv pla fiv dE-TIt 7 E7rrt Tra Kcpla-et, ev atl;
1 tbraOetas i.
2 Tr@ TE -4, Corais and later editors, for TWv ye rv.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 54-55

marry many wives, whom they purchase from their
parents, and they get them in exchange for a yoke
of oxen, marrying some of them for the sake of
prompt obedience and the others for the sake of
pleasure and numerous offspring; but if the husband
does not force them to be chaste, they are permitted
to prostitute themselves. No one wears a garland
when he makes sacrifice or burns incense or pours
out a libation; neither do they cut the throat of
the victim, but strangle it, in order that it may be
given to the god in its entirety and not mutilated.
Anyone caught guilty of false-witness has his hands
and feet cut off, and anyone who maims a person
not only suffers in return the same thing, but also
has his hands cut off; and if he causes the loss of a
hand or an eye of a craftsman, he is put to death.
But although Megasthenes says that no Indian uses
slaves, Onesicritus declares that slavery is peculiar
to the Indians in the country of Musicanus, and tells
what a success it is there, just as he mentions many
other successes of this country, speaking of it as a
country excellently governed.
55. Now the care of the king's person is com-
mitted to women, who also are purchased from their
parents; and the body-guards and the rest of the
military force are stationed outside the gates. And
a woman who kills a king when he is drunk receives
as her reward the privilege of consorting with his
successor; and their children succeed to the throne.
Again, the king does not sleep in daytime; and
even at night he is forced to change his bed from
time to time because of the plots against him.
Among the non-military departures he makes from
his palace, one is that to the courts, where he spends


St~eppetvel Stalcovo ov8vy fjrrov tcav Spa y'virTat
Ti~ TOi o a/4aro? Oeparelav. aT r? 8' fao' T 17 8th
T&ov KvuraXi osv 7rptfrI (ap.a 7yAp Kal 8iarcovel
ca' al pi/erat Ter7Tapwv 7reptrdTavTrv rpti3ew),
ETepa 8' eartv i r(l TA Ovala' fo80o'. rTpTrI
?ei O9rpav 3parKcxKr T7r, KicXrW yvvatcwKv Trept-
Xceyv/eLOV, gw8ev 8e Trv Sopvpepov" 7rape-
axoitv'rat 8' 7 68ods, 7r 8c 7rapeXovTrs vt 'Vro'
peuXpt pyvvatcKv Odvatro" Trpo7fyoDvTat 86 T VL7ra-
vwtCral Kat K1(cowvocbOpot. KUV VwTEl 8' v ptev
TOs r~eptopda'yp-Gaav a7rb 8 paroa Toe6wv (Trape-
Uoaat 8' 'vorXot 8ivo j rpel 7yvvaiKe), dev 8e Ta,
& pad crot9 Ojpat da7r dXe4avTro' at 8' yvvaiKc?
at u/ v 4' ap a irwov, at 86 '' '7r rov, at 86 tal Er'
e'Xebdvrov, Ical avorTparTevovao-, cr -jaK7cyvat
rrav'r obrXo.
56. "Eyet pv o3v Kal 7raDa 7roXX'v dijeeav
7rTpo Ta 7rap' 71pv, e't /e'vrot j^XXov Tr Totdle.
rlc't yAp Tov' KavKcaaov ootlico3a'a; v T, apavepe
ryvvati p'ltayea-as Kal oaaptcooayeFl Ta 7a 7wv
o'vY'yyevwv o-4para' rpOKv/vXtara; 8' elvat icep/co-
irtrlicov;, o?' Xlovu Ka'raicvuXova-t icpq7/vo/3ar-
oDveQ iEr 7TrL TObl 6icovTar' T rerap' i"tl v
ijtefpa 45a Ta 'orX oeora rap e'icevotn aypta elvat
7T7rrove re Xye~3s povoicepora; JXaapoicpavovu"
icaXdfovq 8e, L4 oj' TptidiOVTaa 6pyvtc)v To
C 711 op'Oov,, TroW 8\ XauataKXtveK 7rev7- TovTa, 7raXoq
84, torTe T7v 8 ti/ETpov TOF9 Ue\ etvat Tpltrr'7Xv,
TO7 Se L t7rXacroav.

