THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, LITT.D.
WV. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
HORACE LEONARD JONES, PH.D,, LL.D.
IN EIGHT VOLUMES
LONDON : WILLIAM HEINEMANN
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
Printed in Great Britain.
BOOK VI. . . . .. 3
BOOK VII . . . . 151
A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES. . .389
GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
VOL. III. B
C 252 1. MerT &S To ''robla 7ro0 rtXa'pt8o Aev/cavia
KaC To T^? "'Hpa 7ipor, Tir 'Apywc'a,1 'Idcrovo?
"'pvpua, ical TXr7Oriov dv 7rev'rlcoVra oraSViotv
Iloo-e8wviwa.2 vTre60ev 8' eC7rXeovn Trbv KCO'XOV 3
N r oN'rt -r
vP4ao Aevcwoa-ta, pticpov 'Xovo-a rrpog Trv ij'retpov
8tcrXhovv, e7c0rVVoL09O /41i v Twy etprjvov, dcre-
aovan'; 8epo eCTah T)yV 1JVIevo1JiEvf7 P*t l ab CTV
ei; To V/3v0v. T'v9 86 v4caov rpo'/ceTrat T~ arTa-
XKpwTrprov ral, Yetprvopvo0aa0-ar rotovv rov IIo-
aeSwvIdTrV KdXoTrov. ic'ijfavTi 8' AXXo O-rVa-VXeX
IcKdXro9, Ev 7roXtp, 'jv ol I neV icTtio-aVT9 ( wocatels
'Te'Alv, ol S "EXrN v 7ro, Kpicvr 'rv.s, ol 8E viv
'EXeav Zvoldtoovwtv, e' 7? IIappevr'< Kca' Z )jvwv
Eydvovro, avSpe9 IIvayodpetot. Soice So pIot rKal
St' iceV ov9 Kal a'Tt 'rpo'repov ebvo/ii0jv"ar 8t tcal
1 'Apyaas, Meineke (from conj. of Casaubon), for 'Apyovias.
2 Most of the editors, including Meineke, transfer the
words ~veap7iat . cvaXea4 vos (5. 4. 13) to a position
3 KIJcrov, Kramer, for 7wrovTov; so Meineke.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO
1. AFTER the mouth of the Silaris one comes to
Leucania, and to the temple of the Argoan Hera,
built by Jason, and near by, within fifty stadia, to
Poseidonia. Thence, sailing out past the gulf, one
comes to Leucosia,' an island, from which it is only
a short voyage across to the continent. The island
is named after one of the Sirens, who was cast
ashore here after the Sirens had flung themselves,
as the myth has it, into the depths of the sea. In
front of the island lies that promontory 2 which is
opposite the Sirenussae and with them forms the
Poseidonian Gulf. On doubling this promontory
one comes immediately to another gulf, in which
there is a city which was called "Hyele" by the
Phocaeans who founded it, and by others "Ele,"
after a certain spring, but is called by the men of
to-day "Elea." This is the native city of Par-
menides and Zeno, the Pythagorean philosophers.
It is my opinion that not only through the influence
of these men but also in still earlier times the city
1 Now Licosa.
2 Poseidium, now Punta Della Licosa.
7rpos Aevxavov; avrTe)-Xv cal 7rpo loaeotSwvtdraTa
KaL IcpeiTrov d aryeaav, ical ep EvSeeo'Gepot Ical
Xypa /cal 7rXfet aw-c7d-wav bvrees. Avayfcdovrat
yoiv S8ta T~ Xvurpo~ 7Ta T y7r Ta 7roXXa OaXar-
T7vpyeLC Kat TapLteta avv rVOTaorOat Kat a'XXa;
TOtavTa' epyao-taw. fr-oi 8' 'AvrtoXoI 4kaatav,
jkooro-TF i(b' 'Ap7rd ov, T70o K'pov oTrpaTfyov,
ToVb 8vvaitevov e' ,ai/3vTra6 els Ta o j-cd0 7-avoti1covq
7rXe9~dat vrp,&Tov elg Kvpvov /cal Mao-oaXlav re6ra
KpeovTwaIov,7roKpovO0ev'ra S'C T'v'EXeav K ioat.
e'vto S8 Tovwvoua a ro roTa/ioD 'EXe'yrov Ste'xet 8
TrI Hoo-es61Vtaav,; aov StaKcoiov1 o-'railovU ; ; ToXtq.
MeT' 8B TaavTU7v aKpwr)iptov taivovpo9. rpo S6
iT- 'EXedr'TtSo at OivowTpSeq v ro-ot Svo, b40 pPjov;
C 253 eXovoaat. ja Se HlaXivovpov HvyovDs licpa ical
XthFlv /aK 7roTauo'v v ryap '7V rpL Iwv ovotia"
ciO-cre S8 MIV0loq, Z MeaO-eOv'? A'p/v T7i 6ev
trKeXia, 7rdXtv 8' ar'jpav ol lSpvOevre9 'rrX7\v
AXlyov. /e a TS lv'oov'ra ~tXXo?1 Oql Xro c Kal
7roTapo; A&ov ical 7roXt, eXo-XaT 7wv AevKwavlov,
pItKpsyv V.rEp r7F9 OaXdrT'q, nrotco, Yv/3aptrrwv,
et r7v aTro "EX?, orTatot TrepaKloaotor 6 8 ras
T70 AevIcavia' rrapd7rXovg eKa/coocr-v TrevrlTcovTa.
lrXi jlov 8~ b 70o Apdicoov TOF jpov, Cvo0 TOv
'O8vooa-fle e7aapwv, e'f' o; o XPp -1oP 7ro0
1 ~AXos, Unger (Philologus, 1881, p. 537), for Aaos.
1 Antiochus Syracusanus, the historian. Cp. Herodotus
2 The Latin form is Hales (now the Alento).
2 The Greek inhabitants of Italy were called Italiotes."
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. x.
was well governed; and it was because of this good
government that the people not only held their own
against the Leucani and the Poseidoniatae, but even
returned victorious, although they were inferior to
them both in extent of territory and in population.
At any rate, they are compelled, on account of the
poverty of their soil, to busy themselves mostly
with the sea and to establish factories for the salting
of fish, and other such industries. According to
Antiochus,1 after the capture of Phocaea by Har-
pagus, the general of Cyrus, all the Phocaeans who
could do so embarked with their entire families on
their light boats and, under the leadership of Cre-
ontiades, sailed first to Cyrnus and Massalia, but
when they were beaten off from those places founded
Elea. Some, however, say that the city took its
name from the River Elees.2 It is about two
hundred stadia distant from Poseidonia. After Elea
comes the promontory of Palinurus. Off the ter-
ritory of Elea are two islands, the Oenotrides, which
have anchoring-places. After Palinurus comes Pyxus
-a cape, harbour, and river, for all three have the
same name. Pyxus was peopled with new settlers
by Micythus, the ruler of the Messene in Sicily,
but all the settlers except a few sailed away again.
After Pyxus comes another gulf, and also Laiis-
a river and city; it is the last of the Leucanian
cities, lying only a short distance above the sea,
is a colony of the Sybaritae, and the distance thither
from Ele is four hundred stadia. The whole voyage
along the coast of Leucania is six hundred and fifty
stadia. Near Laiis is the hero-temple of Draco, one
of the companions of Odysseus, in regard to which
the following oracle was given out to the Italiotes:
Adiov dtlA 1 ApdacovTra 'roXv'v 7roTe Xaov AXe-
E67r 'yap TravTrv Xaol1 oaTpaTevo-avTe6 ol cara
TlV 'ITaXlav "EXXrveg VTro Aevcavoiv iTv7X7rav,
eaarvarl'Oevreq Tq) YXP0-fPl.
2. KaTa tev 8 T rrjv TvpprluvicKv 7rapaXtav
raDr' eITrt TA &iv AevUav63v ywpla,2 T j 8'
erepaq ovX rTovro OaKaTrrTfl rporepov, aXX' ol
"EXXY]vev dTreKcparovv o T0 v TapavTivov EXovTre
IK0Xrov. 7rpiv 86 Trov "EXXalvaq eX9etv ov8 o-adv
ro Aevicavo, Xve9 68 KIalt Olvwrpol ro&k rTorovw
eveftovro. r'Cov SE avvriTv abvflOevrv e7r wroXbv
Katl Tro Xwva(; KCa TOv Olvwopo; ecK/3cadoTrw ,
AevKavov S8' et1 Tr v yeplSa TavrTv a rotKicto-LdTv,
ala 8 al 'rv 'EXXjvwov T)v eicaTepwOev 'rapa-
Xlav ~e4yXpt HopOiov ICaTeXod TWv, 7roXv'v Xp6vov
e7roXel4ovv o' T'e EXX\]vec Kal ol /3dpapot porpo
aXXIXovi. ol 0 T? YcCeXtlaq rvpavvot iKal fpera
rav7a KapXrl8rcov TOTE IJV 7rrept Tri &EceXIla;
7rOXe/LOuVT6e 7rpo? 'PPwalov9, TOTe 'irepl aVT'!;
T7 'IjaaXia, aFravTa' Tobv TaTar7 icaCj &ie l flcav,
/dXto-ra3 S Tobv 'EXX\rvaq. Jvarepo v tp rye ical
T7'9 /teoyala 7roXXh v d qtijpqvTro, (Tro T0wv TpwLucKv
vpovwv apLatdLevoI, Kcal 8~ eTrl rTOoaOTOV rvavo,
(o7Te r 7v /,eydraXly 'EXXaSa TravUrTV eXeyov Kal
TYV iKcellav. vvvl S& 7rXi'v TdpavTov Kal 'PTljyov
1 aaof, the reading of the MSS., Jones restores, for Aaov.
