THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
E. CAPPS, PI.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, LITT.D.
W. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
HORACE LEONARD JONES, PH.D., LL.D.
IN EIGHT VOLUMES
LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Printed in Great liritain
BOOK VIII .............. 3
BOOK ..... .x ....... .239
A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES. ... .457
GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
C 332 1. 'Eirel SE Ie7rtore; 7 ~a7O Tv ea7TiplWv T4)
Ebpw yir pfepov, 6o-a 7~ 0aXrsy 7repite'erat 7r
dvrb cKal 7~ ErICTo9, T' re 3dp3papa Wv ri rreptw-
Sevalftev TdraTa ev avbry ITeXPI roD Tavipao8 Kal
Trfi 'EXXad8o ob rroXv p1epov, Tv MatceSovtav,x
adroScootoev vvv' Ta XotLrra r 7 'EXXaSt cq LyeW-
ypaoliaq. a7rep "Ofirnpo fov Ip rpiro4, 67retTa Kca
aXXot irXelov de7rpaypaTre6cravro, ol /p v 181a
Aqtivaw IlepirrXov; j IIeptodovi 79 n) rv
TOIroDT aiXXo etrTypd~aavre9, ev F c Kal rT 'EX-
XaSica 7reptEdeTaL, o0 8' ev T7 Koowtv) 7TV Iroplav
ypaco Xwpit aTroSelaavTre rTP 7rwv vWrreIp
TorroypaiLav, icaOdrrep "Epopo~ Te 67rol7cre Kai
HoXt)3lto, a.XXot 8' elt Tra CvUtKOV TOrcovro Kal
TOv ta/l?7atKOartVi rpGaOXa3d'v Irtva /catl 7r TOLOV-
T0w, KaOtdrerp IloOes8vth9 r7e cal "'Irr1rapXoq"
Ta p" v O Tv rv aXXiv eb8tairT7rd dC'ortI, Ta 8'
'Opwripov Ket*cew? 8eFTra Kcpi7r)Kf, 7o0177TKUC6 TE
Xd /ovTOc Kcal ob Ta' vDv, aXX& Ta apxaFa, 0v
1 TV MaKe8ovlaV, Casaubon, for Tis MaKeeovras, which latter
1 The Mediterranean and Atlantic.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
1. I BEGAN my description by going over all the
western parts of Europe comprised between the
inner and the outer sea;1 and now that I have
encompassed in my survey all the barbarian tribes
in Europe as far as the Tanais and also a small part
of Greece, Macedonia,2 I now shall give an account
of the remainder of the geography of Greece. This
subject was first treated by Homer; and then, after
him, by several others, some of whom have written
special treatises entitled Harbours, or Coasting
Voyages, or General Descriptions of the Earth, or
the like; and in these is comprised also the descrip-
tion of Greece. Others have set forth the topo-
graphy of the continents in separate parts of their
general histories, for instance, Ephorus and Polybius.
Still others have inserted certain things on this
subject in their treatises on physics and mathematics,
for instance, Poseidonius and Hipparchus. Now
although the statements of the others are easy to
pass judgment upon, yet those of Homer require
critical inquiry, since he speaks poetically, and not
of things as they now are, but of things as they
were in antiquity, which for the most part have been
2 See Book 7, Frag. 9, in Vol. III.
Sypovoq /a'vpowKe Ta TroXXa. &; 8' owv 8vvaTro
eyXEtpryjTov, apiauevotq 10' vorrep dareXlropevr
reXe6vra 8' pILv 6 Xo~ d aTo Iiev r TI f6earepa
Ial 7(t ApIpcKTWv el Ta 'H7retpa)rtIKa eOv Ktcal
Ta TWV 'IXXvptIIo, aTrob 8 Trq cI( El? Ta Trav
Mace8 v w pe'pb BuvavTlov. /1era iev o" TOV
'HI7retp(ra? ical TObV 'IXXvptobr T&v 'EXXvwv
'Acapvaive elcr i/al AlTrXol cat Aoicpol ol
'O'dXat" 7rps 8e T0VTO7; oWIcelt ; Te Kal Botoirol'
T0rTOV 8' aVTv7ropOP o 09 -TtV 17 IIeXoTrorvvLo-o,
a7roXa/l/3apovcra CerTab bTOv KoptvOtaKcv KOlTXrov
C 333 ical o-yaXtalovO-d Te TODTov Ical o-xquarItopt6v?
vr' avrov "ferTa 8e Ma/ceovtav OerTaXol pLeXPL
MaXtelev Ical ra T(V daXwv TOV eCToN '1a0IpoD
Kal aUTwOV TWOV EVTO.
2. 'EXXa'o, phev o" 2 "roXXa' 'yeyvETat, 7T
8' avWTarTo Too-avTa, o-aq KCaL StaXECTrov 7rapet-
Xarja/pev Tah 'EXXqvlSa'* TOVTWV S' avb&v
Tecroapwov ovoov, rjV /ev 'Id8a T7i 7raXatc
'ArOtL08 T'v avT rv aa/Lpv (Ical 'ya 'Ip"ove, 'aXovTro
ol ToTe 'ATTIKOL, Kal eiceWev eetCIt ol T7v 'Aalav
edrot o'avrTs "IOWOve Ka'i Xpr7l-apevort 7Ti vUv Xeyo-
/eVy ryXTTh 'Id8S), Tr6 8v A owpia 7?) AioXi8v
WarrVTe 'yap ol eKITO I'laopoD *?rXGv 'AAOIvalwv
ical Meyap'eov Kal Ta)o 7rep\ Trv Iapvaoa'v
Aopte'wv Kial vvv erT AloXel icaXoDvrat, ical
Tro0 Aoptelea 8 oXiyov v ovra icKal TpaXVTaTrvr
1 rd, before TWv &hAwv, Miiller-Diibner insert, following
conj. of Meineke.
'EXXd8os p v ov E, is 1 cv otv B, I1ob ji' oiv Cslv,
nmaovoybv oSv Ag. Corais follows B, and Kramer and Mliller-
Diibner read Tris 'EXAhd s u'v ov ; but Meineke, *firtovo ppv
GEOGRAPHY, 8. I. 1-2
obscured by time. Be this as it may, as far as I can
I must undertake the inquiry; and I shall begin
where I left off. My account ended, on the west
and the north, with the tribes of the Epeirotes and
of the Illyrians, and, on the east, with those of the
Macedonians as far as Byzantium. After the Epei-
rotes and the Illyrians, then, come the following
peoples of the Greeks: the Acarnanians, the
Aetolians, and the Ozolian Locrians; and, next,
the Phocians and Boeotians; and opposite these,
across the arm of the sea, is the Peloponnesus, which
with these encloses the Corinthian Gulf, and not
only shapes the gulf but also is shaped by it; and
after Macedonia, the Thessalians (extending as far
as the Malians) and the countries of the rest of
the peoples outside the Isthmus,' as also of those
2. There have been many tribes in Greece, but
those which go back to the earliest times are only
as many in number as the Greek dialects which
we have learned to distinguish. But though the
dialects themselves are four in number,2 we may
say that the Ionic is the same as the ancient Attic,
for the Attic people of ancient times were called
lonians, and from that stock sprang those lonians
who colonised Asia and used what is now called
the Ionic speech; and we may say that the Doric
dialect is the same as the Aeolic, for all the Greeks
outside the Isthmus, except the Athenians and
the Megarians and the Dorians who live about
Parnassus, are to this day still called Aeolians. And
it is reasonable to suppose that the Dorians too,
since they were few in number and lived in a most
1 i.e. north of the Isthmus. a See 14. 5. 26.
olbcovvraqy xpav elIck ecaT T7 averplKTw 7rapa-
TrpEat rTr-v 'yX67TTav Ka T T a\XXa e'9'1 7rpoV TO
yJ 6ao-eveeVt, oJLOyeVeLv 7Trporepov OVTa. TOVTO
8' avro ical TOE 'Aqvatlo; avve/3q,, eX7rro'yev
Te Icab Tpax 'av olioDGTraq Xdpav aTropbijTovp
je'vat 2 8ah TODTr, Ical ab TrX0ovav voJtPrOiOval
Onowv 9ovtcv8tS8S, cKaTeovTa9 77'v aiTrv ael,
/v8erv' fe)Xav;voavro, avbTOv /r78' ei7rLOV/lovvTO
eetV 7TrV EKceivW' TOro ToVrlv' avrT KCa TOV
Tepo'yXTT'OV ical 70V eTe poe0vO;3 aTltov, cs
elico,, 7rrrpfe, Kai7rep oX(siyov oawrtv. ofTro 8
7TO AloXucoD 7rX70aovq ErucKparoDvTroI; Vel To
E To 'IaOLOO, Iaca ol VrTO AloXelf 7rpoepov
7a-av, er7' ElX8cro-av, 'Iwovw av feiv EK r 'ATT(KI)c
TOv AlytaXbv Karao-XOd'Ti)v, T7(V 8' 'HpaKXet83v'
T70 AFpte'a? ica'rayayovT6 w, bv' ov T Ti re M~yapa
CKlOr7 Kca TroXXal TCW O V T7) TeOX7rovv'a'
HeXoTrovv'al) Ta C v o e OV 'TO Te AloXucI v Kcal
TO A.Opilev. ocrot /ev o3v 7-TO TO~7 9 AIpteva-
e7rE7rXeCOVTO (Icad7Trep o-vev3'r TO Te 'Apa't
Ka'tl TO7 'HXeot?, T70o /Iev opetvol': TeXESe o Val
icat obK Ep/WErTroico-Ctv elq ToP /cKXpov, TOEi 8'
lepolE voIPoLicrO-et ToiO 'OXvp/riov AtX icalt Ka6'
1 Mon (n), for 'ev7 ; so the editors.
2 psEvat, Mtiller-Diibner, for pIAv Evai.
3 crepoeOovs, Meineke, for &repoe8vois; see KaT R. ...
orn, 14. 5. 26.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. I. 2
rugged country, have, because of their lack of inter-
course with others, changed their speech and their
other customs to the extent that they are no longer
a part of the same tribe as before. And this was
precisely the case with the Athenians; that is, they
lived in a country that was both thin-soiled and
rugged, and for this reason, according to Thucydides,1
their country remained free from devastation, and
they were regarded as an indigenous people, who
always occupied the same country, since no one
drove them out of their country or even desired
to possess it. This, therefore, as one may suppose,
was precisely the cause of their becoming different
both in speech and in customs, albeit they were few
in number. And just as the Aeolic element pre-
dominated in the parts outside the Isthmus, so too
the people inside the Isthmus were in earlier times
Aeolians; and then they became mixed with other
peoples, since, in the first place, lonians from Attica
seized the Aegialus,2 and, secondly, the Heracleidae
brought back the Dorians, who founded both Megara
and many of the cities of the Peloponnesus. The
lonians, however, were soon driven out again by the
Achaeans, an Aeolic tribe; and so there were left in
the Peloponnesus only the two tribes, the Aeolian
and the Dorian. Now all the peoples who had less
intercourse with the Dorians-as was the case with
the Arcadians and with the Eleians, since the former
were wholly mountaineers and had no share in the
allotments3 of territory, while the latter were
regarded as sacred to the Olympian Zeus and hence
1 1. 2 and 2. 36. 2 The Peloponnesian Achaea.
3 Cp. 8. 5. 6.
avrov p elpivrv ayovouc 7roXbV XpPovo, tAXXw re
IKal TOi AloXtKo ryevovy ob at cat Se8Se'yze'vot9 r'7
'OtX a'vycKareXGofovaav arrpar-tav rep't 71-'v T7o
'HpaKXetSiov KCiOo8ov), OUTOt AloXto'- 8teLXX-
6a1'av, ol 8' iLXXot ItKTy Tvl e'Xp 'avro fE
jd/1o7v, ol )i'v I^Xov ol S' j'Trov aloXiov'T7e.
aXeSfv 68 T T cal vDv KcaTA rr6etr XXot aX Xwc
StaXVyovTra, BSocoio-t Se owpt3etv trrav're' St1 Tr'v
C 334 vljt/3auI av e7rtcKpaTeav. rotaiTa p v ovv rT 7Tv
'EXX2jvwv SOvi Ical oUT7C, -V'7r e6l'ev,
Jd wpir/e'va. X6'ywfiev 781 I 1at1 hap36vTe; v Xpq
T7prTov 7T Tra'e, 7rep' abrwOv.
3. "Eoopoqv pev oiav apxqv el vat, T T'EXXdSov
r'v 'AKapvavav cro-lv aTr0 7Wv E-repiwv peppov-
ravTr7v yap o-vvwrTretv 7rp-CrTv TOtE 'HreIpwrtKcot
-OvcrLv. aXX' oirTeep o"TOS Tyf rapaXla /j.epy'
Xp thevoF evrevefv TroIeETra Trv apr, yej.ovtKov
7TI Tr OdXaTrav lcplvwv Wrrpo Ta'7 To'roypailaS,
7rrel dXXo c y' EveXp pet icaTa T v Mace8ovwv ical
erTTra-Xv yj y a dpxrv dTrocalveorOat Tr? 'EX-
XdSot o 0rw Kal a~iiv rpoa ijcet iaoXov0ovo-'t 7y
VOe-i1 T70V TOOPWV avJLp0ovXov roireto-Oa 7T1j
Oxao-roav. aCvTi 8' de 70Troi CceXUtoC reXdyovq
rrporreo-oioaa3 T7-? v JdvaXer7at rrpF TO Kopiv-
OtacYv icdX'Tov, Ty7l arroreXet Xppovloov jteyd-
Xrfv T1v IleXorr0vvc-ov, lo-0/j U7-eve KXCXitO/aLe v.
arTt Se 7avTa4 Uvo iEytara avaOrTyara Ta
1 is1 AafdivTes, Meineke emends to 8taAa3dvTrS.
2 For ,*yv, Meineke reads rTv.
a rporrao0aa (BEl), Jones, for wpo~oweovoa.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. I. 2-3
have long lived to themselves in peace, especially
because they belonged to the Aeolic stock and had
admitted the army which came back with Oxylusl
about the time of the return of the Heracleidae-
these peoples, I say, spoke the Aeolic dialect,
whereas the rest used a sort of mixture of the two,
some leaning more to the Aeolic and some less.
And, I might almost say, even now the people of
each city speaks a different dialect, although, because
of the predominance which has been gained by the
Dorians, one and all are reputed to speak the Doric.
Such, then, are the tribes of the Greeks, and such
in general terms is their ethnographical division.
Let me now take them separately, following the
appropriate order, and tell about them.
3. Ephorus says that, if one begins with the
western parts, Acarnania is the beginning of Greece;
for, he adds, Acarnania is the first to border on the
tribes of the Epeirotes. But just as Ephorus, using
the sea-coast as his measuring-line, begins with Acar-
nania (for he decides in favour of the sea as a kind
of guide in his description of places, because other-
wise he might have represented parts that border
on the land of the Macedonians and the Thessalians
as the beginning), so it is proper that I too, follow-
ing the natural character of the regions, should
make the sea my counsellor. Now this sea, issuing
forth out of the Sicilian Sea, on one side stretches
to the Corinthian Gulf, and on the other forms
a large peninsula, the Peloponnesus, which is closed
by a narrow isthmus. Thus Greece consists of two
1 Cp. 8. 3. 33.
ara, Meineke emends to or.
'EXXa O, 'TO Te eVV70 'Icr0/oo Ktcai To EC7-ro 8Lh1
IIvuX(v Ilept T 7 /3cpoXK8 roq, TOIIvetoiD (Kal
TOD0T 8' &eT'r To erTaX(t/cv2). e'Ort 86' caI
fdEt'ov ial e'rrtiav~o-'repov T7 EZ)'b 'IO7 0 oD"
aXycOb 8 Ti t /ca Kpo7 oXIdp T' danv ;E IIeXordovv?7mo
T a-vv oaTro- 'EEXXado8, Xwpl' ry'p YP I; Xa ~'rpd-
T777ro /ca 8VVd/ 1EeiM TnwV votIKro ciavrwv MeOvow
avT'rr i TWrv rTOTrv EciLv vTro'ypdael T v i'yepovpav
ravT'r, cOXr'Ot-? Te Kalt aKpatv 7roXXaZ? real,
TOFt aOreitwSeO8'rdrTTOt9, Xppovraot? /BeyaXat1 8Sa-
7re7roictXLjdvr, Owv K cl taSox4i eTrepa "Trv eTepav
eX'(t. 'rO-T 7TrpcWrrl L7/Jv 7rW Xeppov)jaOv 1
I ehordvvrclao, laCOL iKeto/XevW EV reTTTapdaKOVTa
oTra8wv. 8evTrpa 8 ic Tal 7avU rr' ptiexova~a,
TF lo(Otq6b deaIv 6 dc ay&,v3 TrCv Meyaptuc&
e Nto-aiav, TO M ~apewv e7rvetov, b~rep/3poX?
OTa8oivr ica'rov eficoa-v aTro OaXacrT'J17 e'ir Od-
Xa'rra. TpLTr 8' 7 ical 7raVT17rq 7reptLXyova, F
laOp.b; d7ro Tro /LUXO V70 Kpto-alov KodXrov
ILCXPt OepE/OJTVX.v, 7 8' .evoov vr eOea
ypaip. b oCov 7revTraKoarwv OicKT 5 O-ra8T1v Tv
tev Boiwriav a7raaav e'TI a7roXa//3pdvovaa, 7IV
8e cowKclta Teipvovaa Xo v xcaO TOa 'Evo'r9/Ir-
lovs. TeTrl'dpTr 8 17 aTo 70T ro U 'ApujlpaKlcKO KOXITOV
71 T7iq Oi'Tr7 ica 7T17 TpaXtvla( e TOuv MaXta/co'
1 aid, before nvhuv, Jones inserts. Meineke ejects lnvhuv.
For the readings of the other editors, see C. Miller, Ind.
Var. Lect., p. 989.
2 Meineke ejects the words in parenthesis.
3 nay&v, Epit. and man. sec. in C, for rdv'rwv (ABCEl); so
S8S', A omits.
6 OKTrd probably should be emended to EKooat (K') or
rsevT~ovwra (v'), as C. Miller suggests.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 1. 3
very large bodies of land, the part inside the
Isthmus, and the part outside, which extends
through Pylae 1 as far as the outlet of the Peneius
(this latter is the Thessalian part of Greece); 2 but
the part inside the Isthmus is both larger and more
famous. I might almost say that theq Peloponnesus
is the acropolis of Greece as a whole;3 for, apart
from the splendour and power of the tribes that
have lived in it, the very topography of Greece,
diversified as it is by gulfs, many capes, and, what
are the most significant, large peninsulas that follow
one another in succession, suggests such hegemony
for it. The first of the peninsulas is the Pelo-
ponnesus, which is closed by an isthmus forty stadia
in width. The second includes the first; and its
isthmus extends in width from Pagae in Megaris to
Nisaea, the naval station of the Megarians, the
distance across being one hundred and twenty stadia
from sea to sea. The third likewise includes the
second; and its isthmus extends in width from the
recess of,the Crisaean Gulf as far as Thermopylae-
the imaginary straight line, about five hundred and
eight stadia in length, enclosing within the peninsula
the whole of Boeotia and cutting obliquely Phocis and
the country of the Epicnemidians.4 The fourth is the
peninsula whose isthmus extends from the Ambracian
Gulf through Oeta and Trachinia to the Maliac
2 That is, from Pylae to the outlet of the Peneius.
3 Groskurd, Kramer and Curtius think that something
like the following has fallen out of the MSS.: "and that
Greece is the acropolis of the whole world."
4 The Epicnemidian Locrians.
5 Now the Katavothra Mountain. It forms a boundary
between the valleys of the Spercheius and Cephissus Rivers.
KAodorov KxaOiKova EA"ovea 7TO liao-ov ical TAd
EepporrvtXa9, o-ov ocrarcoo~wv- ovra TaI(av"
rerCoiwvn S' XYLIOX.. aiXXo? eCOTt aOT TO7 abTro
XicdkOov ToO 'Alpalcuico 8L eETTraXwv /cal
MaK:ewov eI' T'rv OepluaFov St7Klcwv pXvXv.
v7rayopeveit fj Twta V7tv o Oav;hXv ;} TOV
yeppov'jo-wv StaSoX80 Se a7ro T7, eXaXao'TI
dpfaacOat, 7r averrTa'Tr ? e'.
0 335 1. "Ea-rt Tolvvv IIeXor6vvqroqoor Eovita ofXX(
7rhardvov TO ayo-X a,, iat-n O-XEY T( Kara p^ico4
cat caara 7rX'ro&;, 0o-o0 XtXlwv Kial Terpatcoaowv
o-Ta8LWr TO v f'V no T7 Eo-rTrpa9 eri T)jv &),
TOTro 8' aO -T't Tr ar 70 XXev'vaTa (' 'OXvwtari'a
ical 7 'T MeyaXoroXtiToo e7'TI 'IT0LOv To 8'
a7ro T70 vorov IrpOq TIV apiCTOV, 0" Tt TO a7ro
MaXeav B' 'ApicaGla' elf A'ytov 77 68 7repiae-
7po0 /I.i KaTaicoXTriovTt TerpaKLto-iXXIwv Ta&iwv,
(k HoXIv,83to 'ApTr6el8wpo0 86 caL Terparcoca-ov
7rpoo'TrlT7 -t KaTaKoX'rrlovT r 7TXe rlov; T0rv a-
KOOt'-v edri TO9 7eT6TactVtciXtXylo. o S' 'lo-Oul o
icaTa Tob gtoXLdt, St' o T' 7rropOlfela vbr7pvewX-
icoVDov AwO T^ ErTEpa E6l9 Trlv ~TEpav OacXarTav,1
eipyfral oTt TeTTapaicovra ena&iwv bEarv.
1 Kaa OdaAaTTav, omitted by BClsv.
1 Cp. 2. 1. 30.
2 Cape Chelonatas, opposite the island Zacynthos; now
GEOGRAPHY, 8. I. 3-2. I
Gulf and Thermopylae-the isthmus being about
eight hundred stadia in width. But there is another
isthmus, more than one thousand stadia in width,
extending from the same Ambracian Gulf through
the countries of the Thessalians and the Macedonians
to the recess of the Thermaean Gulf. So then, the
succession of the peninsulas suggests a kind of order,
and not a bad one, for me to follow in my descrip-
tion; and I should begin with the smallest, but
most famous, of them.
1. Now the Peloponnesus is like a leaf of a
plane-tree in shape,' its length and breadth being
almost equal, that is, about fourteen hundred stadia.
Its length is reckoned from the west to the east,
that is, from Chelonatas2 through Olympia and
Megalopolis to the Isthmus; and its width, from
the south towards the north, that is, from Maleae 3
through Arcadia to Aegium.4 The perimeter, not
following the sinuosities of the gulfs, is four thousand
stadia, according to Polybius, although Artemidorus
adds four hundred more; but following the sinu-
osities of the gulfs, it is more than five thousand six
hundred. The width of the Isthmus at the "Diolcus," 6
where the ships are hauled overland from one sea to
the other, is forty stadia, as I have already said.
3 Cape Maleae.
4 The Aegion, or Aegium, of to-day, though until recent
times more generally known by its later name Vostitza.
