Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Book XIII
 Book XIV
 A partial dictionary of proper...

Title: The geography of Strabo
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065780/00006
 Material Information
Title: The geography of Strabo
Series Title: Half-title The Loeb classical library. Greek authors
Physical Description: 8 v. : front. (map) ; 17 cm. --
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Horace Leonard, 1879- ( tr )
Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, 1851-1914
Publisher: W. Heinemann
G. P. Putnam's sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1917-33
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones ... Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett ... --
General Note: Greek and English on opposite pages.
General Note: Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxix-xliii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065780
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000608778
notis - ADD7916
lccn - 17013967

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    Book XIII
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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        Unnumbered ( 166 )
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    Book XIV
        Page 195
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    A partial dictionary of proper names
        Page 387
        Page 388
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Full Text


t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D.









First printed 1929
Reprinted z950

Printed in Great Britain


BOOK XIII . . . 3

BOOK XIV . . . 197








0581 1. Me'pt iev Sevpo &owpilcwO rT repi T7 j
4Ipvyla~* EravtovTE'; 8e 7raXv er 7er v Ilpo0rov-
71ra Kal 7Tv beE~ 7T Ala4rvr 7rapalav rTjv
avrjRv 7T7 vrepto8ela rdItyv adro(SroLoeV. e~'T
Se Tpaco rrp7'i) 7'T9 TrapaXLlaj v TavrTi7, j 7bT
7roXvpvXrl7'ov, icaltrep ev 'penriotr Kca v epr e pia
Xet'ro/Levrl, uowl 7roXvXoy/av ov Tvi TvxovDav
TrapEXCe 7 1 ypac~ 7rp roU ro 8 avOyvdwpvtt8
Set cal 7rapafcXiaewoS, oTr 7rv airTav Tro
rjicov (I,7 uv u^tXXov avdarTwa-v o'l ot Evy-
Xdvov7re, q rolET a4(6opa roOoDotL 'rjv 7)1V ev8oW V
ical vraXat~v yv&atv ,7rpoaXap.pidvet 8 7
pKei Kcal TOb 77X ov 76V roitKo-davTrw 777v
X(pav 'EXXrivwv Te cal /3ap3dpo)v, Kal ol
ovyypaetZv, obJy 7~h avTa 'ypdfIovr7Ev 7ept T7&
avTov, oae' aac j 7dvrav7a* Wv o TO19 TrpWroI
earOT "OiJ1ppoq, elicaetVw rep T 7oV j r'Xeo'v7W
'Iape'ov. Sel 8 Kal 7r 0 roVrov itatTV Kal
1 hvdrrierv, Kramer, for &vavrToiv F, avdirTrotv other
M1SS.; so the later editors.
1 The translator must here record his obligations to Dr.
Walter Leaf for his monumental works on the Troad: his
Troy, Macmillan and Co., 1912, and his Strabo on the Tread,
Cambridge, 1923, and his numerous monographs in classical



1.1 LET this, then, mark the boundary of Phrygia.2
I shall now return again to the Propontis and the
coast that comes next after the Aesepus River, and
follow the same order of description as before. The
first country on this seaboard is the Troad, the
fame of which, although it is left in ruins and in deso-
lation, nevertheless prompts in writers no ordinary
prolixity. With this fact in view, I should ask the
pardon of my readers and appeal to them not to
fasten the blame for the length of my discussion
upon me rather than upon those who strongly yearn
for knowledge of the things that are famous and
ancient. And my discussion is further prolonged
by the number of the peoples who have colonised
the country, both Greeks and barbarians, and by
the historians, who do not write the same things
on the same subjects, nor always clearly either;
among the first of these is Homer, who leaves us
to guess about most things. And it is necessary
for me to arbitrate between his statements and
periodicals. The results of his investigations in the Troad
prove the great importance of similar investigations, on the
spot, of various other portions of Strabo's "Inhabited
The reader will find a map of Asia Minor in Vol. V. (at


VT&v lhXov, b7roypdfavra,; -rpoTepov Ev t/ceaXaIw
T'qv TrWv To70rwV 0VtV.
2. 'ATrb \ 1 ri F; KviKrvf /ca9 l TcOV rrepi
A'io-prov TrTrWo Kal Fpdvlcoov pl'p 'A3v8ov icat
EoTroD TV T7 F UporovrlSoy 7rapaXiav elvat
orvp/3aIvef, adro 8e A/3PVov teXpi AetcroD Ta
7rept "IXtov KIal Teve8ov Kcal 'AXE~dvPpeLav TIv
TpwdSa- 7radvTrv 87 7TOVTWV Vreptcetrat 1 "18q
TO 'pov, p6ept AecTroF KcaOrIcovaa' a~ro AencroD 8
eCLpt KatEcov 7roTap.ov Ical Tio KavOv Xeyol evov
e0L 7 T repl "Ao-aov teal 'ApatvrTov KCt
'ATapvca Kca IHtTrdvv ical Try 'EXa Ltico
C582 KcXdh ov" ot 7riaowv tJIV'raprticeL 7 rTv Aea- c/wv
vrj-oF" el0' e a T 7rreplT Kt priv ie'Xpt "Eppov
aical w)ccaLa, frrep apXi p,/iE T77j 'ItVLa ea o-T,
7repa9 8\ T AtoXk80o;. TrotovTwv 8 e T TOT70r
OVTrW, 0 ,iev rotlrTj-4 a7ro rOv wrept AI'trTrov
Trn0rv ical r6v 7repl Trv viv Kvtucyqvv Xw'pav
vTra yopeEvt pdAXtAra Tov' Tpoa, ap~at If'Xpt 70T
KatiKov 7roraTaov Sltypruievovq Kara Svvaa-Trea'
ael OK'TW /epiSa i al evva TOb 86 7) v yXX(ov
eTircovpeov 7rXjOo dv Toi9 o-vyIuIxaXOt StaptO-
3. 01 8' ao-rTepov rTO- opovv o Tro a7vrov'
'eyova-t icait Toi? ovoyiatYa Xypwv.rat 8tyXXaae'yVew ,
atpae et 2 vepovre '1rXelov9. dtLaXt-Ta Se at TOV
'EXX\vcwv vnroutiac 7rapear-%icaot Xacr yor- 7TOv ofev
1 'IOWVIK' 7rXlovt 'yap 8LtrrTig 6 e T Tpwadoc"' 17

1 8, Corais, for Se; so the later editors.
2 Meineke, following conj. of Corais, emends atpi trs to
8ztalrp L s.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 1-3

those of the others, after I shall first have described in
a summary way the nature of the region in question.
2. The seaboard of the Propontis, then, extends
from Cyzicend and the region of the Aesepus and
Granicus Rivers as far as Abydus and Sestus,
whereas the parts round Ilium and Tenedos and
the Trojan Alexandreia extend from Abydus to
Lectum. Accordingly, Mt. Ida, which extends
down to Lectum, lies above all these places. From
Lectum to the Caicus River, and to Canae,1 as it
is called, are the parts round Assus and Adramyttium
and Atarneus and Pitan6 and the Elaitic Gulf; and
the island of the Lesbians extends alongside, and
opposite, all these places. Then come next the
parts round Cyme, extending to the Hermus and
Phocaea, which latter constitutes the beginning of
Ionia and the end of Aeolis. Such being the
position of the places, the poet indicates in a
general way that the Trojans held sway from the
region of the Aesepus River and that of the present
Cyzicene to the Caicus River,2 their country being
divided by dynasties into eight, or nine, portions,
whereas the mass of their auxiliary forces are
enumerated among the allies.
3. But the later authors do not give the same
boundaries, and they use their terms differently,
thus allowing us several choices. The main cause
of this difference has been the colonisations of the
Greeks; less so, indeed, the Ionian colonisation, for
it was farther distant from the Troad; but most of

SOn the position of this promontory, see Leaf, Ann. Brit.
School at Athens, XXII, p. 37, and Strabo on the Troad,
p. xxxviii.
2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xli.


8e T7W AloXewv 7ravrTaarao- aO"' ica oXv yap
d 8ecdTf017. drb T7re KvrtKlcvfp te6Xpt TO7 Katicov
cal edTreXhapev 'Tt r7Xreov rVj peTrab T70 Ka'Kiov
Kxa To0 "Epuov -roTaJiov. T'epaor y)ap y ia
yeveatv rrpeo'-3vTrpav 0aau Trv AtoXtucv Airot-
itav 71' 'ImovtpzL, StaTrpti/3a' XaP3eiv .Kal
XpzvoLv AtaKpoTepovq. 'OparrT)v pev yAp CpSat
TOV CdloXov, TOrTOV 8' Ed 'ApicaBia TeXev'Taavroy
Tov f'lov, Sta8gaao-at TOV' vllv aiTro IlevOtXov
Kat 7rpoeXOe6v ieXp( E Op(ic, icovTa 'erTEc TWV
TpwoIctv v'oTepov, br' avbr'v r7- v TrOv 'HpatcXet-
8,v ely IleXoTr6vvrcrov ca'do8ov' eLr' 'ApXXaov,
vtlv EdceKov, rrepatco-'at Tov AloXlKv 'o-Tov ebl
Tjv vv Kvticr'vc v rjv irepi Tb Aao.v-KXov' rpav
Se, TOv vlov TOVTOV TOv ve )Traov, TrpoeX?,vTa
,eCXpt TO' rpavicov 'ror-atov Ical 7rapeo7tcevaa-
iufvov a' etLov 'repatcooat To v7rXov T7's aorpaTtas
ei6 Ae'o'/ov Kalt IaTaoa-xeL avT7v' KXe6dnv 8~, 70v
Acwpov, acal MaXadv, xial avTrov a'ToyovovJ
ovTaq 'AyaeaLe'tvovov, a'vvayayev IjEv 7'v orTpa-
7taV Kaca T O avTOv Xppvov, 0caO' 'v Kal TIevO- I
Xoq' aXXa TOy F-ev Tro IIevO'Xov `T6XOV (pOnvat
rTEpatwov0PTa eCK T19 OpaKc e? 61 7~Z v 'Aaiav, ToV-
Tovq ~8 7rept TIv Aocpt8a xca TO Ipticlov o poT
StaTp *at vroXbv XPvov, va'Tepov &S 8ta3advTaq
XcTo-at Tv KtV1p ?v 71V pupKwvtl a KXlOefi'rav Anirb
ToO AoIcptKcoi OpovJ.
4. Tov AloXewv Tolvvv /cal' 5OXav O-KcSaa-lOv-
TWoV T7v yXcpav, 7v 4a!pv ;'bev TO 70 TrotIrTOV
Xeyeo-Oat TpwoLKjv, ot vaO Tpov o0l pLEv 'raav
AloXISa 'rpoo'atopevovo'tv, ol 8e pepov', a\ Tpolav
S', after of, Corais suggests; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 3-4

all that of the Aeolians, for their colonies were
scattered throughout the whole of the country from
Cyzicene to the Caicus River, and they went on
still farther to occupy the country between the
Caicus and Hermus Rivers. In fact, the Aeolian
colonisation, they say, preceded the Ionian colonisa-
tion by four generations, but suffered delays and
took a longer time; for Orestes, they say, was the
first leader of the expedition, but he died in
Arcadia, and his son Penthilus succeeded him and
advanced as far as Thrace sixty years after the
Trojan War, about the time of the return of the
Heracleidae to the Peloponnesus; and then Arche-
laiis1 the son of Penthilus led the Aeolian expedition
across to the present Cyzicene near Dascylium; and
Gras, the youngest son of Archelais, advanced to
the Granicus River, and, being better equipped, led
the greater part of his army across to Lesbos and
occupied it. And they add that Cleues, son of
Dorus, and Malaiis, also descendants of Agamemnon,
had collected their army at about the same time
as Penthilus, but that, whereas the fleet of Penthilus
had already crossed over from Thrace to Asia, Cleues
and Malaiis tarried a long time round Locris and
Mt. Phricius, and only later crossed over and
founded the Phryconian Cymn, so named after the
Locrian mountain.
4. The Aeolians, then, were scattered throughout
the whole of that country which, as I have said,
the poet called Trojan. As for later authorities,
some apply the name to all Aeolis, but others to
only a part of it; and some to the whole of Troy,

1 Pausanias (3. 2. 1) spells his name "Echelas."


o0 ,II 'Ahyv, 1o 8e py6pov avT7qg, ob8iv EXon dXXi-
XoV9 O/oUoyoivvTre'. ev6 O 'yp de7T r cv caTa Trv
Hpoorovrlia -r&rwo pEv "O/v poT d Aro AlarjTrov
7 rv adpX3v 7rUoIera r7i Tpwdao'" EViofoz 6B
Ad'ro lptdTrov 1 ical 'ApTrdi/, TroD ev ry Kvgitc iK jv
C 583 V'?O X(oplov aVra1ovroT rw HptiaTr, avoTe\rXXwo
err' 'eaTTOV T ro6 5povs' Aa/,tarTr? 8' &'t taXXhov
o-vavrXXe L aeTr faplov tecal yap oVroF p1tv egw
AefTroi T podyet, aXXot 8S' aXXos i Xdpwo 8' '
AafrfaKyjvo 7TpLaKoaCO ov; AXX'XovF dAatpe'i OTra-
iov', a7ro IHpaIcriov apXoy~eroq" Too-ovTOt yap
citav a7rb Haplov ei lpdaITtorv' A)g 1VTO
'A8paLvTVo'v 7rpoetoc' chvXa Se o KapvavSev;
adro 'A3vS'ov ipXerat" doiLt 6B 7S' AloXi8a
'"Eopog phe Xgyet aTro 'A,/3ov LeyXpt K'i/-tn;,
aXXot 8' ~XXwv.
5. ToTro'papeZi Se KdXXtiarra T'7 dvTrwY Xeyo-
tdvqv Tpoiav i 7T9r "18r O6-etv, opov 6ivr4Xoio
Xeov7rovTo9 rpo? Swivrv Kal T-IV rav-y OadXaav,
rlcp r10TpEIo T Kao Trpo2 apKTrov cat T77V
Trary rrapaXiav. e rt 8 aIyr pTv 17 ] poTrov-
Ti8o a7ro Trv 'rept "A3vSov o-rVVVv eTr'i rOv
'aWt'tro ica' r~v Kv IKev '7,V, 8' &rCepl7 a Od-
Xarra b' Te 'EXXjeo-7roV7d e'rTtv3 'wc 4 /cal TO
Aiyatov rre'XayoT. 'roXXob' 'xovoa rpro8a
Sical 'Apirdis! IIpdirfy, Leaf, in Journal of Hellenic
Studies, XXXVII., p. 22, would delete; so in his Strabo on
the Troad, p. 2 (see his note on p. 47).
2 crittrpi4,ovros EZ, erwrpaetv'ros other MSS.
3 6, before 'w, Kramer inserts: so the later editors.
4 twc EF, dv $ other MSS.

1 Iliad 2. 824. See 9 following.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 4-5

but others to only a part of it, not wholly agreeing
with one another about anything. For instance, in
reference to the places on the Propontis, Homer
makes the Troad begin at the Aesepus River,1
whereas Eudoxus makes it begin at Priapus and
Artac6, the place on the island of the Cyziceni that
lies opposite Priapus,2 and thus contracts the limits;
but Damastes contracts the country still more,
making it begin at Parium ; and, in fact, Damastes
prolongs the Troad to Lectum, whereas other
writers prolong it differently. Charon of Lamp-
sacus diminishes its extent by three hundred stadia
more, making it begin at Practius,3 for that is the
distance from Parium to Practius; however, he pro-
longs it to Adramyttium. Scylax of Caryanda
makes it begin at Abydus; and similarly Ephorus
says that Aeolis extends from Abydus to Cyme,
while others define its extent differently.4
5. But the topography of Troy, in the proper
sense of the term, is best marked by the position of
Mt. Ida, a lofty mountain which faces the west and
the western sea but makes a slight bend also towards
the north and the northern seaboard.5 This latter
is the seaboard of the Propontis, extending from
the strait in the neighbourhood of Abydus to the
Aesepus River and Cyzicene, whereas the western
sea consists of the outer Hellespont and the
Aegaean Sea. Mt. Ida has many foot-hills, is like

2 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 47.
3 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21).
4 See Leaf's definition of the Troad (Troy, p. 171).
5 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 48.
6 On the meaning of the term Hellespont, see Book VII,
Frag. 57 (58), and Leaf (Strabo on the Troad), p. 50.


I7 V18 xcal arKoXorevopwotyq ovcra rT oaXta
daTarot1 at poplt'eat TorotvO, TW 're rrep& Tr v
Zeaeiav aKpwTrpio Icai 7r KaXovt IvOw AeKT Tr7
piv TreeXET7vr1r els rv fpeoraoyaav pt Kcpov vrrep
7rF Kvtc7) v~j' Ica 8a Kati ao-r viv ZeDeta
Tiov KvUiVK'vOv' b 8o AeTcrTv el' TO .7reayoo
caO4i/cets 7 Aiyaiov, ev 7rapdrrX icepeYvov TOT70 c
Teve8ov 7rXovo-w el AE'roov.
'"I rv 8' 'Icavov 7roXvTl-a/ca ,iprTe'pa O7pcpv,
AeKndv, o0s 1 'rporov X7Trrr7yv aXa
"Twrvoq Kal "Hpa, ToEs oisrtv oluceiws r70o rrotiproD
cpdCaovTro Tb AeITdv" Kaal yap ort TF9 "ISM7 Ear'
TO AeIc'Tv Kal (d7rTt rpcTrl drr a/3aot, c O0aXCdiTTr
afr Trot9 'rril Trv "1817Y vroDo-rtv, eCtpricev Op9o1,2
Kal Tob roXv7n'8aKov* ebv8poTraTov yAp KarTa avTa
pdXto-ra a3 TO opo, sorXo? 8 rb TrrX4o? 7T6V
oc a-o dr' 'Ialorv opev Xa8ae rrpope'ovrt,
'PNia6 06''ETrrdrropOd Te
eal ol ev -o, oat' CEiLVO eertp? e Ical 'fv vvvvt
'rdpeartIv opav. Tos ob 8) rp6oro8as Tro') o'a-'X-
TOU 60' beticaTpa (papdeowv4 OV870 TO A rCKO ical
T)V ZeXetav, olceciwo rorTOVT Kal dacpwpetav
'&oplet rPdpyapov, txpov Xeywwov Kal ap vavv

1 90B, Xylander, for 8ri; so the later editors.
2 Kal rb 6pav, ejected by Meineke.
8 Ka, TraiTa i4tA0rTa, Leaf brackets (see his note, op. cit.,
p. 49).
Sppd W c, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for 6pii.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. .1 5

the scolopendral in shape, and is defined by its
two extreme limits: by the promontory in the
neighbourhood of Zeleia and by the promontory
called Lectum, the former terminating in the interior
slightly above Cyzicen6 (in fact, Zeleia now belongs
to the Cyziceni), whereas Lectum extends to the
Aegaean Sea, being situated on the coasting-voyage
between Tenedos and Lesbos. When the poet says
that Hypnos and Hera "came to many-fountained
Ida, mother of wild beasts, to Lectum, where first
the two left the sea,"2 he describes Lectum in
accordance with the facts; for he rightly states that
Lectum is a part of Mt. Ida, and that Lectum is the
first place of disembarkation from the sea for those
who would go up to Mt. Ida, and also that the moun-
tain is many-fountained," for there in particular
the mountain is abundantly watered, as is shown by
the large number of rivers there, "all the rivers
that flow forth from the Idaean mountains to the
sea, Rhesus and Heptaporus" s and the following,'
all of which are named by the poet and are now to
be seen by us. Now while Homer thus describes
Lectum 5 and Zeleia 6 as the outermost foot-hills of
Mt. Ida in either direction, he also appropriately
distinguishes Gargarus from them as a summit,
calling it "topmost."7 And indeed at the present

SA genus of myriapods including some of the largest
2 Iliad 14. 283. 8 Iliad 12. 19.
4 The Granicus, Aesepus, Scamander, and Simoeis.
6 Iliad 14. 284.. 6 Iliad 2. 824.
SIliad 14. 292, 352; 15. 152.
6 Aycov, Kramer, for repwyv CFmoz, repov D with e above r
man. see., whence cTrpov hi and Tzschucke.


rdpyapov ev TOF advw Ijepe'-t T7 "I Iy; 8eicKvvat
T70oro, ov Ta' vvv rdpyapa wrodh' AloXtrc).
EPTOs peVv OVv 7Tj ZeX laq cal Toy AeCTOV 7rpCowT
erTtv A-ro Tg llIpoTovort80o; apcalIevot; Ta1 ueXPt
Trv KcaT' "A/3vSov O-rTevv" Cr7' 'fO 7T Hporov-
78io0 Ta tLXpt AeKTOD.
C 584 6. Kd/,wpavrt 8 Tob AeKTW r vaXeitat rciXro'
/eeya9, ov N7 "ISr woreT 7rpb9; T7v 7Tretpov avaXo-
poivra2 7rO TO7 AeKTcrov /ca al Kdvat, Tb tc
Oar7pov p/cpovt avTLKce I .Vv aKcpr77plov T
AeICTW KaXoDi~a 8' ol pev 'ISaFov K Xrov, ol 8'
'A8pa/vT7~pTvov. ev T70o6y Se atl T6v AloXCwv
7rodXet9 IXptL T&v de/oXv 'oD "Ep/tov, icaOfdTrep
elpicKa/ev. e&'tprat 8e dE 7TOtL e~pocrEev ,OTt ro7
E~c Bvav'riov 'rXEovo-t 7rpbs vo'rov E7r' evoela
eU7Tv 0 WrXo0V, vrp-rov j rri I' voToV Kca "A3vSov
8th xdor-79 71T9 Ilpo7roVl7o9, 7reitTa 7 ) rrapaXlav 3
Trj9 'Aola9 /el'Xpt Kaptas. Tav7TfvV 8' ,vXa TTOv-
Ta9 XPr T7v v nr67 eo-att cow etv r ) 9, ,Av
Xl'ywyev i~oX7ov r9T7ta ev T 77 rapaXga, T7LI 7e
anKpa9 Se voe06 7a 7roiovtaa avrov9 E7Tr 7 1
avr179 ypal/tyu 9 KretiLeva, Wor-ep Lvbe aeoY --
7. 'EKc 81 TOv br TO 70T 7rotiT70D Xeyo/0[EPVW
elt(4iovrIv o0l povT7LaavTr9 rept ToV70Tv 7riov 7t,
rtinav To7v 7rapaXtav TaVIrTv Virb 70TO Tpoctr
yeyoveval, 8GlPptCevrj" ~v Etlv vva-TrIa9 devvea,
1 rd, before tXpL, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors.
2 avaxwpoia E, i7roxpoira other MSS.; so Leaf.
a .rs wapaAlas is indefensible; perhaps ,rapa ~- T wapatlav
1 See Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. xliv.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 5-7

time people point out in the upper parts of Ida a
place called Gargarum, after which the present
Gargara, an Aeolian city, is named. Now between
Zeleia and Lectum, beginning from the Propontis,
are situated first the parts extending to the straits at
Abydus, and then, outside the Propontis, the parts
extending to Lectum.
6. On doubling Lectum one encounters a large
wide-open gulf, which is formed by Mt. Ida as it
recedes from Lectum to the mainland, and by Canae,
the promontory opposite Lectum on the other side.
Some call it the Idaean Gulf, others the Adramyt-
tene. On this gulf are the cities of the Aeolians,
extending to the outlets of the Hermus River, as I
have already said.2 I have stated in the earlier parts
of my work3 that, as one sails from Byzantium
towards the south, the route lies in a straight line,
first to Sestus and Abydus through the middle of the
Propontis, and then along the coast of Asia as far as
Caria. It behooves one, then, to keep this sup-
position in mind as one listens to the following; and,
if I speak of certain gulfs on the coast, one must
think of the promontories which form them as lying
in the same line, a meridian-line, as it were.
7. Now as for Homer's statements, those who
have studied the subject more carefully 4 conjecture
from them that the whole of this coast became
subject to the Trojans, and, though divided into
nine dynasties, was under the sway of Priam at the

2 13. 1. 2 (see Leaf's article cited in foot-note there).
8 Strabo refers to his discussion of the meridian-line drawn
by Eratosthenes through Byzantium, Rhodes, Alexandria,
Syeni, and Mero6 (see 2. 5. 7 and the Frontispiece in Vol. I).
SStrabo refers to Demetrius of Scepsis and his followers.