1 KTds CDFmosw.

GEOGRAPHY, 15. I. 55-56

the whole day hearing cases to the end, none the
less even if the hour comes for the care of his person.
This care of his person consists of his being rubbed
with sticks of wood, for while he is hearing the
cases through, he is also rubbed by four men who
stand around him and rub him. A second departure
is that to the sacrifices. A third is that to a kind of
Bacchic chase wherein he is surrounded by women,
and, outside them, by the spear-bearers. The road
is lined with ropes; and death is the penalty for
anyone who passes inside the ropes to the women;
and they are preceded by drum-beaters and gong-
carriers. The king hunts in the fenced enclosures,
shooting arrows from a platform in his chariot (two
or three armed women stand beside him), and also
in the unfenced hunting-grounds from an elephant;
and the women ride partly in chariots, partly on
horses, and partly on elephants, and they are
equipped with all kinds of weapons, as they are when
they go on military expeditions with the men.
56. Now these customs are very novel as com-
pared with our own, but the following are still
more so. For example, Megasthenes says that the
men who inhabit the Caucasus have intercourse with
the women in the open and that they eat the bodies
of their kinsmen; and that the monkeys are stone-
rollers, and, haunting precipices, roll stones down
upon their pursuers; and that most of the animals
which are tame in our country are wild in theirs.
And he mentions horses with one horn and the head
of a deer; and reeds, some straight up thirty
fathoms in length, and others lying flat on the
ground fifty fathoms, and so large that some are
three cubits and others six in diameter.


57. 'TrepeKTr7lrTow 8' dirl Tob uv& oSe '7revra-
a7TritsOdovF Av9pOprovI; Xe'yet Ka Tptr7rt m duov9,
wv rivac avicrT7paf, avarrvoas eXovraF /ovov 8oV
b7rep r70To (6ToaTo' 7rpo 8e TobV Tpo-trrOd/iov;
ro'Xeoov elvav Tav; yepavot; (or Kat "Otf77pov
StlXoiv) icai TOT 7T'p8tiv, o0v X ivo/ieyeOeLs elva*
ToV'rovU 8' EX yetv avtr&O Ta Ca Kai 40aEpeLv,
edce? 'yp coroTocev TatY yepdvov* SGTerep pjn8apfov
/17j'T1 wA Eplt-cKeo-Oat yepdOva, T7'T' oiv veOrTia'
7rXheLTardKc 8' eKI7TirrTEIV 'ypavov %aX ic V ovaav
K/cl8a a7ro T wV E'ceWev 'rXrh~Y)7 ToV. o~Uota 86
al Ni Ipi 'EVMTOKOIT@V Ka' T7v Ayp 0
Kat Ta rept'i-TV 'EvaroioLT63v Kai TW t'vypkov
avOpw7Trw Kacl &'XXv repa(rwo8v TOiV ),,v oiv
a'yptovw ,L7 KO/ioLro~rvaL 7rapa EavSpocKOrTov,
avoKapTepetv yp x e 8 TA vS 8 1V 7rTEpva~
rrpoauev, robv 86 Tapaov; ortra0ev Iai Tovv 8arc-
'rTouv. aorTofiovu 8' Ttvas yXO9~vat, ?gjLIpov'
dvOporrovug, olicetv Se rept Ta 77aylS T0 radyyov,
Tpef)eaOat 8' drAowF 7rT(OwV KpeCwv Kal icapwA7C
cal advOeWv oc0Lzat, aVTr TWr&v o0/daTC v 'eXOVTa;
dvaTrvoda, XaXE~ralvetv 86 T0o1 Svo-Seus, Kcat 8t
TOVTO 7reptylVEo- at ioXtv, Kai p.dXtraa ev r-Tpa-
TO7Tdey. 8repi 8 T;oV XXwv 8t7yp-e'Fca a TOV'o?
4tXoo-d ovq, 'fOlK vro8d Te 2 lo TopovTarat, '7rw7r
piAXov a rLto7a, 'EvwCroKcoLTa T63 TT8orj4pf Ta
wra ex0oTag, k 6ycKaeS68etv, loavypobv 8', co-T'
vaar nv 8ev8pa Kal pjT77eL vevpadv, MovoIa'dTouvc
I ATr', Corais and later editors, for 85'.
2 re, Kramer, for 5'. 3 re, Kramer, for Be.
1 About 221 inches. 2 Iliad 3. 6.
3 Of. 2. 1. 9. Swift-footed.
5 i.e. men that sleep in their ears.

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