5 Polybius counted 8 stadia to the mile (7. Frag. 56).
6 Literally, "Haul-across"; the name of "the narrowest
part of the Isthmus" (8. 6. 4), and probably applied to the
2. "EXovoat & 7T7 XeppovojOov TaVT177 7T /E C
eoareptov Epo? 'HXeot Kca' Meo-o-'vrot, IcXvo/evot
T(7 LKceXcKi) 7reXayet 7rpooXap1/3avovoat 8c Kca
Tr? EfcaTep6Oev 7rapaXtla, 15 /xt 'HXeia 'rp6
apcKrov reTr7p-pe ovaa Kal rlv apXf v 70T Kopiv-
OtaKcov KckTrov ipe'Xpi apaq 'Apdaov, icaO' jv
av7t7rop0Ofl; 7eav i e 'AKcapvavia Kal al
rrpoicelpevat vOjot, Za'Ivv9o09 ca Kca K aEXavia Ica
'I0dci Ical 'EXtvd8eq, Jv do-T ical Tb AovXtxtov
T7? 8e Meoa-ocria TO 7r oXov avewypeuvov 'rpo"
vrvov ical TO At3b A vivc 7reXayo( /e'Xpt T )v ica-
Xovpe'vowv vplSov 7riqaiov Tatvdpov. J'i 8'
p7era h iU 77r' 'HXe'ar rT7 ''r rv 'AXai v 0 vog
7rpoq apKcrov /3XErov ical 7 T Kopiv0tar KO\X7r
rrapaCewov, T'XeevT 8' e1 7TV ;v tcvw)vlav* ev-
TevfOEv 8e ltIcvOV Kcal Koptiv0o becSe'erat pl'Xpt
70T 'IO-/UOW /LE7~" Se uV Meoro~v[av 1 Aac&w-
vtci) iacl 17 'Apyela, Xpt Toy 'Io-/Lpo itca' ab'rr1.
/KOX'rot 8' elotV EvTavOa o re Meo- ?7acaKo ical 6
AaicwvciO iKcai 7pt7O 6 'Ap-yoXtLco, 7CEapTOS 8'
6 'Ep lovKucb xai YapwvtKcq. ol 86 daXa/trvtaicov
Kcakovio-w v ToU'o' /I\ At3vKcI, TOb ? S
Kp)rTtuc Oa4Xao-aa 7rX7TpoF ical TO MvprTov 7o r -
Xa~og" 7Ttve\ icaL To0\ liapwvc iv lY rpov 91
7re'Xayog jvoypafovo-. .ar17 8' 6or-Tv 'Apica8ia,
Tracrtv eTirKe levr)l cal y6e t7ava a TOt7 aXXot9
3. '0 86 Koptvw9taio /KcohXro, ap)e'rat ufev aTro
TWjV eK/3O\) TOy Eurou (Trtr? ohe (paatv tov
T7(V Eico0X() T70D Ei7vov (TwIV 6' acarw 70V
1 f, after iropov, Groskurd inserts; so Meineke.
1 See 8. 5. 1, and footnote.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 2. 2-3
2. The western part of this peninsula is occupied
by the Eleians and the Messenians, whose countries
are washed by the Sicilian Sea. In addition, they
also hold a part of the sea-coast in both directions,
for the Eleian country curves towards the north
and the beginning of the Corinthian Gulf as far as
Cape Araxus (opposite which, across the straits, lie
Acarnania and the islands off its coast-Zacynthos,
Cephallenia, Ithaca, and also the Echinades, among
which is Dulichium), whereas the greater part of
the Messenian country opens up towards the south
and the Libyan Sea as far as what is called Thyrides,1
near Taenarum. Next after the Eleian country
comes the tribe of the Achaeans,2 whose country faces
towards the north and stretches along the Corinthian
Gulf, ending at Sicyonia. Then come in succession
Sicyon and Corinth, the territory of the latter ex-
tending as far as the Isthmus. After the Messenian
country come the Laconian and the Argive, the
latter also extending as far as the Isthmus. The
gulfs on this coast are: first, the Messenian; second,
the Laconian; third, the Argolic; fourth, the
Hermionic; and fifth, the Saronic, by some called
the Salaminiac. Of these gulfs the first two are
filled by the Libyan Sea, and the others by the
Cretan and Myrtoan Seas. Some, however, call the
Saronic Gulf "Strait" or "Sea." In the interior of
the peninsula is Arcadia, which touches as next-
door neighbour the countries of all those other
3. The Corinthian Gulf begins, on the one side, at
the outlets of the Evenus (though some say at the
2 See 8. 4. 4, and footnote.
'AXeXqov TO7r opiovrov9 'AKapvava; K/al TOV'
ALI"wXou?) 'cal TOO 'Apadov. evraOaia 'yp 7rpw-
TOPv AtoXoyov ovvaoywo v XaP/x3avovoe Trpos aX-
X'Xar at' ecaTrpwOev adTal 7rpoioooat 86 7TrX'ov1
reXecO a-vyTrrlrovo- KcaTA To 'Plov ical TO 'Av-Ip-
pLov, o-ov 8 TrvrTe crTa61wv a7roXeI'lrovcrat
rropftOv. e'0 7 86 Tb &P L 'P o rcv 'AXautv
IXtTEev'I alKpa, 8peravoetSfL TLmVA reLrWpo0 v els
TO Vr'TO 'ovoa (tcal 8' Icat acXElat Aperavov),
C 336 Kce raL 6 /Teraab HaTrp&wv Ica Aiylov, looetr58vo9
lepov 'eYov-aa TO 8' 'Avripptov bv /IeOoplot( T7
AlrTmxaV /cal 7T AoicplSo 1i pvTat, icaXoo-et 6E 2
MoXLdcptov 'Plov. elT' PTEvrOev 6toTaTat rrdXtv
I e f l
] 7raapaXla perplWv eiarTpwOev, 7rpoeXOoDva 8'
ELk Top Kptoaaov IcoX7rov dvErava reXevTa,
KXeio/JErYP Troiy Wpooreo-'repLotv Tr7 BotowTiaa
Icat T2v MeyapLoirv TeppOOtv. )EL 8e T7V WCrept-
tIerpov o KoptLvtaKcO KcdX7ro T ro p r v ToO Ebjvov
PLeXp 'Apdiov o-vaLoKv 6toXtLXIo) StaKcot
peicorao el abro' 'A eX ov, 7rXeovadot
TpLta/OVTa* EL 8' airO TV AXEXWOV, elXEOVTOOL
av ecarov 7rov oral6otL. a7ro /ievTOs 'AXeXaov
e7rr TOp Evivov 'AKapvave'; el't, EO e9 ECrrTI TO
'AvTrpptov Al'ToXol, TO 86 Xotrrv uXept 'Iota0zoD
1 Capps happily suggests that Strabo probably wrote
rXeldV instead of orxcov or that rXESdv has fallen out of the
text after rhEov.
2 Before MoAhKptov, Meineke inserts Kcal.
1 Cape Araxus; now Kalogria.
2 Lit. "more completely" (see critical note).
3 Cape "Drepanum." Strabo confuses Cape Rhium with
Cape Drepanum, since the two were separated by the Bay of
Panormus (see Frazer's Pausanias, notes on 7. 22. 10 and
7. 23. 4, and Curtius' Peloponnesos, I. p. 447).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 2. 3
outlets of the Acheloiis, the river that separates the
Acarnanians and the Aetolians), and, on the other,
at Araxus; 1 for here the shores on either side first
draw notably nearer to one another; then in their
advance they all but2 meet at Rhium and Antir-
rhium, where they leave between them a strait only
about five stadia in width. Rhium, belonging to the
Achaeans, is a low-lying cape; it bends inwards
(and it is in fact called "Sickle ").3 It lies between
Patrae and Aegium, and possesses a temple of
Poseidon. Antirrhium is situated on the common
boundary of Aetolia and Locris; and people call
it Molycrian Rhium.4 Then, from here, the shore-
line on either side again draws moderately apart,
and then, advancing into the Crisaean Gulf, it comes
to an end there, being shut in by the westerly
limits of Boeotia and Megaris.5 The perimeter of
the Corinthian Gulf, if one measures from the
Evenus to Araxus, is two thousand two hundred
and thirty stadia; but if one measures from the
Acheloiis, it is about a hundred stadia more. Now
from the Acheloiis to the Evenus the coast is
occupied by Acarnanians;6 and thence to Antir-
rhium, by Aetolians; but the remaining coast, as
far as the Isthmus, belongs to7 the Phocians, the
4 After Molycreia, a small Aetolian town near by.
6 "Crisaean Gulf" (the Gulf of Salona of to-day) was
often used in this broader sense. Cp. 8. 6. 21.
6 Strabo thus commits himself against the assertion of
others (see at the beginning of the paragraph) that the
Acheloiis separates the Acarnanians and the Aetolians.
7 The Greek for "the Locrians and" seems to have fallen
out of the MSS. at this point; for Strabo has just said that
"Antirrhium is on the common boundary of Aetolia and
Locris" (see 9. 3. 1).
'wieoWov e'T 1 Ka BOLOTWoV Kalt T Meyapt8o9,
oa-rd L Xto i o e' arTov ELKOt SV7V OVTC ve7v 6ovr
a7ro 7TO 'Avrtpptov ILeXptl 'lo-0o 9V O'aTrTa2
'AX/covi' ;caXdeat, Jepo, ovo-a Tro Kptralov
KOXrov" 7r i T-roD 'Ia-0oD dTr 'v "Apafov
T7ppLaovTa e7r' TOL XtXhlot.4 co4 /ae L Z7 T7Tr
ELTrerfv otavTi] Tt' Kat Tou'avUTT7 Tii IIEXoTrov-
vro-ov O'tot( Kaat TV atav7t'rop01ov v 7'v Xpt To7
ILVXOV, T'toTOv 86 KCa' / IETra b aiZqoiv Ko6XTrov.
erTa Ta5 ca0' caoi-a EpoDv/Ie, TjiV aPX7Iv a7ro Tr
1. NDv ,uev 8' rro-av 'HXilav ovo~cf'ovCt T 'v
/z.eTra 'AXativ Te scal Meo-arvliv 'rapaXlav,
ave'xovo-av el' T v peao-yatav rv 7Trpv 'ApIcabla
T? KaTa 4 oXorlv Kca 'AatvaS Kcal IIappaolovq.
TODTO & TO 7ra-at'ov elS 7rXelovV 8vvao-Telav
'Sitp-o770, e.T' ei? Voo, T7 r TCe 'Evre7vr /Kcal Tr7V
vTo N Torop T7S Nr7Xgao" KaOadnep Kal' 'Oppov
eLpJKce, Trv aJv rwv 'ETretriv ovoLpdOwv'HXLV6
1 4'widev Tl, Pletho, Corais, and Forbiger would emend
to AoKpwv ?oU'l Kal -Wi[Ewv.
2 After lOdha*a Groskurd, Kramer and others believe that
words like the following have fallen out: Kpitaios cdAlror
Tlaiv 4 be &irb Kpeoao's iroAwws BdhaTra. Meineke indicates
a lacuna. There is no lacuna in the MSS.
3 &rb a Tro : the letters 7rb SI Tro are supplied by Kramer,
there being a lacuna of five or six letters in A.
4 Xxois : lacuna supplied by Corais (see C. Miiller, Ind.
Var. Lec., p. 989).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 2. 3-3. I
Boeotians and Megaris-a distance of one thousand
one hundred and eighteen stadia. The sea from
Antirrhium as far as the Isthmus 1 is called Alcyonian,
it being a part of the Crisaean Gulf. Again, from
the Isthmus to Araxus the distance is one thousand
and thirty stadia. Such, then, in general terms,
is the position and extent of the Peloponnesus, and
of the land that lies opposite to it across the arm of
the sea as far as the recess; and such, too, is the
character of the gulf that lies between the two
bodies of land. Now I shall describe each part in
detail, beginning with the Eleian country.
1. At the present time the whole of the seaboard
that lies between the countries of the Achaeans and
the Messenians, and extends inland to the Arcadian
districts of Pholoe, of the Azanes, and of the
Parrhasians, is called the Eleian country. But in
early times this country was divided into several
domains; and afterwards into two-that of the
Epeians and that under the rule of Nestor the son
of Neleus; just as Homer, too, states, when he calls
the land of the Epeians by the name of "Elis"
I Some of the editors believe that words to the following
effect have fallen out at this point: "is the Crisaean Gulf;
but the sea from the city Creusa."
6 elTa di: for the different readings, see C. Miller,
6 *HAw, Corais, for rdAw ; so Meineke and others.
rI( vrap' 1 "H(SWa USav, b'0 Itpardovatv 'Eretolt
r'v 8' bTOr 7T) NETropt II lXov, B1' 71; Tor 'AXietov
'AX~ferov, 05 7' EpIv pees HlvXh v S6th yalrlq.
HAlXov ycv ovv o ical 7r6X olSev 6 7ro0rLTj'9
ol S HTlvov, NyXlo? eivKrWlU vov WrToXlepov,
ob 8ah T)9 TroXCewo c o8 e 7iap' avrv el 'C
'AXcetdO, aXXa trap' avTnv 14v 6 r7epoF, 0v ol )uev
IIajtuaov, ol K "AAtaOov KaXoartv, td' o tcalt
IHlXoq 'H/,a0teaO elpro-OatL oJTO9 o8rce, ath 86 Tri
Xcopa? Ti HVIai o' 'AX F to .
2. 'HXt` 8 vivv 7roXtq ov7ro ec7rtoro toa0'
"Opajipov, axX' X y'pa Icw ySbv CiKceTO' EKcaXTro
3B KolH OHXe Ad7 70 ro Uav ePrlC3roTq* TotaVTr7
yap 7v e 7rXELT Ical a pl parr]. Ai 84' 7roTe
avvrXOov el rT7V viv 7ro'Xw 'HkXv, /LeTA Ta
Hepoctca, beK roXX5ov 8 mJ~Lov. aT)eSbv Se ical 7Trov
aXXovI; TrrovV TovU cara IHeXoTrovv7o-ov 7rXf)v
C 337 oXlVov, ob KaTAeeV 7rot~7TI)', ro A UTXeL, LXXa
Xotpaq 3vo/d, t,2 O-varilTara 8ip'tow tXovaav
eKadrCi v 7rrXel, e6 lwv virepov al yvoptclievat
TroXet -vvi 7-r0ao-av, olov T7j 'ApcKaSla Mav-
Tiveta petv Edc revne 8o'Wv vrb' ApyeLwv (cvvOIKt'o-7,
Te-yea 8' 4 evvea, cK TroooVTwv 86 ical 'Hpata ro
KXeoflt3poTOv Al inro KXewvvrtov' W 8' avi' r
1 ~i E ap, the editors, for Trv NS rap'.
2 bvosdiCe, Meineke emends to voAgelw Sl ; ovodaCwv no.
X Sc. the ship."
2 Odyssey 15. 298.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 1-2
(" andl passed goodly Elis, where the Epeians hold
sway"),2 and the land under the rule of Nestor,
"Pylus," through which, he says, the Alpheius flows
(" of the Alpheius, that floweth in wide stream through
the land of the Pylians ").3 Of course Homer also
knew of Pylus as a city ("and they reached Pylus,
the well-built city of Nestor"),4 but the Alpheius
does not flow through the city, nor past it either; in
fact, another river flows past it, a river which some
call "Pamisus" and others "Amathus" (whence,
apparently, the epithet "Emathoeis" which has
been applied to this Pylus), but the Alpheius flows
through the Pylian country.
2. What is now the city of Elis had not yet been
founded in Homer's time; in fact, the people of the
country lived only in villages. And the country was
called Coele 5 Elis from the fact in the case, for the
most and best of it was Coele." It was only
relatively late, after the Persian wars, that people
came together from many communities into what is
now the city of Elis. And I might almost say that,
with only a few exceptions, the other Peloponnesian
places named by the poet were also named by him,
not as cities, but as countries, each country being
composed of several communities, from which in
later times the well-known cities were settled.
For instance, in Arcadia, Mantineia was settled
by Argive colonists from five communities; and
Tegea from nine; and also Heraea from nine,
either by Cleombrotus or by Cleonymus. And in
3 Iliad 5. 545. Odyssey 3. 4.
6 Literally, "Hollow"; that is, consisting of hollows. So
"Coeld Syria" (2. 5. 38), a district of Syria.
At'ytovr E ina OI/cYc'S 84jv -vev7roXoOfl,
Tdrpat 8' e Er7Td, A Se Ce'f cKTW o5ro0 SB cal
S'HXhr i)c TWV reprotiOI 8m overroXllr 1 (pala
TroVTr 7rpoo-r 'Arpy.cde).2 pel S
81a T19 ToXev P H'vrVto? Wroraj/ov 7wapa TO yvut-
vactov avTr]. e7rpar dv re Tvoro 'HXeMot Xpo6VO
VOcrepov 7roXXo?9 T a eL' avrov' /IeTaTao-raoe TrV
XwpIOw TOW V7TO T(o Neo-0opt.
3. 'Hv 8 raTaTa T6e IIHoa-Tt, q 'OXvpurla
ae'pov, Kal q~ TptovXia ical 'r v Kavicovwv.
TpottXtot 8' d~KXrj'r7aav a7r) To ro vy v/3e/3g ro'0,
a7ro ToV rpla uiXa wcrvveX 'XvOeva, TO TE TWv ar'
dapXr 'ETret v Ical To Trav ETrotcqodrauo),v vio'Tepov
MtvvwV ica To TO&v v'aTaTa eTrttpaT7r]''drT-
'HXetliV o0l 8' avTd rTCo MIvV&@v 'Apca'8aI Oao-av,
upa',JTryr7aavTa; 7T 79 Xrpaq 7roXXadtKc, d'o oi
cal 'Apica&Sic ; HyXo ckX''O o avTo' Kal Tptov-
XtaKods~ "OiOpoc 8e TavTvrv ai7rao-av TV Xopav
IeyXp Meco-rijvic aXei HVIXov o/(ovv/1Uw T7 VrO6et.
oTt Se 8StcptCrTo j KoiXt 'HHXtM aro TWv VTro 70
1 After ouveroAtei- Corais inserts birr& (I') ; but Curtius
(Peloponnesos ii. 99) dissents.
2 pla roT 'ro wv rporica . 'Aypd aes; so in A, with
lacuna of six or seven letters before 'Aypitdes. But the
whole of pfa .. 'Aypides is omitted by BClm, with no
lacuna. For the readings of gkhi (similar to A), see C.
Miiller, p. 989. Simply pia Trov'rv, Aldine; pla rovrwv
[o e-a], Corais ; Kramer follows A, supplying the lacuna thus:
rporKTICrte[Oferv]; Meineke makes no effort to supply the
lacuna. Jones conjectures: /ia 70roirCW rposeKTia-7O,
1 It seems impossible to restore what Strabo wrote here.
He appears to have said either (1) that Elis was the name
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 2-3
the same way the city Aegium was made up of
seven or eight communities; the city Patrae of
seven; and the city Dym6 of eight. And in this
way the city Elis was also made up of the com-
munities of the surrounding country (one of these
. the Agriades).1 The Peneius River flows
through the city past the gymnasium. And the
Eleians did not make this gymnasium until a long
time after the districts that were under Nestor had
passed into their possession.
3. These districts were Pisatis (of which Olympia
was a part), Triphylia, and the country of the
Cauconians. The Triphylians2 were so called from
the fact that three tribes of people had come together
in that country-that of the Epeians, who were
there at the outset, and that of the Minyans, who
later settled there, and that of the Eleians, who
last dominated the country. But some name the
Arcadians in the place of the Minyans, since the
Arcadians had often disputed the possession of
the country; and hence the same Pylus was called
both Arcadian Pylus and Triphylian Pylus.3 Homer
calls this whole country as far as Messend Pylus,"
giving it the same name as the city. But Coel6
Elis was distinct from the places subject to Nestor,
of one of the original communities and that the community
of the Agriades was later added, or simply (2) that one of
the communities, that of the Agriades, was later added.
But the "Agriades" are otherwise unknown, and possibly,
as C. Miiller (Ind. Var. Lect., p. 989) suggests, Strabo wrote
"Anigriades"-if indeed there was such a people (see 8. 3.
19). See critical note on opposite page.
S"Tri," three, and phyla," tribes.
3 Now Kakovatos (Dr. Blegen, Korakou, p. 119, American
School of Classical Studies, 1921).
N&oTopt 'rnrwv, 0 T OV verov /cardTaXoryO 8Xo To'7
TWV iyep.ovv icabl r6v KcaTOtIciYv ov6oao-. Xe"y
&e TarTa, av,/3tLXXwv Ta re vvv Kal TK a b'
'Oatjpov Xey6/teva- avayc rya p avreerdeTa'cTat
Tavra eIceLotL 81 t T-V T70o rotrrov 8av Kal
ovvrpoclav -rpb' 1I/ct1, 7Tor vo/ItovVTO eKcdErov
/caropOoiraOat T v rrapoDaav 7rpodecatv, T'rav i
J178I6v avTt7Tr70irov To0 o07W aco(68pa rTlaTrevOelYO
7rept Tv abrov Xo 'ot" e8 8f rd re 6vra X'Yetv
Kal, Ta TOV 7o0irO70o 7rapartL6vraT, EC) 5OOV 'rpo7rj-
4. "Earrt 89 rtv atpa 7ri 'HXeila rrpdo'foppoq
drrO EijKovTa A 9F';, 'AXalc,; 7rd'Xew;, "Apanov.
Tav' rv UCv oOv apPXrv TL'feUEV Tv 'r)V 'HXekwo
vrapajias' /ieTa Sc TavTyv ao-Tiv dw7 TiVv ea7repap
rrpoiovai TOb T(;v 'HXelev d'rivetov KvXXrv,
Avd/3acrv 'Xouvaa e'7rl T7? viv 7riXv eicraov Kcal
etcot cr -Taslw. I/tevrrrat Sa 7 rf KvXX'1jv7
VTavT17 Kal "Opt7pov, Xe'ywv 'flrov 1 KvXXjtov
adpXv 'Ereitv ov yap a7ro TO 'ApKca8tiKoi Opov
ovra e/e'Xev Ijyeltova TWv 'EvTre v a7roofva"
o-Tt e KA cpL7 /erTpla, Trv 'Ao-/cX7rt 'ov eovoa TOV
KoXcoTov, Oavl/ao-Tov 18Fev ~davov E'X aevrTvov.
ICeTra 8c KuXXvrV AipcorpW7TPv Jo-r-v XeXfovara,
C 338 Svau-/ir raov7 Tj HeXoTrowvvia'ov a0 7Jeiov. Trpdcet-
Tat S' aVro' vy7T-rov IKal /paXea Jv tie9opilotv 7rj
re Kotlc; "HXtSoT Kcal Tr HttoaT6rv, o0ev elI
1 'Trop, Xylander, for BozwrTav.
1 Iliad 15. 518.
2 Mt. Cyllen, now Mt. Zyria.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 3-4
as is shown in the Catalogue of Ships by the names
of the chieftains and of their abodes. I say this
because I am comparing present conditions with
those described by Homer; for we must needs
institute this comparison because of the fame of the
poet and because of our familiarity with him from
our childhood, since all of us believe that we have
not successfully treated any subject which we may
have in hand until there remains in our treat-
ment nothing that conflicts with what the poet says
on the same subject, such confidence do we have in
his words. Accordingly, I must give conditions as
they now are, and then, citing the words of the
poet, in so far as they bear on the matter, take them
also into consideration.