Vrr 86 7 IIpticd TeTay TLevi7Yv Kara TOr 'IXtafaov
rToXejwv cal Xteyoptvrlv Tpolav SGjXov S EIc rT&v
iCarT Iepog. ol yap rep TOP 'AlXXea Te72Lpen
opwvTe 70 TOV' IXtea, ica apXa'f, ow arote'ioa
Trbv rrXetoov reveXaip'r aav ical rreptLurPTe aatped-
aoOal TA e~K6Xi
&8fea Sr abvv vyrvo- 7TroXeL acXd7ra:' AdvgpA-

ereb's 8' pSbeKd a f0'/LL Kara Tpoirv e'pt3poXov.
Tpoiav ya p XVyeI Tv rewropndYievlv -ret7pov.
'rer7opOqyrat 86 ao-up aiXot o a Trv xai avriceL-
pfeva Ty Ado-/p Ta rep @i']3rv i al Avpvra-ao-bv
eal 8ljaa-ov TjV T7 AeXe'/ywv Ial a e r 70TO
Ezpvvr1Xov 7TO TqXleov wrait3-
LXX' olov T6y TrlXeolf8'v carevjpaTro aXKcp,
6 NeorrTdoXe/o-, ijpo EbpvrvXov. Ta Ta o1i re7rrop-
0ao-Oat Xeyes Kac atrr]v rv Ae'o3ov
oTe Ae'oj3ov iKTLp.vrYv f ev 1 ad'To'
werpo-e 8a Avpvr7-aav Kal fli8Sao-ov
Avpva-a'bv StaropOriaa Kal -reiXea 2O/iE.
tc pev Avpvyr-coD i Bppia-i edkXo
T7V 6K/ Avpvroa-o-oO eX6ero-
1 6v ry ji aXwre Tr o MIr'lTa 2 Kal Tbv 'E7ra-Tpofov
reaaedv, l-Iyiv, 'cs 7) Bpao-tl OprYvobaa TOv IIdTpo-
KXov SqXoz'


time of the Trojan War and was called Troy. And
this is clear from his detailed statements. For
instance, Achilles and his army, seeing at the outset
that the inhabitants of Ilium were enclosed by walls,
tried to carry on the war outside and, by making
raids all round, to take away from them all the
surrounding places: "Twelve cities of men I have
laid waste with my ships, and eleven, I declare, by
land throughout the fertile land of Troy."1 For by
"Troy he means the part of the mainland that was
sacked by him; and, along with other places, Achilles
also sacked the country opposite Lesbos in the neigh-
bourhood of Theb6 and Lyrnessus and Pedasus,2 which
last belonged to the Leleges, and also the country of
Eurypylus the son ofTelephus. "But what a man was
that son of Telephus who was slain by him with the
bronze,"3 that is, the hero Eurypylus, slain by Neopto-
lemus. Now the poet says that these places were
sacked, including Lesbos itself: "when he himself
took well-built Lesbos "; and he sacked Lyressus 4
and Pedasus ; and "when he laid waste Lyrnessus
and the walls of Theb&."6 It was at Lyrnessus that
Briseis was taken captive, "whom he carried away
from Lyrnessus"; and it was at her capture,
according to the poet, that Mynes and Epistrophus
fell, as is shown by the lament of Briseis over

1 Iliad 9. 328. 2 Iliad 20. 92.
3 Odyssey 11. 518. 4 Iliad 9. 129.
6 Iliad 20. 92. 6 Iliad 2. 691.
7 Iliad 2. 690.

1 .esv, Xylander, for Aes ; so the later editors.
2 cal r-bY 'ErtirTpo ov, Meineke ejects.


or86 V Ov ov6' /t' ~aoKE, 0T' aAvp EoV o'IC'
'Icrvewev, rrepaev 8e 7ro"Xw eloto Mvrv7roq,
C 585 dfailvet yap 7~v Avpvo?-a-rv XE'ywv r6Xtv Oeotoo
M'vvfrTO;, < av 8vvaOTrevoletv'?v V'w abroD, ical
dvraiOa Treaelv avrbv jaxdfievov dic 8e 7T (4,987s
I Xpvo-4cr, Ai g .rq
)oiie0' @Jr;3r8v leplrv 7 rdXtv 'Hertoevov
6K 8T' 7 fevrv EA'Or V ice n?0v w vat 7y
Xpvo-arla. 6vO1v8e S' v ial i 'Av8poyddX t1
'Av8pouidX7 7 Ovy/dr7p upeyaX4Tropo 'He TtvoFv
'HerLtov, by b'vatev iro HXdfcc biXrq-o'y,
O(3y 'TrrorrXaKiy, KtXicecrao' avspeoratv aviao-
Sevrepa oiv avrT 8vvaa-rela TpwOK~ pLerTa T7
fro' MvrFTt. police; e TOV TOI; /clal To vwo T7"
'Av3po/tdX?1 XeXOYv oVTWr,
"EKrcTr, dy&o 860rTivo' l^y apa 7yevo/'ueO' ato-l
4/d6repot, avb ap'v Ev Tpoiy Hptd'pov cvi ot'io,
avTap eryo Oe2,a-tv,
ov/C o'ovTrat 61 v 4 e eOelta acovetv, Orb f'v ev
Tpol'a, auTap eyl O/3r P -v O '/r9evv,2 1Xa caa'
wrrepav adoeppaVpot v T! pot'i,3 o T ratv Iv Hptdov
Evi oic avrap 6y7o Oj/3o -t. TplTr 8' Eo-rTt
i 7r Tv AeXe'ywv, Kal avriI TpotIuj,
"AXTeo, 89 AeX/yea ct osXorroXVlpoto-tv Avio-
oi Tj Ovyarpl a-vveX0'oiv tplapioq yevva TOy

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7

Patroclus: "thou wouldst not even, not even, let
me weep when swift Achilles slew my husband and
sacked the city of divine Mynes";1 for in calling
Lyrnessus "the city of divine Mynes" the poet
indicates that Mynes was dynast over it and that he
fell in battle there. But it was at Thebe that
Chryseis was taken captive: We went into Thebe,
the sacred city of Eetion "; 2 and the poet says that
Chryseis was part of the spoil brought from that
place.3 Thence, too, came Andromach8: "Andro-
mache, daughter of great-hearted Eetion; E~tion
who dwelt neathh wooded Placus in Thebe Hypo-
placia,4 and was lord over the men of Cilicia."5
This is the second Trojan dynasty after that of
Mynes. And consistently with these facts writers
think that the following statement of Andromache,
"Hector, woe is me! surely to one doom we were
born, both of us-thou in Troy in the house of
Priam, but I at Thebae," 6 should not be interpreted
strictly, I mean the words thou in Troy, but I at
Thebae" (or Thebe), but as a case of hyperbaton,
meaning "both of us in Troy-thou in the house of
Priam, but I at Thebae." The third dynasty was
that of the Leleges, which was also Trojan: "Of
Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges," 7 by
whose daughter Priam begot Lycaon and Polydorus.

I Iliad 19. 295. 2 Iliad 1. 366.
8 Iliad 1. 369. The epithet means neathth Placus."
6 Iliad 22. 477. 6 Iliad 22. 477. Iliad 21. 86.

I v04s 'Avspo4dXn, found only in the Epitome.
b2 ai AY IBJEev, Meineke ejects.
3 ?v Tpoil Epitome, C Tpoilns MSS.


AvKcdova icalt [IoXv'wpov. mal 1rv o' ye v5rO 7
"Eicropt e'v 7T KaTaX'Yry 7a77rrOfevo/ Xe'yovTat
Tpwo-' 1-v j7yeI/yveve p ya, Kopv9aitXoho'EX"ri p.
e16' ol 'br rT~ Alvela"
AapSav[ov a3T' .pXev bevg aiF 'Ay7ioao*
icat oTrot Tp&e?' 40-7i yoip'
Alveta, Tpdwv $oovXid ope.
et9' ol b7rb HlavSdp( AVicto, obv Kcal avrovF KaXe?
oL S Zectav e'vatov vral r'oa ve6'aov "I8Yi,
'Aovetoi, rivovTe iio8wp pie'av AlarroLo,
Tp&ev" r. v a'r' jpXe Avadovo'v &yXao vid',
KTc7'r avTf SvvaaTreLa. Ka'l dv o't YE perae
roO Alt'jrrov ialc 'A1tSov Tp6ev; bVr iev yap
Ti 'Aa-/O 6'0it Ta rrepi "APuvov'
of S' dpa I epicrgrnv Kal HIpdiirov dAifevC-

cxal tS r'rv Kal "A/vUov ')ov Kal Siav 'Apior/rv,
Trv avO' 'TpraKL'8iT pX "'Ao-to,
&XX' 'v 'A 8cp puivv vios 70roDv Ipid'aov 8eTrpi3ev,
w'rrovT vicwOV, rrarpaqF 8rXovbtr'
AXX' vlwv Hptapioto voOov 3dXe AJp.uoic ovra,
og ol 'A/3u6 ev 'XOe 7rap' L'rrITv owKetELd
C0586 ev S HIepn;Irc vito 'IKCTTaVOS! ej Ovfe61, QbI
tAXXo'rplta o0W o5'ro" ,o"


And indeed those who are placed under Hector in
the Catalogue are called Trojans: "The Trojans
were led by great Hector of the flashing helmet."1
And then come those under Aeneias: The Dar-
danians in turn were commanded by the valiant son
of Anchises";2 and these, too, were Trojans; at
any rate, the poet says, Aeneias, counsellor of the
Trojans."3 And then come the Lycians under
Pandarus, and these also he calls Trojans: "And
those who dwelt in Zeleia beneath the nethermost
foot of Ida, Aphneii,4 who drink the dark water of
the Aesepus, Trojans; these in turn were commanded
by Pandarus, the glorious son of Lycaon." 6 And
this was the sixth dynasty. And indeed those who
lived between the Aesepus River and Abydus were
Trojans; for not only were the parts round Abydus
subject to Asius, "and they who dwelt about Percot&
and Practius6 and held Sestus and Abydus and
goodly Arisbe 7-these in turn were commanded by
Asius the son of Hyrtacus,"'8 but a son of Priam
lived at Abydus, pasturing mares, clearly his father's:
" But he smote Democoon, the bastard son of Priam,
for Priam had come from Abydus from his swift
mares"; 9 while in Percote a son of Hicetaon was
pasturing kine, he likewise pasturing kine that

1 Iliad 2. 816. 2 Iliad 2. 819.
8 Iliad 20. 83.
SAphneii is now taken merely as an adjective, meaning
"wealthy" men, but Strabo seems to concur in the belief
that the people in question were named "Aphneii" after
Lake "Aphnitis" (see 13. 1. 9).
5 Iliad 2. 824.
6 Whether city or river (see 13. 1. 21).
7 On Arisb8, see Leaf, Troy, 193 ff.
8 Iliad 2. 835. 9 Iliad 4. 499.


TrpGOrov 8' 'lIKeaovtri 'v veVITrv 1
`'i0tj0ov MeXtidvT7rrov* o 8' "'fpa p1v eiXliro8a?

/3o-IC' 'v lept T7y7
WaTe Kal avTr7 av etr' Tpoa'? Kal i f e7 e29
'ASparetav"' pXov tyap advrT
vie 8;v Meporroq Hlepicoo'iov.
7rdvTeI ?Uev 811 Tpie9 ol ad7r 'APfl ov te'Xpt 'A8pa-
aerela, Sixa /pevrotL 817pTll~yVOL, ol /eV rbr r1
'Aaoiw, ol 8' brbr T70 MepooTiSaev KcaOdarep ical 1
T&v KLXIKOV cerCrf, pyv 077r3aiKc4, f S Avpvrio-
aI'" e'v av' 82 av XeXgeIrI ;7 rro' EvpvvryXq
OE'4i4 oio-a T-p Avpvri7o-tIt. 'rt Ue Tovrwv
adTdvTv v 7PXev nIpiaptoo, ol Tro 'AXtXXedw
Xoyot 7rpob TOV II plapov tra taS dtpaviaovar '
Kai Oe, l'epov, TO 7rpi /1ev iaKcooipev o5/3ov
o-oaov A fo-og aivo MaeKapov 7roXt evrTOv
Kacl Ppvyli? Kca6vreple, Kcal 'EXXroorrovTro
1 vivmev, Kramer, for vverev x, evie'rev other MSS.
2 For v aLejr, Madvig conj. vdTr7.
3 After adrepwv Miiller-Diibner add another line (546) from
Homer, Tvy ote, 7yepoY, 7Tro6rtC rT Kial vidert pati aecdo-eat, as
necessary to the sense; so Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, pp. 6
and 57).
1 i.e. the kine belonged to Priam. This son of Hicetaon,
a kinsman of Hector (lliad 15. 545), "dwelt in the house of
Priam, who honoured him equally with his own children"
(Iliad 15. 551).

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 7
belonged to no other:1 "And first he rebuked
mighty Melanippus the son of Hicetaon, who until
this time had been wont to feed the kine of
shambling gait in Percot ;2 so that this country
would be a part of the Troad, as also the next
country after it as far as Adrasteia, for the leaders of
the latter were "the two sons of Merops of Per-
cot.."3 Accordingly, the people from Abydus to
Adrasteia were all Trojans, although they were
divided into two groups, one under Asius and the
other under the sons of Merops, just as Cilicia 4 also
was divided into two parts, the Theban Cilicia and
the Lyrnessian; 5 but one might include in the Lyr-
nessian Cilicia the territory subject to Eurypylus,
which lay next to the Lyrnessian Cilicia.6 But that
Priam was ruler of these countries, one and all, is
clearly indicated by Achilles' words to Priam: "And
of thee, old sire, we hear that formerly thou wast
blest; how of all that is enclosed by Lesbos, out at
sea, city of Macar, and by Phrygia in the upland,
and by the boundless Hellespont." 7

2 Iliad 15. 546. 8 Iliad 2. 831.
The Trojan Cilicia (see 13. 1. 70).
5 See 13. 1. 60-61.
6 The eight dynasties were (1) that of Mynes, (2) that of
Eetion, (3) that of Altes, (4) that of Hector, (5) that of Aeneias,
(6) that of Pandarus, (7) that of Asius, and (8) that of the two
sons of Merops. If, however, there were nine dynasties (see
13. 1. 2), we may assume that the ninth was that of Eury-
pylus (see 13. 1. 70), unless, as Choiseul-Gouffier (Voyage
Pittoreaque de la Gr&ce, vol. ii, cited by Gossellin) think, it
was that of the island of Lesbos.
7 Iliad 24. 543. The quotation is incomplete without
the following words of Homer: "o'er all these, old sire,
thou wast pre-eminent, they say, because of thy wealth and
thy sons."


8. Tor e pEv oWv TotaG7a bprjpXVe, vo'repov 86
IcoXoijo-av ,era/SoXait ravroast. Ta' ELEv yap
irepi Kittcov Opdyev e7ra'wrc7a-av &wv IIpaKcTiov, Ta
Se 7rept "A3vSov Opal ce 'eTt 8b rporepov TOVTrw
atyotv Bel3pvKice tal ApLovo're Ta 8' Tp e6,
Kal oTOI OP)Ep F Ke' T Orje' r4 7r~eov AUvSo, ol
Troe M4ov6e, Kal MvaU~v ol 7rEptlyvoffevoi TCw
vTro TiXeh wrpoTepov KCal TevfpavTt. OirT 8)
TOD 7otrTOLr TvP Aloli8a Kcal Tv Tpoiav els ev
rvV'rtOlFvrov, Ical Tiv AloXbwv Tjv daro Tro
"Eptov rtc-rav tlEXpt T 7 ica'TA Kditcov 7-apaXiaq
KaTaora ovTwV Kecal r'Wret9 CKTi toadv OS' av
j7p.e1i a-TOT7rm repLoSCacat6fev, eL Taavro tOrvVt-
Oevre7 2 T'v re AloXiSa viv S 1w Xey7odevryv TVJ
adro TO7 "EpJov I ppt AeKTroID Ka rv daefl 7
ueXpt ro Aio-r4rov" dv yAp Tog KaO' geaO-Ta
StaiKpvoviDev r' dXw, .rapartOderev i a Ot'o vvv
oal Ta v'O ro 700 orroD ic l TVv aXXwv Xey7/Oeva.
9. "Ea-Trv oivy fteTah T'v rwov KvtIcrvwv 7r6Xtv
IKal To A'tl-rTrov apXr 7 Tpwadovz KcaO'"OO I pov.
Xe'yet 8' e'Cetwvo /IV OV TOW rtep aVTrf
o? S8 ZeeiXav evatov v'ral 'roSa velarov "'ISr
'A vetoI, 'rtivovTev i Sop p~ehav Alo- rroto,
TpieV' Trv ab9' ?lpxe Avlcdovov a7yXao' vio's,
C 587 'roVTov Se' ic'eiXet cal AvKLrov 'A 'vetov Be Aro
1 For Apiores Leaf conj. AoXdoves.
2 EFmxz have 1 Leaf (Strabo on the Troad, p. 61) makes a strong case for
emending "Dryopes" to "Doliones," but leaves the Greek
text (p. 7) unchanged.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 8-9

8. Now such were the conditions at the time of
the Trojan War, but all kinds of changes followed
later; for the parts round Cyzicus as far as the
Practius were colonised by Phrygians, and those
round Abydus by Thracians; and still before these
two by Bebryces and Dryopes.1 And the country
that lies next was colonised by the Treres, themselves
also Thracians; and the Plain of ThebE by Lydians,
then called Maeonians, and by the survivors of the
Mysians who had formerly been subject to Telephus
and Teuthras. So then, since the poet combines
Aeolis and Troy, and since the Aeolians held
possession of all the country from the Hermus
River2 to the seaboard at Cyzicus, and founded
their cities there, I too might not be guilty of de-
scribing them wrongly if I combined Aeolis, now
properly so called, extending from the Hermus
River to Lectum, and the country next after it,
extending to the Aesepus River; for in my detailed
treatment of the two, I shall distinguish them again,
setting forth, along with the facts as they now are,
the statements of Homer and others.
9. According to Homer, then, the Troad begins
after the city of the Cyziceni and the Aesepus River.
And he so speaks of it: "And those who dwelt in
Zeleia beneath the nethermost foot of Ida, Aphneii,3
who drink the dark water of the Aesepus, Trojans;
these in turn were commanded by Pandarus the
glorious son of Lycaon."4 These he also calls
Lycians.6 And they are thought to have been

2 See 13. 1. 1, and p. 40 of Leaf's first article cited in foot-
note there.
8 See foot-note on Aphneii in 13. 1. 7.
SIliad 2. 824. 6 See 13. 1.7.


T;7 'Avi'Tt8os voptdovoat XlPvr7V' Kcal yap o07w
KcaXerTat s AaciKvXirts.
10. 'H pU.v 87 ZeXea e y Tr 7rapO pela [ r7
vaTary Tr n "187, eni'Tv, aireXovo a KViKOV ewv
O-TaSlov Evev?7Kov7a tcat cKarov, Trf 8' dyyu'TrTo
OaXadTTr?, KcaO' ijv E~c1wa8 -v At- yrrov, oaov
o3yo7Kco vra. ETri/eplf~e 8 aovveXCd9 Ta Kcara Tv
7rapaXiav 7r-v fera rov A'la-jov"
o 8' 'ASpjo-'etdv 7' eloV Kcal 8Siov 'AvataoD,
Ical IIrTav diXov1 ical TypeL y 6'po; alwrV,
TrV y '"PA8pt7a-4ro' i Kcala Ap to, Xtvo9bwpy,
vle 8 w Mepo7ro HIepKwcalov.
ravTa 8 7Ta Xwpta 7 T ZeXela Aev rrorjT7 cKe,
eXovU-t 8e KvucIYvol TE Kai IlptaTrrvot /E'Xptp /ca
TrF rapaXtla. repi E pUE oSv T7.V Ze'Xeav 6
Tp-aot6? Ea-7t rora/uay, eiKcoOa-v eXorv Sta'/3d-e;
7T, avTr o 6S, Kaacrep 6 'ETr'Wiopoq, 6v 01a-tv 6
WrotL.rj.77 2 6 8' e NtKo0t1,SeitaP eiq NtICatav 7ET-
rapa Kal elKcoot-, 7roXXov 8\a KIal 6 ic (DoX6ol67 el,
71v 'HXeav ... cap. cp v 7rrVTE Kal e'fiort,
1 nItretar 9Xov is the reading of the Homeric MSS., but see
nlTva in 15 below.
2 6 8' K Tavpov, Meineke ejects.

1 On the site of Zeleia, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p. 66.
2 Iliad 2. 828.
8 The places in question appear to have belonged to
Zeleia. Leaf (op. cit., p. 65) translates: "are commanded by
Zeleia"; but the present translator is sure that, up to the
present passage, Strabo has always used 67rovirwa in a purely
geographical sense (e.g., cf. 9. 1. 15, and especially 12. 4.
6, where Strabo makes substantially the same statement

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 9-10

called "Aphneii" after Lake "Aphnitis," for Lake
Dascylitis is also called by that name.
10. Now Zeleia1 is situated on the farthermost
foot-hill of Mt. Ida, being one hundred and ninety
stadia distant from Cyzicus and about eighty stadia
from the nearest part of the sea, where the Aesepus
empties. And the poet mentions severally, in con-
tinuous order, the places that lie along the coast
after the Aesepus River: "And they who held
Adrasteia and the land of Apaesus, and held Pityeia
and the steep mountain of Tereia-these were led
by Adrastus and Amphius of the linen corslet, the
two sons of Merops of Percot ."2 These places lie
below Zeleia,3 but they are occupied by Cyziceni and
Priapeni even as far as the coast. Now near Zeleia
is the Tarsius River,4 which is crossed twenty times
by the same road, like the Heptaporus River,6 which
is mentioned by the poet.6 And the river that flows
from Nicomedeia into Nicaea is crossed twenty-four
times, and the river that flows from Pholo6 into the
Eleian country7 is crossed many times Scarthon
twenty-five times,8 and the river that flows from the

concerning Zeleia as in the present passage). But see Leaf's
note (op. cit.), p. 67.
4 On this river see Leaf, work last cited, p. 67.
6 Strabo does not mean that the Heptaporus was crossed
twenty times. The name itself means the river of "seven
fords" (or ferries).
6 Iliad 12. 20.
7 i.e. Elis, in the Pelopbnnesus.
8 The text is corrupt; and "Scarthon," whether it applies
to a river or a people, is otherwise unknown. However, this
whole passage, "And the river that flows from Nicomedeia
. crossed seventy-five times," appears to be a gloss, and
is ejected from the text by Kramer and Meineke (see Leaf's
Strabo and the Troad, p. 65, note 4).