Si, after Xwpta, Meineke deletes (Siebenkees and Corais
read ol 7fSs Crepas).
3 pdAcira, Villebrun, for perd; so the editors in general.
I There is a word-play here which cannot be brought out
in translation: the word for "people" in Greek is "laos."
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 1-2
"Much people will one day perish about Laian
Draco." 1 And the oracle came true, for, deceived
by it, the peoples2 who made campaigns against
Laiis, that is, the Greek inhabitants of Italy, met
disaster at the hands of the Leucani.
2. These, then, are the places on the Tyrrhenian
seaboard that belong to the Leucani. As for the
other sea,3 they could not reach it at first; in fact,
the Greeks who held the Gulf of Tarentum were in
control there. Before the Greeks came, however,
the Leucani were as yet not even in existence, and
the regions were occupied by the Chones and the
Oenotri. But after the Samnitae had grown con-
siderably in power, and had ejected the Chones and
the Oenotri, and had settled a colony of Leucani
in this portion of Italy, while at the same time the
Greeks were holding possession of both seaboards
as far as the Strait, the Greeks and the barbarians
carried on war with one another for a long time.
Then the tyrants of Sicily, and afterwards the
Carthaginians, at one time at war with the Romans
for the possession of Sicily and at another for the
possession of Italy itself, maltreated all the peoples
in this part of the world, but especially the Greeks.
Later on, beginning from the time of the Trojan
war, the Greeks had taken away from the earlier
inhabitants much of the interior country also, and
indeed had increased in power to such an extent
that they called this part of Italy, together with
Sicily, Magna Graecia. But to-day all parts of it,
except Taras,4 Rhegium, and Neapolis, have become
2 Literally, "laoi."
a The Adriatic.
4 The old name of Tarentum.
KcaM NeardXewO cI/3e/3pap/ap6CoOat crvi-V13e3r3Kev
a7ravra Kal Ta /ev AevKavobv Kial Bpertiovq
KcaTYe~et, T7 8e Kap/travo'v, Kal T0Lorov9 X'yp,
Sb 8' AXrijOv 'Pwualov'r Kal Iyap abTro 'Pwpuaiot
yeyovao-v. o/Uwv 86 Tip 7rpay/pacevoAevoP) 7Tv TYiV
7yS 7repioSov cal Ta vPPv bivra Xe'vetv avayicr7 Kal
TWov bvrapdvTrwv etva, Ka'l pAXTo'ra OTav 'v1io0a
'flo 3(jV A~ nEVKatV 01 J4Y'L~ C/TTO/EPOL 7Tt Tvp-
l. 8V E 8 AevKavcv ol xe ajnc erot T^ TJp-
pryviKjc OaXa'dTT' e'tpprvYat, ol 86 7T-V p~seyaav
eXoVTe? el610I ol vbrepotKoUVPTr 0o0 TaparvTrov
KX7Trov. oTOrw eLtOt KIcKaKw/1CO vo T eXeo0 OrTOt
Kal BpE'SfIO KaI av'roT 'avv'rat ol rovrv apyx'r-
ryerat, w Ore Kal 8t0opia-at aXTrr ra 7 KaT TrotKa
C 254 avbrwv a'tnov 8' O'rt o'86pv h t a-ovrp7a KOIVOV
YTWV Cevv P EKaaCTOV Gav/Uupct, Ta re e0 L9 8iaXeKTwP
re Kal drrXItJLoU Kal e'o- )TOV Kal TrV vrapaTrXl7-
otIOv e ~cXeXot-re, AkXto Te 3o ort 7ravrTrao-lv
eltav at ira' tcaa-rTa Kal Ev tfepet Kta'roiciat.
3. 'EpoDiZev o81 KOtvLy a 7rapetX'ba/~Ev, ooe3v
7rapa Toro TOrotovP1evoi TOvS Yr7v yLaoyatav otK-
oDViTav, Aeicavov' 7e KaiL TO P0 PoaEXEL avotl'7
.avvlrag. TI Lt7X[a /pev oi3v p /rp)roXtV vo0IlUeat
TWV XoIv(Op2 Kal ovvvoitewalt IXpti vvP liav' .
KTCLO'-ia eoTT (tXO710/CTTO, ~vYYPTOvr T'Vu MeXI-
/3oiav KaTa oardTaov. epv/yv S' eo'-Ti, wa-Y Kal
avrTtial TroTe Oouplotl 3 e rereiXticra avTirv.
1 5h, Jones, for 34.
2 Corais and Meineke emend Xcivwv to Aeviavav.
S Oovplots, Meineke, for ppouptots.
S"Barbarised," in the sense of "non-Greek" (cp. 5. 4. 4
and 5. 4. 7).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 2-3
completely barbarised,1 and some parts have been
taken and are held by the Leucani and the Brettii,
and others by the Campani-that is, nominally by
the Campani but in truth by the Romans, since the
Campani themselves have become Romans. How-
ever, the man who busies himself with the descrip-
tion of the earth must needs speak, not only of the
facts of the present, but also sometimes of the facts
of the past, especially when they are notable. As
for the Leucani, I have already spoken of those
whose territory borders on the Tyrrhenian Sea,
while those who hold the interior are the people
who live above the Gulf of Tarentum. But the
latter, and the Brettii, and the Samnitae themselves
(the progenitors of these peoples) have so utterly
deteriorated that it is difficult even to distinguish
their several settlements; and the reason is that no
common organisation longer endures in any one of
the separate tribes; and their characteristic differ-
ences in language, armour, dress, and the like, have
completely disappeared; and, besides, their settle-
ments, severally and in detail, are wholly without
3. Accordingly, without making distinctions be-
tween them, I shall only tell in a general way what
I have learned about the peoples who live in the
interior, I mean the Leucani and such of the Sam-
nitae as are their next neighbours. Petelia, then,
is regarded as the metropolis of the Chones, and has
been rather populous down to the present day.
It was founded by Philoctetes after he, as the result
of a political quarrel, had fled from Meliboea. It
has so strong a position by nature that the Samnitae
once fortified it against the Thurii. And the old
JtXCo/'rTrov 8' oa-rt 'cal i 7raXata Kpltroa-a vrepi
roY arvTov ~oTrov. 'AroXXoSWcpo9 8' Ev Tot9
7rept Neio V70 ro) (tOKTTO v Pvr0o-Oel Xeyewt TIvda
cknowv, ic ely '7rv KpOTwOVauTL LcdIKopevO ; Kpl-
ito-o-av acpav ol Kicat xa' Xvirv JoXtIv v7rep
alrj91, a 'r o a Tadry X4veq eKXicinToav, -rap
avTro 84 TIve9 o~-TaaXewe el; trKeXlavz 7repi "Epvca
JLeTa AIye-Tov 70TU TpwBO A'i'ye-av Trexto-atev.'
Icab povuievTOV 8 cal OvepTrvat 7r77 yeo-oyalia
eio- Ical KaXao-apva Kcal iXXat tKtepal KaTrotLiat
pi'pt Obevovaola9, ro'Xhewo A toXoyov 'ravTriv 8'
oyLast Kcat r(a Ee4; 'I Kaypraviav Idv'r aavvl-
T(8aT eZvat. ni-ep 8e riv Oovpiov xcal jI Tavptav'
Xopa XeyoevY7 1'8pvrat. ol 8' Aevicavo~l To pEv
yevos eIdo Yavvi7Ta, Ilooet8 wvtarTv 8' K/a TioV
a-v dWVj xvicpar 4javTe; 7ro'Xpep, KiaTeoa ov T'a
n7roXet auv'rT 'TOv /zv ovv aIXov Xpovov e'87-
/ooKpaTro0PT, Ev 8E Tro B 'r-oXE',/notT 7peTi8o -3aieXe;
a7r 2 rTV veLOPLEvIw apjdN vvv 8' elo- 'Pa/waIoe.
4. T~v 8' E? 7rapaXhav BpeTtot ttXpi 70ro
ctKeXctKoD KaTrexovo-t rop9,oiD, o-raiowv trevT7'-
KOVTa Kat TrptaKootlwv 7Erl TO79 Z Xtot0t. laoi 8'
'AvTloXoS v 7rrepr 7'r 'IraX'a9 oaviyypadipqaTt
Tav'17v 'I'raXav KxXiljvat, Kal 7repl rav'rr, o-vy-
'ypd'etv, TrpoTrpov 8' OlvwrpLav 7rpocrayopeco-lOat.
optov 8' avbrjI' atropai'vet Trps E p'v 7r Tvppflvtrc,
1 rEXiterae, Kramer, for rxitrat ; so the later editors.
2 &ird, Corais, for brd; so Meineke.
1That is, his work entitled "On the (Homeric) Catalogue
of Ships" (cp. 1.2. 24).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 3-4
Crimissa, which is near the same regions, was also
founded by Philoctetes. Apollodorus, in his work
On Ships,' in mentioning Philoctetes, says that,
according to some, when Philoctetes arrived at the
territory of Croton, he colonised the promontory
Crimissa, and, in the interior above it, the city
Chone, from which the Chonians of that district
took their name, and that some of his companions
whom he had sent forth with Aegestes the Trojan
to the region of Eryx in Sicily fortified Aegesta.2
Moreover, Grumentum and Vertinae are in the
interior, and so are Calasarna and some other small
settlements, until we arrive at Venusia, a notable
city; but I think that this city and those that
follow in order after it as one goes towards Campania
are Samnite cities. Beyond Thurii lies also the
country that is called Tauriana. The Leucani are
Samnite in race, but upon mastering the Poseidoniatae
and their allies in war they took possession of their
cities. At all other times, it is true, their govern-
ment was democratic, but in times of war they were
wont to choose a king from those who held
magisterial offices. But now they are Romans.