4. In the Eleian country, on the north, is a cape,
Araxus, sixty stadia distant from Dyme, an Achaean
city. This cape, then, I put down as the beginning
of the seaboard of the Eleians. After this cape, as
one proceeds towards the west, one comes to the
naval station of the Eleians, Cyllene, from which
there is a road leading inland to the present city
Elis, a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia.
Homer, too, mentions this Cyllene when he says,
"Otus, a Cyllenian, a chief of the Epeians,"l for
he would not have represented a chieftain of the
Epeians as being from the Arcadian mountain.2
Cyllene is a village of moderate size; and it has the
Asclepius made by Colotes-an ivory image that is
wonderful to behold. After Cyllene one comes to the
promontory Chelonatas, the most westerly point of
the Peloponnesus. Off' Chelonatas lies an isle, and
also some shallows that are on the common boundary
between Coel6 Elis and the country of the Pisatae;
KecaXXnivivav 7rV-ovrT eloLv ov 7rXetov 01 -ard'to
r3yoKovra. avroD e 7rov K al o EX'Ex v ] "EXtoa
pec 7roT7aoq E V 7, XheXpelaTy tueopla.
5. Mera;b e ro70 XeXOMvdra Kal T;)q KvXX7jv77;
S Te lnvetbs 6'ESScwo-t 7Tro'Tajo I al o SeXXceL?
V7T TOOi 'otroD77 Xeyd~pevo?, f iv ) Ec C0'>oXo67' E('
T "Eovpa w7oXv, rEpa 7jq OeaorrpwTrci; iKcal
OeTTaXLtc) KIcaL Tip Kophv'ov, Terdapprl Tr ErI
'M 'S Keqie7v1y ^'7rl T'V Aao-wva,2 7To 1
avrT o -a Tr^ BoItvao (rrv y p Olvorjv oSVro
KaXewv el9aoatv) A7 TXr 7orlov EKelvr];, Ste'ovca
T7r 'HXeiwv TroXCewOq -Ta8lot; fcaTov a O eticotv'
'fF i re7 TXl7roX lov T70 'HpaKXeov' 0oiceL XBye-
a- at rp1 -idp c eCE yap /^aXXov at' roi 'Hpa/XcXov4
T7V ayerT ed 'E prav 7roTraov ar0o SeXX7evro"
7rpoq bceivat; 8 6 oV8e6 7rorao' feXiXet? /cal 6
TO0 Me6y7ro O cpa!,6
It TVOTe (DuvXeL'4
7yayerv e' 'E4vp],; roTra/.V airo oeX erTvro
' it^ Ical Tah tbdpJiaKa Th avSpoP dva. el' "Eovpav
yap atXyOai 07C 7r rov 'OSvaeoa 7
1 e[io'ir o; rXe ]ovs: lacuna of about nine letters in A
supplied by Kramer; so Meineke.
2 trl rv4 Aaalwva, Miiller-Diibner, for rLOaxatazrfalva (see C.
Miller, Ind. Var. Lect., p. 990).
3 BowniY, Corais, for Borwvaq; so Meineke.
Sicet .. orparTat, Meineke transposes to position after
6 64, Meineke emends to re. 6 Odpa, Meineke inserts.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 4-5
and from here the voyage to Cephallenia is not more
than eight stadia. Somewhere in this neighbour-
hood, on the aforesaid boundary-line, there also
flows the River Elison or Elisa.
5. It is between Chelonatas and Cyllen6 that the
River Peneius empties ; as also the River Sellieis,
which is mentioned by the poet and flows out of Pho-
lo&. On the Selleeis is situated a city Ephyra, which
is to be distinguishedfromtheThesprotian, Thessalian,
and Corinthian Ephyras ;1 it is a fourth Ephyra, and
is situated on the road that leads to Lasion, being
either the same city as Boenoa (for thus Oeno6 is
usually called), or else near that city, at a distance
of one hundred and twenty stadia from the city of
the Eleians. This, apparently, is the Ephyra which.
Homer calls the home of the mother of Tlepole-
mus the son of Heracles (for the expeditions of
Heracles were in this region rather than in any
of the other three) when he says, "whom he had
brought out of Ephyra, from the River Selleeis "; 2
and there is no River Selleeis near the other
Ephyras. Again, he says of the corselet of Meges:
this corselet Phyleus once brought out of Ephyra,
from the River Selleeis." 3 And thirdly, the man-
slaying drugs: for Homer says that Odysseus came
to Ephyra in search of a man-slaying drug, that he
might have wherewithal to smear his arrows "; 4 and
The site of the Corinthian Ephyra is probably to be
identified with that of the prehistoric Korakou (Dr. Blegen,
op. cit., p. 54).
2 Iliad 2. 659. The mother of Tlepolemus was Astyocheia.
3 Iliad 15. 530.
Odyssey 1. 261 (Athen6 speaking).
Meineke inserts f 'AOBva after 'Oavao-a-a.
Kia TyV TlX/aXov ol /Ir7o-Trlpe
Sxai eil 'ETupO ; MeXeNt 7retpav apovpav
Eh6etv, o5p' b'evev OvjoQlo6pa cdppalc' Eve iCy.
KaI yap TTv Avyeov OvyaTepa 7ro0 T"v 'ETreLC6v
ao-tXeh~ o No--TOep Cv 7r 87I'rore0 TOV 7rpo
aTrovi 7roXe/Iov afappaclaKa eaiodyet,
7rp&ToF e'ywv e"Xov Avipa, C/ojaa,1
MovXtov a!x,./rTvV, ya/tppp 8' 'v AMyeiao,
'7peo-/3vTdTr7V 8E BVyaTp' elXeV,
) Toroa sodpluaica y'87, ocra TpCi ev peta OWlv.
e'o-T( Bc Kal 7rept tKlcveva SeX4Xiet r'nOTraypO Kal
."E4vpa rhrXoilov ici/hJ, ical ev Trj 'Aypala T7i;
AirToXia "Eovpa Kcdw;ci, ol 8' a'r av7'r' "Evpov
Kal XiXoi ol Ileppat,83wv 7rp\ Macesovia, ol2
Kpavvwvtot, ical ot Oeo'0pwrKTtol ol cd KtIvpov
Ti79 7rporepov 'Eovpaq.
6. 'A7roXX68opoq 86 St8da/ovcw, v 7TpOrov d
r'otTrl7 etwOe otaao-TXXeoaat irh~ towvu/vav,
olov eTr To0 'OpXo/x vou Trov u\v 'ApKca8tcov
7roX Vlr/7ov KaXcwv, Tvy Se Bot otaicov MivdELov,
Ial Sad4ov OplrcKirv ovvrTelie
C 339 )eo-o-rqvy? re Saoto ical "I~p3pov,
Iva Xwpiry a r 7 'IaoIwvciF, ovrw atio41 Kal
rniv e6o-pcWrtK2cv "E vpav &aa're'XeaO0at 7 Tre
7rr1kdev Kaal 7
7oraaoD ai7ro IeXX7fevTro.
1 &vpa, repeated after dfias, Meineke deletes.
2 ica, before of, Meineke deletes.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 5-6
in speaking of Telemachus the wooers say: or else
he means to go to the fertile soil of Ephyra, that
from there he may bring deadly drugs";1 for
Nestor, in his narrative of his war against the Epeians,
introduces the daughter of Augeas, the king of the
Epeians, as a mixer of drugs : I was the first that
slew a man, even the spearman Mulius; he was a
son-in-law of Augeias, having married his eldest
daughter, and she knew all drugs that are nourished
by the wide earth." 2 But there is another River
Selleeis near Sicyon, and near the river a village
Ephyra. And in the Agraean district of Aetolia
there is a village Ephyra; its inhabitants are called
Ephyri. And there are still other Ephyri, I mean the
branch of the Perrhaebians who live near Macedonia
(the Crannonians),3 as also those Thesprotian Ephyri
of Cicherus,4 which in earlier times was called
6. Apollodorus, in teaching us how the poet is
wont to distinguish between places of the same
name, says that as the poet, in the case of Orcho-
menus, for instance, refers to the Arcadian Orcho-
menus as abounding in flocks and to the Boeotian
Orchomenus as Minyeian," 6 and refers to Samos as
the Thracian Samos 7 by connecting it with a neigh-
bouring island,8 "betwixt Samos and Imbros," 9 in
order to distinguish it from Ionian Samos-so too,
Apollodorus says, the poet distinguishes the Thespro-
tian Ephyra both by the word "distant" and by the
phrase from the River Selleeis." 10 In this, however,
1 Odyssey 2. 328. 2 Iliad 11. 738.
3 See 7. Frag. 16. 4 See 7. 7. 5.
6 Iliad 2. 605. 6 Iliad 2. 511.
SSamothrace. 8 See 10. 2. 17.
O Iliad 24. 78. 'o Iliad 2. 659. Cp. 7. 7. 10.
ravra 8' ovyX o'oLoyeti TOS Vf TO ZicnlIov
A PrrTplov Xeyo70e'vot, 7rap' ov LerTaepepet ra
h-XeoTa. e'cevoq yap ov r ytav elvat teXXrfevTa
Ev OECOTrppWTOL 7roTa/bv, AX;' dv Ty 'HXeia rapa
7rv eice.l "Evpav, (e 7rpoertrolpev. TroDv re oSv
epP7Ke o-TKE ewF Se-ojevov ical reptl Tr' OI'aXala,
OTt d77-l[v, ob /tLa ovor-i, ulav eLvat 7ri-Xtv EU-
pVTov Oi)'aXLtoq, Trv OTeraXtKc'V, jf' 4srgalv'
o0 7' eXOv OIxaXl7v, rroXtv Evpurov OxaXtirov.
7T o3v Trr'v, ed 'F opprOJ9vrTa aI Morat icaTr
avrope6vat OdVupt v TOTV Op4LKa tra av aot8,l ;
Ol'aX1780ev IvrTa ?rap' Evbprov OiX aXL o.1
el ytPv yap jv2 0erTaXtKq', ObC dE wrdiXV
iKtcI94tov, 'ApKca8tK rv Ttva X'ywov, 7v vvv 'Av8avpava
KaXoaivtv el 8' oATOr Ecv, Ical i 'Aplcauc r 7r6Xth
EbpV7rov e'lpyrat, wO-r' oib /la povow deKcevo'; e
7. MeTay Ke T7I ro7 IITHveltO Kcal aTOO leX-
XTfevTro? eKfioXF IIXoq OIkCE To iaca rTO T oXXtor,
obX 70iT Neo-Topo tr oX, ?AXX' &Tpa rt, 3
rpO? Tov 'AX7 etv) obvSev lrrT t Kicotvwv7a, obV8
7rrpb TOV IIaptoa-, ei'r "ApaOov Xp} KaXlev.
/3idovTas 8' e' v tt LVro7-Trevo/tert T7v Nd~ropo?
1 orl OixaaL os, Meineke ejects.
2 v, Meineke emends to j, perhaps rightly.
3 f, Penzel, for i ; s (Acghiw).
S"Scepsis," the Greek word here translated "percep-
tion," seems to be a pun on (Demetrius of) "Scepsis."
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 6-7
Apollodorus is not in agreement with what Demetrius
of Scepsis says, from whom he borrows most of his
material; for Demetrius says that there is no River
Sell6eis among the Thesprotians, but says that it is
in the Eleian country and flows past the Ephyra
there, as I have said before. In this statement,
therefore, Apollodorus was in want of perception ;
as also in his statement concerning Oechalia, because,
although Oechalia is the name of not merely one
city, he says that there is only one city of Eurytus
the Oechalian, namely, the Thessalian Oechalia,
in reference to which Homer says: "Those that
held Oechalia, city of Eurytus the Oechalian." 2
What Oechalia, pray, was it from which Thamyris
had set out when, near Dorium, the Muses met
Thamyris the Thracian and put a stop to his sing-
ing ? 3 For Homer adds: "as he was on his way
from Oechalia, from Eurytus the Oechalian." 4 For
if it was the Thessalian Oechalia, Demetrius of
Scepsis is wrong again when he says that it was a
certain Arcadian Oechalia, which is now called
Andania; but if Demetrius is right, Arcadian
Oechalia was also called "city of Eurytus," and
therefore there was not merely one Oechalia; but
Apollodorus says that there was one only.
7. It was between the outlets of the Peneius and
the Selleeis, near the Scollium,5 that Pylus was
situated; not the city of Nestor, but another Pylus
which has nothing in common with the Alpheius,
nor with the Pamisus (or Amathus, if we should
call it that). Yet there are some who do violence
to Homer's words, seeking to win for themselves
2 Iliad 2. 730. a Iliad 2. 595. 4 Iliad 2. 596.
6 Scollis Mountain (see 8. 3. 10); now Santameriotiko.
8o'av ical Tyv eVye~vetav' rptcv yap HV Ov
roTropov,.Vwv Ev Hev IXoovv 'ja (icao'rt xal To
e7'o, etpTyrai TOvTt,
EaTr IIXoV 7rph Hivoio' HfvXo? y je'v e'o-Tt
TOTOVU Tr /calt T AeTrpeartioV TroD v ry T TptUvXia
Ka' 7 HTiadrtiTI, 7rpirov S T70 Mero-avtaKco 70T
Kara Kopvy daE ov, Caacros 'ryv 7rapd a oittv
LJaO6evrTa 7retpCYvTa SetiKvvat, Kal Trv TO7
Nro-ropo? 7raTrpla TroDrov 7ro4ialvovo-tv. oL01 lv
oYv rroXXot TrW vewoepv1 KCa avTyypaEowv Kal
'roiqT7 v Meaocrjvi'v acrot 'TO N'o-ropa, T~
cO~o/cvw pU'Xpt e 1 avtrov; Trpo-rLOei-/evo" ol 8'
'OUptLKcr'repot, TO?70 e'TEo`r acKOXoovvTre, TOVTOV
elval aoa-t TOV TO Ne'o-opo IlHvXov, ov TiV
Xcpav 8tietatv 6 'AX ctI' Stie4eiort o T'v
Htro-arv cal T'v TptivX1av. ol 8' oiy K7 7"r
KolXlk HXt8og Kxa rotavTrrv otXortI/lav t7pore-
r0eieaav T& 7 rap' av'rol; HtIXp Kal ympl'aTa,
C 340 8eucvtvTre9; efplvov T'roV Ka~ Pepov'ra 7TOTa0oiv
al caXXov repavtov, e4r' r7o TOTo wv eTlT IWe
Feprvtov elplcrOat 'rtc 'roVievoL T'Yv N'crTopa.
TOTO 8B 6 av'rT cal ol Mecraojvio 7rewrotiKact,
Kcal irtav0'rTepot ye alivovtrat" ,taXXov yap
yvcopt/iad caotv elval Ta' 7rap' dicevot FIeplva,
1 vewiTEpW, Corais, for Ere'Pa ; so the later editors.
1A proverb. See Stephanus Byz. s.v. Kopupdrov, and
Eustathius on Od. 1. 93.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 7
the fame and noble lineage of Nestor; for, since
history mentions three Pyluses in the Peloponnesus
(as is stated in this verse: "There is a Pylus in
front of Pylus; yea, and there is still another
Pylus "),1 the Pylus in question, the Lepreatic Pylus
in Triphylia and Pisatis, and a third, the Messenian
Pylus near Coryphasium,2 the inhabitants of each
try to show that the Pylus in their own country is
" emathoeis 3 and declare that it is the native place
of Nestor. However, most of the more recent writers,
both historians and poets, say that Nestor was a
Messenian, thus adding their support to the Pylus
which has been preserved down to their own times.
But the writers who follow the words of Homer more
closely say that the Pylus of Nestor is the Pylus
through whose territory the Alpheius flows. And the
Alpheius flows through Pisatis and Triphylia. How-
ever, the writers from CoelM Elis have not only
supported their own Pylus with a similar zeal, but
have also attached to it tokens of recognition,4
pointing out a place called Gerenus, a river called
Geron, and another river called Geranius, and then
confidently asserting that Homer's epithet for Nestor,
"Gerenian," was derived from these. But the
Messenians have done the self-same thing, and their
argument appears at least more plausible; for they
say that their own Gerena is better known, and that
2 Gosselin identifies Coryphasium with the Navarino of
to-day. So Frazer, note on Pausanias 4. 36. 1.
8 The Homeric epithet of Pylus, translated sandy";
but see 8. 3. 14.
As mothers who exposed their infants hung tokens about
their necks, hoping that thus their parentage would be
cuVvoIovfleV7v 7rOTE eV. TotaG a / EV Ta 7rept
7/v KoXlv 'HXlV bradpXovXTa vvvi.
8. '0 8C 7rotvqT7' elq rrapTa a /-Epe &eXov Tv5jV
T'v x(pav, 'TTapa K ralt TOV 7'EyeMova el'nrv,
ov aao;, el'pfcev
ol 8' Apa BovrpdCao'v TE Kcal "HXta GSav
oo-aov e' Tp/lptvrl xaal Mtvpo-tvo'; eoXaato(oaa
rerpf 7' 'nXevril /ca 'AXei'ov Etor TO EIpyet.
Triv ab T'ro-a-ape; apXol ar-av, Seaa a' Avpit
vfe7 "7rOvTo Ooat wroXee Lf3Batvov 'ETrtol.
TI7 [Lev yap 'Eretobv d[t/~orTpovq 7rpoaayopevetv
TOv< re Bovurpactaiv Kal Tror 'HXeiovS, 'HXetouv
S/P.'cLI Kahit aXei Tob Bovrpaatel9, or T"v 'HXelav
So6eeV r v el 're-crapa fpitep tapepv, adXXa 7'v
TiOV 'Efretov, 'qv etl 860 /epn 86tetXe rrpOr'pov'
ovb' av Pipov EL'q 7)V? "HXt(o Tr Bovurpdatov,
aXXA Tov 'EvTr&wv tiXXov. ot yap 'Ervetobv
KaXtel rovV Bovurpao-lov, 8iXov"
WV OTroTe KpELOvT 'A/AapvylKa otaTrov 'E7retoL
Tb 86 Bovurpdcatov elval rtva XOpav TVj 'HXelaV
KaTOtucav eXouvav o/lovvltov VUvL v6aiveTaL, 7~1
"HkSo? ov piepo; Kal Ka o ro.1 7rdaXv 7 T
1 i SE Bouvrpadrtov ro0ro, eineke relegates to the
foot of the page. OLK, before cXoviray, Blu omit. 8d, after
vuvw, B]Ekno insert.
1 Iliad 2. 615 Homer seems to speak of the four last-
named places as the four corners of CoelS Elis (Leaf, The
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 7-8
it was once a populous place. Such, then, is the
present state of affairs as regards Coeld Elis.
8. But when the poet divides this country into
four parts and also speaks of the leaders as four in
number, his statement is not clear : "And they too
that inhabited both Buprasium and goodly Elis, so
much thereof as is enclosed by Hyrmini and
Myrsinus on the borders, and by the Olenian Rock
and Aleisium,-of these men, I say, there were four
leaders, and ten swift ships followed each leader, and
many Epeians embarked thereon."1 For when he
speaks of both the Buprasians and the Eleians as
Epeians, but without going on and calling the
Buprasians Eleians, it would seem that he is not
dividing the Eleian country into four parts, but
rather the country of the Epeians, which he had
already divided into only two parts; and thus
Buprasium would not be a part of Elis but rather of
the country of the Epeians. For it is clear that he
calls the Buprasians Epeians; "as when the Epeians
were burying lord Amarynces at Buprasium." 2 But
Buprasium now appears to have been a territory of
the Eleian country, having in it a settlement of
the same name, which was also a part of Elis.3 And
Iliad, vol. i, p. 72). Elsewhere (11. 756) he refers to
''Buprasium, rich in wheat," "the Olenian Rock" and
" the hill called the hill of Aleisium" as landmarks of the
2 Iliad 23. 630.
SMost of the editors regard this sentence as a gloss.
Moreover, serious discrepancies in the readings of the MSS.
render the meaning doubtful (see critical note on opposite
page). For instance, all but three MSS. read "no settlement
of the same name." But see Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. II,
p. 36; also Etym. Mag. and Hesych. s.v. Bovrpdo'ov.
avycaTaptLOLe'Fo-oa Bouvrpda'tov 'e iKa "HXt8a
8av X7,yovTa, e'T" e' rf' coapa 8LtapeEv piepliav,
64 av IKOwtV SOce T7 re Bovurpaolcp Ical 71
"HXt av'Ta9 vTroTaTT'rev. 7v 8', w4 eotce, ca-
ToIuca 7jTV 'HXedla? TO Bovurpdctov atXoyov0 4
Pv oVICeT' eC'C' O 8e Xe E pa KaXeiTa pU'ov oVTW;4
e E'tri Td 09 8oD0 7T edri Avywzv Ef "HX(6o0 7T;
vPv 7rdXe)?.1 vroXa,3ot 8' AV 7LT /cal V'repo7ijv
TWea e'XE Te Tr Bov7rpdatov 7rapa Trq 'HXIw,
waarep icaL ol 'Eveto' raph "o roV' vo'epov 8'
dvT' 'E7ret(&v 'HXeZot dXOclo-rav. ical Tb Bov-
7rpdaltov Iz v 8 pIepoq "v Ti)V "HXtSoq, 7rorttKuC
8 Ttrtv aXrita7rt avyKia'aXe' yev 'TO /,epoF9 T 60X
(aai~ ToP "OpJr1ypo, (;9 70
Av' 'EXXaa Ka'l e'aoov "Apyo9,
a' 'EXXd8a Te OIltvp Te,
Koupq7Te T' /id'ovTro .cal AITl otI,
ol 8' dec AouXtXloo 'EXtrvdv 0' lepdwv
Kal yap To AovXIXtovr Twv 'EXtv8eo. Xypwvra
e Iat ol veW)TepoE' 'IwTrTova] piev
Kv7rpl'wv pb'co9 ayotDo- c ai 'AtpaOovo-al
Ksvrptot 7yp ical ol 'Alaolao-ios Ical 'AXKciav 8'"
C 341 KvTrpov tijepTav hXtroL-a Ial Hdiov rrepip-
1 8 E Xpa .rdmAcw, B omits.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 8
again, when he names the two together, saying
" both Buprasium and goodly Elis," and then divides
the country into four parts, it seems as though he is
classifying the four parts under the general designa-
tion "both Buprasium and goodly Elis." It seems
likely that at one time there was a considerable
settlement by the name of Buprasium in the Eleian
country which is no longer in existence (indeed, only
that territory which is on the road that leads to Dym&
from the present city of Elis is now so called); and
one might suppose that at that time Buprasium had
a certain pre-eminence as compared with Elis, just
as the Epeians had in comparison with the Eleians;
but later on the people were called Eleians instead of
Epeians.. And though Buprasium was a part of Elis,
they say that Homer, by a sort of poetic figure,
names the part with the whole, as for instance when
he says: "throughout Hellas and mid-Argos," 1 and
"throughout Hellas and Phthia," 2 and" the Curetes
fought and the Aetolians," 3 and the men of Duli-
chium and the holy Echinades," 4 for Dulichium is
one of the Echinades. And more recent poets also
use this figure; for instance, Hipponax, when he
says: "to those who have eaten the bread of the
Cyprians and the wheaten bread ofthe Amathusians," 5
for the Amathusians are also Cyprians; and Alcman,
when he says: when she had left lovely Cypros
and sea-girt Paphos";6 and Aeschylus,7 when he
1 Odyssey 1. 344. 2 Odyssey 11. 496.
3 Iliad 9. 529. 4 Iliad 2. 625.
5 Frog. 82 (Bergk). 6 Frag. 21 (Bergk).
7 Meineke (Vind. Strab. p. 103) thinks Strabo wrote
"Archilochus," not "Aeschylus."