WoXXok 8K Kcal 6 bic Koorcrwtviw ell' 'AXd,8av8a,
renvre 8e Scal B38olCKovTa 6 dec Tvavcov elt .Xov'
8th '70i Tavpov.
11. 'TTrwp 86 riTf cSBoXi~ TO7 Alo-'rrov Xye8dv
Tt .. orTa8Sotv IcoXwvoy eOrn, 4e' C Trdfioo
8eicvvTat Meirvovoroi 7T TtswvoD- rXratlor S' er'
KaL fI Me/Povo' KIct,. 7ro 8e Ali-rov tcal TOD
lptdrov eZTaIv 6 FpdaviKco, et, Ta 7roXXa St'.
'A8pao-v ia relov, 0' c '^AXe'av8po; 70o'
Aapeiov oaTpa' dra ava cpaTov ev1c7e aevpL3aXwv,
Kat 7raiav ro-aV v' eVTO' T Tavpov Ica'i To Eifpd-
Tov 7rape'Xapev. Trl s8 Ppaviico 7wrX't ijv YsiTv ,
Xoypav eXovua 7roXXrlv o .&wvvapov, IcarCToraarat
8' vlv. ev 8~ r7 pjIeopla T7j Kvrtlciv, /cal Tri
IIplaTrTflvj i- Tr a Apirayda2 T6T7ro, e~ o0 TOV
ravvut8i&v pvUevovtrv rp'irdxcar* AXXotL 86 riep'
AapSdvtov aKpav, wrX7Ialov Aap8dvov.
12. Hpipatroq 8' earT \rdLs o e'ri aXdry ica
XtiLijv K'r'Lia 8' ol p.ev MtXnriwv aPalv, o'irep
,cal "A8v8ov cxal Ipoicovvlo ov avvopictaav KaTa
TOv avTV Kcatpov, ot S8 Kvtctiovwl eTIrwvvpor 8'
d~rU TO ro IIptdr7ov ov TL./dO Trap aVrTOt, ei'T' I'
'OpvOev Tv 7vept K6piv0ov hJTrTevTlveyievYov TO7i
lepov, ei'r T(7 Xeyeoe8at arovtaov ica! vvf5ol-; TO'V
0ebv oppabo-dvrTv Er\&l TO Ttcv abIrTO To&V av'pC-
'irwv, iret87 i oo~8pa eva/.treXov eoYTiv X(pa Ical
1 After Tt there is a lacuna in the MSS. except Fi, i read-
ing ?v eicoat.
'Aprdyta, the spelling in Stephanus; 'Apvdysta F, 'Apra-
Xela (unaccented) D, 'ApraXcta other MSS.
1 The number of stadia has fallen out of the MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 10-12

country of the Coscinii into Alabanda is crossed
many times, and the river that flows from Tyana
into Soli through the Taurus is crossed seventy-five
11. About .1 stadia above the outlet of the
Aesepus River is a hill, where is shown the tomb of
Memnon, son of Tithonus; and near by is the village
of Memnon. The Granicus River flows between the
Aesepus River and Priapus, mostly through the plain
of Adrasteia,2 where Alexander utterly defeated
the satraps of Dareius in battle, and gained the
whole of the country inside the Taurus and the Eu-
phrates River. And on the Granicus was situated
the city Sidene, with a large territory of the same
name; but it is now in ruins. On the boundary
between the territory of Cyzicus and that of Priapus
is a place called Harpagia,3 from which, according
to some writers of myths, Ganymede was snatched,
though others say that he was snatched in the
neighbourhood of the Dardanian Promontory, near
12. Priapus4 is a city on the sea, and also a harbour.
Some say that it was founded by Milesians, who at
the same time also colonised Abydus and Proconnesus,
whereas others say that it was founded by Cyziceni.
It was named after Priapus, who was worshipped
there; then his worship was transferred thither from
Orneae near Corinth, or else the inhabitants felt an
impulse to worship the god because he was called
the son of Dionysus and a nymph; for their country
is abundantly supplied with the vine, both theirs
2 See Leaf, work last cited, p. 70.
8 The root harpag means "snatch away."
On the site of Priapus, see Leaf, p. 73.


avT] Kal 6' ;1 e)U6e OLopo 4 T6 TWv HIaptavicv
KIal 1 TWCv Aa/'aKric&v' d yoiv 5pgv Se? T ee/tUla-
ToicXet els olvov eMwOce r-v Adpratcov. a're8eL'rxi y
8 0e6,0 ObTO V7rO 7v V veowrepowv ov68 7yap
C 588 'Halos8o ole Hplaorov, \XX' 'otKce roT 'ATrrTcOg
'OpOdvy tal KovtarcdX sca TV~wve Kacl Trov
13. 'EtcaXeiro 8' 7r Xopa ar~l 'A8pdo-area Kal
'Apaaoelaq ?reslov, KaTa 08oo TI oiV' r e X3edTw
TO auTO XOymplov 8TT rO, C c xCal Oljp ca7 l O/rlq
7reSlov, Kca' MvySoviav xca MvyBovt'a re8lov.
f'~ral 2 KaXtaodCvrev aro 'A8pdo-TovU /ao'tXi,
oq TrpoTo9 Ne/ieo'aeto ep6y 18puaaro, KaXetEoat
'A8pdarteav. A7 sepv o'3v 7r(oL9 jierai.b HptdTrov
KcaLt aptov, 'eXouoa vTro/ceifJieov 7'reSiov r'iL vov,
ev c iKat iLavreiov 'Arv r6Xwvos 'AKcralov ical
'AprtuOs icaTa Tn\ . 3 el? SE t dplov p6er?7-
veyX liraaa 1 KIcaTao-Kcev c Kal Xt1a4 KaTa-
ac-aaOe pro TOV t epov, Kal ircosof iSrj ev T7 Haptl
9wyIu6, 'EpuoKpe'0ovTro 'piov, WrooXX? Vj tiL 7
aLov Kcara To5 /I[EyetOo Kal /KaXXo" TO 8e /avretov
eXel B,' ,'Ka0a'7rp Kal Tr &v ZeXela. evravOa
Ipv ouv o'8vv lepov 'ApaaTrda SetKcvvrat, obS\ S'

1 i, Meineke inserts.
2 Kai, before KaAAtr0e'vns, Corais and Meineke omit.
3 Kar& TrY nHrlvdCr7v (omitted by Cx), after 'ApT Io80s, is
corrupt; KaT& Tv TrScaTiv Dhi; cKaTr& rv iraiIarY, conj. Voss
on Scylax, p. 85; Kcar& Trv icrhi, conj. Berkel on Stephanus,
s.v. 'AKiTr (Kramer approving); KaTca 'rhv 7rvUdThrv aKT1'v,
Groskurd; Klar& Try avr.aKT7pv, conj. Meineke; Kca-rh ry
lvart, iv, conj. Corais.
Aiela, Meineke emends to MAeLa.
I Instead of rd moxz read Te; so Corais and Meineke.

GEOGRAPHY, 13.. 12-13

and the countries which border next upon it, I mean
those of the Pariani and the Lampsaceni. At any
rate, Xerxes gave Lampsacus to Themistocles to
supply him with wine. But it was by people of later
times that Priapus was declared a god, for even
Hesiod does not know of him; and he resembles
the Attic deities Orthan6, Conisalus, Tychon, and
others like them.
13. This country was called "Adrasteia" 1 and
"Plain of Adrasteia," in accordance with a custom
whereby people gave two names to the same place, as
"Theb and "Plain of Thebe," and Mygdonia"
and Plain of Mygdonia." According to Callisthenes,
among others, Adrasteia was named after King
Adrastus, who was the first to found a temple of
Nemesis. Now the city is situated between Priapus
and Parium; and it has below it a plain that is
named after it, in which there was an oracle of
Apollo Actaeus and Artemis. .. .2 But when the
temple was torn down, the whole of its furnishings
and stone-work were transported to Parium, where
was built an altar,3 the work of Hermocreon, very
remarkable for its size and beauty; but the oracle
was abolished like that at Zeleia. Here, however,
there is no temple of Adrasteia, nor yet of Nemesis,
1 On the site of Adrasteia, see Leaf, p. 77.
2 Three words in the Greek text here are corrupt. Strabo
may have said that this temple was on the shore," or in
the direction of Pityeia" (the same as Pitya; see 15 follow-
ing), or in the direction of Pacty (see critical note).
3 This altar was a stadium (about 600 feet) in length
(10. 5. 7).

6 i1Axetlp0 is emended by Miiller-Diibner and Meineke to


Neeo'-ewaq, rep 8' K;dlcv irOtv'A8pa0rTeia; tepdv.
'AvrtiaXo9 8' o~VTrW pra]7lv
eCaTt 84e Tr Netzecn P.eydCXr; 0eo', j rd8e 7ravTa
7rpov iacdpwov e'XaXerv' 3wtibYv ol e'o-'aTo
"A8prqaTro TrOTa/Loto 7rapa foov Ale-4aroo,
'vOa Terp'fTral Te /cal'A8pr-Tefta caXaeTaL.
14. "Eort 86 caTl TO Hdpov rTOXt C6r a OaXadrTy,
Xtyieva e'Xovra paCl(w 7~O TIptadrov, xal r v ily ev'
7ye eic rTaVTtg 0eparevovre9 lyap ot IapLavol
robI-'ATTaXwtio v, 5' ol drT01 TaXco I Ipta-
7rri7Y, 7'oXX v abrTq a7Tre7E ]oVTO, e mrTpc7TrOTO)V
Eiceivov. euvrava /pvOevovo-t rovs 'O0toyevet'
vIeyyvedaEv TWva eX'etrV TpO-' ToV? 6o0LA S* aat 8'
avTOv TOvU appeva'; TOt' eXto8jICTOtS Atco4 elvat
owveX(Jy etiarro/TPevovq, war6ep TrobU SET' r o;,
7rpwrov tev TO 7re AlroLa eq' eavTOvs pte6racpepovTaS,
eCta /cal TrV 0(Xey/JoVjv 7ravovTar cal ~TOV 7Tovv.
plvOevovo'l 8e TOV apXr)7'T7rv 'ro 7 ,yerovi 'Ipwa Ttva
e4 60ie0o? PerTaf/aXeiv Tadxa 8~ T oV 'WVXXwv Trtv
Tv T&iv At/ 3vcWv, elS Se To /'evo 8teLIretveLV
8~valtv p/L'Xp 7rroTov-. Kict o-a 8' e'o-T TIO dptov
MtXao'tv cal 'EpvOpalwv Ical Ilaptwv.
15. rIITlva 1 8' deo'ti IhtrvoD Z t T q HaptavSi ,
I Instead of nlrTa, the Epitome, following the Homeric
MSS. (see 10 above), reads nueLtia.
A not uncommon appellation of the gods.
2 Note the variant spelling of the name.
3 "Serpent-born."
See Leaf, work last cited, p. 85. s See 17. 1. 44.
SSee Fraser, Totemism and Evogamy, 1. 20,2.54 and 4. 178.
SAccording to the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (1.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 13-15

to be seen, although there is a temple of Adrasteia
near Cyzicus. Antimachus says as follows: "There
is a great goddess Nemesis, who has obtained as her
portion all these things from the Blessed.1 Adrestus2
was the first to build an altar to her beside the
stream of the Aesepus River, where she is worshipped
under the name of Adresteia."
14. The city Parium is situated on the sea; it has a
larger harbour than Priapus, and its territory has been
increased at the expense of Priapus; for the Parians
curried favour with the Attalic kings, to whom
the territory of Priapus was subject, and by their
permission cut off for themselves a large part of that
territory. Here is told the mythical story that the
Ophiogeneis"' are akin to the serpent tribe; 4 and
they say that the males of the Ophiogeneis cure
snake-bitten people by continuous stroking, after the
manner of enchanters, first transferring the livid
colour to their own bodies and then stopping both
the inflammation and the pain. According to the
myth, the original founder of the tribe, a certain
hero, changed from a serpent into a man. Perhaps
he was one of the Libyan Psylli,5 whose power per-
sisted in his tribe for a certain time.6 Parium was
founded by Milesians and Erythraeans and Parians.
15. Pitya 7 is in Pityus in the territory of Parium,

933), cited by Leaf (Troy, p. 187), "Lampsacus was formerly
called Pityeia, or, as others spell it, Pitya. Some say that
Phrixus stored his treasure there and that the city was
named after the treasure, for the Thracian word for treasure
is 'pitye'" (but cf. the Greek word "pitys," "pine tree").
Strabo, however, places Pitya to the east of Parium, whereas
Lampsacus lies to the west (see Leaf, I.c., pp. 185 ff.; and his
Strabo on the Troad, p. 87). In 18 (following) Strabo says
that "Lampsacus was formerly called Pityussa."


brrepKcelJEevov eXovaa retrvJ68e opo"r pferaC p 8
KeErat Hfaptov ctal lptdatov KcaTa AZvov, Xwp1ov
e'7rL ~aXdTTrS, Srou ol Atpvo tot /coxXlai aptroot
T'r V dvtrv caXlKcovrat.
16. 'Ev 86 7 rapdcrrX 7 T', arrb aplov eIq
IIplawov re 'raXai'h Ipoovvajo e&rti /cal tJ
Pvv IHpoKOvvrao-ov, 7roXtv eXovca ical J,6TraXXov
C 589 /~eya Xevwcoi Xiolv o-dp8 pa E'dratvovfievov Ta 2 yoi
KdXXLtTa Tri TazpTy 7rToewv 'pya, dev 8 TrotZ
7rpcrTaI Ta dev KvSircc, ravr 0o-7 Tt T~i XlVOov.
6ieTe60fv Er-Tr 'AptCrTe'a,2 6 TrorqTT TWV 'Apt-
iaor7relwv caXovlvow 7Tfr&J)v, aS,7p yo'r, ei' Tr
17. To 8oTfpefl 3 opoT ol p~v i Iv Tllepwcao-
opi Oao-aiv, 'a eXovrtv ol Kv'eicvoyl ry ZeXela
rpoOaefx, ed ol 8aaosXtaic 0poa KaTCrOcevaaTo
ToZ" AvSooE, Kcal Helpo-anl SVorepov' ol 8' d7rn
rer'rapdaovTra Ora8&wv Aaapwrdcov temKvcovar
Xo6ov, Ce' M~rpoT Oe&ev tepov eaotv a&yov,
Tyiperqv derrraXo/Ievov.
18. Kai 5 AayfraKcoF 8' e'7ri aXdrIy 'roXt9
earP7 ev X&i evo, ca'l attXoyos, ovjIttelvovaa KaXca 3,
18o Xet 8av'Tag 0"OV
wao-rep Kal t "A/3vu0o' &ie'e a8r' i ov
1 rpZTa, Corais, for vrpC.ol ; so the later editors.
2 'Apura4as, Casaubon, for 'ApwrTaios; so the later editors.
3 TyJpdEs, in margin of E, for A1bes C, fs pEAis other
Typebis, theeditors, for rfs pelbs.
1Leaf (I.e.) translates, hill shaped like a pine tree,"
adding (p. 187) that "the resemblance to a pine tree, so far
as my personal observation went, means no more than that
the hill slopes gently up to a rounded top." However, the
Greek adjective probably means in the present passage

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 15-18

lying below a pine-covered mountain;1 and it lies
between Parium and Priapus in the direction of
Linum, a place on the seashore, where are caught
the Linusian snails, the best in the world.
16. On the coasting-voyage from Parium to
Priapus lie both the old Proconnesus and the present
Proconnesus, the latter having a city and also a great
quarry of white marble that is very highly com-
mended; at any rate, the most beautiful works of
art2 in the cities of that part of the world, and
especially those in Cyzicus, are made of this marble.
Aristeas was a Proconnesian-the author of the
Arimaspian Epic, as it is called-a charlatan if ever
there was one.3
17. As for "the mountain of Tereia," 4 some say
that it is the range of mountains in Peirossus which
are occupied by the Cyziceni and are adjacent to
Zeleia, where a royal hunting-ground was arranged
by the Lydians, and later by the Persians; but
others point out a hill forty stadia from Lampsacus,
on which there is a temple sacred to the mother of
the gods, entitled "Tereia's" temple.
18. Lampsacus,6 also, is a city on the sea, a
notable city with a good harbour, and still flourishing,
like Abydus. It is about one hundred and seventy

"pine-covered" (cf. the use of the same adjective in 8. 6. 22,
where it applies to a sacred precinct on the Isthmus of
2 i.e. buildings, statues, and other marble structures (see
5. 2. 5 and 5. 3. 8, and the foot-notes on "works of art").
3 See 1. 2. 10, and Herodotus, 4. 13.
The mountain mentioned in Iliad 2. 829.
6 Xenophon (Hellenicz 4. 1. 15) speaks of royal hunting-
grounds, "some in enclosed parks, others in open regions."
6 Now Lapsaki. On the site, see Leaf, p. 92.


el0So/ic7Kovra Kai clcarav o raSlovu deKaXelTo Se
7rpTrepov IIrvoDiocra, KaOdcvep Kai 7Tv XIov
aoilv" dv 8' 7Se repair1 T~i Xeppovo-jov wro-
XIXVtLO deOr KaXXViroXhti KceLat 8' eTr' KTi)c'r,
IcKetjrivr 2 iroXV' rpbo TjV 'Aolav KarT T7jv
AaafaKcqv v v ro'Xc, ~crTe b Stapya l, 7rXedov
elvat TerTTapadcoVa Ta'railv.
19. 'Ev 8e 70 iera4P Aatb rtdcov ical ITaptov
llato-r 'v rohXc Kcal 7ro'ra/pv- KcaTCrraaTa 3 8'
S7roXt. ol & IIat-rvol pUeTro'ico-av ely Adpa'a-
Kov, Mtlxo-6',vT OTv7E6 arotiot Kica avrot, Kadtirep
cKai ol aAa1raK?7vol 6S 7ro'?rTI e't'(p Kv d/.tio-
TEpw, ical 7rpoa-elv T7v rpTrijy o-vXXa/rv,
Kal, S pov 'A7ato-oD,
Kcu dfeXdwv,
oa p emt IaPa ,
vale 7rOXvKTicr6jov.
Katl 6 rorTaypo viv orc) icaXeiTrat. MXllotcov 8'
elo-l Kal at Kokowval al VTrep Aa~trdicov E'v T
leo-ooyaia 71,F Aat aqf v'jv ak Xac 8' el'iv ETri
7r 0koy eEXX~cTrov7Ta OaXldrr, 'I\lov 8te ovcat
a-raBlov; TerTapadcovTa 7rpo v ro0Z Ecar6v' dWv
1TV KcKvov eaotv. 'Ava~ierTy S' ta& alv rj7
'EpvOpala qfo-'a Xd'yeo-a KoXova, ial ev rj
clOisLtC Kca ev OerT4aa' v 8 7fl HIapcavy o e8rLy
'IXtocoXKOXvI. dv 8e T-j AaylraiVcyv TrroTro evadt-
rweXoo Pfepyl0tov' v 86 icatl roXt rPepyIOa, e'K
T&Wv v rTy Kv/Lalia PepylyOwv' v yap IcaKei 7rXLA
I repalt, Xylander, for orTepl ; so the later editors.
2 moz read bKic Sia~Ka7iraasT Foz, ,carderaOro CDhirwx.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 18-19

stadia distant from Abydus; and it was formerly
called Pityussa, as also, it is said, was Chios. On
the opposite shore of the Chersonesus is Callipolis, a
small town. It is on the headland and runs far out
towards Asia in the direction of the city of the
Lampsaceni, so that the passage across to Asia from
it is no more than forty stadia.
19. In the interval between Lampsacus and
Parium lay a city and river called Paesus; but the
city is in ruins. The Paeseni changed their abode
to Lampsacus, they too being colonists from the
Milesians, like the Lampsaceni. But the poet refers
to the place in two ways, at one time adding the
first syllable, "and the land of Apaesus," 1 and at
another omitting it, "a man of many possessions,
who dwelt in Paesus." 2 And the river is now
spelled in the latter way. Colonae,3 which lies
above Lampsacus in the interior of Lampsacen6, is
also a colony of the Milesians; and there is another
Colonae on the outer Hellespontine sea, which is
one hundred and forty stadia distant from Ilium and
is said to be the birthplace of Cycnus.4 Anaximenes
says that there are also places in the Erythraean
territory and in Phocis and in Thessaly that are
called Colonae. And there is an Iliocolon6 in the
territory of Parium. In the territory of Lampsacus
is a place called Gergithium 5 which is rich in vines;
and there was also a city called Gergitha from
Gergithes in the territory of Cyme, for here too

1 Iliad 2. 828. 2 Iliad 5. 612.
3 On the site of Colonae, see Leaf (Strabo and the Troad),
p. 101.
King of Colonae, slain by Achilles in the Trojan War.
a On Gergithium, see Leaf, p. 102.