4. The seaboard that comes next after Leucania,
as far as the Sicilian Strait and for a distance of
thirteen hundred and fifty stadia, is occupied by the
Brettii. According to Antiochus, in his treatise On
Italy, this territory (and this is the territory which
he says he is describing) was once called Italy,
although in earlier times it was called Oenotria.
And he designates as its boundaries, first, on the
Tyrrhenian Sea, the same boundary that I have
2 Also spelled Segesta and Egesta.
7reXa'yet TO avTo oKrep Kal Tri? BperTTtav,' captev,
rTo Aaiov 7roT/ratodv 7rpho Se Ty teXteco) TO
MeTa7v'ro ov. r,4v 8C TapavTrvrv, f avveX) 79
MeTrarovTtl J'rT'V, 'ICTOF 7jF 'raiXla ; voydaeit,
'Ia'7rvya9 KaXov. iTL 8' davdepov OlvWTpoVs 7T
Kai 'IraXoib I pvov; e'1q KcaXelfOatL 70o vE eT
Toi lo-OtoD trpoF TO'y IKcEXtiKOc KeXLJteovU
C 255 7ropOpov. e'-Tt 8' avTor 6' tao0/20 ec'aTo v al
eicJKovra Tadiot /eiraV 8SveFv I/cX7Tor, T70 T7
'IrrrrovLdTov, YV 'AVTtXO? NaTrfTTvov e'pPfKE, Ical
TO7U :KUXXrTtKou. 7TrePl rXOU 8' o71'T TV a7ro-
Xaptavotpevj'; Xo'pa; 77rpO bv T IO lopOpv IVTO
o7a'8rto 8to-Xgio. fiera Se TaUTa r7TreKT7-cELvoa 2
(7ao-t 'o'voloa Kalt TO\ T r 'ITaXla9 Kat T W TlV
OlivCp&v pl pXt T'' MeTa'rov tvr7l Acal T771
SetpitTt70o olKc7aLt yap TobV 7TOrov Tov rovu
X&ova, OivwrptKOv f0vo1 KIaraKootIovfiLevov, KaIl
rTv Yiv ovoyudoat XvAulv. oViro? h v oVv aw7rov-
OTepO Epr71ce Kal apXyatIrK ov8yv 8toploa9 7rept
T cv AevKav2v K al *T'v BperrTTnv. ~'ort 8' 17 fv
AevKavta ET.erao v T49 Te TrapaXl a 7.? Tvpplui/cf'
Kat T779 21tC6KeiXK, T7i? /EoV aI7T TOIOV IXpt809
piept Adov, T4i)1 8' J7rO 70Ti MerTairovrttov uept
Oovpltwv' Kara 8e T7irv 'lrepov a7ro CavvtT&v
tplXPi T70 fI0/oD TO7 alrob ovp'wv el~ KiplXXovu,
TrX7o-lov Adov' oTactoto 8' elo-1 To la0-uoiD rpia-
Koa-lot. ib7vp 8 TOVToWV BpeTTtot, eXppovlpY ov
olicovTres, dv TaIT7 8' XXir repteldirrat Xep-
SBpe.tavujs, Madvig, for Bpcr'ravias.
SereKTiveaeata, Groskurd, for XEreKTVEfTrat; so the later
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 4
assigned to the country of the Brettii-the River
Laiis; and secondly, on the Sicilian Sea, Meta-
pontium. But as for the country of the Tarantini,
which borders on Metapontium, he names it as
outside of Italy, and calls its inhabitants lapyges.
And at a time more remote, according to him, the
names "Italians" and "Oenotrians were applied
only to the people who lived this side the isthmus
in the country that slopes toward the Sicilian
Strait The isthmus itself, one hundred and sixty
stadia in width, lies between two gulfs-the Hip-
poniate (which Antiochus has called Napetine) and
the Scylletic. The coasting-voyage round the
country comprised between the isthmus and the
Strait is two thousand stadia. But after that, he
says, the name of" Italy" and that of the "Oeno-
trians was further extended as far as the territory
of Metapontium and that of Seiris, for, he adds, the
Chones, a well-regulated Oenotrian tribe, had taken
up their abode in these regions and had called the
land Chone. Now Antiochus had spoken only in a
rather simple and antiquated way, without making
any distinctions between the Leucani and the
Brettii. In the first place, Leucania lies between
the Tyrrhenian and Sicilian coast-lines,1 the former
coast-line from the River Silaris as far as Latis, and
the latter, from Metapontium as far as Thurii; in
the second place, on the mainland, from the country
of the Samnitae as far as the isthmus which extends
from Thurii to Cerilli (a city near Laiis), the isthmus
is three hundred stadia in width. But the Brettii
are situated beyond the Leucani; they live on
1 Between the coast-lines on the Tyrrhenian and Sicilian
pOwrVao7 7o TOV lcrLOov b'Xovaa 7Tv anro icKVXXr1lriov
E7r TOPV I'7rrwvrta'7rY C ro C v or. wvAoao-Tat 86 TO
eOvoP vT'r AevKavwv' BpeTTiLovI yap cKaXov-at roUi
a7rorTarTav' Ai-Orr-oav ', & S as, -roJialivovre;
aTroZ9 7rporepov, el,' vrb Avea-ew t dXevoeptad-ave;,
~vlca e7rea rpdaTeva At o AtovvoiL Kcal eieripa!ev
TaravTa,; 7rp s a7ravTa9. Tr Kcao uXov ,u'v S' raTaa
7rep' Aevxav&v Ical Bpe'-rTr Xyo uev.
5. 'ATro yAp Aadov 7rp07T7 7roXLv E7ti T~7
Bpe'rTia Teleai, Te/ifav 8' ol vvv KaX\ovGcv,
Av6oawOv /cTriC-ja, vOTvepov 8 ical AITrwXAv TWv
peTa o6avTro, ob e'~faaov Bp'eTtos, BperTiovT
8' irerpitav 'Avvtl3a ; re Ica 'Pwaiot. 'OTr
Se 7rX'ai'ov 7 T'9 TerLtei7 ,lppov, aypieXato01
-vv77peEis, HoXLTov TW 'Ovo-oe Traipopv,
ov 8oXo0ovrOeviTa V'rb T&Wv 3app3tipwr yeve'Ioal
/apvvivv, &are ToW0 7reptolicov9 8aaoroXoye'v
avro icara T(t XA6ytov, ial 'rapotLlav elval 7rpo?
T Uog avnXeE9,' TOv ijpwa TOv ev Tejue'opi Xey.vTrov
ErtLKeaoOat aTro0l. Aolcpov 86 TOV 'E'rtneruvpoAv
'XdvTrwv Tv 7rroXwv, EivOvLtov tv9evova, T'oV
7rvTryv KcaTrapdvTa d7r' aV'rbv KpaTroaat r-T fdXy
Kcal /3tdaaa0at 7apaXao-at 70To Saoa-uo TOv9
x robs avnAe7s, Kramer and Miiller-Diibner, following
Buttmann, for airobs ~riAds. Meineke, robs &qrsis.
1 According to Pausanias (6. 6. 2) the oracle bade the
people annually to give the hero to wife the fairest maiden
2 "Merciless" is an emendation. Some read "disagree-
able." According to Aelian (Var. Hist. 8. 18), the popular
saying was applied to those who in pursuit of profit over-
reached themselves (so Plutarch Prov. 31). But Eustathius
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 4-5
a peninsula, but this peninsula includes another
peninsula which has the isthmus that extends from
Scylletium to the Hipponiate Gulf. The name of
the tribe was given to it by the Leucani, for the
Leucani call all revolters brettii." The Brettii
revolted, so it is said (at first they merely tended
flocks for the Leucani, and then, by reason of the
indulgence of their masters, began to act as free
men), at the time when Dio made his expedition
against Dionysius and aroused all peoples against all
others. So much, then, for my general description
of the Leucani and the Brettii.
5. The next city after Laiis belongs to Brettium,
and is named Temesa, though the men of to-day call
it Tempsa; it was founded by the Ausones, but later
on was settled also by the Aetolians under the
leadership of Thoas; but the Aetolians were ejected
by the Brettii, and then the Brettii were crushed by
Hannibal and by the Romans. Near Temesa, and
thickly shaded with wild olive-trees, is the hero-
temple of Polites, one of the companions of Odysseus,
who was treacherously slain by the barbarians, and
for that reason became so exceedingly wroth against
the country that, in accordance with an oracle, the
people of the neighbourhood collected tribute for
him; and hence, also, the popular saying applied to
those who are merciless,2 that they are "beset by
the hero of Temesa." But when the Epizephyrian
Locrians captured the city, Euthymus, the pugilist,
so the story goes, entered the lists against Polites,
defeated him in the fight and forced him to release the
(note on Iliad 1. 185) quotes "the geographer" (i.e. Strabo;
see note 1, p. 320) as making the saying apply to "those who
are unduly wroth, or very severe when they should not be."