SFor AlaX hos Meineke (Vind. Strab.) proposes 'ApX[AoXos.
Ktrrpov Ild ov 7' 'govo-a rrdvra iKXpov.
el o' etpi/cep v 'HXeov'I 1 Trov Bovrpaoaov,, obW'
a'Xna orXXa Tr(oV VTrCv, 0aO-o/CeV aXXh TOUT'
obIC Keo-TLV arrdoet? 7TO, t/ e4vat, aXXah r70T t
9. 'E caraov ; d MtX~ro-tov Epovq XE" 7YCe T
'HXelwv o Tro 'E7retov' T7 7yoiv 'HpaKrcXE avOrpa-
Trevaea Trobv E'retoiv eTLr Avyfav ical aovvaveXev
aTO rTOV Te Ayjeav ical T7jv HXtvr irtl &e Ical
TrIv AVt'i.'v 'ETred8a ical 'Axatt8a. 7roXXa /ev ov
Icat pu7 OpvTa eyov-wv o01 apXaot o-vyypaefi9,
CrVVTe0pa/iuEvoL T6 *revSet S&a 'Ta /jpv6ooypaltav.
8th a TOVTO Ki c obX 6yoXoyoDot VrpO h? XXi4Xov,
Trept Tiro avT jv. ob UEvrTOL a7rtYTov, obv' e'l 7Tor
8ri(opo0 TOFL 'HXetotv OvreS 01 'EvretoIl cal Ere-
poeOve, els 7ravro cv.VVPXOVTo ica' eTirKpiaTela
Kcal iKOlvv eveo6v T7v 2 7roXlTetav' e TrcpaTroV
86 ical pe'Xpi Av;'x?7. o /ev fyap -rotrpy-n Ovic
WVO61arc Trf AV;Uv Obic d E7Trei9 E o-T, ToTE
arve avrTv VTro To ^ 'ErvetotF vLr7pat, v0TrepoV 8o
TOF' I "IJo0 1 /71 E'CteiLvo, aXXa Tot- T7V edKeVWV
copav KcaTao-aov0tv 'AXato. TWov 8A Te rapwv
/epL8 ov, wv s VTo EO-rT ical TO Bov'rpao-cov, ?7 Iev
'Tp1vgr iKal ] Mvpao-tvw T7 'HXe6La eo-T'rj at
Xotrral t & rI Tr V opUOv "817 Tj7 IItCraT'To, (
10. 'TppLt'r uEv owv 7roXt'Lvov 'v, vFv 8' oxK
ear-T, aXX' a.cpWrjprov rrXwyliov KvXXrv7rp opetvov
1 'HAEfous, Corais, for 'Errdovs; so the later editors.
2 vEov T'iv (Acghno); Evfi0ovro (the other MSS.).
1 Frag. 463 (Nauck).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 8-io
says: "since thou dost possess the whole of Cypros
and Paphos as thine allotment."1 But if Homer
nowhere calls the Buprasians Eleians, I will say
that there are many other facts also that he does
not mention; yet this is no proof that they are
not facts, but merely that he has not mentioned
9. But Hecataeus of Miletus says that the Epeians
are a different people from the Eleians; that, at any
rate, the Epeians joined Heracles in his expedition
against Augeas and helped him to destroy both
Augeas and Elis. And he says, further, that Dyme
is an Epeian and an Achaean city. However, the
early historians say many things that are not true,
because they were accustomed to falsehoods on
account of the use of myths in their writings; and on
this account, too, they do not agree with one another
concerning the same things. Yet it is not incredible
that the Epeians, even if they were once at variance
with the Eleians and belonged to a different race,
later became united with the Eleians as the result
of prevailing over them, and with them formed one
common state; and that they prevailed even as far
as Dym&. For although the poet has not named
Dyme, it is not unreasonable to suppose that in his
time Dyme belonged to the Epeians, and later to
the lonians, or, if not to them, at all events to the
Achaeans who took possession of their country. Of
the four parts, inside which Buprasium is situated,
only Hyrmind and Myrsinus belong to the Eleian
country, whereas the remaining two are already on
the frontiers of Pisatis, as some writers think.
10. Now Hyrmine was a small town. It is no
longer in existence, but near Cyllen6 there is a
eorTt, KaXovg/evov 'Opulva q' "Tpt.utva" Mbpowvog
e T vvb Mvprov"rTov, i7 OdB arrTav icaOltcov-a
cKaTA rTv dc Aitt' eld 'HXtv 38bv IcaTrotica,
aordta T7j 'HXelwv 7r6Xew? 8te'Xovaa e/38o-
IlvicovTa. rErptlv 8' 'flXevlv etrdKaovor- -rv v5v
Yic6Xtv' avady/c) ryap el coa Xeyetv, Kal TOJV
T07rTo ov al T'v ovoa ia'rwov te6Tra/3fe ivwv,
eIceivov 're h a-6pa e7rTl roXXWcv a-a~flviovTo
eor-t 8' opo rreTpcoe? cotvOv AvLcat'wv Te Ical
Tptratewv cai 'HXEetco, ,Xd6Levov Erepov Two'
'ApxcaSico b'Opovq AavTretav, a TF "HXAto pzev
8teaTflcev ebcarao av l TptaKcov'a a-TaS8ovw, Tpt-
Tala ia 8' carTov, Ieal AVLlZ 1 Tobv 'o-ovo', 'AXaicKv
7reVaov. TO 8' 'AXLeo-ti v o-rTt vbv 'AXeaotaov,
wdpa rrepi Tjv 'ApLtSoXtla, ev 7 Icat Icar tu*va
ayop av rV ovo-tv ol rreplotKov KeFtrat 86 dve Tri
opetvi) 6oi8, 7ji i' "HXtoso el' 'OXvu7ritav
7rporepov 8' rv 7rwX(? 7T oltad'tSo, iXXOT'
iXX(oB TrV opwOV 'rraXXaT'rTOVTov 8th Tta 7TTW
)ye6,tovwv / ierap/oXad' TO 8' 'AXeLa-tov Ical 'AXet-
otlov KoX;v'qv 7rorlT'rT' icaXe, ob'av (o7
C 342 t da'f-' e7' Bovrpaolov 7roXvlrvpov $'o-aluev
v7repp/aTWr 7yp 8e 84aaOat, 'i-ov T 7 eal C vO'
1 ical Aitn, Xylander inserts, and so the later editors.
cal tc AAi)S Ed (hi).
1 Santameriotiko Mountain.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. Io
mountain promontory called Hormina or Hyrmina.
Myrsinus is the present Myrtuntium, a settlement
that extends down to the sea, and is situated
on the road which runs from Dym6 into Elis, and
is seventy stadia distant from the city of the
Eleians. The Olenian Rock is surmised to be what
is now called Scollis; for we are obliged to state
what is merely probable, because both the places
and the names have undergone changes, and because
in many cases the poet does not make himself very
clear. Scollis is a rocky mountain common to the
territories of the Dymaeans, the Tritaeans, and the
Eleians, and borders on another Arcadian mountain
called Lampeia," which is one hundred and thirty
stadia distant from Elis, one hundred from Tritaea,
and the same from Dym&; the last two are Achaean
cities. Aleisium is the present Alesiaeum, a terri-
tory in the neighbourhood of Amphidolis,3 in which
the people of the surrounding country hold a monthly
market. It is situated on the mountain-road that
runs from Elis to Olympia. In earlier times it was
a city of Pisatis, for the boundaries have varied at
different times on account of the change of rulers.
The poet also calls Aleisium Hill of Aleisium,"
when he says: "until we caused our horses to set
foot on Buprasium, rich in wheat, and on the
Olenian Rock, and of Aleisium where is the place
called Hill "4 (we must interpret the words as a
case of hyperbaton, that is, as equivalent to "and
2 Now Astras, apparently. See C. Miller, Ind. Var. Lect.,
3 Amphidolis, or Amphidolia, was an Eleian territory
north of Olympia.
4 Iliad 11. 756.
'AXetaiov icoXo'vr KIeKXirat77 evtot 8' ical 7roa/ov
11. Aeyo/te'vo v 84 TItvov ev T7 TpilvXia Kay-
,cov ,phs 7rI Meo-mavia, Xeyojlte cal S' ?i
Ad Iiv KavicwviSo v7o TvoWv, ovro 8E a calt ora-
tpo ev ~'v Av/tala b CeT;rav AviyvT ical TptTaia,
ao KaXe'Tra Ka'Kowv 7vXvaKW ,' froTo-t vrepl T-Wo
Kaviecvwv,2 /fi 8t7Tro' XCyovorat, o01 jev 7repi
Trv TpotJvXlav, ol 8e 7repl AvIyrlv Kcal 'HXtv Kal
rov Kaicowva ejP/3AdXXet 8' obUTO e1 s &epov, O8
TevOea9 3 paorevtcY v caXeZTas, 6 pupdvoP ? 7roXxklvy
rTI T I ov E Ael'y v AV/rv vv oKtacu/evwv, 7rXrhv OT
Xypti TO0 alypa TevOea XE'yerat 0 vicXvKws aiJTr7,
eKrTEIVPovr Tr7v eadTy]v avvXXa/37v, o'rov TO T9
NeIuv8a; 4 'ApTE/tSov lepov. 6 8 TevOf'a' 5 el
TOV 'AXeX ov e p3dpXXet TOw caT AVx lV povTa,
o/1wvvLov 7( IaTA 'AKapvavtav, Kakof/uevov Kaal
eldpov. TOD 8' 'HtCdSov e iTOVro',
Ofcee 8' 'lXeviqv 7rerpiv Wrora/ioto 7rap' oxOav
/ieTraypadcovoit 'iVEq I7Ielpoto,6 OiVK eC. 7rep't 8
TvO Kavic'vw v a qTroot-, oaa-iv,7 ob' T7r 'AOByva
x Ona\ucs is suspected by Corais, Kramer, and Miiller-
Dtibner, and ejected by Meineke. But Eustathius retains
the word in two quotations (notes on II. 2. 607 and Od.
2 6s, before /j, Pletho omits; so Corais and Meineke.
3 Tet'as (B) ; TEvdJas (Acghno).
SNe~It8as (bknou, perhaps rightly); NeFeaias, Lobeck ad
Phryn. p. 557; Nflpaas, Corais.
6 Teveoas A.
6 nldpoto, Jones, for Idipoto (see Pausanias 7. 22).
-GEOGRAPHY, 8 3. Io-
where is the place called Hill of Aleisium "). Some
writers point also to a river Aleisius.
11. Since certain people in Triphylia near Mes-
senia are called Cauconians, and since Dyme also
is called Cauconian by some writers, and since in
the Dymaean territory between Dvm6 and Tritaea
there is also a river which is called Caucon, in the
feminine gender, writers raise the question whether
there are not two different sets of Cauconians, one
in the region of Triphylia, and the other in the
region of Dyme, Elis, and the River Caucon. This
river empties into another river which is called
Teutheas, in the masculine gender; Teutheas has
the same name as one of the little towns which
were incorporated into Dyme, except that the name
of this town, "Teuthea," is in the feminine gender,
and is spelled without the s and with the last
syllable long. In this town is the temple of the
Nemydian1 Artemis. The Teutheas empties into
the Acheloiis which flows by Dyme2 and has the
same name as the Acarnanian river. It is also called
the "Peirus"; by Hesiod, for instance, when he
says: "he dwelt on the Olenian Rock along the
banks of a river, wide Peirus." 3 Some change the
reading to Pierus," wrongly. They raise that
question about the Cauconians, they say, because,
1 "Nemydian" is otherwise unknown; perhaps "Nemi-
dian" or "Nemeaean."
2 Op. 10. 2. 1. 3 Frag. 74 (98).
The whole passage 7repl 6 7iv (rw iv Bklu)
a. rap 01Esv rvXdv, according to Kramer, crept
in from the margin. Meineke ejects it. Jones emends
Lafv to epaatv and retains the passage.
TI T, MEvropIt WLOIw/mtE'V'I T 7 '08uoro-Oa
e7TrroVO-i 7rp po 6rT Nea-ropa,
arap fOev tzerT Kavrcwva, /Lezya0vJpovV
ety, a'v9a Xpeiod JOL do~feirax' oi rT veov ye
ob' oiyaov. V 8b TO Vro'o, eTrl Teov 'iAETro
7T6erfov Cav SL'pW Te IcaL v'le&i 8? 8' ol
SoKCel aorpalveo-rat Xwpa T r deV T7wv 'E~retCv,
Iv ol Ka';ioves elxov, 'Trepot o'vreT TWv ev T
TpCpvXia, E7reKTeL6vTe? icaL PeLXPi TF Av/ aLa
TvyXO. ovre yap Trv A'u iv ord~rev Kavcawvl8a
elpiaoOai auvji33i77yce, 7rapaXL7rerv dltov, oane TOv
7roTay/o, oTro&ev Kav/cfv etP7Trat, 81a TO\ TO'
KacKwvaq 7rap)ewetv ~ijT'17t, OL're0 7OT eloa- v,
5r-ov -~u cv 'A0riva /i3ap etv iKara T9 TO7
ypcov,' KcoLt8 i. el yap 8 Seo8eXoijea TOVP v Ti
Tpt/vXVa XeVe-aoat TOyV rept A'rpeov,1 oVK ot8'
o7roi? 7rtavp ea'at d Xo'yo' 8to /cal ypd7p ovo-
0vOa XpeOq puot odeherat "Hh,(S 81y,
obK c oyov.
acapeo-Tpav 8' '4et T7V dro-iKeCr Iv TOOTO, deret8av
T7V e'? X)dpav TrepCoSel-w/iePv T7jV re HIIlaTIv
cal T7v TptjvXlav pe Xpt 7fj1 TAIV Mlecra-olvwv
12. MeTa 8 Tovr XeXwvadrav 7(v 6 TWV aTrv
oTrtiv alytaXo'\ roXi eLT' /cpa detd"' 7v S ecal
~cEta 7rap TedXCariv, 'lap8dvov Adpit pf'elpa"
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. I1-12
when Athene in the guise of Mentor, in the Odyssey,
says to Nestor, "but in the morning I will go to the
great-hearted Cauconians, where a debt is due me,
in no way new or small. But do thou send this man
on his way with a chariot and with thy son, since
he has come to thy house, and give him horses," 1
the poet seems to designate a certain territory in
the country of the Epeians which was held by the
Cauconians, these Cauconians being a different set
from those in Triphylia and perhaps extending as
far as the territory of Dyme. Indeed, one should
not fail to inquire both into the origin of the epithet
of Dyme, Cauconian," and into the origin of the
name of the river "Caucon," because the question
who those Cauconians were to whom Athene says
she is going in order to recover the debt offers
a problem; for if we should interpret the poet as
meaning the Cauconians in Triphylia near Lepreum,
I do not see how his account can be plausible.
Hence some read: where a debt is due me in
goodly Elis, no small one." 2 But this question will
be investigated with clearer results when I describe
the country that comes next after this, I mean
Pisatis and Triphylia as far as the borders of the
country of the Messenians.3
12. After Chelonatas comes the long sea-shore
of the Pisatans; and then Cape Pheia. And there
was also a small town called Pheia: "beside the
walls of Pheia, about the streams of lardanus," 4
1 Odyssey 3. 366. 2 Cp. Iliad 11. 698.
3 8. 3. 17. 4 Iliad 7. 135.
SAe'rpEov, Corais, Kramer, and MUiller-Diibner, for
Airrpiov; AMrpetov, Meineke.
C 343 e'o-'r yAp Kal '7ordpow 'iX-qilov. e'ot, 8' pXr
T, Ito-adTtSo TV iL etadv caact 7rpdOKctat 8 ical
ravTq7r vrtio1v Kat Xt r'v, gvrevv el' 'OXvpLri'av To
fYVTrdrT 1 dc 0aXad7r7 2 CrTd8tot ecaTOIv ei0coIV.
elT' tXX\j aKpa 'Ix ; 7Tr'l roXb 7rpouXovcra
7Tr 7CTv 8vaUv, ica0aTrep XeXwovdra?, ad' A?
rdhtv 4 e-l rTv IKea 'r 'viav -rd8tot eKaTOPv e'O-
o-(v. et0' 6 'AX eto?' JKc818ocr 8xov r70 XeXo-
vria oTaS'ov' 8tacKoo-'ov"; 'ySo)icovra, 'ApdSov
S errNvracKoatovZ TeTTapdacovra rTEVT. pet 8' cK Trv
avTOV TO7rT(O, 6 4 Icalt EbporTa* KaXeETai
86 'Acra, lKW cu T7) Me'yaXoroXlrttSo, 7rXrh70-ov
aXXXwr 6'xovo-a 8o 7r 'd, (Av peovoav
XEX0evTe 7orTao-" l 8VV urTE 8' 'r6 7y) 7rr i ou-vov'
a-ra8iov avareaXovOrt rdhtv,.e0' 6 uev el~ AaKow-
VtKIc, 6 8' el r TiV litcTt Kicarayerat. o ,tuv
o ,v Epcoras, /cara Trv apxjYv Tr7; BXegctvartto0
avaSelda TOb peWpov, trap' avTlIv T\7v ITrrdptr~V
pvels Kal SteLowv avbXWva Trta trcpov Ktcara rT
"Exo9, oh peitevrrTat Kalt 7rotJrj, eKc8'iwal
peTra;v rvolov, TO7 Tr'' rradpTrr?7 ETrvelov, Kal
'Acpalwv. 6 8' 'AXcet6o, vrapaXap/3v TOV re
Ada8va5 ical TOv 'Ep'pavOov Ial aXXov? do ro-
/OTepovi, 81t T7j pii a' Kalt IITo-drto' Kla
Tptpv Xia EpEX0ELs, 7rap' abTr7v T7 'OXvwaFTav
67ri OdXarTav T7v ~iLKeXtKcVv EICeKrr7eTTet eTaG
1 T ,yYrTao, B and Epit., for T9 4YUTvraTi; so Meineke.
2 Inrt, before acrdito, Corais omits; dcli, Meineke.
3 'IXObs, Palmer, for FEOvs. a,0as, Corais.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 12
for there is also a small river near by. According
to some, Pheia is the beginning of Pisatis. Off Pheia
lie a little island and a harbour, from which the
nearest distance from the sea to Olympia is one
hundred and twenty stadia. Then comes another
-cape, Ichthys, which, like Chelonatas, projects for
a considerable distance towards the west; and from
it the distance to Cephallenia is again one hundred
and twenty stadia. Then comes the mouth of the
Alpheius, which is distant two hundred and eighty
stadia from Chelonatas, and five hundred and forty-
five from Araxus. It flows from the same regions
as the Eurotas, that is, from a place called Asea, a
village in the territory of Megalopolis, where there
are two springs near one another from which the
rivers in question flow. They sink and flow beneath
the earth for many stadia1 and then rise again;
and then they flow down, one into Laconia and the
other into Pisatis. The stream of the Eurotas re-
appears where the district called Bleminatis begins,
and then flows past Sparta itself, traverses a long
glen near Helus (a place mentioned by the poet),2
and empties between Gythium, the naval station
of Sparta, and Acraea. But the Alpheius, after
receiving the waters of the Ladon, the Erymanthus,
and other rivers of less significance, flows through
Phrixa, Pisatis, and Triphylia past Olympia itself to
the Sicilian Sea, into which it empties between
1 According to Polyhius (16. 17), ten stadia.
2 Iliad 2. 584.
4 rAhLA, omitted by BEklu.
5 For KeadSorra (MSS.) Palmer conjectures Adawva, C.
Setdi Tre Kal 'E'rtTaXiov.1 7rpw 8p Tr dicKoX
TO Tir) 'AX\etoviaq 'Apre'tUo9 8 AXfetoar
aXro-ov C'Ti (XyeTrat yap atJupoTepw,), aTreov
Trg 'OXv7rlt'ag el' by8oijcovTa oTaSlov'. ravry
7e 0e, icKal Ev 'OXv/xrtia /caT' e'TO1 r VTeXelTra
travryvpt, KaeaTrep IaC Ty EXaala IcaL 7
Aa via. /eo-a 8' EoT'rv eyi 7Traaa 'ApTreua owv
re Kaea 'A po8wL'Cv Kal NvpLaltov ev caXaeatv
avieov 7TrXey2 T7 7TroXv 8ta T9 ebv8piav, o-vxva
8' Ical 'EpeiZa bv Trat o? 8?, IIoaelSta 8' eTr
ratEi /cTral. e'v 8e T; T4)r 'AX etoLa, t'ep
ypacal KXedvOovg rTe /cal 'ApqyovTro;, dvSpcv
KopItvLwv, rTo pedv Tpola9 &Xwo-tv iKal 'AOrvapi
yoval, T70 8' "AprTe/U dvafepofev?7 e7rtl ypv7rOg,
13. ErTa bT 8teapyov h'po' 7Trj TptuvXla T7 ?
Maicto'lav a7rb T7S HtOIIaTIoo e'T' aXXoz 7ro-
Tralo XaX/ci /icai K~prjv Kpovvol Kal KaTrotcia
XaXkicts, Kat T\O a/ltcOv e'rTa TraVTa, O7rov To
/utaXtOTa TrIt ,Cpevov TO7 la/ldov IloretMiovo lepov
crTt 8' a'X-o- alypteXatov 7rXewv ETrefLeXovvTo
8' aTroD MaKtrLOL' tO oVo Kal Trv T ceXetplav
e7r'yyeXXov, ijv KaXoio't D a'ctov"3 o-rVeXoDOvt 8'
elv To [epov 7rdvTeve TptPXtot.
14. Kar Ta avTa 84 7ro( Tra Lepa vITrpKetrat
T7F OaXadTTIr dev TptlcovTa l JItKp( w7rXheoo-
oTa8iotg 6 TptcvXtaKOc IInXo Icai Aei-rpea'rtiuc,
1 'Eirtraxfou, Tzschucke, for 'Ei rdvrou (Acgh), 'ErLrTvars (B),
IIr dvYE (klno); so Kramer and the later editors.
2 &vOO v TrAes, Meineke, and Miiller-Diibner, for av04wv &s;
for other emendations, see C. Miiller, Ind. Var. Lect., p.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 12-14
Pheia and Epitalium. Near the outlet of the river
is the sacred precinct of Artemis Alpheionia or
Alpheiusa (for the epithet is spelled both ways),
which is about eighty stadia distant from Olympia.