'y7VVUPTwicK9 ial 6qf vKDWlc Xeyo-/oeun ai Te'pyrfeg,
80evTrep PepyltSto; v KecaXwov ical vPUv 'er
8eKcvurat r Tro7T dOv r Kv/ala Tep/ylt6ov rrpb6
Aaplara. ec IIaptov pJev ov A yXwoo-o-oypadp o?
Ktr0fJe9 qv NeoTrrTXejio? vLtri7 c~toz, ic Aa~.'ed-
Icov 8e Xdpwv re 6 avyypaeb; KEaal'ASe[l/avTro ical
'Avatfepvns9 p rjTwp ical M7Trpo~Bpo0s, 0 TO7
'E'rTKovpov e rapog, eal o avro; S' 'ETrrcovpos
7rprov Twv Aa/'ra/csbv -v b7r p4e, 8taTpl'7ar, evL
Aa1bdicrKp ia't 0hXot; Xpra-dp.evo TOtL dpi~-oroit
0 590 rov dv 7r rr6 he ravOr, Troe' rept' 'ISo/Levea /cal
AeovTra. e00vre ev e I6erTjveyKev 'Aypit7rra TOPv
rerr71-Twora XAovra, Avo-lwrrrov epyov' ave'rlce 86
Ed r~ daXce r, IETerabv T? 7 t's /lvy ca TOD evplTrov.
20. Mera 94 Aaidpacov Oeartv 'Apu8o? Ical Ta
6erayb Xwpia, 7repit rOw oV'T el'pifce o'vuXap ov
Od rotrT7) Kca T'7V Aa GaicY'vqrv Iac 71 T llaptaviy
TtV (ove7r) yap aOaav av'at at roXaes /cara Ta
o'8 a pa IIepKriwqv cal IIpdirtc7ov a/ieveovro,
Kca Yraqo-vy ical "A/3uvov eyov ical ASav
Tr& aB0' 'TpTracisy7 fp' "Aaro-w,
by 'Aptor/39ev Epov i7T7roi
aWove9 pIeyahot 7roTra/uob aro &eXXfevTro?.
1 Fl. in the Alexandrian period; author of works entitled
Glosses and On Epigrams.
2 Early historian; author of Persian History and Annals
of the Lampsaceni.
3 Known only as courtier of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
4 See Frazer's note on Pausanias, 6. 18. 2.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 19-20

there was a city called Gergithes, in the feminine
plural, the birthplace of Cephalon the Gergithian.
And still to-day a place called Gergithium is pointed
out in the territory of Cyme near Larissa. Now
Neoptolemus,' called the Glossographer, a notable
man, was from Parium; and Charon the historian2
and Adeimantus 3 and Anaximenes the rhetorician 4
and Metrodorus the comrade of Epicurus were from
Lampsacus; and Epicurus himself was in a sense a
Lampsacenian, having lived in Lampsacus and having
been on intimate terms with the ablest men of that
city, Idomeneus and Leonteus and their followers.
It was from here that Agrippa transported the Fallen
Lion, a work of Lysippus; and he dedicated it in the
sacred precinct between the Lake and the Euripus.5
20. After Lampsacus come Abydus and the
intervening places of which the poet, who comprises
with them the territory of Lampsacus and part of
the territory of Parium (for these two cities were
not yet in existence in the Trojan times), speaks as
follows: "And those who dwelt about Percot6 and
Practius, and held Sestus and Abydus and goodly
Arisbe-these in turn were led by Asius, the son of
Hyrtacus, who was brought by his large sorrel
horses from Arisbe, from the River SellEeis." 6 In
5 "The Lake" seems surely to be the Stagnum Agrippae
mentioned by Tacitus (Annals 15. 37), i.e. the Nemus
Caesarum on the right bank of the Tiber (see A. Habler,
Hermes 19 (1884), p.'235). "The Stagnum Agrippae was
apparently a pond constructed by Agrippa in connection
with the Aqua Virgo and the canal called Euripus in the
neighbourhood of the Pantheon" (C. G. Ramsay, Annals of
Tacitus, 15. 37), or, as Leaf (op. cit., p. 108) puts it, "The
Euripus is the channel filled with water set up by Caesar
round the arena of the Circus Maximus at Rome to protect
the spectators from the wild beasts." 6 Iliad 2. 835.

oivm 8' eld7rv i'oce To /ao-rletov nbroialvev
r70 'Ao-rov 71jv 'Aptalo-P 60ev 'tcevz avrov

v 'Aptlo-)3i0ev cepov Twrirot
7rora/ooD a7ro 2eXX?)evTro.
oVao 8' av 'vir X'p(apta TvavTa eir, WoTre o0v"
o/oXoyo-crt 7rep' air-Tv ol i'rropoDvre9, 7rXIv o'T
7repi "A/3vSov Kal Ad'raidcv ea-rt Ia'l Ildptov, Kat
oTI I 'ra.at IlepKITc(L 1 fTerwvoot d17O 0 To 7ro.
21. T ov 8' 'roTra&,v roYv Pv %eXXijevTad ao-ev
T6 rot~,T j ITP y? Trj 'Aplo/3y pev, e'irep 6 "Awo-so
'ApiaGoSj0fv re ice K caL rro'aov caro feXX2fevTo9.
Se 8 Ipdic7To9 7rTOTalbo Aev f eO-T, w7r6Xh 8' ov)'
evpltaOerat, on Tvrez evo/Iao-av ACe 8e cal oi'roq
/erTaf 'A v8ov ical Aajiu a*cov' TO oVO
Aai IT HpK tov At2 eviov'ro,
oT eo 8ECTeov, (g 7rep t 7roTa/oovD, KaaTrvep ica-

o' apa 7rap 7ro'raltbv Kipuo-av 8tov evatov,
apl Tre Hap0eviov 7rOTayo~v IcXvTa 'py' ev-
7v 86 ical b Aco-,3wP vroXi' 'Aplo'a, '9 ov
Xdpav eXovUo- Mq70vpvatot eacr'o S KIal roa/ubo
"AptcrfI o j' Ope cp oo-7rep Eipy'rat, cal ToovTO
x After nepe Kt Leaf inserts eter;idai9 Knal 'nepic6nr (see
his Strabo on the Troad, p. 11, footnote 3 on p. 108, and
note on Pereot6, p. 111). Thus, according to him, "the old
Percote was transplanted and the name of its site changed
to Percop."

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 20-21

speaking thus, the poet seems to set forth Arisbe,
whence he says Asius came, as the royal residence of
Asius : "who was brought by his horses from Arisb6,
from the River Selleeis." But these places 1 are so
obscure that even investigators do not agree about
them, except that they are in the neighbourhood of
Abydus and Lampsacus and Parium, and that the
old Percote,2 the site, underwent a change of name.3
21. Of the rivers, the Selleeis flows near Arisb, -
as the poet says, if it be true that Asius came both
from Arisbe and from the Selleeis River. The
River Practius is indeed in existence, but no city of
that name is to be found, as some have wrongly
thought. This river also4 flows between Abydus
and Lampsacus. Accordingly, the words, "and
dwelt about Practius," should be interpreted as
applying to a river, as should also those other
words, "and those who dwelt beside the goodly
Cephisus River," 5 and "those who had their famed
estates about the Parthenius River." There was
also a city Arisba in Lesbos, whose territory is
occupied by the Methymnaeans. And there is an
Arisbus River in Thrace, as I have said before,7 near
1 i.e. Arisbe, Percote, and the Selleeis. Strabo himself
locates the Practius (13. 1. 4, 7, 8, 21). On the sites of these
places, see Leaf's Troy. pp. 188 if., his note in Jour. Hellenic
Studies, XXXVII (1917), p. 26, and his Strabo on the Troad,
pp. 108 ff.
2 Homer's Percote, on the sea. 3 See critical note.
4 i.e. as well as the Sell~eis. Iliad 2. 522.
6 Iliad 2. 854 (see critical note).
Obviously in the lost portion of Book VII.
2 Instead of p'y' gveioviro the Homeric MSS. have ypa"r'
fvatov, and Strabo himself so cites in 12. 3. 5. Eustathius
(note on Iliad 2. 835) cites as in the present passage.


7rXrlotov ot Ke/ppviovt (pacev. 7roXXal S' otow-
vvylat Lpaql Kat Tpoal', otov O Katoi O8pIce'
Tiveg catl ticatod roTato, Ical ,cawtv 7relto ical
ev Tpota 2tcatal 7rhavat Eadvl9ot OEpraces, NdvOo
7rora/,p dv Tpotia "Apto-ro9 d6 4,3a Xwv els rTO
"Epov, 'Aplar-/3 ev Tpola" 'Poj-og 7roTrauo ev'
Tpoil, 'Poo So e ical o tao-tXev, Trov Opatiov.
ecl Kat IcaT 7 'Ao-Mc OpYovvjto9 frepo9 'rapa Tr
rot?)rf "AoAto,
89 )u7rpwF 'v '"EEcropo9 ITrroSdtotlo,
avroKaro-yVlT o9 E-a3, 0'" A6vavTro9,
08 22. "AsvSog 8e MtXa o0l v 'art' IcTt'ar a, -irt-
7TpravTro9 vyov, T70 AvS&v 3ao-CitXe'T v 7yap
e7r' Eicelv Ta yxwpia Ial i Tpwai a!'raaa,
ovo/da'erat Sf Kal acxpwT7ptOv rt 7rpo? AapSdvp
0 591 F yav e etKterat 6 7T ro ritarta 7 IIpoTrov7T8o0
cal TOO 'EXXryx-rdvrov, 81t'XL Se Tob l'o-o Aafrcdi-
KOU cKa 'IXiov, O7'Ta8 ov enp 6o8L0/ KovrTa IKa
car7ov. evrauOa 8' eCt To e7Trao-Tatov, 7rep
e'6vre SE/7Fu, T6 8wdptiov T'V EbpcrrlvY Kal T7rV
'Alaav. icaXeirat 8' d/cpa rTi Esp 27snjv Xep-
powylao d 8aTO a j 77a, 7rotovoa ra areva ra
KaTa TO evy7a' a- aTieTat 8 T0 e6fiyta 7ST
'AP38)w. 1 7-TO 8 piaprrL11 TaV ev Xeppovay-
wrr6ewv" tah 86 Tr v yetroao7vr vbro 7 abTW
I For a&ptrri Meineke conj. icpwrtaolr.

1 Iliad 16. 717.
2 On the site of Abydus, see Leaf, Strabo on the Troad, p.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 21-22

which are situated the Thracian Cebrenians. There
are many names common to the Thracians and the
Trojans; for example, there are Thracians called
Scaeans, and a river Scaeus, and a Scaean Wall, and
at Troy the Scaean Gates. And there are Thracian
Xanthians, and in Troy-land a river Xanthus. And
in Troy-land there is a river Arisbus which empties
into the Hebrus, as also a city Arisb6. And there
was a river Rhesus in Troy-land; and there was a
Rhesus who was the king of the Thracians. And
there is also, of the same name as this Asius, another
Asius in Homer, "who was maternal uncle to horse-
taming Hector, and own brother to Hecab6, but son
of Dymas, who dwelt in Phrygia by the streams of
the Sangarius." 1
22. Abydus was founded by Milesians, being
founded by permission of Gyges, king of the
Lydians; for this district and the whole of the
Troad were under his sway; and there is a promon-
tory named Gygas near Dardanus. Abydus lies at
the mouth of the Propontis and the Hellespont;
and it is equidistant from Lampsacus and Ilium,
about one hundred and seventy stadia.2 Here,
separating Europe and Asia, is the Heptastadium,3
which was bridged by Xerxes. The European
promontory that forms the narrows at the place of
the bridge is called the Chersonesus 4 because of its
shape. And the place of the bridge lies opposite
Abydus. Sestus is the best of the cities in the
Chersonesus; and, on account of its proximity to
Abydus, it was assigned to the same governor as
3i.e. "Strait of seven stadia."
Si.e. Land-island" or "Peninsula."
5 On its site, see Leaf, work last cited, p. 119.


ryef 1tovt al aiabT e'r' aK7o obU'7r Taf pTrrelpotq
StoptfovTwv TWOv Tore 7Tag i'ye6oviag. 1? pUCv oZv
"A3v8o" /calt Cr] 20TO Ge'Xovtrv aXXjXov rpTd-
IcovTa rov aTa8tov9 6c Xt~evoq etv XitLeva, Tb
eGy/,d eaTr IUttcpbov arbo Twv rrd eov 7rapaXXd-
!avWT cE 'A)3vSoV luv 6ie &E dl 7?'1j IHpo0rovTr8a, dK
86 $Co-rov elSy rovvavTiov* OvofdIaeTat 7rpo T 7
CarT TOr-ov 'A7ro3d0pa, Ica0' Ov ceVyvvuo 7i
arXyea' ao-rt 8 f YC77TOr evSore'po Kxia T7p
TpoTrovTrta bvrepoeto '70i To po0i roD e avrfj''
&to Kal fibrreTerVpov rc T70 7orovD 8tatpov-at
7rapaXKedptevot 1 iKtcpovY E'Trl v r 'Hpo?
mrvpyov cKaKceLv acitevTre s r rXola o-vptrpdaTTOVTO;
Toi poD 7prp's T7v wrepalwoat' Tro7 8' if 'A SBoov
7repatovu/ivot' 7rapaXeKTeov2 aorLV el TIvavnia
OKTcr 7TOU (rTasovF E~ 7 rvpyov r L a KaT' avTnxp
Tr)v IvrroD, e'Tretra 8talpetv 7rXcdyov Kal a\
TeX6e, evavT'ov 'Xovac Tv o PoDv. Wicovv 86 Trv
"Aj8v8ov era Ta TpO rcptK OpIce, e67a M(X Io'o.
Trwv rv & r eTov Lrpra-Oeiraov vrro Aape'ov, TO7
Epo 7v arTpo?', T7 v /caTa Trv IpoTrovroTa,
eIcotv(rv7-e Ical 7' "A)3vo T4rj' abTIj? avIfAopai.
eveirpao-e S6 Orv0oievo tera\ Trv aTrwo TWrv YICVO& v
E7rdvoov, Tobv vopLdSay 7rapao-Kcevc'eo6at Sta-
aaltvetv rr' aVrbov Kara rtl.oplalav v eraoov,
e8twO y7\ at 7roXeL 'ropOpeia 7rapdo-oteo v Try
o-TpaTrt. avvel/3' Se rpos\ Tral dXXatrca gUera-
/oXail Kica T~ Xpivc ical TroiTo ailtov 7ri
1rapaAedg~evoi, Kramer restores, for rapaaadtaEvo C,
rapaAAa^dl Eot rw, Xylander, and other editors.
2 rapapKTE'ov, Kramer restores, for wrapaAAaKioy, earlier

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 22

Abydus in the times when governorships had not
yet been delimited by continents. Now although
Abydus and Sestus are about thirty stadia distant
from one another from harbour to harbour, yet the
line of the bridge across the strait is short, being
drawn at an angle to that between the two cities, that
is, from a point nearer than Abydus to the Propontis
on the Abydus side to a point farther away from
the Propontis on the Sestus side. Near Sestus is a
place named Apobathra,1 where the pontoon-bridge
was attached to the shore. Sestus lies farther in
towards the Propontis, farther up the stream that
flows out of the Propontis. It is therefore easier to
cross over from Sestus, first coasting a short distance
to the Tower of Hero and then letting the ships
make the passage across by the help of the current.
But those who cross over from Abydus must first
follow the coast in the opposite direction about
eight stadia to a tower opposite Sestus, and then
sail across obliquely and thus not have to meet the
full force of the current. After the Trojan War
Abydus was the home of Thracians, and then of
Milesians. But when the cities were burned by
Dareius, father of Xerxes, I mean the cities on the
Propontis, Abydus shared in the same misfortune.
He burned them because he had learned after his
return from his attack upon the Scythians that the
nomads were making preparations to cross the strait
and attack him to avenge their sufferings, and was
afraid that the cities would provide means for the
passage of their army. And this too, in addition to
the other changes and to the lapse of time, is a
cause of the confusion into which the topography of
1 i.e. "Place of Disembarkation."


UyXia'6e0w Tr7y TO7rTw. r epl Se8 S1oro Kal Tr~
3X7r7 Xeppovro-ov 'npoelVropfev ev To T *7repGt rT.
Opdacr/c TOroqS,1 017 8cr'i B Tr' Yqor-TO Y OfETroL7TOq
jIpavelav ptLv, evsepic 8e', /cal o-KEX e& Sf-rrXCOpp
a-vvdcTrTev rpo; TrOY X e'va, KCal S raU 7' ov ical
8t T 7rv povPv cvpav elvat Tr&v 7rapoSwv.
23. 'Twre'picerat 8e 7y Trv 'A/3v8&iv&v Xcopaq
ev rf^ Tpodi8 Ta "Ao-Tvpa, a viv p,'Av 'E Aiv8Iv6v
efrT, Kxareafca/upievr 7T0X, 7rporepov 86 Jv caf'
avTra, XPv-rea eXovTa, a vvv o7ravLa earTl
e'avaXrwo eva, KaOa-rep TA v br' TpLoXwp ra 7rept
Tro IIaKrawXv. anrb 'ASv ov 8' err( AloS' rrYov
w*rept e7TrTatoo-lovs aal a-raslove, evBOvrXoita Se
fa XTTOU .
0 592 24. "Eo, 86 'APdSov rTa wept rO "IXev d'o-r,
T Tre w*rapdXea &g, Aeicrov ical Tra dv T Tpwteic
rre8t Ka' ra 7cr rapipeta T'r "I'8 rh bTvrb 7r
Awvela. StTrr& Se ravr ovo/dLCet o 6fro0rT)F, roTe
ou7q XTOv"
ieV OVTCW 6e'ywv'
Aap8avtwv adr' rIpxev Iv'' 'ratF 'AryX~oao,
Aap8avlovT icaXv, TrorE 86 Aap8dvouv,
TpCe, i Kca AVic'to ical Adp8avos adXtyTaXqrrai.
I Kramer suspects that Tdnrozs should be ejected. Meineke
conj. hdyotP, but retains TrdroI, in his text. Cp. Frog. 55a,
Vol. III, p. 378.
1 See Vol. III, Frags. 51 (p. 373), 55b (p. 379), and 51a,
52, and 53 (p. 375).
Si.e. about 200 feet (in breadth).
3 According to Leaf (1.e., p. 135), the shortest course of a
vessel between Abydus and the mouth of the Aesepus
measures just about 700 stadia. Hence Strabo's authorities
for his statement are in error if, as usual, the longer voyage

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 22-24

the country has fallen. As for Sestus and the
Chersonesus in general, I have already spoken of
them in my description of the region of Thrace.'
Theopompus says that Sestus is small but well forti-
fied, and that it is connected with its harbour by a
double wall of two plethra,2 and that for this reason,
as also on account of the current, it is mistress of
the passage.
23. Above the territory of the Abydeni, in the
Troad, lies Astyra. This city, which is in ruins,
now belongs to the Abydeni, but in earlier times it
was independent and had gold mines. These mines
are now scant, being used up, like those on Mt.
Tmolus in the neighbourhood of the Pactolus River.
From Abydus to the Aesepus the distance is said to
be about seven hundred stadia, but less by straight
24. Outside Abydus lies the territory of Ilium-the
parts on the shore extending to Lectum, and the
places in the Trojan Plain, and the parts on the side
of Mt. Ida that were subject to Aeneias. The poet
names these last parts in two ways, at one time
saying as follows: "The Dardanii in turn were
led by the valiant son of Anchises,"4 calling the
inhabitants "Dardanii"; and at another time,
" Dardani ": The Trojans and Lycians and Dardani
that fight in close combat." And it is reason-
is a coasting voyage, following the sinuosities of the gulfs, as
against the shorter, or more direct, voyage. Leaf, however,
forces the phrase by straight sailing to mean a straight
course wholly over the land," adding that "the meaning
must be that it would be shorter if one could sail straight,"
and that "the expression is singularly infelicitous as applied
to a journey by land in contrast to one by sea."
4 Iliad. 2. 819.


el/c 8' evravfGa 18pbo0-at br aXatov Trv Xeyo-
1ievtrv i"rbV TOV 7rorLJroD Aap8aviav
Adp8avov av 7pwOTov Td/ceTO veeXrsyep'Ta
rcTi-a-e dAap8avirjv.
vvv /eLv yap oS' 0 XVo 7IrTCewo e)',eTat avroOt.
25. Elccidet Se IXaTrwv Te'ra Tob caKaa-
KXvaUov; Tpi'a 7roXtTe'a; E'8jl a-vvo-Tao-Oara
7rp&roov f/1e TO eTr Ta aK1cpwpelaF ajTrXODiV Tt
ical d'ypov, 8e80'Twv Ta vSaTa ernroXdfovra
aicpiv oev -TO 7reslotr Se&vTepov '8 Tb \& Tat9
VTrtpeiate, OappovT'rcv 7'87 icarza /ucpov, ai e Sl
Kai Twv reSlwV apoYeVwv dAvaFrv'xecrav 7Tpitrov
Se To v Tro9 7reSioL. Xeyot 8' cav iTt Ka' TeTapTov
Kal 7TE/L7rTOV OB Ica'l vXelft, Vo-vaTaov S Tob v
T'q ?rapaXta Ical e' Tal Vrjrootv, XeXvuervou 7raVrTO
TO7 TotLOTov 6/30ov. T6 Iyap iaeXXov IKal 2TTrOV
Oappev rXrotria'd et OaXd'r.ry TrXEovT av
bnroypdpot Sitaoopai 7rOXItreL ov /cal ~9O&v, Ica-
OdTrep1 Tr)V Aya 0)v2 Tre al T rov adypicov rt
7rw03 E7Tl TO 57/epOV Tr&v SevrTpoWV V7ro~/3eOpf KOTOV.
a'oTt. o4 Tt 8ta opa Kal Trapa TOvTOt~ Tlw)
aypoLtcov cal /1ecaaypolKvc Kat wroXLTI cWV' d('
(ov P y cKal E7Tr TO da-Tefov Kcal laprarov f0o9
'rTXevlroC-ev '5 Tlov OVO/dtr wv KaT' oX'yov /eTa'-
1 Ka9Odrep, Xylander, for Kal irep ; so the later editors.
2 aya0iv MSS., Leaf (op. cit. pp. 13, 140) restores, for
A&rXv, emendation of Groskurd accepted by other later editors.
Plato (Laws 679 C) says: &yaOol p~v tiL& TaDTa (i.e. the absence
of riches, poverty, insolence, injustice, and envy) re ?jaav Kal
1 Ai TV A'Eoput'Y ebOiOesav.
3 r ?cws, the editors in general, for frft 7rws moz, TI i was

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 24-25

able to suppose that this was in ancient times the site
of the Dardania mentioned by the poet when he
says, "At first Dardanus was begotten by Zeus the
cloud-gatherer, and he founded Dardania ; 1 for at
the present time there is not so much as a trace of
a city preserved in that territory.2
25. Plato3 conjectures, however, that after the
time of the floods three kinds of civilisation were
formed : the first, that on the mountain-tops, which
was simple and wild, when men were in fear of the
waters which still deeply covered the plains; the
second, that on the foot-hills, when men were now
gradually taking courage because the plains were
beginning to be relieved of the waters; and the
third, that in the plains. One might speak equally
of a fourth and fifth, or even more, but last of all that
on the sea-coast and in the islands, when men had
been finally released from all such fear; for the
greater or less courage they took in approaching the
sea would indicate several different stages of civilisa-
tion and manners, first as in the case of the qualities of
goodness 4 and wildness, which in some way further
served as a foundation for the milder qualities in the
second stage. But in the second stage also there is
a difference to be noted, I mean between the rustic and
semi-rustic and civilised qualities; and, beginning
with these last qualities, the gradual assumption
of new names ended in the polite and highest
1 Iliad 20. 215.
2 On the boundaries of Dardania, see Leaf (I.e., p. 137).
3 Laws 677-679. 4 See critical note.
other MSS. ; omitted by Corais; 5i vrGs, Groskurd; CrEpws
4* after 'ITL, Leaf omits.


Xifri.F, KaTa rT7V TW2V r0WPV E71 TO IKpETpTOV
e6Trdaeao-tw, 7rapdh 'a Twv TOTrov cal K Tv Aiwv
LeTaP/oX4d. TaV'T-a 81) Ta Stafopah; b7ro'pdceiv
77at w royv Tro'rIv '7 T1XLaTwv, T7rj9 I TrpwTrr?
'roXtT'ea? rrapaSesy ua s9vTa rTOv T'6W KvicoTrwv
8liov, abTOcfvei~r ve/iot/LV v icap'robv ical Ta'
adKpopeaw; KaITEXOVTO)V 6Tv Crr7lXa0otl Ttrav-
Adh Ta 7' airvapTa cal dv1jpoTa rdwaa
'7lvy, avTolV"
TOlalv 8' Oikc a'yopal 83ovXq'opot, oLTe

aXX' oi 7' vifqiXav Zpev valova' rKcaprva,
dv o-rreoo'at yXagvpolat, OepItcrevet S &ecKaC'ro
7ralSAv ~' cdX6Xv.
Tro 8' Sev7repov 'rbv dert TO Aap8dvov*
Kicroae oAapavt vv, dwre oArw "IXto, Ip~j
C593 ev wre8 Tre'rXleaTro, roXti 1 pep6rrwv JvOpw-
I V0 .,
cXXl' 10' &rTopelaF wceo6 2 7roXv7TrLSdicov "IJS7.
Toi 8e TptTOV d7ri TOD "IXov TO v TOr treSloS?.
ToVrov yap ?rapa8t8baoat T0o 'IXov CTrWT'rJV, a'
ov icatl T7V eTraov/u~lav' Xa3ev Ty rrv v orX elix,
8' ,cal SIA TOOTO eV' iLeafy T TreS redcfTa' at
avrov, OTt 7rproTS 'Odppaev dV TOK 7Trefots
Oa-`at 7rlv KaaTroticiav
ol 8S erap' "IXou ar jfa rraXatoD AapSavt8ao
.pueo-aov icar tre8lov nrap' epieov eo-oevoVro.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 25

culture, in accordance with the change of manners
for the better along with the changes in places of
abode and in modes of life. Now these differences,
according to Plato,1 are suggested by the poet, who
sets forth as an example of the first stage of civilisa-
tion the life of the Cyclopes, who lived on unculti-
vated fruits and occupied the mountain-tops, living
in caves: "but all these things," he says, "grow
unsown and unploughed" for them. .. And
they have no assemblies for council, nor appointed
laws, but they dwell on the tops of high mountains
in hollow caves, and each is lawgiver to his children
and his wives." 2 And as an example of the second
stage, the life in the time of Dardanus, who "founded
Dardania; for not yet had sacred Ilios been builded
to be a city of mortal men, but they were living on
the foot-hills of many-fountained Ida." 3 And of the
third stage, the life in the plains in the time of
Ilus ; 4 for he is the traditional founder of Ilium, and
it was from him that the city took its name. And
it is reasonable to suppose, also, that he was buried
in the middle of the plain for this reason-that he
was the first to dare to settle in the plains: "And
they sped past the tomb of ancient Ilus, son of
Dardanus, through the middle of the plain past
the wild fig tree." 6 Yet even Ilus did not have full

I Laws 3. 680.
2 Odyssey 9. 109, 112-114 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 680).
SIliad 20. 216 (quoted by Plato in Laws 3. 681).
Laws 3. 682. 6 Iliad 11. 166.