E7rtXOwpov. TavrT 8 S7 T7elo; r k7v 6 aa6, LefJvf-
acOat Torv 7Trotiv7T, ob Tr J dv Kv7rpq Tapiaarov
(Ceerat 7Y9p apOTe'op) 7 1
rE TepQealv / ETa XaXcov,
C 256 icalt Sefli rat XaXKOupyeta 7rX?7oiov, a vvv eicXe-
XetTcrat. TavT'T7 8 cvvre9x Teptva, iv 'Avvl-
/3a icaQecXev, ob Svva/Ivo; (cUvaTflTrev, oTe S
els avTrrv KaTarar evfyet Trv BperTTav. eCTa
KwOo-eVTa PttmTp67roXt Bpe'Crrov. ,tuKpov 8' kbr'p
TavTl'r HavSooaia Opovplov epv/uvov, vrepl v'V
'AX4,av8poV o MoXorTTr Se40Odp). iE7TrrgTrOe
icacl TOVTOV o C A(w8(,vr) Xpqjo'l;, ovXa'dr-
rea-fcal kcXevov rv 'AXepov'a Kca HlavSoaiav
8eticvvpevwv yap ev T ee Oeo-rpo)Tla olp OVUpwvl ToV-
TOt;, evTavOa Ka're Tpe 76 ToP flto. TrptLpvU)ov
S' eo-Ti TO povptov, Ical ~apappet 7roTra/Io
'AXepowv. 'rpoo-77ra'Tqr e 8e KcaL dXXo X'ytov,
HavSoa-ia 7TptKoX ve, roXVV 7wore Xaov oXereo-etV
Soe ,yap 7roXe/t.ov lopdv, oVic ol ceIov ~81Xov0at.
aor 86 ical pa3aa-letov Inore yeve'erOat T&-V Olvw-
TpIucv /arotXiev 71v Hav8oolav. pTerA' B T'V
Ko0o-evrTav 'I7rrwrvov, Aoxcpov IcrT'o/a BperTTov9
8i xaITEaovTra d(e~lovTo 'PwpaZot Kal peT'wvo-
paa-av O 6a Oi v a Xevav. 81h SE TOb eXCi-
1 T*, Miller-Diibner, for rd. Meineke relegates .
xaxKdv to the foot of the page.
SOdyssey 1. 184.
2 Cp. 6. 3. 4 and footnote.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 5
natives from the tribute. People say that Homer
has in mind this Temesa, not the Tamassus in Cyprus
(the name is spelled both ways), when he says "to
Temesa, in quest of copper." 1 And in fact copper
mines are to be seen in the neighbourhood, although
now they have been abandoned. Near Temesa is
Terina, which Hannibal destroyed, because he was
unable to guard it, at the time when he had taken
refuge in Brettium itself. Then comes Consentia,
the metropolis of the Brettii; and a little above this
city is Pandosia, a strong fortress, near which
Alexander the Molossian 2 was killed. He, too, was
deceived by the oracle 3 at Dodona, which bade him
be on his guard against Acheron and Pandosia; for
places which bore these names were pointed out to
him in Thesprotia, but he came to his end here in
Brettium. Now the fortress has three summits, and
the River Acheron flows past it. And there was
another oracle that helped to deceive him: "Three-
hilled Pandosia, much people shalt thou kill one day";
for he thought that the oracle clearly meant the
destruction of the enemy, not of his own people. It
is said that Pandosia was once the capital of the
Oenotrian Kings. After Consentia comes Hipponium,
which was founded by the Locrians. Later on, the
Brettii were in possession of Hipponium, but the
Romans took it away from them and changed its
name to Vibo Valentia. And because the country
3 The oracle, quoted by Casaubon from some source un-
known to subsequent editors was:
AlaiciS, rpop6haao pohocv 'Axepoiatov fSwp
IavSoaiv 5' i6sL roi Oivar'aTs irrpwp os tT'l.
"Son of Aeacus, beware to go to the Acherusian water and
Pandosia, where 'tis fated thou shalt die."
wova elvatl Ti TepcKeLteva xwpla Kal avOlpa 7rI7
KoplYv cK EtXceXia 7reraTriaevcaoav datucveio0at
Seipo dtvOoXoy rjovaav K 82 8 ro''Ov Trav yvvat4v
ev f'Oet ye'ovCev AvOoXoyei 7v Te oKa:l TeavqwrhXoAKev,
Wor'e Taats eopraLs aioapov elvat aTredavovq owvl-
TOV4? opeEv. eXat 8' e'rlveLwv, 8 icareoKEvaa-E
7oTe 'AyaOoKick 6o rTpavvoq Tv ItIcEXLTTaSv,
Kpa'rijoa 7 rI oXeoF. evrevOev 8' e' rTv 'Hpa-
KXE'ovg XtpeLva 7rXevaao v a'pXY To70V e7rrpe'eLV
T7 acpa 7p T 'ITraXla Ta 7rp r Tr UIopOp(4 7rpo0
TrV earepav. 6v 8\ TW rapdvrX(p TroTM Me4/a,
7r6Xt. Aoicpov Tav avTrov otdwvviLOF KpjvI /eyaqX ,y,
'n ,to-]wv X'ovaa ferLTvetov IcaXov'uevov 'EZTproptov'
dey7VF S K~al MI' avpov 'vroTatto, Kal 5oplpot
op.wvviLwo. Trpo~etvTra Ti v9 ?t vo TaVT1'7 at
TWv Avrnapalwv vilaot, 8tieovo-aa roO TIop0jUo3
o7ra&'ov &aStacocrlov. ol 8' Al6Xov 4aaliv, oi Kal
TOV rOn-or77v petv~o-ats KcaTr 7-Tv 'O8acraetav" eloa
S' wrTa rvy ptOi9P iv ev 4 r eo'et vraca Kal ra To'
7TP tIucE lal ca Tat roi C T 4r 7TrelpoU TO'i KraT
T v MeBSav Aoopio-a 7rept 0v epoDpev, 0rav oprep
Tri ltuceXtla XAywopev. aTro Se 70T Meravpov
7rorapoD, MC'Tavpo1 ETepov' dEcSr eTat 8' EYevTOev
1 Mvdravpos, Kramer emends to wroirapds, and Meineke deletes.
1 i.e. Persephone.
2 The "Siciliotes" were Sicilian Greeks, as distinguished
from native Sicilians.
3 Now Tropea. But in fact the turn towards the west
begins immediately after Hipponium.
4 Odyssey 10. 2 ff.
5 Strabo's "Metaurus" and "second Metaurus are con-
fusing. Kramer, Meineke, and others wish to emend the
text so as to make the "second" river refer to the Crataeis
or some other river. But we should have expected Strabo
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 5
round about Hipponium has luxuriant meadows
abounding in flowers, people have believed that Core1
used to come hither from Sicily to gather flowers;
and consequently it has become the custom among the
women of Hipponium to gather flowers and to weave
them into garlands, so that on festival days it is
disgraceful to wear bought garlands. Hipponium
has also a naval station, which was built long ago by
Agathocles, the tyrant of the Siciliotes,2 when lie made
himself master of the city. Thence one sails to the
Harbour of Heracles,3 which is the point where the
headlands of Italy near the Strait begin to turn
towards the west. And on this voyage one passes
Medma, a city of the same Locrians aforementioned,
which has the same name as a great fountain there,
and possesses a naval station near by, called Em-
porium. Near it is also the Metaurus River, and
a mooring-place bearing the same name. Off this
coast lie the islands of the Liparaei, at a distance of
two hundred stadia from the Strait. According to
some, they are tile islands of Aeolus, of whom the
Poet makes mention in the Odyssey.4 They are
seven in number and are all within view both from
Sicily and from the continent near Medma. But I
shall tell about them when I discuss Sicily. After
the Metaurus River comes a second Metaurus.5
to mention first the Medma (now the Mesima), which was
much closer to Medma than the Metaurus (now the Marro),
and to which he does not refer at all. Possibly he thought
both rivers were called Metaurus (cp. Miller, Ind. Var. Lec-
tionis, p. 975), in which case "the second Metaurus" is the
Metaurus proper. The present translator, however, believes
that Strabo, when he says "second Metaurus," alludes to the
Umbrian Metaurus (5. 2. 10) as the first, and that the copyist,
unaware of this fact, deliberately changed "Medma" to
" Metaurus" in the two previous instances.
To CCvd'Xatov, TrErpa Xeppovqriovuaa *nX'lj, T'ov
C 257 lo-aOv apitpl8vpov Kial TaTretvov e'ovo-a, op 'Avami-
Xaog 6 Trpavvo" TWV 'PT?7LWCOwV eTeLEttoe TOLW
TvpprvoV;, Ka'ao-Kcevda-a; vaV;oralpOov, Kal Atel-
XeTro Tob X r7a ToV 8ta 70'T Hlopl-toD Std7rXhouv.
'rXrh'aov 7yp daort ral ;1 KaZvvg, Sxreovoa 7Tr
ME68/9 ; 'TaSloWv rTe7Ti77covTa Kal StaKO-clovg, ?7
reXevTala a/lpa vroioaa Ta T-reva 70T HlopOtLOD
*rpb9 TI 7v Ec 7T9 icK a eXla alpav rT7v HeXwptdSa"
e L'T af' q tl[a T v TptIwv 7roIov0-av Tplywvov
T'7v vijov, VEvEL Se' 7r' OfeptvaY dpvaTOXa9, KaadTrep
77 Kaivv rpo?' TjV co-vTrepav, d'Traroo-TpoO(fv Twva
atr' aXXjXOPv TrOtovltevowv av;Tuv. aorO Katvvo'
/tEXPI T70OI HI00-ES ov 417 T P77ljO'vwv OTrvUXSo
T7O IIoppoD Si77jKe aIr-vwTrO9 00-O" v eaor'Tato,
Ultcpp 86 7orrXEov Tb eXdXatcrTrov ta'nrpaga, AdrO e
To-TVXLSo0 eca'Tv ell 'Pijy'ov, 1'8 TOi0 HopO/tov
7rXarTvo/p'vov, 7rpolovO- rrp TV E' Kal 7Frp0o
eo 0aXaTTav 'T7V 7ro0 ItiKeXtKic KaXov/ifvov
6. Krirapa S' eo-T' TO 'PTyiov XaXKiSctov, obv
Icara XP?0-I.y ov EKcarev0e1Ta T 'A7TOrXXw S0'
&ioplav, varrepov EC AeXpwiv T1rotKi7c-at &Sepo
aa-o, 7rapaXa/36vrTa Kal a'XXovu Tov o'icoOevr' C>
8' 'Av7royXO' ra'L, Zay/chaot /peTre76Epfavro Trov
XaXhlce'a? Kat OLKc oL7V'V 'AvrTij.v7rov O-vvearvT-av
1 4, Jones inserts; Corais and others insert ical.