An annual festival is also celebrated at Olympia in
honour of this goddess as well as in honour of
Artemis Elaphia and Artemis Daphnia. The whole
country is full of temples of Artemis, Aphrodite, and
the Nymphs, being situated in sacred precincts that
are generally full of flowers because of the abund-
ance of water. And there are also numerous shrines
of Hermes on the road-sides, and temples of
Poseidon on the capes. In the temple of Artemis
Alpheionia are very famous paintings by two
Corinthians, Cleanthes and Aregon: by Cleanthes
the "Capture of Troy" and the "Birth of Athen&,"
and by Aregon the "Artemis Borne Aloft on a
13. Then comes the mountain of Triphylia that
separates Macistia from Pisatis; then another river
called Chalcis, and a spring called Cruni, and a
settlement called Chalcis, and, after these, Samicum,
where is the most highly revered temple of the
Samian Poseidon. About the temple is a sacred
precinct full of wild olive-trees. The people of
Macistum used to have charge over it; and it was
they, too, who used to proclaim the armistice-day
called "Samian." But all the Triphylians contribute
to the maintenance of the temple.
14. In the general neighbourhood of these temples,
above the sea, at a distance of thirty stadia or slightly
more, is situated the Triphylian Pylus, also called the
3 dtiov, Corais, for :a'ioL ; so the later editors.
C 344 8v KaXelt 6 rotL'?T F iiaOlOevra cal 7rapaSit8ow-
TO7 Ne'-Topo' 7raTrpla, & aEv TL T? c TcoV eTrC'
Tcw 'O/vO2pov Tre/caIpoITO- e~e T 0 Trapappeov'ro
7roaoTayioD r c picrovT 'Afpdov ICaXovU/jvov 7rpo-
'epov, 0 vDv Mad/aog ical 'ApKca8tKico1 cKaedat,
oaT' Evref0ev6 falOdeiT-a iceIXciaOat eC''re Tovrov
/Iev IaptoLaov iaXlovtevov oLPO)/Vvpus Tro EV 7T?
Meo-oanva Svoa', 7qTr ~ 7roXeo' atrlXov EXouoq-"
rTV dE'rvuoXoyav Tr0 e7rtCeTov. Kala 7yap TO
a/taOcr 7 TOrv roTrafbv Al Tr V Xpav el'va -refi6V'
aa-t. Ica' To7 Tjr KtXXovvUTiaq e 'A& lnv
Iepbv Tr 7rep't eKtXXoDivra VTov iTru/avov W''Tiv,
'OXv/7ar'la' rX 7rY-ov Ka'ra TOV Dc'Xwova.2 rpos
6o E' CeoT'v 6'po 700 TO h ov rX o 'ov eirwvvJ/ov
MAivOe7 jv o IVeovo-V 7raXXaKrcv ToD "AAov
lyevoL uvpV 7raT'ryOeloav) 3rb ir 7T Kopl? eCf Trfv
KrI)ralav livOVv ieTa/3aXiv, 7Vy riveC ?'8vOO'p1OV
KaXoDac. Kal 8 c Kal 'rTe/ndeS' oa'rTv "'A0Ov Trphy
T7 opet, Trctcw/(evov cal brO" Maictoa'-w, IKal
Aj/;Lrpo0 aXo- vTrepIceietLvov ToD ITvXta/coD
VeSlov. To & 7reslov eiVyeYv oEro ToDro, T7y
OaLXdrTy a-vvdrav, raparTevet Trap' a rav TO
eLTa;b TOD Tr70 e a/uLKcoD icaL 7roTa/oD NE8ao
Stda'r~ya. 0tv 8rq S& Kal ro'evo C 'ro-v 7T79
OaXdTT'rij alytaXe s, "aOT' o 'c av dTroy/voy] rtv
dvT ef6ev i aOevTa dcvotda'aOat TV VIIlVov.
1 al 'ApKaStidS, C. Miiller would transpose to a position
after AehrpeartLds (above); cp. 8. 3. 3 and 8. 3. 26.
2 The words Kal T~ T'S 4,EXwva are transposed by
Groskurd, Meineke, and others to a position after TphtiAot
(at end of 13). Meineke emends 9ih6xxwa to peAXrva
(stony ground); C. Miiller (Philologus 34. 79) conjectures
'Are wva, or 4hAe'yrva, and Kriiger toAd4jv.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 14
Lepreatic Pylus, which Homer calls "emathieis" 1
and transmits to posterity as the fatherland of
Nestor, as one might infer from his words, whether
it be that the river that flows past Pylus towards
the north (now called Mamaiis, or Arcadicus) was
called Amathus in earlier times, so that Pylus got
its epithet "emathieis" from Amathus," or that
this river was called Pamisus, the same as two rivers
in Messenia, and that the derivation of the epithet
of the city is uncertain; for it is false, they say,
that either the river or the country about it is" ama-
thodes." 2 And also the temple of Athen6 Scilluntia
at Scillus, in the neighbourhood of Olympia near
Phellon,3 is one of the famous temples. Near Pylus,
towards the east, is a mountain named after Minthe,
who, according to myth, became the concubine of
Hades, was trampled under foot by Core, and was
transformed into garden-mint, the plant which some
call Hedyosmos.4 Furthermore, near the mountain
is a precinct sacred to Hades, which is revered by
the Macistians too,5 and also a grove sacred to
Demeter, which is situated above the Pylian plain.
This plain is fertile; it borders on the sea and
stretches along the whole distance between Samicum
and the River Neda. But the shore of the sea is
narrow and sandy, so that one could not refuse to
believe that Pylus got its epithet "emathieis"
1 Now interpreted as meaning "sandy." S "Sandy."
3 Phellon, whether town, river, or mountain, is otherwise
unknown. 4 "Sweet-smelling" (mint).
6 As well as by the Pylians.
3 rarToeiaarv, Corais (from conjecture of Sevin), for aarn-
0eErav ; so Meineke, Forbiger, and others.
15. Hlpoq apeTrov 8 oopa 2jv T IIT lvh o
7roXel8sa Tp'tvXLaKdc, "Trrava xal TvuaTravear,1
Wv T p'v el' "HXtv ravv~ acl rh0, To 8' efeve. ical
7roTa/toL 8E 86o yy'?l peove-tv, b' re AaXiwv 2
xca o 'AXepov, Etp/3a ovTe' ely rbv 'AX epdov.
6 8e 'AXepwv Kara Trv 7rpo TOy "AS qv oliceLoTr)ra
TrI? AiyjrTpov ical T7,i Kopir lepa ev'ravGa ical
Tr TO "ASov, ra'a Sta TrA vbrevavTI'ToriTa',
OtWvy o ICijruov A17/UTpto?0. icat yap eivicap'rdf
Ear- ical epva-lp3v yevva ical Opvov 'l TptdvXta"
8t6rep av'i u/eydX~A ,opa~ 7rwyvic a 0opia; ybl-
vefoOat a-v1/,3alvet IcaTa TOvS' T7Orovp.
16. Toi 8k l6vXov 7Trplo vroTv eati rT Ar'peov.
nv 06 Kai' a'TJrrl 3 rk'XVF vbrp TjV OaXa'rTT'il ev
TeacaapacoVTa aOTabotL' /IerTa5b 8S' TOD AerrpEov
Kal TOD 'Avviov 4 TO lepbv rTO Za/tlov IIoo-et6wvoi
domTtV, tcarbT o-Ta8louV eicarepov s txov. TOOTO
8' 'a-Tt TO' lepov, ePv W KiaTaXl ?7r0jval 0 -qtv o
TrotT'I vbrob TrlXetiX ov T v7v vo-lacvv -reoVYToTa
ol 8~ ITlov, Ni7Xg oq vKri /Ievov 7TroXle0pov
ov T7O 8' e7rl tvt 6OaXcaar], lepa p fov
ravpov 7rap pikXava 'Evoa-XOovi tcvavoxyalr.
S345 7rdpeaT't pv ,yap TO) rotry a 'Xa'TTev Ta
ovra, OTav 8' T7 SvvaTov e'ap~rIeoTTev TOo oo-(t
1 TvLraveat, Corais, Kramer, Meineke, for'Erdvy (B), T"rava
(B man. sec.), Tovrdvosa (Abgh). But Tuiravrat might be the
correct reading (see C. Miiller, Ind. Var. Lect., p. 991).
2 AaiWV: cp. Aid-y 7 in Pausanias 6. 21. 4, which appears
to be the same river.
3 4, after a,'Tr, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 15-16
15. Towards the north, on the borders of Pylus,
were two little Triphylian cities, Hypana and Tym-
paneae; the former of these was incorporated into
Elis, whereas the latter remained as it was. And
further, two rivers flow near these places, the Dalion
and the Acheron, both of them emptying into the
Alpheius. The Acheron has been so named by virtue
of its close relation to Hades; for, as we know, not
only the temples of Demeter and Core have been
held in very high honour there, but also those of
Hades, perhaps because of "the contrariness of the
soil," to use the phrase of Demetrius of Scepsis. For
while Triphylia brings forth good fruit, it breeds
red-rust and produces rush; and therefore in this
region it is often the case that instead of a large
crop there is no crop at all.
16. To the south of Pylus is Lepreum. This city,
too, was situated above the sea, at a distance of forty
stadia; and between Lepreum and the Annius1 is
the temple of the Samian Poseidon, at a distance of
one hundred stadia from each. This is the temple
at which the poet says Telemachus found the Pylians
performing the sacrifice: And they came to Pylus,
the well-built city of Neleus ; and the people were
doing sacrifice on the sea-shore, slaying bulls that
were black all over, to the dark-haired Earth-shaker." 2
Now it is indeed allowable for the poet even to
fabricate what is not true, but when practicable he
1 "Annius" (otherwise unknown) seemsto be a corruption
of "Anigrus (ep. 8. 3. 19 and Pausanias 5. 5. 5); but according
to Kramer, "Alpheius." 2 Odyssey 3. 4.
'Avvlov, Corais (following conj. of Xylander) emends to
'Avlypov, but Kramer conjectures 'AxAetou.
t gxazrpov, Corais, for idtcrepov; so the later editors.
ra e7rr IKca arietv 72v 8tiyyotv, T 8' aTrtXecrOal
Srpocrice aiXXov. Xowpav 8' e7xov eb8aipova ol
AerpeaTas1 70Voro7 8' o"/opot KvTrapito-ate .
adfoO 86E TA Xwpla Taira Kaavcwvec KaTretov,
Ka TOV MIaKLTov 86', v TrveY1 H Xaravtr'roD Ta
caXoDoatv. o1Lavv/Lov Tj Xcwpa 8' 'o-74 TO 7o-
Xtcr-/a. 0aal 8' v T7yj Aerpea'Tn8 Kat KavcovoFo
ehvat 'Zvj7ia, e'ir' aPXyeTOV TwtOI, eLT' a\X&
o7LU doVov .7(V .VEM .
17. Tlhelov9 8' elao- XO6yot rrept Tov Kavxlcvov
Kai yap 'ApcKa8cKov M9vo? ao-i, KaOd 'rep 7T
HeXao-ytiKov, Kcal 7rXavrlr7Tixv AXXw, o'waTrep
CKElvo. IrTOpel yoiV 7 1rot?771 Kal TO 70 Tpwotv
aotytIEvov9 aVO-v/Z/XOV9, iO roev 8', ov XeyeCt 8o-
IcoV o 8' E~c IHaXaayovLwav' e? ya/p ovol/daovat
KavKwvicdra's rTval MaptavSvvoFi' oLopovI, o0' Kal
avTrol Ila Xayove? etlo. yvrao-o/o-iea 8' avwv
E 7rr X Tov, oTav el iceKelvov repTrr7 TO v TO77OV
17 ypat j. vvvit 86 7rept TCwv v 7y TptivXia
KavKceavv eTt KcaL av7a aposta-roprTreov. ot
p/ev yap Ical bXiv V'jv viv 'HXleav, adTO 1 7
Meo-avpiaq leXpt A/t77q, KavxIKwav XcXrOval
cdaawv 'Avrt',aXo o yovv Kal 'Evretobr Kai Kav-
Kwva9 adravra 7Irpoaayopevet. 7tve 9 e 6Xv /pv
y\r KICaraaO-ev avrov i&Xa 8e tL,6epIO-'Jvov
police, Tov70 pv p7rpo Ty^ Meorivta xcaTr r'v
Tptqvwtav, 70ov 8' 7p0 y7 AVy/ KaTa T77v
Bov7rpaat'a iat 7~v KoihXjv HXtv" 'AptaCroTrXpF
1 AcpararT, Pletho, for TeyeraT ; so the editors.
1 Iliad 20. 329. 2 12. 3. 5.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 16-17
should adapt his words to what is true and preserve
his narrative; but the more appropriate thing was
to abstain from what was not true. The Lepreatans
held a fertile territory; and that of the Cyparissians
bordered on it. Both these districts were taken and
held by the Cauconians; and so was the Macistus
(by some called Platanistus). The name of the town
is the same as that of the territory. It is said that
there is a tomb of Caucon in the territory of
Lepreum-whether Caucon was a progenitor of the
tribe or one who for some other reason had the same
name as the tribe.
17. There are several accounts of the Cauconians;
for it is said that, like the Pelasgians, they were an
Arcadian tribe, and, again like the Pelasgians, that
they were a wandering tribe. At any rate, the
poet 1 tells us that they came to Troy as allies of the
Trojans. But he does not say whence they come,
though they seem to have come from Paphlagonia;
for in Paphlagonia there is a people called Cauconi-
atae whose territory borders onthat of the Mariandyni,
who are themselves Paphlagonians. But I shall
speak of them at greater length when I come to my
description of that region.2 At present I must add
the following to my account of the Cauconians in
Triphylia. Some say that the whole of what is now
called Eleia, from Messenia as far as Dyme, was
called Cauconia. Antimachus, at any rate, calls all
the inhabitants both Epeians and Cauconians.
Others, however, say that the Cauconians did not
occupy the whole of Eleia, but lived there in two
separate divisions, one division in Triphylia near
Messenia, and the other in Buprasis and Coele Elis
near Dymi. And Aristotle has knowledge of their
8' CvraGOa padXtoara ol8ev 18pvyeavov av'rov;. ieal
8' rToZf b)' 'Oirjpov Xeyojuevot O, doXoayet paXXov
SvcTTaTI7r ar6 ao-ti, To' Te ~flTOV/1.Jvov 7rpoTrpov
Xaj.t8dvet attv. ao pev yalp NCr mp V7TrOrlCEat
TOV Tpt vXtaKov oliKwv IIvXov Ta re 7rpo Vrot
iat Tr ewOtva (TaDTa S' ~ari ra a-vyUcvpovvTa 7rpo'
r7jv Meao-a'lavr al t7v AaKwvlEciv) 1 VrrK' icetvy
ar--tv, 'Xova-t 8' ol Kavicwvef, o~are TO7? a!ro
7ro IIvXov 3paiovartv elf Aaice8al[ova jvayd1ic
Sta Kavcwvwv 6eva Trv v o6ov. TO\ 8 lepov 70T
i aptov Iloa-erSvoT ical a IcaT' aiTO 6'pItoT, eL9
vb KaTiXjafO TiXiuaXo;, rpbo? 8a-iv ica\ orpo?
apIcrov aTroveve. el ,Ev TO'VV ol Kav/cwvev
EvTavfa IJovov oi/COiVrt, ob a0-(e7at T7~ 7rotLrT?7
Xdyov. iKXedVet ,yap Y;7 ev 'AO7va2 IcKaTa rbv
WT & 83 ~ T N&crTopt, rov p/t v TXe'/taXov el
rv\v Aarce8al8tova w'epafra a-Tv tr1pap Te ,Ka vli
-el TOa '7rpo 2 6zpr' avrT 8' dr varyv /a8telo0at
VViCTepeC-ovoV-d Vara rlV 7 T7V Svo- iv al el,;
arap oOev tLerTa Kavwcova jie/yatgvttov
7ropevefaEs rrl TO XP~ov 7rdaX ely ro/iT' rpooa-ev.
T7L o0v 6 Tpo'roc ; 7rapYv yap T Ne'r-opt Xedyetv
C 346 aXX' o' ye KaVticves bV' ef, ol ela- ical 7rpo d6ov
T70t eiT AalceSaltova faS~iovaotv- are Ti ov
avvoevret ;o TotF rept TyXe'jaYov, dXX' avaXaopEt
ei; TO'7oar ; Si'a O' oliceiov v T(v /3a8ilovT71 e
1 &, before ir' cKEdvy, Meineke and others delete.
2 For itv 'Af61va, Madvig conjectures MwevopaOv7a.
s -rbYv Srd87 (Bkl, Aid.); '056a-reiav (marg. B, man. sec.
and marg. n.).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. I7
having been established at this latter place especially.1
And in fact the last view agrees better with what
Homer says, and furnishes a solution of the question
asked above,2 for in this view it is assumed that
Nestor lived in the Triphylian Pylus, and that the
parts towards the south and east (that is, the parts
that are contiguous to Messenia and the Laconian
country) were subject to him; and these parts were
held by the Cauconians, so that if one went by land
from Pylus to Lacedaemon his journey necessarily
must have been made through the territory of the
Cauconians; and yet the temple of the Samian
Poseidon and the mooring-place near it, where
Telemachus landed, lie off towards the north-west.
So then, if the Cauconians live only here, the account
of the poet is not conserved; for instance, Athen&,
according to Sotades, bids Nestor to send Telemachus
to Lacedaemon "with chariot and son to the parts
that lie towards the east, and yet she says that she
herself will go to the ship to spend the night,
towards the west, and back the same way she came,
and she goes on to say that "in the morning" she
will go "amongst the great-hearted Cauconians" 3
to collect a debt, that is, she will go forward again.
How, pray? For Nestor might have said: "But the
Cauconians are my subjects and live near the road
that people travel to Lacedaemon. Why, therefore,
do you not travel with Telemachus and his com-
panions instead of going back the same way you
came?" And at the same time it would have been
1 The extant works of Aristotle contain no reference to the
2 8. 3. 11.
8 Od. 3. 366.
Xpeov; KotLIrjv, obVc oX'yov, iF 07r0L, 7rpo;
avpowTrov; vr 7rt Neo'ropt ovraa, a lT'jacro-al
Ttva 7rap aVTOV 3olrjetav, e't Tt ayvwpoVoTO
(woirep Etlew) 'rept\ Ta o-v3pXatovr ob yeyove 8E
TOUTO. et /iEV roIvvv evrava io'vov otcotev ot
KaVKoCve;, raO3' ayv ro-vut3aivo TA o a7ra' /Iepeao--
uLvowv 8 TLVWo Kal edL TOvW' rTpO AtU7 TOTrOUV
T75 'HXelaw, eKeloe av et'r Xeyovaa T7v '0oS8ov 1'
AOrva, Kica oic av e'T( o0' 17 eGL' T v vaGv caTizira-
o-et e'O( T dAeE/jiabov, o0'' 6 ir)j< avvo8i'a; 17ro-
-rac~OIe?, ely TavaVTLa T? 6o800 oivo"q?. 7rapa-
rX0o-1i ay Kav Ica T7rep 70tU TUlvov Stavopovlfeva
TvXO 7 T)? 7poo0-)ycoo-7?OVa tat/ir7, e7reX0oucrTL O ppov
M.' Tq Xwopoypa laa ILEXpL -p TOU nXov To7
18. 'EXEyoV7T S IIapwpeiaTal1 Ttve? Trv E'v rT
TptlvXlta KarTeovTre op'p 7rept TO Airpeov ial
To Ma~'cITov iaOslcovra e'7r OcXaTrav rXwlaov2
TO7) Iaitaicov Ilooetflov.
19. 'T7b TOVTOL e'T v e'v Jr '7rapaXia SI o
avrpa, TO IEv vvto0)o v 'AvtypIda'8v, TO 8 Ev ) Ta
r1ep Tav 'ATXav7'Sa, icat Trv AapSdvov yeve'rv.
EvTraDOa 8 ica Ta\ Xcr, TO re 'Iwvalov 3 ical TO
EvpvICvSiov.4 TOb itv o~v :Iaticov o-rTIV 'pvpa,
,rpTepov 86 \ l valt So
1 napwpeaTat, Tzschucke from conj. of Casaubon (see Herod.
4. 148), for napwrid'raL (Acgh), Inapovd'ra (Bkno); so the later
2 ,'dxp, (B1).
8 For 'Iwatiov Xylander conj. twcva7ov; 'EvSvUpwvatov,
Tzschucke, Corais, Groskurd, because Eurycyda was the
daughter of Endymion (Pausanias 5. 1. 4).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 17-19
proper for one who was going to people subject to
Nestor to collect a debt-"no small debt," as she
says-to request aid from Nestor, if there should be
any unfairness (as is usually the case) in connection
with the contract; but this she did not do. If,
then, the Cauconians lived only there, the result
would be absurd; but if some of the Cauconians had
been separated from the rest and had gone to the
regions near Dym6 in Eleia, then Athen6 would be
speaking of her journey thither, and there would no
longer be anything incongruous either in her going
down to the ship or in her withdrawing from the
company of travellers, because their roads lay in
opposite directions. And similarly, too, the puzzling
questions raised in regard to Pylus may find an
appropriate solution when, a little further on in my
choreography, I reach the Messenian Pylus.
18. A part of the inhabitants of Triphylia were
called Paroreatae; they occupied mountains, in the
neighbourhood of Lepreum and Macistum, that
reach down to the sea near the Samian Poseidium.1
19. At the base of these mountains, on the sea-
board, are two caves. One is the cave of the
nymphs called Anigriades; the other is the scene
of the stories of the daughters of Atlas 2 and of the
birth of Dardanus. And here, too, are the sacred
precincts called the Ionaeum and the Eurycydeium.
Samicum3 is now only a fortress, though formerly
there was also a city which was called Samus, perhaps
1 See 8. 3. 20. 2 The seven Pleiades.
3 Op. Pausanias' account of Samicum, Arena, and the
Anigrus (5. 5. 6 and 5. 6. 1-2).
4 After EvpuK ceIor Meineke indicates a lacuna.
8t Tob Vgor t'o-w, eretS ffdpo;ov eicdXovv Tc
vifr' Taia 8e TiT 'Apjvl~ aiKporoXt, lv oV D'o,
Sev ei 7 KaraXoy pepLV?7rat o rrotrl77T?
o 8' II iov T' eve'tovTo ical 'Ap'rjvv dparetvv.
ov8aatoD yap caao(b e6plo'icovre evT ava a udXtcrora
elicdtovO-t 7rv 'Apjvqv, oirov cal o 7raparceitevo9
"Avwypo rTroTralCo, caXovu/evoTv rporepov Mtvveto,
18aWO-0v ov prLIcpOv r` Lfeov' Xe'yet ryap o rotrT9"'
T rte rtt 7 rrorapo~ Mtvvrjtog el, &Xa /dXXov
7Tp0o yap 8 7TW avPprp, TOv 'AvLypta'iv vvyoaj v
E0-Tl 7T1 777, b' y gxe.tov ,cal T r(Sbe 1 TO V7ro-
rrTwrrov veTrat XywpLfo vrroS8e'eat 8 TO rrXetrorov
TOD 0'Saro "A6 Avtypo, 3a0ib Ical 'Trr7to; 0v, w6re
Xtpvdgew' v* Ov8'; 8' 8Sv 0 Tdrro, d eflcoolt CraSlwv
papetav oo-rJv 2 7rape et, cal rovo I Xvq ad3pprov;
7rote. JptOevov 8' ol peyv arro TOv TW7V 'rTpw-
p.evwv Kevravpov rTtvaL evrav' a7rovilraoat ro'v
dix Ti"'TSpa 16v, ol (' anr 70TO MeXdptro8a roty
vaacl TOV rotV Kcaapo-lotv Xplj4aaa-at rpO9 To)v
0 347 TWov IIpotTLwv icaap/ov* AXco'? 8. ical XeV'car
ica' Xe-xrvay I 'ra T CO ivei0Jev XovTpov. faol
8 6 a'car T 'AXpetiov iarr 79 7TCv AXOpv 9epa7reiag
ovTw( ovoLarTOat. dwel7 oVv ? Tre V7rTIrOT77 T70
'Aviypov 3 K al at ivaicoral rra O7aXadrT777 Iovprv
1 rt'i3Es, Corais from conj. of Casaubon, for rTeltaSs
(Acg), Trvpdass (Bl, Aid.); so later editors in general.