1 irl, Corais, for ?K; so the later editors.
' Instead of Oeioy, mos read vaiov.


obz' o0ro 8 76 eXetwc efdpplrjae ob 'yAp Evra3Oa
"8opvOe 7rVy roXiv, o5nov vvv earTv, aXXa o-yeX8
Tt rptaicovTa a(aSoIotV Avwrepw 7rpoy e6 ,cal 7rpb;
Tv "I7r/yv ica' Trv Aap8aviav /caTa 7v vvv
IcaXov/~fvrlv 'Idewv KoLrylv. ol 86 viv 'IXteiZ
cLXo8o0oiOvTe, ical 0eXovrre elvat TCavTv Ti7
7raXatav 'rapeoXr4iao- Xoyov rToFl dc 7rT 'Oprjpov
7rora-ew Tertciapofevotf" ov typ eotucev avra7
elvact 1 KaO' "Op1ripov. Kal XXot K io-ropoOit
wrXetovU iTera/3e/lXiecvat T67oovU T'v rroXlv,
v-oTa'a S' evrai3a avlpelva xcaTr KpoFaoov'
puBdh ora. Tg 8 TrotaViraa IerTa/3PdactE eld Ta
Kcarw pIp' Ta TOr a-v/p3atvovo'ag v7roXaL/3p~vw
Kac /3wv al rca ro7oT6Xwv uV TO'ypdaELtv Staopdv.
aXXA TaD7a pev al laXXore eiTortierrTeov.
26. Trv 86 rTOV 'IXtewv rO'IXv Trow vFiv TEws
ipv KCLp7V etvati art, o lepov e ovo-rav T-
'Avpivav 1icpoy ical e1VreXv, 'AXe'avSpov 8e
ava3davra pETer r?7v E7rl pavlKpb vwirv, avaO9fao-r
Tr Koajliaa 7 a T lepo Kal r rpoaayopeDGaaL r6rhv
Kal oloK608olat d4vaXa/3efv rrpoa-daa TO7? rrt-
jLeX?7ralE dXevO pav re IcpvaL Kat adoopov, areTpov
\a pIeTa TV icaTAdvoX t ToWV lepciov edrto'oX77v
Kcararr'n-pat atXadvOpwrrov, VrtaXvov1oevov 7r6XLv
76 7rotCjat perydXiv Ical iepov EdrI/,OTLraTo, Kal
7ywva caroSeltewv lepov. /pera Se 72v fJdeivov

1 For Kporaov x reads ipttyp4, mozz Xp9nrJv.

1 Schliemann's excavations, however, identify Hissarlik as
the site of Homer's Troy. Hence the site of Homer's Troy
at 'the village of Ilians' is a mere figment" (Leaf, I.e., p. 141).

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 25-26

courage, for he did not found the city at the place
where it now is, but about thirty stadia higher up
towards the east, and towards Mt. Ida and Dardania,
at the place now called "Village of the Ilians."1
But the people of the present Ilium, being fond of
glory and wishing to show that their Ilium was the
ancient city, have offered a troublesome argument to
those who base their evidence on the poetry of
Homer, for their Ilium does not appear to have been
the Homeric city. Other inquirers also find that the
city changed its site several times, but at last settled
permanently where it now is at about the time of
Croesus.2 I take for granted, then, that such
removals into the parts lower down, which took place
in those times, indicate different stages in modes of
life and civilisation; but this must be further
investigated at another time.
26. It is said that the city of the present Ilians
was for a time a mere village, having its temple of
Athena, a small and cheap temple, but that when
Alexander went up there after his victory at the
Granicus 3 River he adorned the temple with votive
offerings, gave the village the title of city, and
ordered those in charge to improve it with buildings,
and that he adjudged it free and exempt from tribute;
and that later, after the overthrow of the Persians,
he sent down a kindly letter to the place, promising
to make a great city of it, and to build a magnificent
sanctuary, and to proclaim sacred games.4 But after

2 King of Lydia, 560-546 B.c.
3 The first of the three battles by which he overthrew the
Persian empire (334 B.C.).
e.g. like the Olympic Games. But his untimely death
prevented the fulfilment of this promise.


TeXeVT2v Avo-laaXo9 /dlXtOrra T1? Tro0Xes E'Tre-
LeX0)9rl K/al vewav icaTercevaa-e ial reLXoc 7repte-
8AXeTo 0o0ov TeTTapaKoVTa r-TaSaov, ovvroicole
Te e6l avTr2v Ta KtcVKX 7roXetv dApalaqv 7?
IceKaacoeva(;, OTr Kal 'AXegavSpela9 S E're-
peXr90]7, avvrpctoKLfyev7r p 8v j S r' '.Avrt'ydvov
Kal rpoorjyopevrLvYjc7 'AvTcyo74a,, fLera/3aXov51 ;
Se Tovvota, ASo~ e yap eab &;e3s elvat ToVs 'AX4-
tavSpov Sita8ea/'vov ficeivov OVrpOTrpov iKriCtE
E7rwvvp.ovw; 7r6eXer, eo' Eavr&v. ica S Ic Kai
ipVVeLve Ical ai rjocv 'aXe, viv 86 Iai 'PwTpalov
a7rotlKav S8e&rCat ical OaT rv 7~ oyij twov
C 59 27. Kal To "IXtov 8', 8 vvv orIt, /cWI.dorokb
T Fv, ore 5 rpWTrov Pwliatot T1g 'Ao-laa ~ re'/3i)jav
Kal ef/3aXov 'AvZ'ioov O r ov uIeyav eKc T9 E'T"
ToD Tavpov. 0rlat 7yo9v Ar/FLj'pto Z Ee KCiteo,
peCLpdatiov E4rto8i o-a, etl Tt7V rAoXL KaT' IceItov;
Tov KIcaipov;, OiTBrrv (iXICtyoi7p/LEvv 1Ei8v T,7v
KaTOiKiav, wao-e 1Lr81E KepaworTaI e'efLV Ta oa-Tyav
'H-yto-tdra Se Tokv raXd'ra,; 7repatoevTra; eic
71ij Et;pchrl; avarivat /EV elvs rTIv 7roXtv
8eouevovT epvaraTov, wrapaXpjfa 8' 1 KXtwrecv Sth

1 Either Strabo, or his authority, Demetrius of Scepsis, or
the Greek text as it now stands, seems guilty of inconsistency
in the passage devoted special attention to the city .
and then cities bearing their own." Grote (Vol. I, chapter
xv) rearranges the Greek text in the following order:
"devoted especial attention to Alexandreia" (not Ilium),
"which had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and
called Antigonia, but changed its name (for it was thought to
be .then cities bearing their own name), and he built a

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 26-27

his death Lysimachus1 devoted special attention to
the city, and built a temple there and surrounded the
city with a wall about forty stadia in circuit, and also
incorporated into it the surrounding cities, which
were now old and in bad plight. At that time he
had already devoted attention to Alexandreia, which
had indeed already been founded by Antigonus and
called Antigonia, but had changed its name, for it
was thought to be a pious thing for the successors of
Alexander to found cities bearing his name before
they founded cities bearing their own. And indeed
the city endured and grew, and at present it not
only has received a colony of Romans but is one of
the notable cities of the world.
27. Also the Ilium of to-day was a kind of village-
city when the Romans first set foot on Asia and
expelled Antiochus the Great from the country this
side of Taurus. At any rate, Demetrius of Scepsis
says that, when as a lad he visited the city about
that time, he found the settlement so neglected
that the buildings did not so much as have tiled
roofs. And Hegesianax says that when the Galatae
crossed over from Europe they needed a stronghold
and went up into the city for that reason, but

temple .forty stadia in circuit." He omits "at that
time he had already devoted attention to Alexandreia," and so
does Leaf (op. cit., p. 142) ; but the latter, instead of rearranging
the text, simply inserts "Alexandreia" after "city in the
first clause of the passage. Leaf (p. 143) adds the following
important argument to those of Grote: "There is no trace
whatever of any great wall at Ilium, though remains of one
40 states in length could hardly have escaped notice. But
there is at Alexandreia such a wall which is exactly the
length mentioned by Strabo, and which is clearly referred


To aTreiCXrrov Vcrepov 8' 'woavopowa'wv 'aXe
wroXXi v. et7' EIcicwaoav avTjyv raidXw o0 ,eTar
?t /3pipov 'Pwptalot, Xa/ovTre's dc 'roXtoptcia dv
T7 MtOpL8SaTirt 'lroX I p. arvve6rifp OOI 8 o
(Pt/qp'pat vbdryT OvaXepl XdacKImc Ta/tia,
jrpoXetpr&ivret OL Tr rov MtOpi8aTI7vi KaTaoa-
a-tdcra'-a 8 al Avekc T irarov KcaTa BL9vvtav
avTos IcaTer-TaOl KCVptov T71' Oa-pata, xal
7rpoeXO&v lI "IX tov, ob 8eXopievvo avrov TwCO
'I(Xt v, &;s XyTrTv, 3pav Te1 vrpooee'pet cKal
v8KcaTratov 2 alpe c Kavxco'Y vov 8', o0'T, 7
'AyaatePvwv ro6Xiv 8eeadT freT ULO'XI9 elXe Tor
YtXtsvavv oG"rTXov (A EXXida o-uvoparefovaoav, TaviTrjv aUTO vSecIdaTr
7iPfiPe X etpwooatTO, Tr6d Tre1 Twv 'IX(tecw Ov ya p
77v o"EcKTWp o reppua&wv T 7' r6XeCs';. TODTOV
pxev ovv ereXO\ov EuvXa' xx arehvae, ical rOv
MtOptISTr7 Kv KarTa o-v/IdeO-et els T7 olicetav
dre7rep'VLr, To'bv 8' 'IXteWas 7apep/,tvOr4Ta-ao orXXo~
deravopo)pLao-T. KaO' ig &ps pjvroi7 KaZo-ap 6 Oeo9
7roXv 7rXeov avrTov 'rpovv7orYe, ?Xdo-asa apLa
Kal 'AVe!'av8povw iceivo' yalp KaTa avy7feveias
davvewo-wv wpC(pLe rnpovoelv avrtO, alpa cKa
OtXdItrpos wv. cepe-rat yoiYv T St6pOoAr-e; T 7s
Oti4pov 7rotrLaeos', i7 CK Tov vdpOa9lKO9 Xeyotv i,
'ov 'AXeyadvpov jIeTa ToWV 7rep' KaXXttcrO'vl Ica
'AvdwapXov e'reXOOdr aov't Kal etoewaale'vov Twd,
1 B)av Tr, conj. of Casaubon, for jixavds Te i, AdXI7v rw,
avp7icid x, omitted in moz, pdaid other MSS.; so Meineke.
2 For ivS rta-raous the Epit. has ?v igepaie ecia.
1 i.e. in 86 B.C. by Cinna the consul, the leader of the
popular party at Rome.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 27

left it at once because of its lack of walls. But
later it was greatly improved. And then it was
ruined again by the Romans under Fimbria, who
took it by siege in the course of the Mithridatic
war. Fimbria had been sent as quaestor with
Valerius Flaccus the consul when the latter was
appointed1 to the command against Mithridates;
but Fimbria raised a mutiny and slew the consul
in the neighbourhood of Bithynia, and was himself
set up as lord of the army; and when he advanced
to Ilium, the Ilians would not admit him, as being
.a brigand, and therefore he applied force and cap-
tured the place on the eleventh day. And when he
boasted that he himself had overpowered on the
eleventh day the city which Agamemnon had only
with difficulty captured in the tenth year, although
the latter had with him on his expedition the fleet
of a thousand vessels and the whole of Greece, one
of the Ilians said: "Yes, for the city's champion
was no Hector." Now Sulla came over and over-
threw Fimbria, and on terms of agreement sent
Mithridates away to his homeland, but he also
consoled the Ilians by numerous improvements. In
my time, however, the deified Caesar 2 was far more
thoughtful of them, at the same time also emulating
the example of Alexander; for Alexander set out
to provide for them on the basis of a renewal of
ancient kinship, and also because at the same time
he was fond of Homer; at any rate, we are told of
a recension of the poetry of Homer, the Recension
of the Casket, as it is called, which Alexander, along
with Callisthenes and Anaxarchus, perused and to a
2 Julius Caesar.


67rerTa ,craTaOevrov eI vadp9fKa, by 6 pev yv T71
ITepocl) ryd', rroXUTeX w; icaTracevao-Levov.
Karac re 87 TOV ToP 7rTOllTOD fXov IKal KcaTa T7y
avyyevetav Tjv a7r 7" rv AiaKt8riv TO V dv
MoXoTTOv /3aartevoa'dvOw, 7rap' ols Kcal T'v
'Av8popcdu6tv loTopovjo 3acranXeiaaa, rv "EEKTopos
yevoJlev ip yvvaZtKa, ef0tXo6povE7'TO1 7rpo TOVT
TIXeLa 'AX.avSpos. o 8& Kaoaap Kal aav8po{ wv Kxa 7rlV rph ro TO 'IXteaav O yyeveia?
ry/vOp1pi/eTepa2 leX eK/Urjpta eTreppwo-T97 7IrpofO
T71V eepye-tav veavtIcoa yvwptcLr)Tepa Se, 7rp&iTo
C595 /LV -"1 'PwToao' 0( 8e 'PowaZot Tv3 Alvelav
apXyriTy iVyoviv7at etra ite 'Io\Xetov adi
'lo0Xov TCVwoS rTOM rpoyovwv' eICeLvo 8S' a7r'
'louXov4 Tip rpooawv0y lav5 e'oe Tavorv, Tro
anrTovaJ', el V y &V TV a'r Alveiov. otpav TE
8 rpoa-evetpUev avTot2; calt 7 ?'Xeevueplav cat
Tiv aL'Xerovpy7 a-iav aVuroEt o-vverXa4e, Kal
pLept viv 1vtLp'vovUatvY v TO61TOt. rt 8' oiuc
dvTavfa6 't8p'aLS TO wraXatwv "IXtov xa0'
"OjLpov er KoroaictL, deK r&v -TotCoSe TreKcaipovTat.
vrpoTepov e viroyparrTeov TOW; TOrovq Vro 77T
'r-apaXtlaq Apapue'ov, cf1' 7eo-Trep e'tropev.
1 All MSS. except Dhi read ydp before wrpds.
2 yvptw/prTtpa, Corais, for yvwpti iarwra ; so the later editors.
SAll MSS. except orzz have T' before Alveiav.
ix read "'1ou instead of 'Io6ihov.
SF reads rpoar'lyopiav instead of irpoo'vudla'.
Dhi add vPO after dvTaia ; A reads 'Ipvuo, and so Corais.

1 According to Plutarch (Alexander 8), "Alexander took
with him Aristotle's recension of the poem, called the Iliad
of the Casket, and always kept it lying beside his dagger

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 27

certain extent annotated, and then deposited in a
richly wrought casket which he had found amongst
the Persian treasures.1 Accordingly, it was due both
to his zeal for the poet and to his descent from the
Aeacidae who reigned as kings of the Molossians-
where, as we are also told, Andromache, who had
been the wife of Hector, reigned as queen-that
Alexander was kindly disposed towards the Ilians.
But Caesar, not only being fond of Alexander, but
also having better known evidences of kinship with
the Ilians, felt encouraged to bestow kindness upon
them with all the zest of youth: better known
evidences, first, because he was a Roman, and
because the Romans believe Aeneias to have been
their original founder; and secondly, because the
name lulius was derived from that of a certain lulus
who was one of his ancestors,2 and this lulus got his
appellation from the lulus3 who was one of the
descendants of Aeneas. Caesar therefore allotted
territory to them and also helped them to preserve
their freedom and their immunity from taxation;
and to this day they remain in possession of these
favours. But that this is not the site of the ancient
Ilium, if one considers the matter in accordance
with Homer's account, is inferred from the follow-
ing considerations. But first I must give a general
description of the region in question, beginning at
that point on the coast where I left off.

under his pillow, as Onesicritus informs us"; and "the
casket was the most precious of the treasures of Dareius"
ibidd. 26).
2 i.e. of the Julian gens.
8 On "Iulus," or Ilus, see critical note.

c 57



28. 'E~ret Toivvv UET' "Aiv~ov 76 Aap8av't
aicpa, ju 1atxpbv1 7rpOTEpOV ePV4O-192EV, /cat 2'
At Ap8avoq, 8te'ovoa a rib 'Af8t8ov
6'/38otk+Covra O77a8lovq. /Le7a~ l 'Te 0' TPoU
c/"7mrr et 7ToaapLU, KaB' ov b 'ni Xcppovpjtir 'rT
KvpoV\, a-ju f'lruv, 0' 0aasv 'Efccik87 elvat 7d5OVW
Ot 86 TOv 'Po8ov dlq 'T0v A'MrlOrov c'pu/XXetv
oaco-v 441 8' E'Ci 7 'rOv bqro rTO 7i 0T197T XC?7
6vCov Ial OVT o709
'PO-6v 0' 'En7dro7prO' 76 KTpi o-&p 'e 'Po8log
a8 Adp8avo,; ACToo-pa ApXa~ov, oV',0 8' eCvca-
'Tape6VnTov ('0076 7TOXXCICL9 O0 3 acAcFv ol pev
1E'z-PoKV abT2\7V G1; VA/3v8ov, 01 8E apft'olv
7raXtv 6b9 7T O spXatov Icrtai-a. EV'7avba 86
o-vvWXBov VXXal; 76 Kopvl?4Xt9, 7T(0 CPowuatov
7i7e7dv, ,cal MtrpI8ca71)9 6 KXXqO6\t E;rca'TWop,
Kat uvv/'8,qcav 7rpo, AXX7jXov e~rr KaTaXOcY6L
29. llXH o-1ov 8' JO'rI 7TO\ 'Optvv,2IP '2 6 70
TOD "EKCToPo9 iXao-o 6 7reptr/oave TO 7o7' Kai
E't64q Xi~v 773 ll7EXEd9.
30. El7a TPoItov '7r T XL9 4 X600) KteGflU '
Kat 'T 'Potedp4 YVVCX7 5 ('A
p3 wfyia Kai iepov Al'av7oT Kai Av7ptd;, o'v
epaY7To 'AVTmWt'OV KO/ItaBEv7a 619 A"
a7re'8wKcE 7019 'PoITELeCo 7TaTXtLV, Ka&a'7rep Kai
1 moxz read g.wcp/i. instead of licpdb.
2 'Oppvtov E and Epit., 'O0po1vznov other MSS.
3 xiiAP1, Leaf (see his note, Troad, p. 154), following
Calvert, whom he quotes fully, emends to xtp;.
S'PuriV CFmoxz, 'Poerc, D, PovVrTI hi, Povrelcp other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. r. 28-30

28. After Abydus, then, comes the Dardanian
Promontory, which I mentioned a little while ago,1
and also the city Dardanus, which is seventy stadia
distant from Abydus. Between the two places
empties the Rhodius River, opposite which, in the
Chersonesus, is Cynos-Sema,2 which is said to be
the tomb of Hecab6. But some say that the
Rhodius empties into the Aesepus. This too is one
of the rivers mentioned by the poet: "Rhesus,
Heptaporus, Caresus, and Rhodius."s Dardanus
was an ancient settlement, but it was held in such
contempt that it was oftentimes transplanted by
some of the kings to Abydus and then resettled
again by others on the ancient site. It was here
that Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander, and
Mithridates surnamed Eupator met and arranged
the terms for the conclusion of the war.
29. Near by is Ophrynium, near which, in a
conspicuous place, is the sacred precinct of Hector.4
And next comes the Lake 5 of Pteleos.
30. Then come Rhoeteium, a city situated on a
hill, and, adjacent to Rhoeteium, a low-lying shore,
on which are a tomb and temple of Aias, and also a
statue of him, which was taken up by Antony
and carried off to Aegypt; but Augustus Caesar gave
it back again to the Rhoeteians, just as he gave
1 13. 1. 11.
2 See "Cynos-Sema" and foot-note in Vol. III, p. 377.
3 Iliad 12. 20.
4 On the site of Ophrynium, see Leaf, p. 153.
5 Leaf, p. 154, following Calvert, emends "Lake" to

6 Aaivr-lov, after &AhLrevs, Jones deletes.
6 'PoruTceoi, the editors, for 'PvurTier.


aXXoL9 atXXovq,1 6 e/3ao7Tor KaZcrap. Th yap
AcdXXt-TTa ava1ri/paTa edc TioV ETrtiaveC7TaTwv
teprov 0o /jv 7ipe, Try AIVujrrria XaptiSdeofo, o
8e 0eoFL a17rE8mwce.
31. MerT S Tob 'Poireov2 'cTL TO 'SELOV,3
1caTEa7raoEIv7 "rOXtW Kal To vava'ra9iov Kal 0
'AXatuiv Xt(kv ai rT 'AXaiuKcv rTpaT7dreSov
Kial 7 iTroaX/'LvC KaXov/yer' Ka' at To icaydav-
8pov 6K/30c ai. ravnzre0rTe'T 'yap o T6e 2t.oe(L
Kal 6 ZiciavSpog ev i 7 reBi'I, W7roXX7v Kara-
04povTe IiPv, 7rpo0XOvct T77V wrapaX)av Kcal
TVbXO'vy orTota Te Kal Xt.pvoaXdTrTav; Kai ~17
7roL0D. KaTa 8 T7V- SIyeLda8a adcpav Eo-lV
ev 7 l XeppovPawO TO IlpWoreotoiXdeov Katl I
'EXeoD o-a,6 7repi wv eprjia fiev v T0ot OPpaE/ot.
32. "Eacrt Tob T/7Ico r7j; 7rapaXLa9 Tav Tv,
ai~ro ri Potreiouv pEjXpt Lyelov ial 7ro
'AXiXXe'ow' ILvr?7uaTro ev'vurXooyvrwv, erlKovra
C 596 araSlwov orro7 r76'mwKe K r7 'Ilw Tira a, T z pv
Dv KaTa' TOP 'Agauvw Xqueva o-xov 8o8eKtca ora-
Siov; SteXoveaa, T rrpoe'p, rpdicovra a7dXoit
oTaolot a dvwTedp KaTa TO 7rpOb 7 TV "I~y pUEpo0.
Tro0 U v oWv 'AXtXXews al lepov &ErTt Kal p.avripa
7rph T ) tcyel'c), IIaTrpoXov 8' Kal 'AVTr&AhOU
ftv7PJiaTa, Kal eva ioovrtv ol 'IXtei ra-tc Kal
rTOTrot Kal T@ AravTt. 'Hpatchfa 8' ob rtTLor-v,