1 Now Cape Cavallo.
2 North-east (op. 1. 2. 21).
a Altar or temple of Poseidon.
4 Cp. 6.1. 9.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 5-6
Next after this river comes Scyllaeum, a lofty rock
which forms a peninsula, its isthmus being low and
affording access to ships on both sides. This isthmus
Anaxilafis, the tyrant of the Rhegini, fortified
against the Tyrrheni, building a naval station there,
and thus deprived the pirates of their passage
through the strait. For Caenys,1 too, is near by,
being two hundred and fifty stadia distant from
Medma; it is the last cape, and with the cape on
the Sicilian side, Pelorias, forms the narrows of the
Strait. Cape Pelorias is one of the three capes that
make the island triangular, and it bends towards the
summer sunrise,2 just as Caenys bends towards the
west, each one thus turning away from the other in
the opposite direction. Now the length of the nar-
row passage of the Strait from Caenys as far as the
Poseidonium,3 or the Columna Rheginorum, is about
six stadia, while the shortest passage across is slightly
more; and the distance is one hundred stadia from
the Columna to Rhegium, where the Strait begins to
widen out, as one proceeds towards the east, towards
the outer sea, the sea which is called the Sicilian
6. Rhegium was founded by the Chalcidians who,
it is said, in accordance with an oracle, were
dedicated, one man out of every ten Chalcidians,
to Apollo,4 because of a dearth of crops, but later on
emigrated hither from Delphi, taking with them still
others from their home. But according to Antiochus,
the Zanclaeans sent for the Chalcidians and appointed
Antimnestus their founder-in-chief.5 To this colony
5 Zancle was the original name of Messana (now Messina)
in Sicily. It was colonised and named Messana by the
Peloponnesian Messenians (6. 2. 3).
eiceivwv. 7o-av 7T? aivotdxla Kca ol Meao-?vtrvw
fsvyade' rTV Ev IT leXOr17-ovv)r- KtcaTao-Tra'taelovreT
bTTr TO v PI) /ovXopzvOv 8ovvat 8bcaT vrep 7p 7T?
Ogophv rowV rape'vwvr Tj, ev A1itvat yevo-
fevl~, T70o AaKe8atiovlot-, A Kial abTro'1 e/3,d-
a-avro, rreC feto-a err e7rt v lepovpylav, Kac r70,
e7r1i/o07ovvTa'r a7reKcTevav. 7rapaXopojaoavTeC
oUv eQ McicKtro ol a vy/dieq 7r7Lrrovo-t e',
Oeor, UePboUftevot rTO 'ATr XXo' ical T7iv Ap-
TreLV, el TOtOVTOV Tvy( avotev av 6' v tiy cpovv
aTrots, Kal 7rvv0avdotevot, rTC0w Av tcraOete dAro-
XOiXoT 8' 'ArnroXXov e,'iXlevr-e ore'XXeaoat
Aera XaXit Xic v elf Tb 'P ytIov Kal 7 T adel(fy
avTrov Xadptv etv' ob yap ZrroXwaXeva aVTovJ,
dXxa aeo-aaoat, /IeoXXo avi ye / /r ouvvabavt-
a-9i7aeafa 7T -rrarpl8t, aXo(,ro/,-evo P ut pov I arepov
vrrb vrraprtaTriv' ol 0' v7riKovoav. Stirerp ol Tov
'PrlLvaiv 7yeB/oves peXpt 'Ava~1Xa TO7 Mea-criO-yVt
IyvovV del iaOearravro. 'AvrtoXo' r b TraXatov
aTravTa ToV 'TO7OV TOVTOV oiKfJaal 9oqt (t/ceXobs'
McaI Mopyqra"Ta tapat 8 el T'lV tKceXlav troTepov,
eic3X'l0vraq vLorb Trv Oivorpwv,. caao- & Tiev
Kal 7T MopydvTrov dvrei60ev rV 7poa-yoplav po/la
C 258 TOv Mopy/rjoV ekXeiV. r'o-xvce Ae UIyo-ITV 7 rTvV
'Pqylvwv rorXtq ali reptotuci8a' E'o-xe O-vxvad, e7rt-
TelXCIaO-pIa Tre vrpev del T7y vI0-r) Kcal rraXat
Kat veOcTi ef' Vjti&v, jvlKca Ce-TO? Iolrrt'10o'
1 abTro, the reading of the MSS., Jones restores; for
abvds, the reading of the editors since Corais.
1 Cp. 6. 3. 3. and 8. 4. 9. 2 Cp. Pausanias, 4. 4. 1.
2 Anaxilas (also spelled Anaxilaiis) was ruler of Rhegium
from 494 to 476 B.c. (Diodorus Siculus 11. 48).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 6
also belonged the refugees of the Peloponnesian
Messenians who had been defeated by the men of
the opposing faction. These men were unwilling to
be punished by the Lacedaemonians for the violation
of the maidens 1 which took place at Limnae, though
they were themselves guilty of the outrage done to
the maidens, who had been sent there for a religious
rite and had also killed those who came to their aid.2
So the refugees, after.withdrawing to Macistus, sent
a deputation to the oracle of the god to find fault
with Apollo and Artemis if such was to be their fate
in return for their trying to avenge those gods, and
also to enquire how they, now utterly ruined, might
be saved. Apollo bade them go forth with the
Chalcidians to Rhegium, and to be grateful to his
sister; for, he added, they were not ruined, but saved,
inasmuch as they were surely not to perish along
with their native land, which would be captured a
little later by the Spartans. They obeyed; and
therefore the rulers of the Rhegini down to Anaxilas 3
were always appointed from the stock of the
Messenians. According to Antiochus, the Siceli and
Morgetes had in early times inhabited the whole of
this region, but later, on, being ejected by the
Oenotrians, had crossed over into Sicily. According
to some, Morgantium also took its name from the
Morgetes of Rhegium.4 The city of Rhegium was
once very powerful and had many dependencies in
the neighbourhood; and it was always a fortified
outpost threatening the island, not only in earlier
times but also recently, in our own times, when Sextus
4 Cp. 6. 2. 4. The Latin name of this Sicilian city was
"Murgantia." Livy (10. 17) refers to another Murgantia in
ar~o-err'a-e Trv lteXllav. cvoldari 8o 'Pjytov,
e'i', eS rcitv Aloi-XXo9, Stah b O-vIA3av rdao' rfo
X _,pa ravrTy' aroppayrlvat tyap d ro 7 '7jreLpov
T27 t/CKEXLav UVTO actL~O/i, aXXot TE KaKEICE o
do,' oi5 8] 'Prjytov KiKcAtKfcerat.
reKficalpovrat 8' dr- T rrV ept r7v AL''Tv7v Ov4-
TrrToart'ov IcaL Tcv KcaT' aXXa iupIj Trjv tLceXla;
Iat TroV Kara AtrrVpav Kal Ta 76rep av-rrv V7jovF9,
T Se Tov Vcara Ta HtllioKov'-oa Kat I rca v 7rpoo-
eXi 7repata, airauav ovi a7Trewicf vTradpX~ev al
T70O70 oavU/3jvat. vvvl tepv oiv aveiyitevwv ToV-
Twr Trcov a-rodtrcrwo, it' 0v 'To oVp dva vat rat
IKal Iv 8pot ical 8ara eicrlnret, eT7raPtov Tr o-ete-
a0at faort TV rrept T7rv opOpBOP 7 yv, rrTOTE
raavrwv eJiTrefpayl.evwv T'rov els r7v cErrmtiveav
7ropwv, vnro Y74 o-1.tvXopeLov TO TOUp IcKa TO 7rvevv/a
aewto-obv Av rpytidetro u o0po6vZ, foXXeUCtUevoC 8'
o0 T7rot 'rp'; To tar 7v ('Iav (V vPV bTreCa^v Vrore
Kal avappayevTe'; e'Se'avTo T 'v leCarepwecv 0dXar-
7av Kal Travirv Ka 7rv ierat7b 7TWV aXXOwv T~v
ra vT vr2Owv. Kal yap HpoX 'Tr Ktal Hit-
OriKovacr-a a.Troarrdo-ia'a T7jv 17rt'elpov Kal at
Karrplat Ka i'5 AevUowo' a Kalt etptlve'; Kal at
OiwTorpliSe. atl 8 icalt ie 70Tr eXdyouv 'veS8vUav,
icaadTrep Kal vPv 7roXXaXo o-vp r aivec' Tag LEav
yap rreXayla, deK 3v ofD /^XXov avevevXOavat
,ritOavov, Tdse & 7rpoKicjteva' TrWV dKcpOr7ptIw Kal
'ropOplo 8tSyprt/Ldva' evTreVev ad-reppwyEvat 8OKwdc
1 Cp. 1. 3. 19 and the footnote on "rent."
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 6
Pompeius caused Sicily to revolt. It was named
Rhegium, either, as Aeschylus says, because of the
calamity that had befallen this region, for, as both
he and others state, Sicily was once "rent" I from
the continent by earthquakes, "and so from this
fact," he adds, "it is called Rhegium." They infer
from the occurrences about Aetna and in other parts
of Sicily, and in Lipara and in the islands about it,
and also in the Pithecussae and the whole of the
coast of the adjacent continent, that it is not
unreasonable to suppose that the rending actually
took place. Now at the present time the earth
about the Strait, they say, is but seldom shaken by
earthquakes, because the orifices there, through
which the fire is blown up and the red-hot masses
and the waters are ejected, are open. At that time,
however, the fire that was smouldering beneath the
earth, together with the wind, produced violent
earthquakes, because the passages to the surface
were all blocked up, and the regions thus heaved up
yielded at last to the force of the blasts of wind,
were rent asunder, and then received the sea that
was on either side, both here2 and between the
other islands in that region.3 And, in fact, Prochyte
and the Pithecussae are fragments broken off from
the continent, as also Capreae, Leucosia, the Sirenes
and the Oenotrides. Again, there are islands which
have arisen from the high seas, a thing that even
now happens in many places; for it is more plausible
that the islands in the high seas were heaved up
from the deeps, whereas it is more reasonable to
think that those lying offthe promontories and separ
ated merely by a strait from the mainland have been
SAt the Strait. Cp. 1. 3. 10 and the footnote.