2 p.ape7cav aoiv, Corais from conj. of Casaubon, for PaO eav
6XOn6; cp. Pausanias 5. 5. 5.
8 'AvIypou (B man. sec.), Pletho, for bvrpov (other MSS.);
so the other editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 19
because of its lofty situation; for they used to call
lofty places "Samoi." And perhaps Samicum was
the acropolis of Aren&, which the poet mentions in
the Catalogue : "And those who dwelt in Pylus and
lovely Arene."1 For while they cannot with
certainty discover Arene anywhere, they prefer to
conjecture that this is its site; and the neigh-
bouring River Anigrus, formerly called Minyeius,
gives no slight indication of the truth of the con-
jecture, for the poet says: And there is a River
Minyeius which falls into the sea near Arene." 2 For
near the cave of the nymphs called Anigriades is a
spring which makes the region that lies below it
swampy and marshy. MtThe greater part of the water
is received by the Anigrus, a river so deep and so
sluggish that it forms a marsh; and since the region
is muddy, it emits an offensive odour for a distance of
twenty stadia, and makes the fish unfit to eat.3 In
the mythical accounts, however, this is attributed by
some writers to the fact that certain of the Centaurs
here washed off the poison they got from the Hydra,
and by others to the fact that Melampus used these
cleansing waters for the purification of the Proetides.4
iThe bathing-water from here cures leprosy,
elephantiasis, and scabies. It is said, also, that the
Alphei s was so named from its being a cure for
leprosyE At any rate, since both the sluggishness of
th- Ar igrus and the back-wash from the sea give
1 Iliad 2. 591. 2 Iliad 11. 722.
For a fuller account see Pausanias 5. 5. 5; also Frazer's
note, vol. III. p. 478.
According to Pausanias (5.5.5), "some attribute the
peculiarity of the river to the fact that the objects used in the
purification of the Proetides were flung into it."
fpaixov p vo-tv rwapexovc- Top, iv8aat, Mtvv4tjv 1
paartv elpfao-at 7porpepov, 7raparpe rat Tiva
Tovvoua Kal dvr' avroD 7rotirat MIvi4tov.2 eXet
8' eru/jIOTr) Kal ai kXa,( op/opav, eL'r' airo TW
Ue6ra XXwpL'So, 7Ti) NEo-ropo? tr7po9 EC06vTwv
d 'OPXO/Levov TO7 Mwivveov, etrE 3 Mwvvcv, o
r7W 'ApyovavTiv awroovos o'vre deic AirLvov p t
ev AaKcealtoova eEnreoov, vTrevOev 8' elS Trv
TptplvXav, I cal Icy-av 7rep'rt r]v 'Apivrjv v TVy
XLwpa Tr vvv 'Trrato-la KaXov/ulevy, ovx eXov"y
ovrces T a TWv Mtvvwv Kico-/taTaa wv Ttv7e pLera
rj4pa TO7 AbTvreo-vov (Iv 8' OvTO' IloXveiL'ovq
adrodyovo9) 7rrXefvTavrre eI rT7v )uerabv Kvpqlvalaq
icat 7T) KpTrjry vo0-0o,,
KaXXlo-Trrv 'b rrdpotle, TO 8' i)'orepov Ov'voa
w kirlo-t KaXXli'aXoo, KTicrav aylv P7Tpo7roXtv
rTs Kvprjvrn Oripav, ozAuovvJLov 8' edrSe'w gav4 T^
roXret Kal 7rV vjo-ov.
20. Meray' 8~ roD 'Avlypov /cal TOV i'povq, e'
o5 vpe, 70To 'Japd8vov Xetuiv SeGlicvvrat Kca
rdio<5 Kcal 'AXatal, eoit 8 're'-rpat duroTro/ot 'Tro
abUTOU pov,, vrrep ov a Zdyoo', ;v 'attev, 'yeyove
Trot" ob 0 dv 8 b7r T6 TOV' 7repLrXov
,ypa~yfrvTv rI SaLZoq tIvrIUOveVTrat, Taxa terv ye
8ta To 7rdraat KcaTearr'rdOat, TaXa 8 ica t 8d T7v
OBd~v- Tb p~v yap HIoo-el8tv Eo-rTv a'Xaov, 0';
1 For Mwvv4iov (the Homeric spelling, II. 11. 722), Corais
conj. Mlivvuiov or MEvvuov, and Meineke 'EwXvuiov.
2 Mwr'l4or (Agh), MevrTto (i), Mwvrptiov'(bkno), Corais
emends to Mwuitov ; so the later editors, but the change is
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 19-20
fixity rather than current to its waters, it was called
the Minyeius in earlier times, so it is said, though
some have perverted the name and made it Min-
teius "1 instead. But the word has other sources of
derivation, either from the people who went forth
with Chloris, the mother of Nestor, from the Min-
yeian Orchomenus, or from the Minyans, who, being
descendants of the Argonauts, were first driven out
of Lemnos into Lacedaemon, and thence into
Triphylia, and took up their abode about Aren6 in
the country which is now called Hypaesia, though it
no longer has the settlements of the Minyans. Some
of these Minyans sailed with Theras, the son of
Autesion, who was a descendant of Polyneices, to the
island which is situated between Cyrenaea and
Crete (" Callist& its earlier name, but Thera its later,"
as Callimachus says), and founded Thera, the
mother-city of Cyrene, and designated the island by
the same name as the city.
20. Between the Anigrus and the mountain from
which it flows are to be seen the meadow and tomb
of lardanus, and also the Achaeae, which are
abrupt cliffs of that same mountain above which, as
I was saying,4 the city Samus was situated. How-
ever, Samus is not mentioned at all by the writers of
the Circumnavigations-perhaps because it had long
since been torn down and perhaps also because of its
position ; for the Poseidium is a sacred precinct, as
1 Thus connecting the name with the verb i;vi'v ("re-
main," "tarry"). Strabo probably wrote "Menteius" or
"Menyeius," not Minteius."
2 Cp. 1. 3. 16. 3 Frag. 112 (Schneider). 8. 3. 19.
3 eIre, before Mivv'v, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors.
4 dTE1riav, Meineke emends to &reStGZav.
et'pTrat, rpo? 07r OaXadTTr vurrpiceIrat 8' avrov
Xodo vbrqlXo', 7rlrrpoaGev ov 'TO vvv aiutKcoD,
e' oiV :I S a/oq, WOT' etc 6aXadcTTnr< / dpatcat.
Kal wreSlov S' abrATO /caXderat lauluv EEI o'
7rXEO Iov T v rTEICuatpoLTo vrrdpat 7roTe rrITiv T v
Ydlzov. Kal 5 'Pa8tvj 8e,1' ?v STqo-LXopov rotroat
SoIce^, q9 apxrl'
"Aye, MoDiaa Xlyet', Iapov aot8aq, 'EpardT,
>apliwv vrepi rraliSv parti Beyyo/e'va Xvpa,
evTfvOev XVe'ye T7ob 7raZ8aq. Eic$o erav Yarp Tr?'
'PaStv v eIs K6ptvGov rupdvvY 0r)arlv dJ TV
idcAov errXeDoat wVEOVTnov Ze o Apo, o 847rrovTev
7TV 'IwvKILV l atUov' rT 8S ab Aveip cat
apPXiewpov dev Ae^ob TOV d ctecbv abrfj i0elyv,
IKal Tvy cvertOy Ep.vr VTa avTji- apaTt elf KoptIvov
e'opojo-as trap' avrrv' o 7- re pavvow, Icreva
adTporepov;, lapFart arrowT'E7retrt T orw-pcara, /Tera-
yvour 8' avacKaXet cal aw7Tret.
C 348 21. 'Anr' 8e roDTO IIdou TodTov Kat Tro Aerpeov 3
TerpaKcoam wrov raslCwOV o-f7 Stdcrr- a e'rt 7'TV
Mec-arvvtaicv IIvXov Ical Tb KopvUdCtov, rl
OaXdiTT' iceteva Opovpta, Kal T'v 7rapatcetsievry
a4aylav vijaov, arto 8 'AXfeOtoi irrTaKcoawv
7revTrlycova, arTO 8' To0 XeXfwvaTa Xtl ptwv 7Tpd-
covra. v 86 TO) / erab T76 Te roD MaKtcrTouv
HpalXcov; lepov 'rt icat, 6 'AKi8ov 7roraJiov.
pe 8E 7rapah rdTi ov 'Iap8dvov ical Xdav 7rhrtv
1 eis, before fv, Tzschucke deletes ; so the editors.
2 'Epard, vod'vos, Meineke for ipaTr@v 6Upovs ; so the later
editors. 3 Aesrpov (Abcg).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 20-2I
I have said,1 near the sea, and above it is situated a
lofty hill which is in front of the Samicum of to-day,
on the site of which Samus once stood, and therefore
Samus was not visible from the sea. Here, too, is a
plain called Samicum; and from this one might get
more conclusive proof that there was once a city
called Samus. And further, the poem entitled
Rhadind (of which Stesichorus is reputed to be the
author), which begins, Come, thou clear-voiced
'Muse, Erato, begin thy song, voicing to the tune of
thy lovely lyre the strain of the children of Samus," 2
refers to the children of the Samus in question;
for Rhadine, who had been betrothed to a tyrant of
Corinth, the author says, set sail from Samus (not
meaning, of course, the Ionian Samus) while the
west wind was blowing, and with the same wind her
brother, he adds, went to Delphi as chief of an
embassy; and her cousin, who was in love with her,
set out for Corinth in his chariot to visit her. And
the tyrant killed them both and sent their bodies
away on a chariot, but repented, recalled the
chariot, and buried their bodies.
21. From this Pylus and Lepreum to the Messenian
Pylus and Coryphasium (a fortress situated on the
sea) and to the adjacent island Sphagia,3 the distance
is about four hundred stadia; from the Alpheius
seven hundred and fifty; and from Chelonatas one
thousand and thirty. In the intervening space are
both the temple of the Macistian Heracles and
the Acidon River. The Acidon flows past the
tomb of Iardanus and past Chaa-a city that was
1 8. 3.13. 2 Frag. 44 (Bergk).
3 Also called Sphacteria (see 8. 4. 2).
o-E &vradppaciav r'rXhyov Aerrpeov, 7rrov Kcal T7
jre8iov To Alrdo-cov. wep' tavl? 86 Trj Xdaa
yeveaOat cao v e'vto" Tov 7ro6Xe/ov T70 'Apcaa's
rpO Tob? IIvuXlov?, by dppaaev "OwiOjpo;, Ical 8eiv
~p8P' ', 07' O 7T' r Ivpoy 'AtcISovrt 1 itLXovro
alypoLevot HTitoI -e ical 'ApicaSey
Xdaa 2 Trap 7elXeO-a *r
ov KeXdSov'T, o;81 4esa' T(. T Yap T Od D yoi
'IapSdvov TOOTOV 7rXAo-a'detLv Iac a7 T 'Apxdi-l
TOv 7Trov paLLXov f e"icevov.
22. KvTraptartaa3 70 e aTI Tri Ty OaXa'Tpry 7
TptuPvXtaicji al IIvpyot Ka'i 'AKcli'8v roTapoLo
cal N~8a. vvvl IJv oiv Tv' TpFtvXld 7rpi 7Tp'v
Meaoarviav 6ptov aerr TO T NE'a pev/a Xd6 pov
EK To AvKalov KcarTtv, 'ApKica8KoiD povw, eic
7ry77y, "jv Avappial TeKOvcav T70V Ala ,uv0eVe6Tat
'Peav vlTTrTpwv aydpiv' pe Sa raph (ltyaXlav, IcaO'
8 7yerrvtiat HIvpy-Tat, TptifvXt v '-gaTrot, Kvra-
ptio-aaet, 'pro;Totv Meoa-eovI V' TO 8T B 7raXatbv
a\X(, 8towpt*o0o, (V Kal TwtvaS 70v 7repav 7 T
Ne'a iV'ro 70r Ne'OTopt etvat, 7r Te Kv7rapto--
revrr1a cal adXXa TWrv E7reiceva, KaOa'rrep Kal 747v
OdXarav 7r 7 IIvvXtav 6 ro.riT 7 er.re7 lTveK -iLepi
1 'AcKiovri, Meineke, for Kcaaovrt ; so most editors.
2 Xdar, Casaubon, for das; so most editors.
I Kvvrapt o'ea, Tzschucke, for Kvuaptrwiva (Ag), KvirapiatEiva
(bhkno); so the editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 21-22
once in existence near Lepreum, where is also
the Aepasian Plain. It was for the possession of
this Chaa, some say, that the war between the
Arcadians and Pylians, of which Homer tells us,
arose in a dispute; and they think that one should
write, "Would that I were in the bloom of my
youth, as when the Pylians and the Arcadians
gathered together and fought at the swift-flowing
Acidon, beside the walls of Chaa"-instead of
"Celadon" and "Pheia" ; 1 for this region, they
say, is nearer than the other to the tomb of lardanus
and to the country of the Arcadians.
22. Cyparissia is on the Triphylian Sea, and so
are Pyrgi, and the Acidon and Neda Rivers.2 At
the present time the stream of the Neda is the
boundary between Triphylia and Messenia (an im-
petuous stream that comes down from Lycaeus, an
Arcadian mountain, out of a spring, which, according
to the myth, Rhea, after she had given birth to
Zeus, caused to break forth in order to have water
to bathe in); and it flows past Phigalia, opposite
the place where the Pyrgetans, last of the Tri-
phylians, border on the Cyparissians, first of the
Messenians; but in the early times the division
between the two countries was different, so that
some of the territories across the Neda were subject
to Nestor-not only Cyparisseeis, but also some
other parts on the far side. Just so, too, the poet
prolongs the Pylian Sea as far as the seven cities
1 "Celadon" and "Pheia" are the readings of the
Homeric text (Iliad 7. 133). After the words "beside the
walls of Pheia" Homer adds the words "about the
streams of lardanus."
SAs often, Strabo means the mouths of the rivers.
TIOV e97a 7roXeov, 4v Vr6'o-XeTO Aya/y ijvwv T7
irrat S' 'yyb1 ia? vearaT HiXo 'Xu aOoevro8 .
ToD o yap 'itoov T e7 d7yY, dab0 7r) IIuXiaw.
23. 'E e^ 6' orv T( KvTrapto-o'revnt 67ri TrI
Mec-o-vcaKv IJvXov 7rapa7rXeoovTI Kal T Kopv-
da'otov i Te "Epavd 1 EdToV, ijv Trer obic eV 'Apivrv
vo/~ilovotv KncXaiOata 7rpo-repov d6owv0po1 T7i
HlvXta/c, Kal j d2cpa 2 HIXaTa/ucS E, jA' vq e7ri
TO Kopvfaocrtov ical -rv vvv /caXov/edvpv HlXov
Ecaov elOa orT8&oto. eoTe S Kical' vqriov 4 cal
7roXlxvtov a avrw odCic jVLOV IlpwOT. obVI &V 8'
eifTrdto/ev l'eOW drl 7r TOooTOV T 7raXata, d X'
IPtpKe e''Yetv eet e Vv ga/C'ra, el' Lj 7T( 'V EK
7rwaiov zpipv 7apa8e8o/j tiv'r7 4j1 rrep\ TovTv'V
'XXwv S' aXXa elrv.PTrv, daycr) StaLTav.
7rto'reLovTai &; E7rl TO rroX\ ol evo TvooTraroL T0
Ical 7rpeo-/3vTaTot cal /caT' EI-retplav 7rp6oTOt'
'Oprjpov 8' elF TaaTa VTrepp3e8qXrJvov 'rdVTraq,
C 349 avdyKyc aovvesrto-Kcor'-ev ca Ta bVTr' ecevov XeX-
OfTva Kalt avyKpovecv 7rpbo Ta vov, KaOadrep KaC
putKpov Efttrporoev edcaterv.
24. HIep't I/e oZv 'ri Kol(X, "HXto9 Kcal TOD
BovTpao-lov rT XEX'evTa tb' 'Opu pov wrpoe-
1 "Epava, Xylander, for 'Epva; so the later editors.
2 Kal h &Kpa, lacuna of about ten letters supplied by Gros-
kurd; and so most later editors. But Bkno have i'at BE Kaf.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 22-24
which Agamemnon promised to Achilles: "and all
are situated near the sea of sandy Pylus ; for this
phrase is equivalent to "near the Pylian Sea."
23. Be that as it may, next in order after sailing
past Cyparisseeis towards the Messenian Pylus and
Coryphasium one comes to Erana, which some
wrongly think was in earlier times called Arena,
by the same name as the Pylian Arene, and also
to Cape Platamodes, from which the distance to
Coryphasium and to what is now called Pylus is one
hundred stadia. Here, too, is a small island, Prot6,
and on it a town of the same name. Perhaps I
would not be examining at such length things that
are ancient, and would be content merely to tell
in detail how things now are, if there were not
connected with these matters legends that have
been taught us from boyhood; and since different
men say different things, I must act as arbiter. In
general, it is the most famous, the oldest, and the
most experienced men who are believed; and since
it is Homer who has surpassed all others in these
respects, 1 must likewise both inquire into his words
and compare them with things as they now are, as
I was saying a little while ago.2
24. I have already 3 inquired into Homer's words
concerning Coel Elis and Buprasium. Concerning
1 This line from the lliad (9. 153), though wrongly trans-
lated above, is translated as Strabo interpreted it. He, like
Aristarchus, took ve4rat as a verb meaning "are situated,"
but as elsewhere in the Iliad (e.g. 11. 712) it is an adjective
2 8. 3. 3. 8.3.8.
3 e~foai is inserted by nokt.
4 cal v;iyov, Ourtius, for cesviipIo ; so the editors.
7rTEOcerrTat jIUi. 7repI 86 7 r V7r 7Tr Ne0ropt
OLC 0pi tv
of 8e I;IXov T' eveIoVTO xal 'ApvrAYv eparetr6 v
Kal Opvov, 'AXetoLo n'opov, ica EhdTctrov Altrr
cal Kv7rapto-aorevTa Ical 'Alpylervetav 'va to
ical IIreXeov cal "EXo' Kcal AoAptov, ev0a re
avvrT6jevat OdtJvptv Torv Op rca 7rawaav aot8iF,
OlxaXal6ev ovTa 7rap' EbpvTov OiaXtko0.
HivXoq 6jiv orv orni, 7repl !j 5 rj7rjaoz arlbca 8'
e'TrrA-rcKE'~d ea 'repi avrj. ireplt 8~ 7 'Aprjv
e'tpCjrac 2jv 8 Xe"ye viv EOpoov, dv aXXot? icaXet
TrT 8 rtt Hpvovo-'aa 7roXL,t alTreta KcoXowvr,
7T)Xov 7r' 'AX etef-
'AX etoLD O rrpov 07o-iv, o7're rey rrepaT'; elva
So/cei Kcara TroTov TrOv TOorro icaXedTa( S6 vvv
'ErrlteoXtov, T) ; Matcto-Ta XCOptov' To efiKTITOV
8' Alryv iVtoI pEv frlTOVDoi 'rrTepov rOTerpov EiTIOe-
Tov, Kal 71r q Y 7roXt, Kal el at vv Mapya'Xat
T7) 'Ajzt SoXla"'2 arzat i/v oiv otb votrct'v
epvua, f&epov 86 8eicvVTat OvaticIv ev b r j Maaict-
aTta. 6o evr ovyv ro70' vrovo&,v bfpdaeor'at ovoyud
77dt 7'iT rorXewO? TON AlTrv d(-O TOr ao ov e/,ilP3Kro
OvaOtI/cic, <& "EX os~ al At'ytaXv Kal &XXa 7rXet()
86 rTv MapydXav To"pTraXtv 'ioow. Opoov 8'
1 MapydAal may be incorrectly spelled by the MSS. It
seems to be the same place as Mapydvaz in Diodorus Siculus
15. 77 and Mdpyaia in Stephanus Byzantinus.
2'Apj(ioAlas, Tzschucke from conj. Wesseling, for 'Atopt-
wroAas; so the editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 24
the country that was subject to Nestor, Homer
speaks as follows: "And those who dwelt in Pylus
and lovely Arene and Thryum, fording-place of the
Alpheius, and well-built Aepy, and also those who
were inhabitants of Cyparisseeis and Amphigeneia
and Pteleus and Helus and Dorium, at which place
the Muses met Thamyris the Thracian, and put a
stop to his singing while he was on his way from
Oechalia from Eurytus the Oechalian."1 It is
Pylus, then, with which our investigation is con-
cerned, and about it we shall make inquiry presently.
About Arend I have already spoken.2 The city
which the poet now calls Thryum he elsewhere
calls Thryoessa: "There is a certain city, Thryoessa,
a steep hill, far away on the Alpheius." 3 He calls
it "fording-place of the Alpheius" because the
river could be crossed on foot, as it seems, at this
place. But it is now called Epitalium (a small place
in Macistia). As for well-built Aepy," some raise
the question which of the two words is the epithet
and which is the city, and whether it is the Margalae
of to-day, in Amphidolia. Now Margalae is not a
natural stronghold, but another place is pointed out
which is a natural stronghold, in Macistia. The
man, therefore, who suspects that the latter place
is meant by Homer calls the name of the city
"Aepy" A from what is actually the case in nature
(compare Helus,5 Aegialus,6 and several other names
of places); whereas the man who suspects that
"Margala" is meant does the reverse perhaps.7
SIliad 2. 591. 2 19 above. 3 Iliad 11. 711.
Sheer," "'steep." "Marsh." 6 "Shore."
7 That is, calls it Euctitum" (" Well-built "), making the
other word the epithet.
Kal Opvueo-cav TO 'E7-rdLT(6v ao-tv 'rt Tarr&a
pv aivTrh 1 Cwopa pvwo87, /~,dXtOr-a 8' ol rroTa/tpol
E'r 7IhTov 6B StacaiverTae roro Iara 'Tvob; repa-
70T T70 pel0pov rT7rovU. Trda 8e Oac-t Opoov
/hv elpjo-rat Tov rropov, eUIVKTrov AZlrv T
'ETrrtTdXov' e'orTt yap epvuvov cvoe' ical yap 'v
aXXovt altrelav KoXoLvry Xcyert
'oTr 86 TVt Opvoeea-a rroXd alrefa coXhvIl,
TrXoDi der' 'AXCet rvtuTdr ] lvXov rfjtaOdevro;.