I &gAovs, omitted by the MSS., Kramer inserts (a reads
i&xa); so the later editors.
2 'Pofetov, the editors, for 'PoltoyP h, 'PTirO other MSS.,
except that D has or over v.
8 iyeov E, XiLyor other MSS.
ZSyeLda E, 2syidSa other MSS.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 30-32

back other statues to their owners. For Antony
took away the finest dedications from the most
famous temples, to gratify the Egyptian woman,1
but Augustus gave them back to the gods.
31. After Rhoeteium come Sigeium, a destroyed
city, and the Naval Station and the Harbour of the
Achaeans and the Achaean Camp and Stomalimne,2
as it is called, and the outlets of the Scamander;
for after the Simoeis and the Scamander meet in
the plain, they carry down great quantities of
alluvium, silt up the coast, and form a blind mouth,
lagoons, and marshes. Opposite the Sigeian Pro-
montory on the Chersonesus are Eleussa 3 and the
temple of Protesilaiis, both of which I have men-
tioned in my description of Thrace.4
32. The length of this coast, I mean oi a straight
voyage from Rhoeteium to Sigeium, and the
monument of Achilles, is sixty stadia; and the
whole of it lies below Ilium, not only the present
Ilium, from which, at the Harbour of the Achaeans,
it is about twelve stadia distant, but also the earlier
Ilium, which lies thirty stadia farther inland in the
direction of Mt. Ida. Now there are a temple and
a monument of Achilles near Sigeium, as also monu-
ments of Patroclus and Antilochus; and the Ilians
offer sacrifices to all four heroes, both to these and
to Aias. But they do not honour Heracles, giving
1 Cleopatra. 2 Mouth-of-the-marsh."
3 Eleussa" appears to be an error for "Eleus."
SBook VII, Frags. 51, 54, 55.
5 up WTEledXieov E, fnpwTe[atoev Forz, rIpwTrelXaiYCv C,
TpwreeTth iV D)hi.
6 'Ehoffca, Corais emends to 'EAaioicra.
S'PoL'rou DA, 'PuionU C, 'Povetou other MSS.


atiw/cevot rTiv r' azTrov 7T'p O'-iv. XX' eCeLvoF
/iev, 0pail T1l av, ov6ws eTrop70-ev, wU dro-
X7elvy TrolF ivTepoPv eiropO 7-ovat KeICKaKwoitev
FpEV, ITOXTv U-' &i Kal OV5TCw; etpr7K6v 0 7rOLs-rjT
'IXiov e ahcd'rae 7rd6tv, x pwae 8' ayvLda.
n yap Xipet~a XeTravSpta Ti evrTt, OVK
aavzo-proi TeXeto o5Tro 8' bdavtroav 7TeXetow,
olZ dva eItv atLovo t Kcatl Tt.pav 4d9 eo o el U'
TOUT atruoaivro, 8tOTt OJTOL /ieV 8iKatov
rd6e 8iov eveeyxcav, dtcewdo 8e iSucov, 'vey'
t7rJro)v Aao/f ovSov T rpo\ roUro 86 rda'Xw av-
TerL9 TatL fip~00 ov 7yap verca r'rwv, d\XX
urlaooD vrr-p 7'r 'HoH-t6vi cal ToO KTc4rov. dXX'
eda'o-wOv -raT7a' ely yap pu68v AvaarKcev
eK7Tri7rTet TaXa Se Xav0dvovaO- Tovse fluas ariTat
7TrrTorepat, St' AT T'0T 'IecXteoiv E'irjXOe rov\
,erv Tfav, rTOV Se\ /4j. 'oKce 86 6 Tror7Tc ?
tticpav dTroIai'vetv T'rv 7roXiv ev Tb 7rept
'HpaXkovT Xoyp,, eiT'ep
1 oyf oFbyv wlvoa Kal dvSpd at 7ravporepotItv
'Iiov E~aXd6Trae 7vr Xtv.
Kat 4aLveat a IIpia/Lo9 TW TOLOV'T, XdT6'y Eya
eK ,uctpov yeyovw icxa aa'tX e /XaoXtar ov, 8c
ecaLev. fltucpv 86 7rpoeX\ovDiv ar7r70o rF rapa-
Xia ,rav'v eo"arl TO 'AXaioov, ~87 7 T' TeveSiwv
7repaiaw vTrapXov.
1 Iliad 5, 642. Iliad 5. 640.
To appease the anger of Poseidon, Laomedon exposed
his daughter Hesion8 on the promontory Agameia (see
Stephanus s.v.) to be devoured by a sea-monster. Heracles
promised to kill the monster and save Hesione if Laomedon

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 32

as their reason his sacking of the city. But one
might say that, although Heracles did sack it, yet
he sacked it in such a way as still to leave it a city,
even though damaged, for those who were later to
sack it utterly; and for this reason the poet states
it thus: "He sacked the city of Ilios and widowed
her streets ;1 for "widowed" means a loss of the
male population, not a complete annihilation. But
the others, whom they think fit to worship with sacri-
fices and to honour as gods, completely annihilated
the city. Perhaps they might give as their reason
for this that these waged a just war, whereas
Heracles waged an unjust one "on account of the
horses of Laomedon."2 But writers set over against
this reason the myth that it was not on account
of the horses but of the reward offered for Hesion6
and the sea-monster.3 But let us disregard these
reasons, for they end merely in controversies about
myths. And perhaps we fail to notice certain more
credible reasons why it occurred to the Ilians to
honour some and not others. And it appears that
the poet, in what he says about Heracles, represents
the city as small, if it be true that with only six
ships and fewer men he sacked the city of Ilium." 4
And it is clearly shown by this statement that
Priam became great and king of kings from a small
beginning, as I have said before.5 Advancing a
little farther along this shore, one comes to the
Achaeium, where begins the part of the mainland
that belongs to Tenedos.

would give him his immortal horses. Laomedon agreed.
Heracles fulfilled his promise, but Laomedon refused to give
up the horses, and hence the war.
liad 5. 641. 6 12. 8. 7, 13. 1. 7.


33. Toto;rv 6 T' v rli OrXal T Trow
OTvr(o, b7rpIceCras TOVTWVr TO Tpwibcov 7reSn o
1dEXpt rL j "IS avOcjKov e7rT rgoXXooU o-TraSlov
icava TO rp efO /..epoV. TOVrov S' It /el v
rTapopelo' e 'rt r-TevrI, Ty-) Uv eri 7 T7y /ear/,/3piav
TeTrafeviy /EXp TOv icaTa'a CIcfLV rTO7Tw), Ty
S' eTri Ta apKTrovw ELXpe T6wv Kara ZXeLtav
AvKiWv. avryv S' o 7roi Tr7 Vir-' Alvela TaTTrr
Kal TOtF 'AvrTvopiSatv, faXeti 6& AapSaviav.
V7r 8e rTavTr Ke/3prlva, 7re8tUa 7 7r TXEiTri7,
rrapdXXXoFv ro Tr0 T7 Aap8avia- Jv 8e iacl 7r6(Xt
rroTe Ke/sprjvr. r'rovoe 8' o Aqjnr1pt(o /1EXPL
Sevpo Stare vewt T7jv 7rept TO "IXtov Xapav T7lV
V7rb T( "EKrTOp, avjcovroav a7ror TO vavcT7rda ov
feXpt Kep3prviaac rdi ov Te ryap 'AXeciv8pov
Selicvvca al (0 witv aLTrdost al Olvcvr]V, ,v
ltoropovact vvaica ,yeyovevat Trob 'AXeadvpov,
rpiv 'EXhevv apr-adca Xye reL rTE TOP Troyr7T7V
Keppt6vrv v6vov viOov tbyaTcXwov IIpLda/oto,
C 597 ov elicK etvat errwvvf/ov T7F X( pa i cat 7roXweco,
r'rep 7rtOavwrepov" T7)v Se Kefprviav SiGrjcetv
peXpL T7r jcK*lavg, opiov 8' elvaL TOVy KcaavSpov
p/eLov avTrov peovTa* e'XOpav 8' ael Kta rrozXe/to
elvas TOEL Te Ke3pvoZ< Kal roTlE9 lKrcflo, "o()
'AvTiyovor' aVTrov; 0ovvwKCLev el6 Tr-V TOTe /Uev
'AvTLyoviav, vzv 6e 'AXef dvSpetav" TObv /1Ev oiv
Ke/3pvedaS 2 oavf/eL 7vat TO ? akXXot? ev Tr
'AXeav~pel,, TO7F 8& SKcrlov' e'raveX0etv els
Tr)v oicelav, e7rtTpefravTro Ava-ttdXov.
1 A ysev Tre tY rovi07iT F, Acy~s 6 irotLqT~7 Kica[ ; CDhi omit
TrE, moz read Te Kai.
2 Instead of KePp7)?vias inmxz read KeBpzivous. \

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 33

33. Such are the places on the sea. Above these
lies the Trojan Plain, which extends inland for
many stadia in the direction of the east as far as
Mt. Ida. The part of this plain alongside the
mountain is narrow extending on one side towards
the south as far as the region of Scepsis, and on
the other towards the north as far as the Lycians of
Zeleia. This is the country which the poet makes
subject to Aeneias and the sons of Antenor, calling
it Dardania; and below this is Cebrenia, which is
level for the most part and lies approximately
parallel to Dardania; and in it there was once a
city called Cebren&.1 Demetrius suspects that the
territory of Ilium subject to Hector extended inland
from the naval station as far as Cebrenia, for he
says that the tomb of Alexander2 is pointed out
there, as also that of Oenone, who, according to
historians, had been the wife of Alexander before
he carried off Helen. And, he continues, the poet
mentions "Cebriones, bastard son of glorious Priam,"3
after whom, as one may suppose, the country was
named-or the city too, which is more plausible;
and Cebrenia extends as far as the territory of
Scepsis; and the Scamander, which flows between,
is the boundary; and the Cebreni and Scepsians
were always hostile to one another and at war until
Antigonus settled both peoples together in Anti-
gonia, as it was then called, or Alexandreia, as it is
now called; now the Cebreni, he adds, remained
with the rest in Alexandreia, but the Scepsians,
by permission of Lysimachus, went back to their
1 So the name is spelled in 47, but Cebren" in 52.
2 Paris. 8 Iliad 16. 738.
C 2


34. 'ATrb 86 T17,; caTr rorovTo 1 -rov ; TOrro
'I8aiaT opetvri 8o ; nt77v !aycxwvaq ,'eTveer0at
wrpo OdXarrav, TOv ptev eviO 'Potedov,2 Trv S'
t/yelov, 7rotovvTra d1 dApiov ypalpj pv ~picvi.-
XtS 7)" TeXevTav E'v Ti' r)eSio, -To-orovo
a7TerovTra T7?, 0aXarTT-ri, o0ov -ob vIv "Iktov.
Toro pO Ev ,8 pICerab v T7, TeevTrI TiOv XeX6evTwv
a&,ycKvwv elva, To 8 r 7aXatov cKTLo-a perafb
T7 dPXr;' pI6TaXaftP/3veo-0at3 S' v-ros TO Tr
St/oeEo-tov re8rSov, VS' o5 j 6 tlSove cepe-rat, Ica'
Trb ScaYtdvSpLov, 8V' o6 cEi/xav8pov AeF. roVro
S e Ical l 1o Tpworlcv Xe'verat, ical -ro~ 'rrXe[TTrovV
adyrva 6 7 wo-r?)T~ e'vrTa a dtro8 8woc, ?rhXa-r-
repov yap evoO, xal TroS ovo Jao.hevov ~ To7roov
evTraDa Sealcvvuevov dOpoeUav, TOv 'Eptveov, rbv
TO7 Ai-vUrov T rdov, Tl7v BaTietav,,4 TO -TO "IXov
aPj/a. ol & vrora/ot ~ T e YcKd/aavSpov Kcal
SLLoEL9, 0 I/EV T@ iLyeIW )hTX'7taao-a,;, 6 86
7r 'Poteld,, IPttipbv eLTvrpoaoev TO vPvp 'IXiov
erv/aui3XXovriw, el E 7r't TO tleolov EKIc8oaOL
icat wroLoDir Tr7v YTroiaX/iPvrlv KaXovpfvlv.
8telpPye 8' EKcaTpov TVoi XeXOG'eVrV 'reCbov a-ro
GaTrepov jeLyaV TrI avXr)v TWv elp7y-tevv aKamwvov
e7r e1eOlag, atro rTO7 vvv 'IXiov Tv p7v V,
avyuvwp avrT, retivoUevoI 8' 6'0w T7? Ke3ptroiaq
ical a droTreX TO C 'ypdaipl a 7rpOT TobV EKcaTepwO ev
1 To0irovs, before irohD, Groskurd inserts; so Miiller-Diibner,
Meineke, and Leaf.
2 'Porefou, the editors, for 'Potrlov CDFhi, 'Purlov other MSS.
a seTaAtauBdve'rOat, all MSS. except E, which reads rEra-
Ado-orarfat, Leaf rightly restores, instead of &TroAaLBdiveoart
Meineke, KaraXapdiSvetraa Corais.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 34

34. From the mountain range of Ida in this region,
according to Demetrius, two spurs extend to the
sea, one straight to Rhoeteium and the other
straight to Sigeium, forming together a semicircular
line, and they end in the plain at the same distance
from the sea as the present Ilium; this Ilium,
accordingly, lies between the ends of the two spurs
mentioned, whereas the old settlement lies between
their beginnings; and, he adds, the spurs include
both the Simoeisian Plain, through which the Simoeis
runs, and the Scamandrian Plain, through which the
Scamander flows. This is called the Trojan Plain in
the special sense of the term; and here it is that
the poet represents most of the fights as taking
place, for it is wider; and here it is that we see
pointed out the places named by the poet-Erineus,1
the tomb of Aesyetes,2 Batieia,3 and the monument
of Ilus.4 The Scamander and Simoeis Rivers, after
running near to Sigeium and Rhoeteium respectively,
meet a little in front of the present Ilium, and then
issue towards Sigeium and form Stomalimn6,5 as it is
called. The two plains above mentioned are separated
from each other by a great neck of land which runs
in a straight line between the aforesaid spurs, starting
from the present Ilium, with which it is connected,
and stretches as far as Cebrenia and, along with
the spurs on either side,6 forms a complete letter C.7
S"Fig tree." Iliad 6.433. 2 Iliad 2. 793.
3 Iliad 2. 813. 4 Iliad 10. 415.
SSee 13. 1. 31 and foot-note.
6 These spurs forming a semi-circular line, as stated above.
7 i.e. the uncial letter written backwards (9). See Leaf's
diagram, p. 175.
BaTrietav, Xylander, for BdTray ; so the later editors.


35. 'Trep 86 Trovorov uICPbY 7 rTWV 'IXLteI'
ic e-LV, ]v voelt rat rb 7raXatcv VIXtov
itpvioOat irporepov, rptaEcovTa crtrato'oV 8 iXo
aTro Tr) vvpv 7roXEO. vTrEp 8e Tjq 'IXtEov IKWc OIt
8,ica aOra8lot's E'Tv ~ KaXXtKoXc vr, Xdoo ortqF,
trap' v d6 2t(fct'9 Pe, 7revTaaTad81ov SteXwv
ylverat oiy eviXooyov 'rpTrov pLev To' 67r1 TOl
Jpro 8' "Api7 Cre'pwoe6v epevyp.7 XhalaXrt ltro,
0ov Icar' dJipoTrdify vroXto' Tpdeaart KceXevwv,
dXXore 7rap tULoevrt Oe'v r'7r KaXXtcoXwdvy.
C 598 T7) yap /.dX?7 e Tr'l T IKcaplav8pl r re8l&
avvceXov/Ldvr)i, rtOav@o; av o "Ap? aIXXorTe /iv rl7V
EyKIXcevao-tv i7Or 7Ti aKpoTroXE Wes TOtoro, aXXore
8' i r T&v rXriyo-rov rTrO v o70 Te Xt0'EerVTo cal
T7, KaXXtLoXcvtn;, pi'Xpt o5 etl'c Kai Trv dX vY
7rapareTrdcrat. TerTapdacovra SE o-rTa8iouv Se-
Xoa-7y9 Ti) KaXXtcoXdvl A7Trb r70To v 'IX'ov,
T7 Xp~aj'QIov E67r Troaoirov f.LTraXa/ji3dveoOat roTVS
Tdro-v, E)' 0o-oV 4 8utvTats o 8treLpe; TO T6
ipo, ? 8'3prne 8' hXaxov AVIKro
oliELoTpoV Ear-t TWo raXati KcTlto-part* rXO-t'ov
'yp oTt TO reStiov A O@v/./pa cal 8 avrov
pe'ov VroTap/o V Ovp'lptoro, eft3iw)v elT 7v
ZAcijaav8pov KarTa T OvIp3palov 'ATroXXdh voo
lepOV, TOO 86 vIv 'I vXov cal reVTrliovrPa aoTa8lovu
81 ieXv, Corais, from conj. of Palmer, for tY w; i has IC4KX
after Xwov, and so Eustathius reads (note on Iliad 20. 47, 53).
The scholiast (quoted by C. Miller, Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1024)
quotes Demetrius as saying that this hill is "five stadia in

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 35

35. A little above this 1 is the Village of the
Ilians, where the ancient Ilium is thought to have
been situated in earlier times, at a distance of thirty
stadia from the present city. And ten stadia above
the Village of the Ilians is Callicolone, a hill, past
which, at a distance of five stadia, flows the Simoeis.2
It therefore becomes easy to understand, first, the
reference to Ares: And over against her leaped
Ares, like unto a dreadful whirlwind, in shrill tones
cheering the Trojans from the topmost part of the
city, and now again as he sped alongside Simoeis
o'er Callicolon& "; 3 for if the battle was fought on
the Scamandrian Plain, it is plausible that Ares
should at one time shout his cheers from the acropolis
and at another from the region near the Simoeis and
Callicolone, up to which, in all probability, the battle
would have extended. But since Callicolon& is forty
stadia distant from the present Ilium, for what
useful purpose would the poet have taken in places
so far away that the line of battle could not have
reached them? Again, the words, "And towards
Thymbra fell the lot of the Lycians," 4 are more
suitable to the ancient settlement, for the plain of
Thymbra is near it, as also the Thymbrius River,
which flows through the plain and empties into the
Scamander at the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo,
but Thymbra is actually fifty stadia distant from the

1 i.e. a little farther inland than the country which has the
shape of the letter in question.
2 See critical note. Iliad 20. 51.
4 Iliad 10. 430.

perimeter ., five stadia distant from the Simoeis, and ten
stadia distant from the village of the Ilians."


8tiXet. 58 e 'EptvOre, TpaXvG Tt~ Tror /cal
ptrve;Q897, 7T( puLeV pXap p /KTYiiaTS VrTO7TErrTwKiceV,
Xabv S8 or-i7ov 7rap' 'Eptve6v, evfa y/dXso-ra
if3ar6ds eOTiL 7roAg al ea crl8potov 6TrXTro
owielca av X yotl 'AvSpotdiXir, TrI 86' viv
7ronwe 7ratd7roXv df 6ariice.2 ical (6Q'yb? 8$
ititcpov Karwre'po eai TroO 'Eptveov, o' ov o qi'tv
d 'AXtXXei5?,
kpOpa 8' /yc'o 6T' 'AXatoZo-iv wokreX ov,
obi e Xearc'e driXrv aj7ro Te(EyO opVV'/ev
aXX' oa-ov e Icatrd' Te 7rvXa icaal 'Vy6v
36. Kai p v TO' ye vav'oraO1uov TO' vv e'Tt
Xe'yof'evov 7rhrlov OVTrw ear0 T79 vfV 7rVAXEr,
waOre Oavda'ew elcrr av iv aV a Twv /Uev T17
acrovoLa, TrV 86 TOV vaVTov Trjv arvF ulac" tiro-
vola, pcv, el etls* Tooo'Tov Xpovov aTeLXuy ov
avTro eLxO, 7rrwrltovo ovior] T?7rj roXew? ical
rouo-orov w'X~Oov9, r70 7' ev avj'rf ca TO7
eirT/covpsiov' vewar -yap yeyovevat rja TOr
TreXO9 (9' ov8' d1EVeTro, 6 8' 7rrdXaaa 7rotiq7T7
ifidvtaev, th" 'Apto-ToTreXl filo-'v)' d'rvxlatv Sd,
el, yevo/evov 7TO reT6LXO, 6e76ofdXXOaovv Ica
e orweaOov eiv avTO T vavo-Tra6/ov ial rpoaejd-
XoVTo 7raE vavcrtv, A'reTIo-rov' 8v e~'XOVTe, OVI
-Oadppovv 7rpoatov'T'; 7 roXtopEi1v, Iucpoi 70'
x Some of the MSS. read AhyoITo instead of Ahyot.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 35-36

present Ilium. And again, Erineus,' a place that is
rugged and full of wild fig trees, lies at the foot
of the ancient site, so that Andromach8 might
appropriately say, "Stay thy host beside Erineus,
where best the city can be approached and the wall
scaled,"2 but Erineus stands at a considerable distance
from the present Ilium. Further, a little below
Erineus is Phegus,3 in reference to which Achilles
says, But so long as I was carrying on war amid
the Achaeans, Hector was unwilling to rouse battle
away from the wall, but would come only as far as
the Scaean Gates and Phegus." 4
36. However, the Naval Station, still now so
called, is so near the present Ilium that one might
reasonably wonder at the witlessness of the Greeks
and the faint-heartedness of the Trojans; witlessness,
if the Greeks kept the Naval Station unwalled for
so long a time, when they were near to the city and
to so great a multitude, both that in the city and
that of the allies; for Homer says that the wall had
only recently been built (or else it was not built at
all, but fabricated and then abolished by the poet, as
Aristotle says); and faint-heartedness, if the Trojans,
when the wall was built, could besiege it and break
into the Naval Station itself and attack the ships,
yet did not have the courage to march up and be-
siege the station when it was still unwalled and only
SSee foot-note on Erineus," 34 above.
2 Iliad 6. 433. 3 Oak tree. 4 Iliad 9. 352.

2 &pio'rvie (the reading of Enstathius, note on Iliad 6.
433), Casaubon, for areioLCe; so Kramer and Meineke.
3 'Y aver, Xylander, for eovTro; so the later editors.
Sels, Meineke omits.
6 Kat, Meineke and Leaf, from conj. of Kramer, for ws.