ebXoycTepov. 7rrXv e'"re 8thl Trara roL'volta T*
7roXet 7yEyoVeV, e'ie 8ta T'rV E7Tdrtdc avera1 TrT roeXC,
cog av 3aoalXeov T?7 AaT'lvj wvg 7rpooadyopev-
advTrwv avviTrv 8ta TO TOvV apX?7reTa? avrwv
KoWovivo-at 'Pwato aiotv T 7roXtTrela,? cal ri 'iroXb
Xprjara atr Tp AaTrivry 8ta iX rapeoart o-Kcorewv,
odroTGepw) 6Xe T aXV~7E. e7rtiavi 8' obv 7rodXv
oia-av ical uroXXa Pev 7roXeti olictaaaav, vroXaXob
8' divpav rrapaaXo/e'vrjv Adtov? XOdov, TrobV' /I
KaTa 7ro TTtKrtc apeTr)v, TOvk 8e icaTa 7rat8etav,
IaTaatKa'rat Atovro-tov alTtaao-devov, OT( alT27-
aa/.ev Kop?7v i-rpo aydlov T7V r70T S yttov Ovya-
TEpa 7rpobTEvaV o 8' vlko arVTOV Upop Tt TOV
KTicap1aTO9 avaXapS3v Iot/,tav edKXeev. 7rl 8\
HTppov TiWV Kaftravoov Opovpa 7rapaorrovSri-
OvETav &tdeOetpe Tob\ wrrXeloT7ovV pItcpov 86\ rpo
7WV o MapaCrtlv Kal (afc-polt KaTcrjpet'av 7roX? T'I-
C 259 KaTrocMia w. HowLrrntov 8' dicKaX3o\ 71- ET~tcXtla d6
:e/Cao-TOr Ka~-ap, 6opov Xe7ravopoDicav T)\V 7rXlv,
cvvolicove O'8WO aT7j TOV fC 7TO rToIXov TTVda,
icat vOv lcapvi evav8pet.
7. 'Aro 86 TOa 'Prlytov i7-XoVTt 7rpoq Co
AevKo7rITpav iaXoo~tv aicpavr dr 7-j7 Xypoa
iev rr6T17COVTa ToTa8blot, el, ijv TeXevrTdv aot TO\
'ATr'vvvov bpoq. evTe0Vev 'Hpdiceov, o S
re\evTapov KcpWoT~jpLv yv vevet rpo .t P eo-P plCav
2 Dionysius the Elder (b. about 432 B.c., d. 367 c.)
3 Diodorus Siculus (14. 44) merely says that the Assembly
of the Rhegini refused him a wife.
4 Apparently in honour of Phoebus (Apollo); for, accord.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. 6-7
rent therefrom. However, the question which of
the two explanations is true, whether Rhegium got its
name on account of this or on account of its fame (for
the Samnitae might have called it by the Latin word
for "royal," 1 because their progenitors had shared in
the government with the Romans and used the Latin
language to a considerable extent), is open to invest-
igation. Be this as it may, it was a famous city, and
not only founded many cities but also produced many
notable men, some notable for their excellence as
statesmen and others for their learning; never-
theless, Dionysius2 demolished it, they say, on the
charge that when he asked for a girl in marriage
they proffered the daughter of the public execu-
tioner; 3 but his son restored a part of the old city
and called it Phoebia.4 Now in the time of Pyrrhus
the garrison of the Campani broke the treaty and
destroyed most of the inhabitants, and shortly before
the Marsic war much of the settlement was laid in
ruins by earthquakes; but Augustus Caesar, after
ejecting Pompeius from Sicily, seeing that the city
was in want of population, gave it some men from his
expeditionary forces as new settlers, and it is now
7. As one sails from Rhegium towards the east,
and at a distance of fifty stadia, one comes to Cape
Leucopetra 5 (so called from its colour), in which, it
is said, the Apennine Mountain terminates. Then
comes Heracleium, which is the last cape of Italy
and inclines towards the south; for on doubling it
ing to Plutarch (De Alexandri Virtute 338 B), Dionysius the
Younger called himself the son of Apollo, "offspring of his
mother Doris by Phoebus."
5 Literally, White Rock."
KacdyravrTt yap ed0v'6 6 7rXob At,3 ite'ypi 7tp
cicpav 'larvTytav E-t' eXtcK ive 7rpo? apicrov aed
Ical pta\X ov icat 7rpo" Trv e rV o-rpav ET r~ovr KoXr ov
TOv 'IoIov. Lerd Se '- 'HpdpcXetov dicpa 7T?
Aoicptlos, / icaXdeTat Zefvptov, eXovaa 7rpoaceXI
T70 o'? replot7 dvefiotC Xtuevra, C) o1 Ica't Troivoya.
e9' 7 7roXt ol AoicpoL ol 'ETrec ptot, Aoicpwv
c7roucoit TWV Ev T! Kpto-a1 IcOdX jiUcpov
ia-repov r ij2 Kp6drvo, Kcal $vpaKcovacrwv KTr-
o-eo a~trotctsO8Tvares bro EEdvOovv" "EOopo S'
ob0c eu, Tr&v 'O7rovvrlwv Aocp6ov dciroliovv /pjo-aa;.
eTr] 1I4V ov 7Tpla 1 "rTrTapa ..KOVV eTrI TO Ze-
obvpirt eiTa 6erTlveyiKcav Trv 7Trtv, a-V ,rpavidvrwv
Kal vpaKovuacrwvo uaia y7p ovroi dV o*q 'iat
o-1TIV EKEL KpfV7 Aotcpia, o5rou ol Aoicpol eaOTpaTO-
7rCevtiavTO. elal S' irb 'Prylov ItEXpt AoIcpCv
aiaKcl ios ard8tot. L'8pvTat S' I 7roXlp d7r'
j4pvo;, "jy 'ETr rtIv 4 KiaXoirO t.
1 po(Yxi (cp. wpoaasexs 4. G. 2, 5. 3. 6, 5. 4. 4), Jones
2 &rd, after T3s, the editors either bracket or delete.
3 ta y&p oi4rotL ols, except Spa, is corrupt. The con-
jectures are: & pa iTOVTOI (Corais), 61Aa y&p o7ros i6iScovv
(Casaubon), Sp/a yap oiSrot yKdo'ad7o abrois (Groskurd), and
pa Tapav'rivots (C. Miller). Kramer and Meineke give the
passage up as hopeless. Jones inclines strongly to &pa
4 'Erirair, Meineke, for 'Ea-Cnrtv.
1 The "Ionian Gulf" was the southern "part of what is
now called the Adriatic Sea" (2. 5. 20); see 7. 5. 8-9.
Literally, the "Western Locrians," both city and
inhabitants having the same name.
3 Now the Gulf of Salona in the Gulf of Corinth.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 7
one immediately sails with the southwest wind as
far as Cape lapygia, and then veers off, always more
and more, towards the northwest in the direction
of the Ionian Gulf.' After Heracleium comes a
cape belonging to Locris, which is called Zephyrium;
its harbour is exposed to the winds that blow from
the west, and hence the name. Then comes the
city Locri Epizephyrii,2 a colony of the Locri who
live on the Crisaean Gulf,3 which was led out by
Evanthes only a little while after the founding of
Croton and Syracuse.4 Ephorus is wrong in calling
it a colony of the Locri Opuntii. However, they
lived only three or four years at Zephyrium, and
then moved the city to its present site, with the
co-operation of Syracusans [for at the same time the
latter, among whom .] 5 And at Zephyrium there
is a spring, called Locria, where the Locri first
pitched camp. The distance from Rhegium to Locri
is six hundred stadia. The city is situated on the
brow of a hill called Epopis.
4 Croton and Syracuse were founded, respectively, in 710
and 734 B.c. According to Diodorus Siculus (4. 24), Heracles
had unintentionally killed Croton and had foretold the
founding of a famous city on the site, the same to be named
6 The Greek text, here translated as it stands, is corrupt.
The emendations thus far offered yield (instead of the nine
English words of the above rendering) either (1) "for the
latter were living" (or "had taken up their abode ") "there
at the same time" or (2) "together with the Tarantini."