25. '0 86 Kvrrapto-o-aretr, f'Oartl v rrepI T7v
TrpoTrpov 1 MaKctLaoav, IvLKca cat rrepav Tvr No8a9
'et 27v MarctoTra, iXX' OV;I oliceTrat,
Mdactrov"' a\XXq 8' O-riv Ai Mea oTvtaIlc Kvrra-
ptoiaa' odpLovvtw 2 ev orv 3 Ol Opi 86 vivr KaKceVtr
Xe' yrat Kv7rapto- ra vt/c&O re a cai 0lXvc&ov, 8\
7rorauwo Kv7raptao-ae'. icai 'Au t, ysveta 8E T 9
MaKctrao-Tia E O rerpt 7v 'T roevra, orov 7T rTv?
AiTro7 lepov. Tb 8\ IHTeXeOv IKTi r a p ev y-yove
Trov dK IHreXeoi 70oD O eTaXucoi derotcicrdvrwvT
XeyeTrat yap Kca'et
C 350 AyiXaX6v T' 'Avrpo&va I68 IHTEXefoy Xe xror17
aTi 8e 8 pv1Zu68ev XOptov aolxKcTov, HrTeXeao-tov4
KaXovlevov. "EXo 8' ol pev vp rTo 'AX?~tov
Xpav rvId cao-v, ol 8E Icai 7r67Iv, C rT7y Aacw-
"EXoq 7', E'aXov PrrTo'LSepov
1 rpoTrpav (Acghino). 2 6/Aivvuos B; so Meineke.
3 ovy is doubtful (see Miiller, Ind. Var. Lect., p. 992).
Meineke reads oL.
nrexedciaov, Meineke, for nIlTAex ssarov; so the later
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 24-25
Thryum,1 or Thryoessa, they say, is Epitalium, be-
cause the whole of this country is full of rushes,
particularly the rivers; and this is still more con-
spicuous at the fordable places of the stream. But
perhaps, they say, Homer called the ford "Thryum "
and called Epitalium "well-built Aepy"; for Epi-
talium is fortified by nature. And in fact he speaks
of a "steep hill" in other places: "There is a
certain city, Thryoessa, a steep hill, far away on the
Alpheius, last city of sandy Pylus." 2
25. Cyparisseeis is in the neighbourhood of the
Macistia of earlier times (when Macistia still ex-
tended across the Neda), but it is no longer inhabited,
as is also the case with Macistum. But there is
another, the Messenian Cyparissia; it, too, is now
called by the same name as the Macistian and in
like manner, namely, Cyparissia, in the singular
number and in the feminine gender,3 whereas only
the river is now called Cyparisseeis. And Amphi-
geneia, also, is in Macistia, in the neighbourhood
of the Hypsoeis River, where is the temple of Leto.
Pteleum was a settlement of the colony from the
Thessalian Pteleum, for, as Homer tells us, there
was a Pteleum in Thessaly too: "and Antrum,
near the sea, and grassy Pteleum" ;4 but now it
is a woody, uninhabited place, and is called
Pteleasium. As for Helus, some call it a territory
in the neighbourhood of the Alpheius, while others
go on to call it a city, as they do the Laconian
Helus: "and Helus, a city near the sea";5 but
1 "Rush." 2 Iliad 11. 711.
3 That is, not Cyparissiae (plural), or Cyparisseeis
4 Iliad 2. 697. 6 Iliad 2. 584.
ol e wrept T' 'AX ptov 'Xov, o0 TOb r1v 'EXEIa, 1
'ApTE/Uto0 tepov, T71 'rTO TOtF 'Apirao-t dcevot
yap eaXov Tv lepwadvMv. Aoptov 8' ol jfv opos,
ol 8' wrelov 2 1aciv" oCbev 86 vVv 8eli6,cra' 6OLpO
8' 'vtot Tr vvv "OXovptv ij"OXovpav 'v Ti KaXov-
Levr AX6ov( Tr4, Meoolvlria KIcELprqv Aoaptor
Xe/ovdtrv. avToro S roT ca a O' aXia eo-'riv i
TOi Ebp'Tou, i viv 'Av8avla, IroXiXyvov 'ApKa-
8tKOV, LUVVJLOV To ) OETTXtiacp KIcal T( Ebi3oblrc
60ev (7fno-1 7rotLT? de TO ATJptov dLtLcdK6fevov
Odtvptv Tbv Opica '7rb Movo-u v adfatpe0vjva
26. 'Ec 817 To-rTv 87Xov, s1 ie'' ici-repa Tro
'AXectoD 7 r ro Ndo-ropt X'pa edTtv, 7v 7raaav
ovodeit HvXtwv y7 v" o8apoD 8 6o 'AX eto'
oiTCe ~' Meo-to'7Viav edqT'rTeTat oijve TI KolXv
"HXt8ov. ev Ta"T7 ytp T IXopa, rvo- ri '7a pii9
ToD No-Tropo, "v bauLev TptvXtatv H IIlvXov /ca
'ApKa8iKOv Ical AeTrpeaLIrtE ical yap 8' ol pv
XkXot lsXot d67r 0aXa'rT77r 8eicLvvvTat, OVTroo 8\
7TXelovU q TptdKovTa arTal8ov 7uTrp aivT9, o7rep
Kcal dEc Tcov de7rov ioXov. edrtl T yap T 'obV TqXe-
ydaXyov ealpov; 'yyeXoo 7rE[LTreTrat 7rpr TOb 7b Toovr,
KaXnov e7r't 'evlav, b re TqXtaXop Kaa cara Trv e
SnadprT7?v deTrvo8ov T lV HetL-lorpaTov ob iK a rpO\
Trv yroXtv eXkavetv, AXXa 7raparpeafavra efTr
T73 a vav ao-rev8etv, w ov Trlv avTrv ovboav perl
1 'EAEias, Corais, for 'HXsAas; so the later editors.
2 After w sov, Meineke unwarrantedly inserts o0 BS ro-
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 25-26
others call it a marsh,1 the marsh in the neighbour-
hood of Alorium, where is the temple of the Heleian
Artemis, whose worship was under the management
of the Arcadians, for this people had the priesthood.
As for Dorium, some call it a mountain, while others
call it a plain, but nothing is now to be seen; and
yet by some the Aluris of to-day, or Alura, situated
in what is called the Aulon of Messenia, is called
Dorium. And somewhere in this region is also the
Oechalia of Eurytus (the Andania of to-day, a small
Arcadian town, with the same name as the towns in
Thessaly and Euboea), whence, according to the
poet, Thamyris the Thracian came to Dorium and
was deprived of the art of singing.
26. From these facts, then, it is clear that the
country subject to Nestor, all of which the poet
calls "land of the Pylians," extends on each side
of the Alpheius; but the Alpheius nowhere touches
either Messenia or Coel6 Elis. For the fatherland
of Nestor is in this country which we call Triphylian,
or Arcadian, or Leprean, Pylus. And the truth is
that, whereas the other places called Pylus are to be
seen on the sea, this Pylus is more than thirty stadia
above the sea-a fact that is also clear from the
verses of Homer, for, in the first place, a messenger
is sent to the boat after the companions of Tele-
machus to invite them to an entertainment, and,
secondly, Telemachus on his return from Sparta
does not permit Peisistratus to drive to the city,
but urges him to turn aside towards the ship, know-
ing that the road towards the city is not the same
1 Helus" means "marsh."
3 riv, before ardiv, the editors insert.
'jV 'rXv tal TOv OpUov. 8 Te arox&rXov 70TO
TjXeydaXouv ov'Tro av oliceiJ' XeyotTO'
phv 8 rrapa Kpovvov'o ica XaXclta caXXt-
68ov'T 1 T' RLeXtor, orKto'dw VTO e r-to-at ayvitai
i7 8c (teaI e'7re3aXXev, ayaXXopev'vY AtS oivpc,
l58e 7rap' "HXta U8av, o0t cpaTefovrtv 'ETretol.
e'Xpt l y ev 5 Se epo 7rpo 09 TrV aiprov 7TrXoVF
EvrevTev 8' E'Trl TO rpol e)w iEpog e'rrwarpEIeet.
7rapor-t 86 e rvB evby V roV ]XOv n vaIG Ka TOv e
IPX)( eql 'IOIcyaK7v 8t To 70Tv /lOrTpaq 4iceL
T'r ev v8pav O e'-ab
ev TropO/- 'IOda'cF? e Cdlotod re"
svOev 8' a' v4a-ota-tv eTrtnrpoerice 0o~-ct.
C 351 Ooa'; & e'tprjce Tav, eia" Trov 'Exivda8ov 8' elo-it
avTat, wXrXto-tdovo-a Tfy apXy T70 Koptvwatcov
KIdXrov Ka' Taa deiK3oXa i TOV 'AxeXowov. ?ra-
paX\daq; 8e T7)V 'Ia:Krfv, ( CTE Ka/ra POTOV 2
pahXd&as 8A 70v 'I "iy, woare Ica vorv
,yeveoa-at, Ka/ic7rTE 7rathWy rpo TO'V olXcetoV SpoYov
TOV fIETa v T' 'AKcapvavlaFq cal TF 'I0aKcr;, Ical
Kcara 6a'7epa 11ep~1 T?7q vra-ov 7roterrat T77i Kcaa-
/wyrv, ov Kcara TOPV 7ropPIOUv TOY Ke(aXXsivtao6v,
ov t povpovv ol p/Iv'r7cTpeS.
27. El yopvv 'H3 taio IIov elval r s Tr V
1 3*Tro (Aghino); so Meineke.
2 vrov, the reading of the MSS., Jones restores; Corais
and the later editors emend to v'Trov.
3 Er' o0v (Acghino), for el yoiv.
1 A spring (8. 3. 13).
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 26-27
as that towards the place of anchorage. And thus
the return voyage of Telemachus might be spoken
of appropriately in these words: "And they went
past Crunil and fair-flowing Chalcis.2 And the sun
set and all the ways grew dark; and the ship,
rejoicing in the breeze of Zeus, drew near to Phea,
and on past goodly Elis, where the Epeians hold
sway."3 Thus far, then, the voyage is towards the
north, but thence it bends in the direction of the
east. That is, the ship abandons the voyage that
was set out upon at first and that led straight to
Ithaca, because there the wooers had set the am-
bush "in the strait between Ithaca and rugged
Samos."4 "And thence again he steered for the
islands that are thoai" ; 5 but by "thoai the poet
means the islands that are "pointed."6 These
belong to the Echinades group and are near the
beginning of the Corinthian Gulf and the outlets
of the Acheloiis. Again, after passing by Ithaca
far enough to put it south of him, Telemachus
turns round towards the proper course between
Acarnania and Ithaca and makes his landing on the
other side of the island-not at the Cephallenian
strait which was being guarded by the wooers.7
27. At any rate, if one should conceive the notion
S"Chalcis" was the name of both the "settlement"
(8. 3. 13) and the river.
8 Odyssey 15. 295. Odyssey 4. 671.
6 Odyssey 15. 299.
Not "swift," the usual meaning given to Ooai. Thus
Strabo connects the adjective with 6o60 (see Odyssey 9. 327).
SIn this sentence Strabo seems to identify Homer's Ithaca
with what we now call Ithaca, or Thiaka; but in 1. 2. 20
(see footnote 2), 1. 2. 28, and 10. 2. 12 he seems to identify
it with Leucas.
NETOopoP ierLTvojoetev, obic Av oliKcewM Xeyotro 7
evrevOev AvaxOeL-a vav ; ?rapa Kpovvovi EveX-
O9jvat cal XaXtcl'a pcLXpe oa-wco, elra Deat?
Trt/3aXXetv 1 vvKTWp, Kal TOTe 7-v 'HXelav rapa-
TXEiv' oTo7 'yap otl TOrr 7prpo' VOTOV T)' 'HXeIa?
elal, rpcwras puv at (Peal, e7O' XaX/lcs, efl' o
Kpovvoi, elO' HIIXo 6 Tpt(JvXtaKco; Kal Tb
'apiLdo. T& oUiv oLV IpO vrOTOV 7 0reovTit ic ToV
'HXtarco IIur ov oVTO a\ v 6 7rXois' ELt n T7 S
rpo l apITrov, O7rOV earTV I IC 'IOc TavTa ,pv
7ravra or7iO-w XELreTat, abry ? 'HXEla Trapa-
irXevnre'a fv, Ical 7rpo 81v-ec,; ye' 6 84 770t pera
8vLat. Kal pI.V el Kal 'TLir v rv7OOrtTo TV? TOv
Moea-acjvtaicv lvoXov cal TO Kopvdocdaov apXv
TO7 rapa NE-Tropo 'T7rXo, ?roXl A;v E'7 TO iad-
O-T yia ital ITXeorov 2 Xpoov. aVTO yovv TO E7rt
ToV TptvIXtaPibv HIXov ical T6b a)uta/conv Ioaei-
8tov TepaTKoatwv LT crTaSiwv Kaalt 7rapaTrXovo"
o3 7rapa Kpovvoov Kaia XaXclSa cal. APedv,
aoo2dw4 wroTa/Iwv ovo/iaTa, /iXXov 8 e3'XETov,
adXXa rapa T7v N48av 7rpCrCov, ELTr 'Aaimova,
tela TO 'AXePto Kai a TITrov T TOT TOV /7 eTagv'
vaUTpov 8', el apa, KaKICEtvov eXp'jl ivraq-Ova"'
ical yap w~ap' eceivot; vTjpXye o rrXoOv.
28. Kal lv 1 'ye rTO NefTopo; &872yo-t%, 1 lv
StarTOeTat '7rpoq HlaTpOKXov 7repit TOv yevouEvov
TOL' HIvXIotl wrpo 'HXeiovuc roXe/ov, o-vvPyopet
TOlE v b' I1UyiOv e7rtXetpov1ievot, eav o-ICO7r2 TtS
Ta e7'r7. 770'1 'yap ev avTOl', oTt5 7ropO?)'avTro
1 hrr~SahAv (Bkl) ; so the editors before Kramer.
2 rAefovos (Bkl) for rxeVovos.
ov, before rrapd, the editors insert.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 27-28
that the Eleian Pylus is the Pylus of Nestor, the
poet could not appropriately say that the ship, after
putting to sea from there, was carried past Cruni and
Chalcis before sunset, then drew near to Phea by
night, and then sailed past Eleia; for these places
are to the south of Eleia: first, Phea, then Chalcis,
then Cruni, and then the Triphylian Pylus and
Samicum. This, then, would be the voyage for one
who is sailing towards the south from Eleian Pylus,
whereas one who is sailing towards the north, where
Ithaca is, leaves all these parts behind him, and also
must sail past Eleia itself-and that before sunset,
though the poet says after sunset. And further, if
one should go on to make a second supposition, that
the Messenian Pylus and Coryphasium are the
beginning of the voyage from Nestor's, the distance
would be considerable and would require more time.
At any rate, merely the distance to Triphylian Pylus
and the Samian Poseidium is four hundred stadia;
and the first part of the coasting-voyage is not
"past Cruni and Chalcis" and Phea (names of
obscure rivers, or rather creeks), but past the Neda;
then past the Acidon; and then past the Alpheius
and the intervening places. And on this supposition
those other places should have been mentioned later,
for the voyage was indeed made past them too.
28. Furthermore, the detailed account which
Nestor recites to Patroclus concerning the war that
took place between the Pylians and the Eleians
pleads for what I have been trying to prove, if one
observes the verses of the poet. For in them the
4 Before roTrapv Corais inserts rdWirv Kal; perhaps rightly.
6 iEr (Achino), for TSi.
'Hpa/cX'ov y TVv v'Xt'av, wcoe TV VeoT ra eKc-
Xetof8vat 7raaav, s&Seca 861 rraltev bv'rov T7
NlXe? p'ov avr4 7reptyevcrvoat TOv NE'airopa,
veov TreXeO KaTrapovco-ravTe S' o0 'ETretolt TO
NiVXeO &t y Ipa /caLt ep?71av v'nrepridvov cal
bvptaTLicG O eXP VTo TO'? IlvXtot. cdvT TOVTWV
o 6v 6 Nlo-'T(p oavvayayw v Trov olreLov9, oUov
oZTo re 'v, e7reXOe0v rao-] v edl 7T 'HXe6av, cal
?repteX oaat araw~XroXi v Xelav,
VrevT1VKOVTa /3ov a'yefkaq, TO'a 'rcea olp,
Toro-ca crvw v av63ovta,
rooaar7a Se K ea arr6ia' ittrovUS c 8eCaToP
Katl revT7lfCOVTa, vrro7rwhov; Tar 'rrXelo-ra.
C 352 ical 7a ilev rXao-dctieo-a I-'Xov (rai) NyXrjtov
eVVVXiOtL rpOTr ao-v,
S(? Ae60' fiepav pEv T7? XherXao-naq yevolueovp' Kca
T9r 7poTrrj' Ts v cK/30or707vadvTwv, tre IcTavpev Xe'ye
'1v 'IUrvtov)a, VWIKTW p 8\ df~86ov yevoIeYC rt,
WO-'T epVVVtovq 7rpo0 T7) aarTeL 'evear0at' 7rept 8e
T1vV 8avouCLv cal vo-tav ovTwv, ol 'Ereroi r7 7TpLT~
TOTV 1jLepOV, KaTa 7rXflo- aO0polto-evpTre9 reoL re
Kal t7lre9, vTC7reWrelXOv Ka IC TOb Opov eOrf 7 T
'AXO es Kcelevov r7rpteo-Tparo7rc8evuav. alao- -
,uevot 8' et'b ot' IHIXot /tor'Getv 6pIjo-Lav' vvCre-
pevaavTre S wrepi Trv MtLUvwriv 7worapAov edyyvev
'Ap'rvny, evreiP ev ev68ot 7rpo Tov 'ATXoetbv
1 8, Jones, for 68.
1 iliad 11. 691. Iliad 11. 670.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 28
poet says that, since Heracles had ravaged the Pylian
country to the extent that all the youth were
slain 1 and that of all the twelve sons of Neleus only
Nestor, then in his earliest youth,2 had been left,3 and
since the Epeians had conceived a contempt for
Neleus because of his old age and lack of defenders,
they began to treat the Pylians in an arrogant and
wanton manner. So, in return for this treatment,
Nestor gathered together all he could of the people
of his home-land, made an attack, he says, upon
Eleia, and herded together very much booty, "fifty
herds of cattle, and as many flocks of sheep, and as
many droves of swine,"4 and also as many herds of
goats, and one hundred and fifty sorrel mares, most
of them with foals beneath them. And these," he
says, we drove within Neleian Pylus, to the city, in
the night," 5 meaning, first, that it was in the day-
time that the driving away of the booty and the
rout of those who came to the rescue took place
(when he says he killed Itymoneus), and, secondly,
that it was in the night-time that the return took
place, so that it was night when they arrived at the
city. And while the Pylians were busied with the
distribution of the booty and with offering sacrifice,
the Epeians, on the third day,6 after assembling in
numbers, both footmen and horsemen, came forth in
their turn against the Pylians and encamped around
Thryum, which is situated on the Alpheius River.
And when the Pylians learned this, they forthwith
set out to the rescue ; they passed the night in the
neighbourhood of the Minyeius River near Arena,
and thence arrived at the Alpheius "in open sky,"
3 Iliad 11. 691. Iliad 11. 678.
6 Iliad 11. 682. 6 Iliad 11. 707.
ac(tkiovvTrav 70Tro 8' TI 7 Karat ueai,3plav
to-aVeTr 8e ToE; leol KIcal IvicTepero-avTe< E7il
TW 7Tora/p. Tvpt/3aXXovtv e eltq Jx'Lv e;bo8
0coev* XaaTrpai Se f 7F 7r porIj yevoIE'vr17, OVI
erTao-aVTo 8WIcovTEC Te KaI ECTwLOVTre, 'WpLV
ireTpr7' T' fXe V ~q Kal 'AXetanov 'vOa IcoXCIrv
KEIdckTat, o0ev ai'rtn Ard'rpare Xaov 'AO jvr'
ia'r arrb Bovwrpao-t'otoH5kovS' e'Xov itcfa t rrvov'.
29. 'Etc TOVTrWoV S' 7r& Av Torv 'HX\aKcv
HIIov vbroXdgot rt( A 7 Tr Meoa- yviaKco Xeyeo-Oat;
TOV pUEv 'HXta/cov, o"r7, TOTov 7ropOoviUevov, a-ve-
7ropOeiro Kal 9' r&v 'ETrEL v br roD T 'HpaKicXovu"
avT? 8' ear ly 'HXe'a. 7Trr obv tpeoXXov ol
Gv7rTrreopO'ypEvot Kal 6rL vxoo Totav 7 brEpT -
cavlav cal vpy icv Crrjaacra Ica Kra t rv avvarlrtrc-
fevrTv ; w-Tf S' /av rrv olicelav KarTeTpeov KaI
EXEe'XrTovV ; 7w6 S' Av abpa Kal Aye'laq nPXE
'Tov avrwvc Kal N7Xe,", e'Xpol dYr" daXXrXEwv ;
et'rye T7 NqyXe?
XpeMo jCy' OeLXETr' ev "HXtis& 1y,
TEraapeq 4OXoc6ppot L'rrfrot avroiatv OXeo-'Lv,
e)hOVTre /eTc' a'e8Xa repit Tpitro8o- yap eX-
evoecf9at' To v 8 a' aiOt ap va Av8pov Abyetla
KcdOa`ef, bTO 8' doarT7p' ( I et*
el 8' jvraf0a fjKet 6 N77Xevq, Evraffia Kal 6
GEOGRAPHY,V8. 3. 28-29
that is, at midday. And after they offered sacrifice
to the gods and passed the night near the river, they
joined battle at early dawn; and after the rout took
place, they did not stop pursuing and slaying the
enemy until they set foot on Buprasium "and on the
Olenian Rock and where is the place called Hill of
Aleisium,1 whence Athena turned the people back
again" ;2 and a little further on the poet says:
"But the Achaeans drove back their swift horses
from Buprasium to Pylus." 3
29. From all this, then, how could one suppose
that either the Eleian or Messenian Pylus is meant ?
Not the Eleian Pylus, because, if this Pylus was
being ravaged by Heracles, the country of the
Epeians was being ravaged by him at the same time;
but this is the Eleian country. How, pray, could
a people whose country had been ravaged at
the same time and were of the same stock, have
acquired such arrogance and wantonness towards a
people who had been wronged at the same time?