Stao-r27'arTo; Ovroq' eo'Tt yap TO vav-raOFTov
7rp6V Ityeflo, 7rX 'r1lov 86 cal icditpavopo
IcKS1o 't, ie'XWv'o 70 'IXlov oTalovy eliKoolv.
el Seb 'jao'L et7 T T vv Xeyp6evov 'AXaiov
XtLtaeva elvat to vao-TraOtiov, eyyv7repw' Tva A Xee
Trrrov, oo-ov 88ecKa oraiSov 8tea'rTojTa T27
7roheoq), TO 1 r 1 OaXdrry relowv vurpoCrTletf,2
tro Toiro70 7rv nrpoo-yw.ta3 Trcv 'rotra/tov e'art, 7T
Trpo 7rT9 7roXEWM eTr 9aXdr 7rr eSliov' warre, el
Sw8eKaca-rd8tov ca viv v TO IeTrav, ToTe ica 7
ia)lo-eL HXarrov vr7ipXe. Ical 1] 87yj2rat 7
C 599 rrp76 rov Ei/zatoov br TroD 'Ovaou-ewo S aaKevaa-
OeZcra fi'ya etya'ivaet Trb St&dao-Tia Tob Pe'p
T7r ArdepoXE( ro' 'TOio vavaVrd01/ov'
c o0' V7rro Tpotly Xoov ryojuerv
lqo-1 yahp bTroLi3d
Xblv yap vr7ov eCa' iX9OoIpev.
E7r 76 7rT KIaao-tco7rrv 7re6/IrovraTt 'yvwa-o/.Lvot,
7rorTpov /eCvo tro rapa wvo'lPv daorr'po9ev 7roXi
care -Trao- pot 6PO oliceiov O reov9,
6 7rodrivSe
i avaXwpijqrovort.
tal II oXv dcay,
ajo' 1adXa ppdaco-Oe, itXotr cehotias l ap
aGoTVoe vvv levat,

e7caqL' aFro 7elXeo el/ev.
7rapaTrly-r 8' t At7T Upto9 xcat Tv 'AXeaavptivnv
'Eao-raarv tdprvpa, T7rv avyypdpraaav rrep T 7j
'Ollipov 'IXta'o', 7rvvOavoto/ev'rl, el repi T)r vV

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 36

a slight distance away; for it is near Sigeium, and
the Scamander empties near it, at a distance of only
twenty stadia from Ilium. But if one shall say that
the Harbour of Achaeans, as it is now called, is the
Naval Station, he will be speaking of a place that is
still closer, only about twelve stadia distant from the
city, even if one includes the plain by the sea,
because the whole of this plain is a deposit of the
rivers-I mean the plain by the sea in front of the
city; so that, if the distance between the sea and
the city is now twelve stadia, it must have been
no more than half as great at that time. Further,
the feigned story told by Odysseus to Eumaeus
clearly indicates that the distance from the Naval
Station to the city is great, for after saying, "as
when we led our ambush beneath the walls of
Troy," he adds a little below, "for we went very
far from the ships." And spies are sent forth to
find whether the Trojans will stay by the ships "far
away," far separated from their own walls, or will
withdraw again to the city."2 And Polydamas
says, "on both sides, friends, bethink ye well, for I,
on my own part, bid you now to go to the city;
afar from the walls are we." a Demetrius cites also
Hestiaea of Alexandreia as a witness, a woman who
wrote a work on Homer's Iliad and inquired whether

1 Odyssey 14. 469. 2 Iliad 10. 209. Iliad 18. 254.

1 rd, before dri, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors.
2 o'virpoor&Oets, Meineke, for vPv irpoffOrits; Leaf omits
\rl .poaTrrOts ; Kramer conj. ovK eZ after rporTei'ds.
8 wpdxtwpa Crwxz, srpdXw ca other MSS.


vrow ro Xed~ uo avvfzTri al1 Tl Tpwotcv
i7eSlov,o /. eTrav T 7I roXeoA cal r ,; OaXdaTT7j
6 jroi7TnTs cpda'er TOb ~LV yap 7rpo T7v v v
7roX6eo opwc/ievov 7rp6aXtowja elvat Tw)v 7roTra/wv
vo'Tepov yeyovo?.
37. "O Te IIoXlr?)lz,
og Tpfwov a-ocorbo Ite, vrowoKcetlyt reTrotO(c,
v/,rl dTr' (tcpordrT, Ala'vijrao iygpovTOc,
fdTaton 7v. Kal yap el d7r' dcpoTdTrw, O(Xto,
ad7r 2 7roX\ aBy ieCovoq fVFov9 T1j di apoTOr'ew
edoaKOrevev, ed 'aoov a XeSv ir- Staar-T'faTro, FI)
S6euevoo ttIr6wev T1 7ro&KceLa9 TO7ri ictaXowD
Xadpwv revre yap 8t6'Xe aGrailovJ 0 vvv etKvvd-
,/evo 70ro Alav7rj0rov rdT(o'l Icaca 7v elS 'AXe-
dcvSpetav 6 ,6v. obt8' 17 Toi "EKTopoT 8~ 'rept-
8pop 7 7 rept' rIv r iv y 'e6 TI, eS'oyaov, oa ya'p
rrT( r repiSpoAov s viv, tha Tryv CrvvexYfj adxc'w 4 8
wraXata eaXet 7reptSpotriv.
38. OW86v S' tUXVO? CtcrEat Tj, apXalav
'ro60Xe' e ICos'T a'Tr yap eK7re7rpOP l v(YOv roWV
icKXOW rroXecov, ob reTew" S ICaTeo-Traa-o/.vwv,
TavTf,; S' Kic &Odpwcv avaTeTpajp1v2s, ol Xl9o0
TraYvTre el6 Trv exevEo)v avaXr0ltvLf eLTrIvy6o'Xqav.
'ApXadtvacKTa ygoav Cacr TOYv MtrvXYrvaiov e'~
T7WV /ceKEEv hWlov TO t'yetov Tieticrat. TOVTO
I ca-TarEXov p v 'ArWvalot, 4 pvvwva TOyv 'OXvfI-
rtiovticKYv '-r-/eA avTre, Aeojf3wv e'7Tr8Ka ofuvv'V
aXye80b TI Tjs a- v/prdca'F TpwAo" o'r v c \ 1 Kai
1 After cal Groskurd inserts Tro~D J-T, Kramer conj. roD or
ri, Meineke indicates a lacuna, and Leaf omits altogether
rb Tpwactv rsE&ov SgorrpoY yeyoYds.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 36-38

the war took place round the present Ilium and the
Trojan Plain, which latter the poet places between
the city and the sea; for, she says, the plain now to
be seen in front of the present Ilium is a later deposit
of the rivers.
37. Again, Polites, "who was wont to sit as a
sentinel of the Trojans, trusting in his fleetness of
foot, on the topmost part of the barrow of aged
Aesyetes," was doing a foolish thing, for even
though he sat on the topmost part of it, still he might
have kept watch from the much greater height of the
acropolis, at approximately the same distance, with no
need of fleetness of foot for safety; for the barrow of
Aesyetes now pointed out is five stadia distant on the
road to Alexandreia. Neither is the clear running
space 2 of Hector round the city easy to understand,
for the present Ilium has no clear running space,"
on account of the ridge that joins it. The ancient city,
however, has a clear running space" round it.
38. But no trace of the ancient city survives; and
naturally so, for while the cities all round it were
sacked, but not completely destroyed, yet that city
was so utterly demolished that all the stones were
taken from it to rebuild the others. At any rate,
Archaeanax of Mitylen6 is said to have built a wall
round Sigeium with stones taken from there. Sigeium
was seized by Athenians under Phrynon the Olympian
victor, although the Lesbians laid claim to almost
the whole of the Troad. Most of the settlements in

1 Iliad 2. 792. 2 See Iliad 2. 812.

2 arv, before 7roX6, Corais inserts; and so Meineke.
Kramer and Leaf insert &qp' before vSous.


KrtapaTa eltctv at rrXaeTrat T&OV lcaTotutICv, ai
plev avyt evova-at tal viv, at 8' iaavtaojevat.
C 600 HItTrTaKOv 8' 6 MtTvXirva'oq, e?' TW'v pr1Ta tro s)
Xe'yoie'vow, "rXeL'o-a9 erl TOy Opvovwva arpaTi)fyo
8te7roXe/6et 7rew, 8taTtOI Kai 7rdao-wrv catchyy,
oTe Kal 'AXKai6z jraytv 6 '7rotqT?7, 6aVTO' e'v
TtVt aZvyvt KCIcSo cfepd~UEVov Ta~ o5rXa Airavra
Ovyefv" Xe'yet 8 nrpOv Ttva ic4pvwca, KeXeU(7av
d yyeiXat TOI de' otiKc, 'AXcatoX oa-oo "Apet
.evrea 8' OVICVvrv iXicroph v de rXavKwonroi lepov
aveKcpe/iaoaav 'AvTrtKol,1 v5 epov 8' tc / oovolia-
Xta?, TrpoKaXea-api/ovv2 ToD 4pvowvo9, aLXtev-
vTt1Cv avaXaB3ov OwCevYv avvepaye, Ical 7~ /~v
ApdXt XaorTp" repte'/aXe, T7 ptalvy 8~ Ical 7
tftxit) e'7retpe Kcalt vedXe. tUevovroq 8' &~r TOV
roXe/xov, Hleptavpog 8tatTTI7F alpefels Vro
ap/4otv evcrOe Trov 7rodo/ov.
39. Tizatov SE tfreaao-al rbti-v 6 A), y7ptoP0,
lr-TopovivTa 4C TOV X icov Tv "I 'IXov lleplavSpov
7rtretXlo -at 3 A 'A XXetov To vatlovt, /for-
6OOFira Tro '7rept HIaTTarc6vw 6rtetXtoa-r Ovat p/ev
yap bro Tr&V MtTvXqvalwv TO T O7rO TTOVTOv TO
ZtyeCml, ov tV 1 iv ?Icov&oto7tTorwv, oa"8' brb T7
1 Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, ejects re .
'A'TTKof. The passage 'Acaios .. 'Ar~T-ol, from ados to
avErpiaarav, has been so badly mutilated by the copyists
that it is impossible to do more in a translation than to give
the general sense of it. For conjectural restorations see
Kramer, C. Miller (Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1025), and Bergk
(Vol. III. Frag. 32 of Alcaeus), who reads v60as' obfnm'bv & tK
-roplv s yXavvKwry ehvpbv iy pIKpao'av 'Ari7ucol. Meineke and
Leaf omit the whole passage.
2 rpotiaXeo'a'Yvov F, other MSS. 7rpoiKahcaea-aiezvov.
3 devvrLreiXat, Corais, for repirrtXitra; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. i. 38-39

the Troad belong, in fact, to the Lesbians, and some
endure to this day, while others have disappeared.
Pittacus of Mitylen6, one of the Seven Wise Men,
as they are called, sailed against Phrynon the
general and for a time carried on the war, but with
poor management and ill consequences. It was at
this time that the poet Alcaeus says that he himself,
being sorely pressed in a certain battle, threw away
his arms and fled. He addresses his story to a
certain herald, whom he had bidden to report to
the people at home that Alcaeus is safe, but his
arms have been hung up as an offering to Ares by the
Attic army in the temple of Athena Glaucopis." 2 But
later, on being challenged to single combat by
Phrynon, he took up his fishing-tackle, ran to meet
him, entangled him in his fishing net, and stabbed
and slew him with trident and dagger. But since
the war still went on, Periander was chosen by both
sides as arbiter and ended it.
39. Demetrius says that Timaeus falsifies when he
informs us that Periander fortified Achilleium against
the Athenians with stones from Ilium, to help the
army of Pittacus; for this place, he says, was indeed
fortified by the Mitylenaeans against Sigeium, though
not with such stones as those, nor yet by Periander.

I The Athenian general.
2 Only this fragment (Bergk 32) of Alcaeus' poem, ad-
dressed to Melanippus (see Herodotus 5. 95), is preserved.
But the text has been so badly mutilated by the copyists
that none of the conjectural restorations can with certainty
be adopted; and hence the translator can give only the
general sense of the passage. However, the whole reference
to Alcaeus appears to be merely a note that has crept into
the text from the margin (see critical note).


Ileptdv8pov. 7rvt yap av alpeO9fvat 8tatr rsTv
bov r-pooroXe-/ovvvTa; 'AXlXXesov 8' edrlv
ToTroq, ev SQ T6 'AALXXera 1r a, cacoticta rucpa.
carea'7arn'a ea ical TO SItyetov U7o n TrW v 'IXle'Ov
acreitovv" 1 Vr' E/ceivotv yap jv ~o-Tepov 7
wrapalXa 'aaa i I eXyp Aap8cvov, /caL vVv v'r'
e'elvot e4T-l SB e iraXatev vr'o Tro A'oXeo-tv
?Iv Ta 7rXhZora, wo*e "Ecopov oicveF ni raaav
T7rv a7rb 'ASvSov IpeXpt Kpq;/ KaXeiv AloXla.
OovKvicL'8Z 8Se' qao-v doatpeOlIvat, r7v Tpoiav
'rob 'AOrsvaIwv 'ro MrTv'vXrvalov & ev TC
IleXo7rovvr~raaKc wroXepo) 7 IIaXI5T'p.
40. AeCovo-t 8' ol vvv 'IXte- KIal 'ovro, O,
ov8e re'Xe'w sj'avio9at, oavve/3pavev2 T"7V 7ro6XtV
icara Tr)v XwLo-Vw L'Ob TroV 'AXadiv, obv' e'e-
Xdfedbi ovSeroTe. ai yoiv Aobcple, 'rrapOevot,
fUtKcpOv iTrepov apdpLevai, er'-epTrovPro T ar' ero.
Kral -avTa 8' ovX 'OlqpIKpI ovie 'yap 7 '1
Kaoadv8opq 9ophv olSev "O/77pov, aXX' oT /ev
7ape'voy v V7r E/KELov TOv XP'OV Xeyec'
7re 've yap '08pvovja, KaP/So-,Bev 'vov edova,
Oq aa veov rroX eloto 1erTa /XE~Oo' el rMXoveL.
1 CDFhirwx read arteov'vTov instead of areOov.
2 mz, and Corais, read wvve'i instead of arvve'Savev.
3 ~4Ad(BOn, Corais, for 5x<470o8 CDF, 4hAi~jpn hi,
1See 13. 1.4.
Si.e. the campaign of Paches, the Athenian general, who
in 427 B.C. captured Mitylen6 (see Thucydides 3. 18-49).
3 To appease the wrath of Athena, caused after the Trojan
War by the sacrilege of Aias the Locrian in her temple (he

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 39-40

For how could the opponent of the Athenians have
been chosen as arbiter? Achilleium is the place
where stands the monument of Achilles and is only
a small settlement. Sigeium, also, has been rased
to the ground by the Ilians, because of its dis-
obedience; for the whole of the coast as far as
Dardanus was later subject to the Ilians and is now
subject to them. In ancient times the most of it
was subject to the Aeolians, so that Ephorus does
not hesitate to apply the name Aeolis to the whole
of the coast from Abydus to Cyme.1 Thucydides
says that Troy was taken away from the Mitylenaeans
by the Athenians in the Pachetian part2 of the
Peloponnesian War.
40. The present Ilians further tell us that the city
was, in fact, not completely wiped out at its capture
by the Achaeans and that it was never even deserted.
At any rate the Locrian maidens, beginning a little
later, were sent every year.3 But this too is non-
Homeric, for Homer knows not of the violation of
Cassandra, but he says that she was a maiden at
about that time, "for he4 slew Othryoneus, a
sojourner in Troy from Cabesus, who had but recently
come, following after the rumour of war,5 and he
dragged Cassandra away from the altar of the Palladium),
the Locrians were instructed by an oracle from Delphi to
send to her temple (as temple slaves) at Ilium two maidens
every year for a thousand years. It appears that the servi-
tude of the maidens lasted for only one year, each pair being
released at the end of the year when the next pair arrived,
but that upon their return home they were forced to remain
unmarried (see Leaf, Annual of the British School at Athens,
XXI, pp. 148-154).
4 Idomeneus, son of Minos and King of Crete; one of the
bravest heroes of the war.
5 Or perhaps in quest of war's renown (Leaf).


ljree 8e IIpdLoto Ovya rptv elSo dpAcprrlv,
Kacra-dv8prnv, avaeSvovw
B8la a o4? 8 o LE i/l7rat, oa0' ST&t f0opah ro
Al'avroI Ev Tj vavayla KarTa p.LLv 'AOpra
ovvel/3, 4 KaTra roavT 7v atrlav, aX)' aTreOXa-
C 601 EVoPevo v IV r 'Aiva IcaTa r Ko.VOV e'p'JKev
(atravrov yap el 9 TO iepv ae/3,raovrwv, irrao-v
f.j4vtev), dTroXEa-Oat 6 VTro Iloaet~~wvoq yeya-
Xopprniovr 4avra. TH 86 AocpliSa; relfO9i0vat,
Ilepaowv fSjr paroVVTwv, o'vve/).
41. OrTO) /Iev 8,7 XLova ol 'IXe01 I "O/~ pog
e p7w rov acbaviato-yuO r 7roXew? e('pKev'
e'o-erat fjfuap, OTrav troT' r7hXy "IvXo lpj.
Shap 1 Ical IIptdp.olo hXtv 8teTrepo-ralev alrijv
/3ovX 2 Kcal uv'otirt.
WpErr'p O HpLeuor o 8 o r 6e Ke(idrT devavrT(.
Kal Ta rotaiara e 70O aTroD Tt7evTrat reicprpta,
olov, 5TI rT7s 'AOv7v a b TO avov viv p/6v arG(rclk
oparat, "O/.Lpov S icKaOrlevov e,/ialver rerXov
fyp KeXevet
Qevat 'A rvatl rri yot'vaatv*
(LE Kal,
y17 7tOTr 7ovvaowt oTlov c4feeerat l Xov viv.
3exrtov yap oirwV 7 7 W TrVE 8XovTrat avrT roT
1 abrap -ird, instead of J fydp, is the reading in the Odyssey.
2 The MSS., except moz, which omit Bouh ical pivOolro, have
tEircp before these words.

1 liad 13. 363. Homer mentions Cassandra in only two
other places, Iliad 24. 699 and Odyssey 11. 422.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 40-41

was asking Cassandra in marriage, the comeliest of
the daughters of Priam, without gifts of wooing,"l
and yet he does not so much as mention any viola-
tion of her or say that the destruction of Aias in
the shipwreck took place because of the wrath of
Athena or any such cause; instead, he speaks of
Aias as hated by Athena,"2 in accordance with her
general hatred (for since they one and all committed
sacrilege against her temple, she was angry at them
all), but says that he was destroyed by Poseidon
because of his boastful speech.3 But the fact is that
the Locrian maidens were first sent when the
Persians were already in power.
41. So the Ilians tell us, but Homer expressly
states that the city was wiped out: "The day shall
come when sacred Ilios shall perish ; and "surely
we have utterly destroyed the steep city of Priam," 5
" by means of counsels and persuasiveness ; and
in the tenth year the city of Priam was destroyed."
And other such evidences of the same thing are set
forth ; for example, that the wooden image of Athena
now to be seen stands upright, whereas Homer
clearly indicates that it was sitting, for orders are
given to "put" the robe "upon Athena's knees "8
(compare "that never should there sit upon his
knees a dear child").9 For it is better to interpret
it 10 in this way than, as some do, to interpret it as
2 Odyssey 4. 502. Odyssey 4. 500 ff.
4 Iliad 6. 448. 6 Odyssey 3. 130.
This phrase is not found in the liad or Odyssey, but once
before (1. 2. 4) Strabo has ascribed it to Homer (see critical
7 Iliad 12. 15. 8 Iliad 6. 92, 273. Iliad 9. 455.
10 i.e. the Greek preposition iri, which more naturally
means "upon" rather than "beside."
VOL. V1.


7rapa roT yo'vaat OEivat, 7rapartO ieev TOb
j7 caTraL dr7' da-Xdpy ev 7Ivpob avyp
advT TOD 7ri aya Pp av vor79elr' T6rTXov
avd6ea v 7rapa roIF yovao-t; xal ol T 7 7rpoaop8av
8E 8tao-rpfovTne, yovveaoV, v v, OUvtdtv, odroTepwav
av 84(ovrai, d'trepavTroXoyo0crLv, e'i0 lice6Tevov
re 4pepvav.1 7roXXa 8e 7c v apXawov ny, 'AOrvaq
odvoov lcaxl',eva Selrcvvat, KaO7rfep ev
cPwIKaa, MaoaaXla, 'Pt p., Xty, aiXatv
7rXetoolv. poXoyoDio-t 8e cal ol veonrepot ToV
acave-iYov 7v d7roXeoA(, v eoni Ial Av/colpyov
6 PWT7Wp' IUvno0e\l; 'yacp T79 'IXtev rroXews
abl' T'6 OVK ic dicjlcoev, &W arva V7Tr 7TV
'ETXXO(mv IcaTeaov'Kald0, dolaicKToV oio-av;
42. EiKcaovuo 86 TO'1F ltrepov avaicTI'-a
8tavoovULevov'U ovlao'acra ta, TOV TO'7tv BevoV,
e'iTe Sth TA avtbopia 'reE Kal cKaapac-apevov
To0 'AyatieIvovov KcaTa 7raXatov MOov (caOa'7rep
xcal 6 KpoioEo e!X;av rTjv $.18vijv, elvs Iv 6
rvpavvo xarcaTfvye aavK'iav, Aph' eTero Kara
TOOv reTftXtOVvcv rdXtv rbv TTrov), 'eilvov c\v
ouv a7roarT~val 70o XoOwpov, Srepov 86 TetXcrat.
vrpkrot ,Ecv ovv 'Aao-v7raXates0 ol To 'Pol'etov
KaTaaxyovTrv avvwicturav rrpop 7T ttC6~ervT
IHdOXov, b vwv icaXkelra IT6Xto-pa, obVc dv evbepice

1 The words CO' liKETevoviTs Te pppcvas are unintelligible.
Meineke emends to IBO' it Crdas EpPirieor1vrs eIre oipevas;
Leaf translates (with a question mark) "whether as sup-
pliants or mind" I Jones conj. that the words wrl (or ev) 7-
-ipp~b ("in the ashes"), referring to ?r' o-Xdpg, are hidden
in e Ippevas.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. 1. 41-42

meaning "to put the robe 'beside' her knees,"
comparing the words and she sits upon the hearth
in the light of the fire," which they take to mean
"beside" the hearth. For how could one conceive
of the dedication of a robe "beside" the knees?
Moreover, others, changing the accent on yovovao-tv,
accenting it yovvao-v,2 like Ovdo-wv 3 (in whichever of
two ways they interpret it), talk on endlessly. .4
There are to be seen many of the ancient wooden
images of Athena in a sitting posture, as, for example,
in Phocaea, Massalia, Rome, Chios, and several other
places. Also the more recent writers agree that
the city was wiped out, among whom is the orator
Lycurgus,5 who, in mentioning the city of the Ilians,
says: Who has not heard that once for all it was
rased to the ground by the Greeks, and is unin-
habited ?"
42. It is surmised that those who later thought of
rebounding the city regarded that site as ill-omened,
either on account of its misfortune or also because,
in accordance with an ancient custom, a curse had
been laid upon it by Agamemnon, just as Croesus,
after he destroyed Sidene, whither the tyrant
Glaucias had fled for refuge, put a curse on any
persons who should re-fortify the site; and that
they therefore avoided that place and fortified
another. Now the Astypalaeans who held possession
of Rhoeteium were the first to settle Polium, now
called Polisma, on the Simoeis River, but not on a

1 "KKnees."
2 They obviously took yovva'ffv, if there ever was such a
word, to mean "female suppliants."
3 Maenads." 4 See critical note.
6 Against Leocrates, 62.