There seems to be no definite corroborative evidence for
either interpretation; but according to Pausanias, "colonies
were sent to Croton, and to Locri at Cape Zephyrium, by
the Lacedaemonians" (3. 3); and "Tarentum is a Lace-
daemonian colony" (10. 10). Cp. the reference to the
Tarantini in Strabo's next paragraph
8. IHpIrot 8~ vlobots' EyyparrToZ Xp4crlcaatat
7TrEIrto-ev/fOE vot 6 Ela Ka 7TrXeAio-T Xpovov evoPr-
O6ev7a Aiovv0-to' 7IeKeOA Jc TeK I'vpatcovaulo)v
avolIt-raTa 7raLVTO) 8tEXprloaro, ob' ye rrpoeyda/je
/h"v 7rapetcrwvv e vvt 8 aTIoV a oa ro-
XwOielcaa,x vva'ayowv Se 7T? r palaq rrapoBfvovE
-reptTarepaS KoXo7TTepovU V TOIV 70 O-UProrOLtV
j let, cKaicKva'; eiCeve3 rpevetv ,yvppvcd, Ttrva
86 Kca't avS it a vbrro8ovu 'vav avuya, TO /IEv
vryxo, vTo e T7aret v1, repLSulKcw T ta; dacra
7rov dape7roiv %dppv. kica' /Eivot o' rt-e, E'rreti(
iralXtv els T7rv tIceXlav E7ravi0ev, avaaXrIofiLe-vo
Trv apXjv c KaraXkoavTre yap ol AoKcpoi 7)v
4povpav l7Xev9epwaav oafa Kacl T7j 7yvvalKo'
abTro c al TWV 7rairlw(v Kcvptot KaTEo-Tao'7av 86o
8' (To-av al Ovyarepe' Ical 71ov viov o vewrepov
Sr78 tietpaKtdov arTpov ,yap 'AroOaXXocpdriv o'vve-
aTrpaTrj7yeT 7( raTrpl Tv /c-orov. 7roXXv Ie
eoyiT 7T6 AtoVuotLp KavT7 Kal TapavTtvo i
rrep avTro, rrpoearat r7a owparAa ('5 ok av
eXlerawoat, obv'K oaav, dXXha roXtopxiav v7re-
C 260 1etvav K(al TorpO9rlow T0 X'pa7, Trbv & Ovbuv
el Th f OvyaTcpa 70TV 7rXei70o-ov e'(xeav icara-
7ropev9elO'as -. yap EcrpalyydaX7o-av, eta Kuav-
aavTe 7Ta awpiaTa KaTIrXeoav T7 ocrTa Ka
1 vvApoao.Teioxr0os as, Jones, with Kramer and Miiller-
Diubner, restores the reading of the MSS., as against the
Epit., the early editors, and Meineke.
2 KcoorrTpovs, Meineke, for ho7rrepovs.
3 LdXeeve, the reading of n o, for ?iccAE'e ; so the editors
4 Tas qdoras, Groskurd, for ifpao-av.
5 e', Xylander, for v ; so the later editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 8
8. The Locri Epizephyrii are believed to have
been the first people to use written laws. After
they had lived under good laws for a very long
time, Dionysius, on being banished from the country
of the Syracusans,' abused them most lawlessly of
all men. For he would sneak into the bed-chambers
of the girls after they had been dressed up for their
wedding, and lie with them before their marriage;
and he would gather together the girls who were
ripe for marriage, let loose doves with cropped wings
upon them in the midst of the banquets, and then
bid the girls waltz around unclad, and also bid some
of them, shod with sandals that were not mates
(one high and the other low), chase the doves
around-all for the sheer indecency of it. How-
ever, he paid the penalty after he went back to
Sicily again to resume his government; for the
Locri broke up his garrison, set themselves free,
and thus became masters of his wife and children.
These children were his two daughters, and the
younger of his two sons (who was already a lad),
for the other, Apollocrates, was helping his father
to effect his return to Sicily by force of arms. And
although Dionysius-both himself and the Tarantini
on his behalf-earnestly begged the Locri to release
the prisoners on any terms they wished, they would
not give them up; instead, they endured a siege
and a devastation of their country. But they poured
out most of their wrath upon his daughters, for they
first made them prostitutes and then strangled
them, and then, after burning their bodies, ground
up the bones and sank them in the sea. Now
1 Dionysius the Younger was banished thence in 357 B.c.
IaTrerovTroaav. T"r 8' T&ov AocKpCwv voloypa iav
/pvray-Oel "E opov, Pv ZdXevKco a-vvo'rafev 6Kc re
W&v KprITuic5v vopllw/v xal Aacovtucv ,cal dic
TrV 'Apeo7rayLTcICv, qoCrlV v TO? 7rpTot(~ Kat-
vicrat Trovo TOv ZdheUKcov, oTn, TOAV 7rpoTepoV Tai
carola'; TO? 8iKaaTa'a ecrrpetfifvTov dpitew e 6'
exaLO-TOt9 TOE aol iKIjaaiv, ceKlWvoq eV TOP? VOpto(
8toprpLev, 7fyo/eotov T jaq hv uyvycrLaq TcOV StKaoa'-T
ovXl Taq aiTa, elvatc repi, TAv avrTv, Setv 8e Ta'
avTar elvai1 TI raivet 8 2 iaL TO aTrXovOcr-r p
7repl Tr&v3 cauv 3oXaiouv 8taTraT at. Oovpiovu 8'
iO-repov dcpIt3oDv 9'XovTraq 7ripa Tor&v Aocpwv
vo80ore7povI 116 yeve'a-0a, XELpova Bc"- cbvopef-
ac0at yap ov TouV ev Tro VOtiotV aTra a puXaTTo-
pivov O, ro Tv o'vKco avrT6, aXXa TroVU 6jie'vovTra
TO7t a"rXtG KcetIevosLV. Trovro 8\ Ial HlXd'rwv
etpq~cev, OrTt rap olq 7rXeZo-Tro votot Kati SiKat
7rapa ToVTOtv cal p'ot ptoX7l poi, caldtrep IKal
7rap ohk lIapol 7roXXol, Kcal vocrouv eL o etvat
9. ToiD K "AX coV rroratco3 roD S8opi4ovTro
Trv 'Prqfivlv Ad7ro Ti, AoicpI8o, /3laav cdpaT ya
8te6EOVTO9, '8sLtV Tt c-UJPaLveLt TO 'rrepl Tor TE'TIt-
yav" of /-tv yAp ey T, rO AoKcpWv rrepala fq y-
yovrat, TroK 8' A~wovovs elvat ovpI 3aive TO 8'
atTiov eticaovuow, on Tot OP/V 7raXI-iVOKtO eCrT TO
1 ESva, Corais inserts. Meineke reads: &hs a8 Cnvlas a8ev
elva TAr aiTrds.
2 Iravwei 61, Corais, for drawerv ; so the later editors.
3 aTvry, after rTv, Meineke deletes; so Kramer and Gros-
kurd, who would insert arTdv before repi.
Sirepa (o) for rapid (A B C ) ; so the other editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 8-9
Ephorus, in his mention of the written legislation
of the Locri, which was drawn up by Zaleucus
from the Cretan, the Laconian, and the Areopagite
usages, says that Zaleucus was among the first
to make the following innovation-that whereas
before his time it had been left to the judges
to determine the penalties for the several crimes,
he defined them in the laws, because he held
that the opinions of the judges about the same
crimes would not be the same, although they ought
to be the same. And Ephorus goes on to commend
Zaleucus for drawing up the laws on contracts in
simpler language. And he says that the Thurii, who
later on wished to excel the Locri in precision,
became more famous, to be sure, but morally
inferior; for, he adds, it is not those who in their
laws guard against all the wiles of false accusers
that have good laws, but those who abide by laws
that are laid down in simple language. And Plato
has said as much-that where there are very many
laws, there are also very many law-suits and corrupt
practices, just as where there are many physicians,
there are also likely to be many diseases.'
9. The Halex River, which marks the boundary
between the Rhegian and the Locrian territories,
passes out through a deep ravine; and a peculiar
thing happens there in connection with the grass-
hoppers, that although those on the Locrian bank
sing, the others remain mute. As for the cause of
this, it is conjectured that on the latter side the
1 This appears to be an exact quotation, but the translator
has been unable to find the reference in extant works.
Plato utters a somewhat similar sentiment, however, in the
Republic 404 E-405 A.
O)plov, woT' ev'po-ovu ov ras I1 8Saiao-TrXe rovU
viervaT, rovq S' sia61opevovo ^ pobv; Kcat iceparw-
SeV 'eIV, 5o0-T' AW' av'rwv evvw f'r'7re/7eo-0at
rTOv b06oyIov. 8dELcvvro 8' av8pta v AocpoFg Eb-
vPLouv Tro KiXapwSoi, TErTTya de7r Trv iOdpav
KaOfievov 'Xwv. fro-b' 86 TizatoW, WIIUvOLv TOrr T
a'ywvoluvov' To0V7' re eial 'ApiaoTWva 'Pryrvov
eplo-at r'epi r70To Kpov rTv pIev 8 '"Ap'rwTva
SeZaOat r&v AeXicv eavrTO avOtJrrpaTreTv tepobv
ryap elvat -roD Beo 7TOu 7rpo'yovov avrov ical
T7V Avouciav evOev8e ea'rdG-aLXa 7T 8' E'vopov
jo-aoravTO, apX7rv /tLrlSe ~ervaLt 4celvoE Vrv 7rep'
fowvwIv Ayo-vIa'nTCi, 7rap' ov ical ol TeTTt7ye
etev awaO ot, Ta ev0o 'yy6TaTa TWV wW, JwS
7Wy O ', O, OF
eb8s;ocjelv pyirEv 7rov TOV 'Apo'Trova Kal ev
e'X"rIt 'TV VlIcV 'eXev, viKjqaL pe'VTroL Tov
EvoIpov iala aval0evat rv XexOio-av u eIova ev
7'T Tra'TpL, e'7rte KaTra Trov ayiova, ii ;V T v
^op8v pa' yela77; 7ri-'ra; rhTrrtI 7714 T lpc o-ete Tro
C 261 sOoy/ov. TV 8' J7rp vTP 7OXr6eo) TOrv T leV Lo-
yatap BpeTtot icare'Xovov' Kal c ToXt9 V'ravOa
Maeprtov cal o Spvubo o feppwv 7r)v apt~rOv
7irrlav Trv Bper'T'av, ov :.IXav IcaXoDa-tv, Eve8v-
8po6 re ical edvpoq, pJIcoV erraTcooiwv oraTLwv,
10. Mera 8e AoKpobv; dypa, ov O1XvfcKW
vo/ldouovOtv, e( ov /3/,Uo Atoi oKcovpwv, 'rTep'
ov; AooKpob 1ttptot LTerA 'Plylvowv rp7o e8carpeLV
1 T7)v BpETTiav, v :2[Aav, Palmer, for 9v BpeTrtivtov alAav;
so the other editors.