And how could they overrun and plunder their
own homeland? And how could both Augeas and
Neleus be rulers of the same people at the same
time if they were personal enemies ? If to Neleus
"a great debt was owing in goodly Elis. Four
horses, prize-winners, with their chariots, had come
to win prizes and were to run for a tripod; but these
Augeas, lord of men, detained there, though he sent
away the driver." And if this is where Neleus
1 Cp. 8. 3. 10. 2 Iliad 11. 757.
8 Iliad 11. 759. 4 Iliad 11. 698.
Ne'a-rTp V7pXre.1 vrW ov T&cv p.ev 'HXeiwv Kal
Te oaapeq opXolt eOav, 8c'Ka 8' avcpl eKciaT),
vPes eTrovro Noal, 7roXiee 8' f/atvov 'ETretol
eyi T7Trapa Se Kal 7 X ypa 8typrqTo, av ovSev b
dTripX v NaT crp,
o'l Se IXov T' vepovro ical 'Apir; v epaTewv77v
Ica Ta 6E45? a pe'pt Me6o-7-r;s; ol 8n 8
aPT7ret(obvLT6 'EreiTol TO II uvX'loc? TW? E67r TOv
'AX e tlv 6'opCO aI KCa 7 Opv'ov ; r(j2 8', cIce
Tij /IdUXlpY' ~vo pyfi, rpeOWITevI; erl Bovrrpao-iov
C 353 cey/ovt- ; 7rdXtv 8', el TOv Meao-a-i7talc HITXov
defrp0fruev 6 'HpacKXg?, 7Tr O TO rooorov t fPe-
rTCTq WE S /3pt ov el avTroV, Kac Ev cvyt)poXalotl
na)av orTOXXot, ical Tavr' areaTEipovv Xpeoico-
TTODPvTrE, naTe 8Lh TavTa c-vyp,/vai Tov 'ro6e/fo ;
7Tr W 8 d67r' T~7 Xe lraacrav ed'v N'erTwp, Too-av-
Tr'v 7r~pteXid-ai Xelav orv(v Te Kal 7rpo3aTrov,
(v oV8ev P w/ropeiv o8V /i aKporropepv SwaraTa,
7rXEsdowv ltXlwv OTa8ti'v 680v 8tiivvaev elf Tv'
7rpbT 7rp Kopvacla' ll TI ov; ol 8E Tpi'rT i7itaT
7rrTvTe eTcr Tl J Opvocaaav ICa TOPv TroTa/Io Tov
'AXUeiYbv ficovUl, 7rOXtOpKicjco0VeT TO 0/povptOV
7rTv) 86a Ta Ta T Xwopa rWpoo-rjovrPa 'v TO7Z ev
^T Meao-ovia 8vvao-Tevovo-rv, EVTWV Kavwcdvwv
Kal Tpi~itpv v Ka' IhTLaTov ; Ta e Fepqva /
T7v PepI7pLiav (apqcoTeepo yap XE'yaeat) Ta'Xa zELv
e7Trrt~7Te; vo/iaodav TrveC' UvvaTai E Kcal Kcra
1 vnrpXe, Corais emends to irripxe; so Meineke.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 29
lived, Nestor too must have lived there. How,
pray, could the poet say of the Eleians and the
Buprasians, there were four rulers of them, and ten
swift ships followed each man, and many Epeians
embarked ? And the country, too, was divided into
four parts; yet Nestor ruled over no one of these,
but over them "that dwelt in Pylus and in lovely
Aren6," 2 and over the places that come after these as
far as Messen6. Again, how could the Epeians, who
in their turn went forth to attack the Pylians, set out
for the Alpheius and Thryum ? And how, after the
battle took place, after they were routed, could they
flee towards Buprasium ? And again, if it was the
Messenian Pylus which Heracles had ravaged, how
could a people so far distant as the Epeians act
wantonly towards them, and how could the Epeians
have been involved in numerous contracts with them
and have defaulted these by cancelling them, so that
the war resulted on that account ? And how could
Nestor, when he went forth to plunder the country,
when he herded together booty consisting of both
swine and cattle, none of which could travel fast or
far, have accomplished a journey of more than one
thousand stadia to that Pylus which is near Corypha-
sium? Yet on the third day they all3 came to
Thryoessa and the River Alpheius to besiege the
stronghold And how could these places belong to
those who were in power in Messenia, when they
were held by Cauconians and Triphylians and Pisa-
tans ? And as for Gerena, or Gerenia (for the word
is spelled both ways), perhaps some people named it
that to suit a purpose, though it is also possible that
1 Iliad 2. 618. 2 Iliad 2. 591.
3 The Epeians.
TV;Xrv OvTW wvopdLo-Oait Xwplov. Tb 8' Xov,
Ti)7 Mero-a-ilvta b7 MereXdc TeTay/ieVrpF, v' '
cal T aAaxwvK} OerraTaKro (()? 8)Xov e-rat cal
eK Trv Vo-repov), xal TroO UiCv Ia Hautoi peoro0
8tih Tav~tT7 Kal ro7 Neflvoo,1 'AXO!eto 8'
oB 7' eBpv ; p'e HvllvXtv 8tah yare,
? dTrr-PXeV 0 NeorTrOp, T719 ay 1evoLTO 7rt0avob
Xo'yo, eig T7 v AX apXT ep v aOpXv &EPeP (OV Tv
av6pa, dAatpoueevo9 6S Tav oavy/caTaXeyelo'-a
aLy rrdoXets, 7rdv9' V'r' edcelvw TroI& ;
30. AoTrbo 8' e'o-Ti etwetir rep 7j 'OXvutliav
calt T; edl rov' 'HeIov; rrararrTrtO /eTarTLao'ewco .
0'art 8' dv 0 IhioLdrT8 TOb lepO, O-Ta8tovU Tr7
"HXt8oo EXarTTOu9 q TptaicoaQiov 8t'yXOV 7TpoKceL-
Tat 8' Ao0-o0 adrpteXatow, ev Tb oTrd8Ltov.
7rapappet 8' 6 'AX etod, eic 7 7 'Apxala pewov
elI T2V TptvXtaKciv OdXarrav IetTa v 8iaerow
Kal pear-t ppla'. T 7 8' edrr2tveiav 'a-Xyev f
pXil) p 8tev T\O u avTretov TOO 'OXvyl/rrov Atold
ecevov 8' EKXtfXe0EPvrov, ovSv f7Trov OT-v Utveve
7) 864a TO lepov, Kcal T7 aUro77tv, OI7V tLaePv,
A'Xap/e 8td Te T7V 7ravr'yvpiv Kal TOv dayova TOV
'OXvrwrtaKcov, -rTe favtryTv Te Ka' lepov vojtc-eTTra
Trv irdvTrwv. deKOClrj&7 8' eic TO rX0oUov9 TW&
aval7rf.aTWv, arrep CK T raLo-i averiTero Trj
'EXXd8oo' zov 17v Kat 0 Xpvao-F a-or)up77XaTO
1 Neawvos, Casaubon, for M4ewvos; so the later editors.
x See 8. 3. 7.
2 In the Homeric Catalogue, Strabo means. See 8. 5. 8,
and the Iliad 2. 581-586.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 29-30
the place was by chance so named.1 And, in general,
since Messenia was classified 2 as subject to Menelaiis,
as was also the Laconian country (as will be clear
from what I shall say later),3 and since the Pamisus
and the Nedon flow through Messenia, whereas the
Alpheius nowhere touches it (the Alpheius "that
floweth in broad stream through the land of the
Pylians," 4 over which Nestor ruled), what plausibility
could there be in an account which lands Nestor in
a foreign realm and robs him of the cities that are
attributed to him in the Catalogue,' and thus makes
everything subject to Menelaiis ?
30. It remains for me to tell about Olympia, and
how everything fell into the hands of the Eleians.
The temple is in Pisatis, less than three hundred
stadia distant from Elis. In front of the temple is
situated a grove of wild olive-trees, and the stadium
is in this grove. Past the temple flows the Alpheius,
which, rising in Arcadia, flows between the west and
the south into the Triphylian Sea. At the outset
the temple got fame on account of the oracle of the
Olympian Zeus; and yet, after the oracle failed to
respond, the glory of the temple persisted none the
less, and it received all that increase of fame of
which we know, on account both of the festal
assembly and of the Olympian Games, in which the
prize was a crown and which were regarded as sacred,
the greatest games in the world. The temple was
adorned by its numerous offerings, which were
dedicated there from all parts of Greece. Among
these was the Zeus of beaten gold dedicated by
s 8. 5, 8. 4 Iliad 5. 545.
A Iliad 2. 591-602.
Ze;v, avdtilyta KvfrBXov, T70 Koptvwkov Tvpdv-
vov. /ClytraTOv 86 rTorwv" vrripe Tb To7 A0bq
Vdavov, o~ 4rotet PestGa, Xap/ul ou 'AOrzvalo
AXesCavTrv ov, Tr7lXtKOu Tv Tb p yeeoq, ;, caKirep
WiEryitOV rTOI 70Ov yve, 8OKcev joro xro-a T
o-v/jiTerpas TOVy reTxVlTv, Ka7[Levov rrortr'aVTa,
adrrTOdeov S a-Xe8dv Tt 7T q ICOPVfIy rTjq 6pooi)s,
wa7r e' ao-tv TroteLy, eJAv 6opol9 lye'ilAjrat 8ta-
0 354 vacrdT, dTrooareydoa-eEt rv vewov. avy'pa'rav 8E
Trve rTa pTrpa TOD aodvov, Ical KaXXylaXao? ev
idfo/3,w rtvl efele. 7roXXA Ke a-vvp'rpafe T~
'et8i'a IIdvatvoa 6 wypdpon, a&$eX80oDo (; v
aTroD /cal o-vvepyoXLdlo<, 7rp7'1 r1v TO7G odvov
8tah Trv Xpw fidrav ido'W-po-L Kal /id cXa'Ta Tr7
eao-1Tro. etKvvvUras icai ypacpa'i 7roXXal re
ical Oav/uaa-Tai rrepti T lepov, eceilvov e'pya.
Adrot4vrwvlovevovCt 8 T rov (et lov, StdOTt 7rpio TrO
Idavatvov e2re 7rvvOavo/.tevov, 7rpF r 7r1apdaety/jia
jieLXL otr 'rOCI-etv v elcv a ToD Ado', Ort 7rpo0
'7) 'OL pov 8t' J@r&v icreOei-aP TOVTa v"
SIcal icvaviyo-tv e7r' 60pvao-t reo-re Kpov/wvI
Aptpoc-tat 8' apa xaFrat jdreppao-avrO avaicro9
KiparTO ar' aJavcirot, /e'-yav 8' e'tXifev
elp'-jaat yap ,ud'a 0Soce icaX& G, eic re rwv aXXwv
Ial T(rV &opvWOy, &rt7 rpocaXkehrat Tr17 Stvotav a
7ro)tyr1) ava >ypaev uie'-yav rTva rT7rov ical
,eydXrlv 8vva/uv iiav TOO A6e, cKaOarep cal
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30
Cypselus the tyrant of Corinth. But the greatest
of these was the image of Zeus made by Pheidias
of Athens, son of Charmides; it was made of
ivory, and it was so large that, although the
temple was very large, the artist is thought to have
missed the proper symmetry, for he showed Zeus
seated but almost touching the roof with his head,
thus making the impression that if Zeus arose and
stood erect he would unroof the temple. Certain
writers have recorded the measurements of the
image, and Callimachus has set them forth in an
iambic poem. Panaenus the painter, who was the
nephew and collaborator of Pheidias, helped him
greatly in decorating the image, particularly the
garments, with colours. And many wonderful
paintings, works of Panaenus, are also to be seen
round the temple. It is related of Pheidias that, when
Panaenus asked him after what model he was going to
make the likeness of Zeus, he replied that he was
going to make it after the likeness set forth by
Homer in these words: Cronion spake, and nodded
assent with his dark brows, and then the ambrosial
locks flowed streaming from the lord's immortal head,
and he caused great Olympus to quake." A noble
description indeed, as appears not only from the
"brows but from the other details in the passage,
because the poet provokes our imagination to con-
ceive the picture of a mighty personage and a
mighty power worthy of a Zeus, just as he does in the
1 Iliad 1. 528.
1 Te, before Thv, Corais omits.
Erl Tv5 Hpav, &/xa dvXdrTwv T\b e' bcare'pw
TrpETroV' e7 Ev 'yp,1
orelaro 2 8' elvl 8po'vw, e'Xte'te 86 /aaKpbv
T7 8' ETr' djetvr?7 oa-v/pIa OXv KICvrl etcy, TOVT'
err TOO LAtO a7ravarToati Tai9 oc/pvat jivov
vevoavTnov, c-v7TwraOovo-ir 8 t K al' Ti KO/'cl"
ICKO/1#r 8' 'prTat Kical To 6 TO T'wv Oe&v elicova9
j pLvoq l38\v 6'q pvo; 8ebaw.3 Aito Se xdXtOrTa
Trv aitTLaV e'yev Trj' 7irep TOb 'OXvprlaactV lepov
/ieyaXo7Tpe7reial T e Ical Tt/irF 'HXIeot. cKaTa /ev
7yp "- ToatpaKa Kt e'Tt 7rpb TOVT V OVIC 7'TrfVXOVV,
VTo TE TWI T V Ical vI v tra Tetv OeVTC ic Kal v,
'HpacXeov; b'O-Tpov, 5vlica A .yEa 6 83ao-tevwv
avrov icaTreXv9f. aoJ/peov 8e' e1y yap T1rv Tpotav
Eicelvot /1ev 1 TeTTapaKovTa va9 e'TetXav, HI tot
86 Ical NeTrwp V eveVJEovPra. evaTpov 8e, elra
Trjv rwv 'HpaKXELct8v IcdLoSov, evvf/3pr TAvaVTrla.
AlTAolt yap o'-vycaTeX0Ve'E TOE70 'HpacXeflat?
'/e0T 'O ov ical eavvoticir-avTrev 'ETreto Kcaa'
ovyytvetav 7raXatav rirVoaav 7 v KolbXrv 'HXt
ical 7j? Te HIIttrodreto aCLeiovTro 7roXXlv, cal
'OXvurirla V7r' ~iceivoi Eyevero c Kal S~7 Kal
ayov evpel/ad ea-tV CceLCVW 6 'OXvptTrtaKo, Ical
Ta\ 'OXvutTrt8aa Ta, 7rpc0Tra, eeivot ro-verVEovv.
dcto'at yap Se Ta '7raXata Kal Trep Tr)? KTiro-e6w
C 355 TOi lepov ial a epl 72rF Bf~o-e TOD A dyvov, TWcv
1 ep /4Ev lydp, Meineke, for prv /v ydp g(la (Acghi),
irp7'dp (Blk), piecl 'ydp (no).
2 reiaro, Epitome and man. sec. A, for c'aalro; so the
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30
case of Hera, at the same time preserving what is
appropriate in each; for of Hera he says, she
shook herself upon the throne, and caused lofty
Olympus to quake."1 What in her case occurred
when she moved her whole body, resulted in the
case of Zeus when he merely "nodded with his
brows," although his hair too was somewhat affected
at the same time. This, too, is a graceful saying
about the poet, that "he alone has seen, or
else he alone has shown, the likenesses of the
gods." The Eleians above all others are to be
credited both with the magnificence of the temple
and with the honour in which it was held. In the
times of the Trojan war, it is true, or even before
those times, they were not a prosperous people,
since they had been humbled by the Pylians, and
also, later on, by Heracles when Augeas their king
was overthrown. The evidence is this : The Eleians
sent only forty ships to Troy, whereas the Pylians
and Nestor sent ninety. But later on, after the
return of the Heracleidae, the contrary was the
case, for the Aetolians, having returned with the
Heracleidae under the leadership of Oxylus, and on
the strength of ancient kinship having taken up their
abode with the Epeians, enlarged Coel6 Elis, and
not only seized much of Pisatis but also got Olympia
under their power. What is more, the Olympian
Games are an invention of theirs; and it was they
who celebrated the first Olympiads, for one should
disregard the ancient stories both of the founding of
the temple and of the establishment of the games-
1 Iliad 8. 199.
Selpiljoa . Ias, Kramer and later editors suspect;
pev 'va rWV 'ISalwv AaKcTrvcv 'HpaX~f'a X67eyrVTr
apyxr/yTrv rovrTov, ra6v A rbv 'AXK/ciGrvr cal
Atd6, ovby l ayov lriaaat 7rp&rov IcKa vcglcjar
Ta 7yp rotaDra 7roXXaXg Xedyeat, Kal obv rrvv
TLToreverat. eY'YVTEpO Se orireO' TI pI' pT '
Tr &r7 i cal e1KoerI; 'OXvrTi8nSo a 7rT T7
rpIor'T, jv I' K6pospov Eivca oTa8rov 'HXeZov,
TJP 7rpoa-rao-aav elXOV ro7 rT lepov Kal Tro
&'y6vov 'HXeot. Kara 8e T TpwoKah oIxc 7v
avy'e aoreaviri' 4 ob'i v' oo?, oi;" ovbro oirT'
'nXXo9 o?,ei; TWV vvv ev~o'wo oure1 ppvr1rat
Ov t TCO7 VOP C'11800W tv"T61 14'
TOVTwv "OjLrWpov ovSTvo, dXX' rpcoWv Tvtv Eirt-
Tabtwv. Kcatrot 8ocei TwcT TroT 'OXvitrrtaKcoi
Ipeuivlo-atl, orav 4Y 7T-O Avyav drrooaTep~oTat,
Trio-apa; daOXoo6pov; 2wrrov-, eX0ovrav perT
dle6Xa aou- 8' Torob Htora 1'a p/r. feTaaoeiv 70o
TpoixcoD roXe'ov, lepobv vopftLo-Oraq ToO Atod.
aXX' 0'oi' 1 IIto-rt7?rV brr Aiyea r6T' v7r@pxev,
v efo-7. Ical 'OXvuzria, dXX' k 'HXeia oyevovr
OU7'T ev 'HXela avvereXeaoiO 6 'OAvfvriraKo dyc'v
obv' i/ra4, aXX' del ev 'OXvpriaa. 6 8A vPv
rrapar7Tefe ev "HXt8t at'veTrat yevoJevov, Ev ,
Kal T7 XPEo (CIEI67eTO
Kali yap T& Xpe~o 2 6 e AeT' Ev "HXtt 8ty,
Treo-ape dAOXoo6pot 'rrol.
Kcat OvTO 1 p. ob -TfavlT17r (wept rptirroSo6 yhp
x oTCr, Meineke emends to oel'.
Corais and Meineke insert pey' after Xpe7os.
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30
some alleging that it was Heracles, one of the
Idaean Dactyli,1 who was the originator of both, and
others, that it was Heracles the son of Alcmen6 and
Zeus, who also was the first to conterfd in the games
and win the victory; for such stories are told in
many ways, and not much faith is to be put in them.
It is nearer the truth to say that from the first
Olympiad, in which the Eleian Corebus won the
stadium-race, until the twenty-sixth Olympiad, the
Eleians had charge both of the temple and of
the games. But in the times of the Trojan War,
either there were no games in which the prize was
a crown or else they were not famous, neither the
Olympian nor any other of those that are now
famous.2 In the first place, Homer does not mention
any of these, though he mentions another kind-
funeral games.3 And yet some think that he
mentions the Olympian Games when he says that
Augeas deprived the driver of "four horses, prize-
winners, that had come to win prizes." 4 And they
say that the Pisatans took no part in the Trojan War
because they were regarded as sacred to Zeus. But
neither was the Pisatis in which Olympia is situated
subject to Augeas at that time, but only the Eleian
country, nor were the Olympian Games celebrated
even once in Eleia, but always in Olympia. And
the games which I have just cited from Homer
clearly took place in Elis, where the debt was owing :
"for a debt was owing to him in goodly Elis, four
horses, prize-winners." 5 And these were not games
in which the prize was a crown (for the horses were
1 See 10. 3. 22.
SThe Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games.
8 Iliad 23. 255 ff. See 8. 1. 29. 5 Iliad 11. 698.
eueXXov OevaeaOal), IceVoI Se. UTera 8e r7'v eiTr7v
Kal elKcoorTv 'OXvL7twiaa ol TIIcaTaa T'v IV oCeav
7roXa/3PvTe O avTro c -verEkovv, TOv dy,)va opwVTre
evSoKctpovvra- Xpo'VOt 8' v Trepov peTra7reaov0-7q
rtaXtL T;), ItOraTtSo 6efl ro 'HXetovU /Jer CTrTYo
els avTOVv TrdiXtv Kcatl j aywvoleuaa. avvCrpa4av
8a Ical ol AaKtarce8aiovto /pET T7V E-XaT777 V card-
XvaOv TWV Meo-arV wv (a rvUFLaxoa at avTro~
TavavTta TrO N'-Tropov avrOyovwv KCa TOV
'ApicdSwv, alvplrokXeptI dvTwv lTO Meao-rvIotv'
Kral 7rl TOOVTOV ye a-vverrpacav, o)orTE rv yXWpav
&arar-av t V pe Mero-9'vr 'HXetav pfrlJvat
Kal 8taiewavat tAeXpt vvv, IlItaaTaow Ic al Tpt-
O(vXiwv tial Kavi avwv ry8' ovoya XetOi0vat.
Kial avTO TOvY IIvXov TOY v ralooePva e '; TO
AeTrpeov a-vvKato-av, XapTtevo rTolAs AeTrpedarat
icparro-acra 1 ooXdp,, iKa'l cXas 7roXXah T7V
IKaTOICLtiv KaT tTrao-a, oo-a' 60' ewpO avTOTpa-
yelYv MeXovoras, icalt 06bpoSv erpdf avTo.
31. Atwvopd o/Uo & 7rXEv-'Tovo2 7 hJIItT TO'
a7Ev TrpjTOV 8ta TOv ?e/orvaq 8 IvvrPevTa 7rXeao--
C 356 TOv, Oluva uav re ical ihXo7ra, TOv Ecetevov Sta8e-
atdievov, ical rovk wraSaq avroroD 7roXXov' yevo-
1 Kpa.rT'aatn roe yi, Corais and Groskurd emend to o'
Kcowwviaart T 70 roA4tov, following conj. of Pletho.
2 vTr rov, Meineke omits.
I So, according to Thucydides (5. 34), the Lacedaemonians
settled certain Helots in Lepreum in 421 B.c.
2 Strabo seems to mean that the Lepreatans had prevailed
in a war" over the other Triphylian cities that had sided
with the Pisatae in their war against the Eleians. Several of
the editors (see critical note above, on this page), citing
GEOGRAPHY, 8. 3. 30-31
to run for a tripod), as was the case at Olympia.
After the twenty-sixth Olympiad, when they had got
back their home-land, the Pisatans themselves went
to celebrating the games because they saw that these
were held in high esteem. But in later times
Pisatis again fell into the power of the Eleians, and
thus again the direction of the games fell to them.
The Lacedaemonians also, after the last defeat of
the Messenians, co-operated with the Eleians, who
had been their allies in battle, whereas the Arcadians
and the descendants of Nestor had done the opposite,
having joined with the Messenians in war. And the
Lacedaemonians co-operated with them so effectually
that the whole country as far as Messen& came to be
called Eleia, and the name has persisted to this day,
whereas, of the Pisatans, the Triphylians, and the
Cauconians, not even a name has survived. Further,
the Eleians settled the inhabitants of "sandy Pylus "
itself in Lepreum,' to gratify the Lepreatans, who
had been victorious in a war,2 and they broke up
many other settlements,3-and also exacted tribute of
as many as they saw inclined to act independently.
31. Pisatis first became widely famous on account
of its rulers, who were most powerful: they were
Oenomaiis, and Pelops who succeeded him, and the
Pausanias 6. 22. 4, emend the text to read, had taken no
part in the war," i.e. on the side of the Pisatae against the
Eleians ; C. Miller, citing Pausanias 4. 15. 8, emends to
read, "had taken the field with them (the Eleians) in the
war." But neither emendation seems warranted by the
citations, or by any other evidence yet found by the present
3 For example, Macistus. According to Herodotus (4.
148), this occurred "in my own time." But see Pausanias
6. 22. 4, and Frazer's note thereon, Vol. IV., p. 97.