T-r(' 8wt Kicareo-a'*d r Traxew. E7l 86 TW7V
Av6ov 7j viv e/'TOrl" /caroticta Icas To repov' ov
prv rheXtr ye 77v, daXXa 7roXXoFt XpOvrotv VTrepov,
C 602 Kal KaT' Xiyov, &,g e'pi77at, T7vV avi'ncov aX'ev.
'EXXdvtrco9 8e Xaptd6.evo To'oi 'IXtei-rtv, o0o0
edceivov Ovpos, u1 vvsyopet Tr Tqjv avTrv e'ivat
7r6Xtv Tri~v ry TOTre. T7rV 8 Xpav, d avio-
eia7yf Ti7s 7rOXCeO, ol T S'yetovr /ca To 'Pot'etor
xovref Steve',avro acal TrV ac'XXwv & gicaaoroI
T( 7rrXrtoyOXdpwv, L7reSoo-ap 8' avotIctrOeLcaIS'.
43. IoXvTri8atcov &8 7Tr "I87yv 18lsW otov'rat
X&yeo-9at Ste 7,t b rXlo Tor) dE abTr9 pedorVTw
WroTaf'ov, KcaO' a p/dtaXTa ] AapSavutcj bro7re-
mirT ev avj 7cal {tetpc A'il4c&)oq ical T' repI
"IXtov. ekTretpoq9 8' Wv wY' ToTrWV, (9 av
E'rtXpiopt avrjp, 0 Afl/jrptoS TorT /ULv OV7T)
Xe yet rept aVrTv' acTI lyap Xo'6 o Tv T7jS o18V 9
KorVXoV' bepcetrata 8' ovTro eCcaTrov Tov Ka'
e'lcocrt OTa8Iot' ZiKjeeoS, e~f o5 6 re Ec/ca'av8po
petl cal 6 ppdvtcrco Kal AL'ao-~ro', ol uitv Trpk? apiiroV
Kcat Tr7v IpoTrovrTS a, JIc rXetrOovv 7rifryw (rvTaXet-
/ oJevot, 6 8' I icqiavpoq 'r Uocnv JIC K uai
7ry' "- --ca-raa 8' AdXXjXaS t r wXsotd'ovo-tf, dv
et'Koa o-Tra8tv '7rep(teAopevat 8taa 7ijur'c 7rXhei--
royV deah~r4'TK6V aro T-rj adpX~ py TO Al o#Jrov
TeXoT, xeoof TL KaR 7revraIcrolovU o 'ra iovg.
7wapexyet 8 X dov, 7rw; 2 07ro-tv o 7roitrj 9

1 OvGds, Xylander, for Af0Oos; so the later editors.
2 is, Corais, for ~'s; so the later editors.

1 i.e. of Ilium. 2 13. 1. 26.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 42-43

well-protected site; and therefore it was soon de-
molished. It was in the time of the Lydians that
the present settlement' was founded, as also the
temple. It was not a city, however, and it was
only after many ages, and gradually, as I have said,2
that it increased. But Hellanicus, to gratify the
Ilians, "such is the spirit of that man," 3 agrees with
them that the present Ilium is the same as the
ancient. When the city was wiped out, its territory
was divided up between the inhabitants of Sigeium
and Rhoeteium and several other neighboring
peoples, but the territory was given back when the
place was refounded.
43. The epithet "many-fountained" 4 is thought
to be especially applied to Mt. Ida because of the
great number of rivers that flow from it, particularly
in those parts below it where lie the territory of
Dardanus-even as far as Scepsis-and the region of
Ilium. Denietrius, who as a native was acquainted
with the topography of the country, says in one
place as follows: There is a hill of Ida called
Cotylus; and this hill lies about one hundred and
twenty stadia above Scepsis; and from it flow the
Scamander, the Granicus, and the Aesepus, the two
latter flowing towards the north and the Propontis
and constituting a collection of streams from several
sources, while the Scamander flows towards the west
from only one source; and all the sources lie close
together, being comprised within a distance of twenty
stadia; but the end of the Aesepus stands farthest
away from its beginning, approximately five hundred
stadia. But it is a matter of argument what the poet
means when he says: "And they came to the two
3 A quotation from Iliad 15. 94. A Cf. 13. 1. 5.


icpovvc 8' 'tcavov KaXtppow, evOa Se 7r?7yai
Sotal vatao'ovaot CEcaa'dvpov 8tviaevTO'"
f ufv 7yap oa'rt Xtap PeEL,
SearTt OepJy4* E7r tclpet 8'
^'i S6e Kcarvo;
S, I EE.
lytyveTrat abur-9, woel -ruvp6o.
) 2' Epr 9epel 7rpopeat edtcvia XaXcdiy
nj XLtvt *^vxpri,
OVTe yap OepFta vVv IV To rTO'y 7 ebplbceat, oV' 27
TOO eKajudv8pov rTlq? EvPravia, dWX' v Try b'pe*
Kica fla, dXX' ob 8vo. 7Th fiv owv OepaI dECe-
XelWf0a eibc6, TO 8 *'rvXpOv Ka'ad 8tic8oarv 1
bvreKcp'ov dK rTO i 2Kapadvpov Kara TOT7 avaTre,-
Xewv TO XO~pL, j Katl 8 To 7rXfltalOv etva TO
lKcafavSpov tKa TOv7TO TO NVwp X&yeo-Oar Tro
,IKcaludv8pov 7rr?]y2v o7W ) yap Xe'yovrat wrXeiovq
Trrlyal Tro avrov 7roTralov.
44. vu7rT~"rTet 8' ed avrovy 6 "Av8tpogV a- rob
Kapnl-rrlvr, ZpecvfjI TIVo' roXXaZ~I K6jaats avvot-
xovfutvry Kal rye(pyovu/Iv99 IaXTJ,, ')apaKeCfL'6y07
T Aap8avtytc i^eXpp T 7iv rep ZeXeiav ical
IItTvdeav2 T7rOwv. awvot/a~Toat SE Tl\v Xopav
aac-iv a7T ToO Kaproov Tro'rafov, ov wvoualcev 6
'Poao 0'ETrTarropo' T6e Ka'pyro- e 'Poslo? Te.
T7V ~B 7roXtV KaTEocrrat-Oat T7lv OlFuOvviov Tr
wroTrai. lrdXtv 8' OTOI; cr 6 v, 0 v 'P' -o'
WroTa/xo u VV Ka XeTat 'PoetrELT, el fL i pa o ei'
TOPV pdavIov FA3dShXov 'Po-'q eaIn. 'EIwTd-
1 For trdsortv (all MSS. and Eustathius), Corais, Meineke

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 43-44

fair-flowing streams, where well up the two springs
of eddying Scamander; for the one flows with soft
water" 1 (that is, with "hot water"), and the poet
adds, "and round about a smoke arises from it as if from
a blazing fire, whereas the other even in summer flows
forth cold as hail or chill snow." But, in the first
place, no hot waters are now to be found at the site,2
and, secondly, the source of the Scamander is not to
be found there, but in the mountain; and it has
only one source, not two. It is reasonable to sup-
pose, therefore, that the hot spring has given out,
and that the cold one is evacuated from the Scamander
through an underground passage and rises to the
surface here, or else that because of the nearness of
the Scamander this water is called a source of the
Scamander; for people are wont to ascribe several
sources to one and the same river in this way.
44. The Scamander is joined by the Andirus,
which flows from Caresend, a mountainous country
settled with many villages and beautifully culti-
vated; it extends alongside Dardania as far as the
regions of Zeleia and Pityeia. It is said that the
country was named after the Caresus River, which is
named by the poet, "Rhesus, Heptaporus, Caresus,
and Rhodius," 3 and that the city of the same name
as the river was torn down. Again, Demetrius says
as follows : "The Rhesus River is now called
Rhoeites, unless it be that the river which empties
into the Granicus is the Rhesus. The Heptaporus,
1 Iliad 22. 147. 2 i.e. of Troy. 8 Iliad 12. 20.

and Leaf, from conj. of Xylander, read duSvovi; but the
emendation is unnecessary.
2* irvwav, Xylander, for nirvuav ; so the later.editors.


C 603 Iwopo 8e, ov Ka'l IoX7ropov Xeovotv, 'r-raicts
St/3aatv6/evo; dic T&v 7repit rnv KaX'v HIlcrjv
Xwpiwv MeXatvaw KIcv iovo't ical TO
'Ao-rX1Ttrietov, 'I8pvta AveaidyXOV. Trept 8 T7iF
KaXi IHleticy "ATTaXo9v o 7Tp&wTo /3aca-XevcEa
oiVTr ypdcie( TV /16e 7rCteplp/rpov elval yo-r
VroSV rerTipWV Kal eKoc0t, T 6 vZo1 aVo pev
pl2,; tdvwevat1 el 6 E7 KcorTa Kcat 6eT7Ta ro68a, 6Td'
efi 7pta o-Xcrtoih'vv tLov adXXIr~Xv 8tieovTa, etTa
7rdXtv avvayofevrlv eli piav Kopvr1v, a7TOTeCD-
o'av T 2 r wav V*oS Svelv 'rXhOpepv KcaL 7evre'eai-
Seua ri7Xy&v 'A8pa/rUvTov 86 Se Xtp ap %o aprKTOv
EicaTO ical yo8ojKicovra O`Ta8ov9. K dpr7o-o 8'
aTro MaXourvTo pet, TOTrov Tiwo Kv/cefevov PteraV
HaXata-Kicfrewo /al 'AXadtov T), Teve Sov
7repalaq- 4/3dlXXet, ~ elv Trv A'o- prrov. 'Potlos
8e aio KXeav8pLav ical rop8ov, & 8seXet T7v
KaXl7 1-ei',; 'JrcKOvra arTa8ovr" e/p3dkXet 8'
els Tov A'ivov.3
45. To5 8' avX wvov 70To wrept Tov Ai'atTrov Ev
apLto-epa 711; pvo-ewq aTrov 7rpwrTov aeOTt IoXt a,
TetLXrpe9 XWOplo, 4e' 7' Hlaalo-cK1t(, e6lT
'AXadvotov, TOUT' i787l 7reTrXao-jI'evov 7rpb T7V TWov
'AXtLcYvwv ivroOeao-vi repi 5v elpdica/pev" ETa
Kdpqo-oT ip'lS cat ; Kap 77 vp I o- cal' oKpiwvvo
.7roTra/or, 7roi&v Kat avT r aXoPvoa dt 6ooyov,
eXaTTO 8\ 7TO) 'repi Tov A'iorfrov. Ta 8' '8 q
Ta 7vT ZeXetag Eo-Ti Wre6a /cail por6'8ta KaX5w
1 avdvat, Meineke and Leaf, following i, for div Dgh,
lay 0, fws moz.
1 Instead of rd, CDFhi read T7Te.
3 For Afutov Kramer conj. Arfeaov.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 44-45

also called Polyporus, is crossed seven times by one
travelling from the region of the Beautiful Pine to
the village called Melaenae and the Asclepieium
that was founded by Lysimachus. Concerning the
Beautiful Pine, King Attalus the First writes as
follows: "Its circumference is twenty-four feet;
and its trunk rises to a height of sixty-seven feet
from the root and then splits into three forks equi-
distant from one another, and then contracts again
into one head, thus completing a total height of two
plethra and fifteen cubits."1 It is one hundred and
eighty stadia distant from Adramyttium, to the
north of it. The Caresus flows from Malus, a place
situated between Palaescepsis and the Achaeium,
the part of the mainland that belongs to the Tene-
dians;2 and it empties into the Aesepus. The
Rhodius flows from Cleandria and Gordus, which
are sixty stadia distant from the Beautiful Pine; and
it empties into the Aenius.3
45. In the dale of the Aesepus, on the left of the
stream, one comes first to Polichna, a place enclosed
by walls; and then to Palaescepsis; and then to
Alizonium (this last name having been fabricated 4
to support the hypothesis about the Halizones,
whom I have already discussed);5 and then to
Caresus, which is deserted, and Caresen6, and the
river of the same name,6 which also forms a notable
dale, though smaller than that of the Aesepus;
and next follow the plains and plateaux of Zeleia,

1 About 225 feet. I See enid of 32.
3 "Aenius" appears to be an error for "Aesepus," as
suggested by Kramer. See Leaf, p. 207.
Si.e. by Demetrius. 12. 3. 20-27.
6 The Caresus, of course.
VOL. VI. D 89


ryewp yovleva* &v s8eLi 86 TOD Aloaj-rov tterafv
IIoXIXva, Te IcKal laLatartckjrew ?7 Ne'a Kw/%I
ical 'Apyvpia,2 Kal TOOTO 7rdXtv rXwao-d a3 7rpOb
T7~ avTrlv vTrod6lvea, oEroog O-WoEL7f TO
80ev Apytpov EcrT Iyeve0Xl.
l3 obv 'AX'/$ w7roD, A4 'AXo'7ril OTrwO /3oXovorai
wapovod.ewtv ; EXp jv 'yp ial TODro 'rXddoa
7rapaTrpt au'vov9 TO perw7rov ical t/ XWobv dav
xat erotuov 7rpob e'Aey/Xo atraf ij'7 a7oreoToXpj]-
IcKTaq. TaiTa ,ev oiv e'vo-Tat-y ex'e TOtaVTT7v,
Tr3XXa Se v7roLXa/,/3avoIev, 1 r ye 7rXeZoe-ra, Sewv
7rpoo-eXetv 4 6; CvSpl 4p7reippi Kical EV 7rotr cfrpovrT-
oavT Tr TrooovTov U Trepl TOVTrwv, were Tia~ ovTra
P/3thovs aovyypdkat on71%wv i'jyyr'-v r/ticp
7rXethvwv e~ijcova, TO7 icaaXovyov r'ov Tpco.v.
doiS' 8' oiv Triv IIaXatoricritv 7irj u pev Alve'a6
t3L't'v revr7jcovTa oTraSov, TO7? & w roTatzoV Toi
Ala4rjrov TptadKOvra, anro TSe hIaXatrrrew
Trav'rjy StaTetvat T'v o6,Uwvvplav tcal elt lXvovs
7rXheov; Todrov'. brcavip/ev 86 e'rit 7j)v wrapaXlav,
8fev rep derrX(lo7uev.
0 604 46. VErr-TL 8 6 iTera rv %tyetad8a acpav Kal Tr
'AXiXXetov '] Teve8iwv 'repaia, TO 'AXatiov, /cal
1 Na appears to be an error for Alvea, and Leaf so reads.
This appears to be the same village mentioned in the same
paragraph below (Alvias) and in 12. 3. 23 ('EvEav Kcwijv).
2 'Apyvpla, Corais,'for &pyvpeia oxz, apytpta other MSS.
3 After rAcd'aa, F adds Trda1ra apy6dpa, CDhi Trdypara Th
apy6pia, -raKTeov r & &pyvpeta, x racTrov.
SProfessor Capps rightly suspects that abr-, or A7)Trply,
has fallen out of the MSS. before vrpoirexeiv.
5 Instead of Alvfas, CFA read Aivelas, x NEtas; Meineke
reads Neas.

GEOGRAPHY, 13. r. 45-46

which are beautifully cultivated. On the right of
the Aesepus, between Polichna and Palaescepsis,
one comes to Nea Comr and Argyria,2 and this again
is a name fabricated to support the same hypo-
thesis, in order to save the words, "where is the
birthplace of silver." 3 Now where is Alyb6, or Alop6,
or however they wish to alter the spelling of the
name ? For having once made their bold venture,
they should have rubbed their faces 5 and fabricated
this name too, instead of leaving it lame and readily
subject to detection. Now these things are open
to objections of this kind, but, in the case of the
others, or at least most of them, I take it for granted
that we must give heed to him 6 as a man who was
acquainted with the region and a native of it, who
gave enough thought to this subject to write thirty
books of commentary on a little more than sixty lines
of Homer, that is, on the Catalogue of the Trojans.7
He says, at any rate, that Palaescepsis is fifty stadia
distant from Aenea and thirty from the Aesepus
River, and that from this Palaescepsiss the same
name was extended to several other sites. But I
shall return to the coast at the point where I left off.
46. After the Sigeian Promontory and the Achil-
leium one comes to the Achaeium, the part of the
1 Leaf emends "Nea" (" New") to "Aenea" (see critical
2 Silvertown. 3 Iliad 2. 856.
SSee 12. 3. 21.
6 i.e. to make them red and thus conceal their blushes of
6 i.e. Demetrius of Scepsis.
7 Iliad 2. 816-877. 8 Old Scepsis.

6 aS, Corais, for '' ~ ; so Meineke.


av' f Teve8o;, o, wXelov' rv 're2rapaIcovra
a-raSbwv Ste ovo-a Tri 27'irerpov eX Se 8 T
.repsierpov Joaov dySo covra ora-a[wv Ka'l TrrT
AioX8la icalt XLt vaz S86o Kal lepov TroD ZEtvw&o
'Arr6XwvoT, KcaOdrrep Kal 6 7rrot(Tyrlr ,aprvper"
Teve'otl re aa avao-rffet,

7repticetCat 8 abrrj vyrloa wrXelo, cal 8 ical Uvo, &
icaXovcit KaX'8va,, iceipeva Kara Tr 'y 'l AeKiro
rrXoDv Kcal abrTv Se T'v Teve8ov KCdXv8vdv rtive
elrov, aXXor 8B Aetdco pvv.' ptvlevova- 8' ev
aby Ta i epip T'rv T'vvrjv, .a oi5 al arobvo/ua 7r
V?]ao), KaC Ta 7repb Top KVicvov, Opaica TO y6vo9,
rrarepa 8',, oe, Tro T'vvov, 3aoatXea 86
47. 'Hv Se r7 'AXatbLw aovveXT 4 re Adptaa
icai KoXwvai, Trf2 TeveSiwv rrepala; ov cat 7rp6-
Tepov, ical ] vvv Xpvaa, Jof' vftrov TIVOYb 7rerpwSovw
v7rep 7 T O9aXdaTr; i8pvuptevf, Kcal 2~ 'Ap/aPtrb? ?]
T7 Aeicry V TroKicfte'vrP ovveXi"'- vvv 8' 2 'AXedav-
8peta avveyX? et r'f 'Arady* TA 8a 'roX-iaara
ecewva avv~ otac-peva rvryxavet, Kaadrrep Kal daXXa
rrXetw ToV spoVpLwv, et' rTv 'AXe6dvSpetav, iWv
Ical Ke/3prvr cal NeavSpla oa-rT, ical Tr
egovaotv dxcetvot & S7 T67ror, ev O viv iKerT7at
'AXe~avpeta, ItylXa ecaXelro.
48. 'Ev 6B 7r Xp a-p ay ravp Kal T 70)
1 After AetKDompuy, moz add eil Se Ial '.Erpa v7ala 7repi
2 After ris there is a lacuna in DFh of about ten letters
followed by iaas oiaai ir\A. Corais writes TEvelas; but

GEOGRAPHY, 13. I. 46-48

mainland that belongs to the Tenedians;1 and to
Tenedos itself, which is not more than forty stadia
distant from the mainland. It is about eighty stadia
circumference, and has an Aeolian city and two
harbours and a temple of Sminthian Apollo, as the
poet testifies : And dost rule mightily over Tenedos,
O Sminthian." 2 Round it lie several small islands,
in particular two, which are called the Calydnae and
are situated on the voyage to Lectum. And some
give the name Calydna to Tenedos itself, while
others call it Leucophrys. In it is laid the scene of
myth of Tennes,3 after whom the island was
named, as also that of Cycnus, a Thracian by birth
and, according to some, father of Tennes and king
of Colonae.4
47. Both Larisa and Colonae used to be adjacent
to the Achaeium, formerly being on the part of the
mainland that belonged to the Tenedians; arid then
one comes to the present Chrysa, which was founded
on a rocky height above the sea, and to Hamaxitus,
which lies below Lectum and adjacent to it. At
the present time Alexandreia is adjacent to the
Achaeium; and those other towns, like several
others of the strongholds, have been incorporated
with Alexandreia, among them Cebren6 and
Neandria; and Alexandreia holds their territory.
But the site on which Alexandreia now lies used
to be called Sigia.
48. In this Chrysa is also the temple of Sminthian
1 See end of 32. 2 Iliad 1. 38.
3 For this myth, see Pausanias 10. 14. 1.
4 On the myth of Cycnus, see Leaf, p. 219.
Kramer, Meineke, and Leaf write TeUvLpeS wepaias, the con-
vincing conjecture of Groskurd.


at/uPeieo? 'A7ro6X&ov, oartv ltepov Kca TO aT/O -
f3oXov TON fV TV proT7Tra T70o OVoLaTro actov, d
p,9, bi~rKEtTat T7 Wo1l T70O FOVOv. EKt Tra 8'
d TtYv ep'ya l roD Hapiov rvvoioceKtot 8o Ical rTN
laTroplav eGTe pvDOov TOVT T 7T T 7r 1v 7rept Twv
/VOVWV. ToFL( 7ap eK T?7 Kp4rTt? Aojtye'votv
Te i poti (obl 7rp(oAro9 rapE&oKe KaXXvio? 0 7T0
CXeyeLa9 7rotslTq, 7KcoXovOi80oav 8' oroXXoi)
Xp'o-ab? 97v, avTo8t 7rotlaaa-aaca v T ovijv, o07rOV
av ol y ,yeve? aVroiF deTrf~vcrTa avyf/,3jvat 86
TO7T' aurToq oaaLt Trepi 'ApatT6 va Vi vTwrp yap.
7roXb rrXiov ; apovpalwv /ivov 'fav8io-av 8ta aryew
oba oycartva Tov re 07rXwv tcaol rv XpoaTp ov"
To70vF av'TOt /pelvar TOV7TOV079 8cal ta v V87 j
adrr Tv) ev KpTiy rt poo-ovoLAd at.2 'HpaKXchelt8
8' d Hov'nrTc' VrXh7i'0ovrd 07rot T- roVb /Uyav 7rept
TO LepO vo oa-OJvat Te lepov' Kcal To' oavov oVTw
Karao-Kcevae7lPrat /p3e/3 rcK 7Cir T 1 /fXJ't. adXot 8'
Eic Tr 'ArrtTcK )tXA1 al rtva TeD/cpdv aa-tv ec
8qaov Tp6owv, a9 vDv ol EvrTCTreOvef3 Xyeyrat,
Teiclpov;e i8e'r vaq WX0elv 6cK TJ9 Kpi'rTy9. T)79
B' 7rpo9 TobV 'ATTKrucoIV e'rrXo/cK To&v Tpdaw
"TtrNaoa' a eov Kcal TN 7rap' dAiborTpots 'Ept-
XO06vtv riva yevefOat TrCv apxy'Trv.4 XAyova-t
&evL OVv OVTWs Ot vetOTepOt, TOt9 8' 'Olprpov paXXov
C 605 e`rreo-a avFwove T 'a ev T O6j48q,; re8ot KIai T7
avroOt Xp ay Ipv4pv 'iroT Gor 8ecLvv'Iva 'Xvr,

1 Instead of 9pya, Eustathius reads (pyov; so Leaf.
2 Instead of wpooovoroidar, moz and Eustathius read 7rapovo-
tuiaat; the editors before Kramer, KaTrovo/ydaat.
3 of E ureT -eves, Meineke, for 6bvWrefTE; 6 ~Ur.viE7v,
Tzschucke and Corais.

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