1 Apparently as to which should perform first.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 9-o1
region is so densely shaded that the grasshoppers,
being wet with dew, cannot expand their membranes,
whereas those on the sunny side have dry and horn-
like membranes and therefore can easily produce
their song. And people used to show in Locri a
statue of Eunomus, the cithara-bard, with a locust
seated on the cithara. Timaeus says that Eunomus
and Ariston of Rhegium were once contesting with
each other at the Pythian games and fell to
quarrelling about the casting of the lots1; so Ariston
begged the Delphians to co-operate with him, for the
reason that his ancestors belonged 2 to the god and
that the colony had been sent forth from there ;
and although Eunomus said that the Rhegini had
absolutely no right even to participate in the vocal
contests, since in their country even the grass-
hoppers, the sweetest-voiced of all creatures, were
mute, Ariston was none the less held in favour and
hoped for the victory; and yet Eunomus gained the
victory and set up the aforesaid image in his native
land, because during the contest, when one of the
chords broke, a grasshopper lit on his cithara and
supplied the missing sound. The interior above
these cities is held by the Brettii; here is the city
Mamertium, and also the forest that produces the
best pitch, the Brettian. This forest is called Sila,
is both well wooded and well watered, and is seven
hundred stadia in length.
10. After Locri comes the Sagra, a river which
has a feminine name. On its banks are the altars
of the Dioscuri, near which ten thousand Locri,
2 Cp. 6. 1. 6.
3 From Delphi to Rhegium.
/vpptaa, KporoTvsaTrv oav/aXovTe ev; eicrav"
d v oi Trsv 7apotytlav 7rpby 70ov aT7tcrrovTrav
EIc7Treaetv qaCIv, aX'qlOearTepa TWv 6irt :dypq.
7rpoao-,uefLvevcaas- S' viot Kical 8tO7T abOlyepov
TroD a'ywvo; 'eVrTCO-70TT 'OXtvp/riaatyv dTray'yeXOeli
TO7E decel TO avujvlv ial ebpefGei TO Tr'XoT 7T4J
Ayyexa9 dAWOCy T7aVr)v S T77v aCUcvopav
alTiav 'ro KpoTreC~vaTat atacr rov Z4 7roXvv
'rTt rvt/.ievat ,povov 8th TO 7rX o T09 7(v T 7o
Wreaov v v dv8pCv. erta 86' Trv :dtpav 'AXatov
c'ritspa KavXawV'a, 7rporepov 8' A1XoWvIa Xeyofte'v,
8t Tohyr rpoxKfeIevov avwxva. 'art 8' 'prJov 0ol
'yap Xyov'TE el6 IeKXtiav1 VrO r&Tv 3ap/3dpwv
etreaov Kal TI eiel KavXvlav er KT av. zeT
SraV'Tjv Yc.XXfhtoi, aroIKco 'AO ivatwv r v
/LETa Meve-ferIo;, viVv 86 IICvXaitov icKaXeira
KporTovtaT7v S' EXYVrwv, AtLOV Cov Aolcpo?
rpoa)pIo-ev.2 aro 7r 7Trohe /caL coTro
2KVXX7TCK0c ovotdaa-Tat, 7rot v rTOv elpyr7fvov
iOpaUov rpof TOr 'Ir7rrowvta'Tiv lcoXTrov. E7reXel-
prcre 6 Atovicrtoo Kala Sta TeaXter v ToV lt`0ov,
arparvcTra9 'Tr AevKcavov;o, Xt6yq pv c ba-d-
Xetav wrapeov arTO TOWV 'KcTO? /3ap3adpwv T70
irVTO t lOaUO i, TOb 0aXr77 X\vrat Trv 7rpoh
1 es sKeAair, Corais, for lvr LKEim ; as later editors.
2 rpoadpttv, Meineke, for pip os ptraev.
1 The Greek, as the English, leaves one uncertain whether
merely the Locrian or the combined army amounted to
10,000 men. Justin (20. 3) gives the number of the Locrian
army as 15,000, not mentioning the Rhegini; hence one
might infer that there were 5,000 Rhegini, and Strabo might
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. io
with Rhegini,1 clashed with one hundred and thirty
thousand Crotoniates and gained the victory-an
occurrence which gave rise, it is said, to the proverb
we use with incredulous people, "Truer than the
result at Sagra." And some have gone on to add
the fable that the news of the result was reported
on the same day2 to the people at the Olympia
when the games were in progress, and that the
speed with which the news had come was afterwards
verified. This misfortune of the Crotoniates is said
to be the reason why their city did not endure much
longer, so great was tile multitude of men who fell
in the battle. After the Sagra comes a city founded
by the Achaeans, Caulonia, formerly called Aulonia,
because of the glen which lies in front of it. It
is deserted, however, for those who held it were
driven out by the barbarians to Sicily and founded
the Caulonia there. After this city comes Scylletium,
a colony of the Athenians who were with Menes-
theus (and now called Scylacium).4 Though the
Crotoniates held it, Dionysius included it within the
boundaries of the Locri. The Scylletic Gulf, which,
with the Hipponiate Gulf forms the aforementioned
isthmus,5 is named after the city. Dionysius under-
took also to build a wall across the isthmus when he
made war upon the Leucani, on the pretext, indeed,
that it would afford security to the people inside the
isthmus from the barbarians outside, but in truth
because he wished to break the alliance which the
have so written, for the Greek symbol for 5,000 (1e), might
have fallen out of the text.
2 Cicero (De Natura Deorum 2. 2.) refers to this tradition.
4 Cp. Vergil, Aeneid 3. 552. 5 6. 1. 4.
aXXrlXovv icocwvlav To6v 'EXXjtwov 3ovXolpeov,,
Oc-T' alpXev a8esq TWV EVTOqd. aXX' Eiccvarav
ol ECTO7 ClceX0ovPres.
11. M TerA' 8 To ic K lXXdrtoP KporowvtilaT
xwpa KIal T&v 'Ia7rvyywv apat rpelv. PferTh s
Ta av T' AaKiVvov, Hpa i!epov, TrXoo-tov VroTe
irdp~rav xal 7roXXcov Ava87;pdrTwv Ifearo. Ta
8tdp/taTa 8' obic ebivptvc Xeye'rav TrXv 0 01 ye7
e7r' TO troXb orTa&iov9 a7rb IlopOloloD Lyp
AaLctwov HIoXV/3oto aTro6woo'-t 'toXXlour Kcal
rptaixoaoov, Tnev0ev 8e 8 cal &appla eli dKpav
'Iarvyiav rr raKoaiove. TOVrTO /I6v oiv o'Troda
Xeyovo-t oD Tapavr'vov KOX7rov. avbro' 6
Kdc6Xro 'Xet reptTr'Xovv I. tXoyov ptXiwv Sta-
cKoai*v TeaoapaKOv Ta, o09 6 Xwpopa4 o daJbn
C 262 Tptatoakov 2 oZySOTcKOvTa evB(V(,, 'ApTeU IoSwpog'
ToaOVTrot" e xcal Xdtcrov TroD 7rXaTdovg 70T orTd-
1 Following Mannert, many of the editors, perhaps rightly,
emend &raXixiovs to Xiou.s.
2 rptacotwv tKdArou: the MSS. read as above except
that BC contain 'Tr instead of rpiaooaiwv b'ySocovrTa, and that
only two MSS., Bl (the latter pr. v,.), have ei(6ivp rather
than &~vy. Groskurd reads: [~Tiv xe(n e rpcposelfav 8raeia
jnepwov] EuSCvyp 'AprTieIlapos [ACyde rAEovTL BE aOraSiv turXt-
AIwv] Trool'ovs BE Kal Aetxrwv [rL or7d 4,aI rOUS Kal IloAv'fios
EpIYKE] T-o IrAXdTOVS rTO (TorTaTOS 70o KdA7Tov. C. Miiller reads:
[of 8' Adv770va orooSti, ieTasiwv Xlyovwres XIAwv] rpOIaKmOOwv
yofoiicovra, ueltova S' 6 'ApTrepLwpos Tooao6rovs, '1t 8e al A',
eTlrv' TO 70 rdTros Tro aO'TdpaTros ro KOdAroU. Meineke indicates
three lacunae-after 0?ial, oy8o#Icovra, and Aeirwv, and reads
&C'vqy; but there are no lacunae in the MSS. Jones pro-
poses: [cGrattwv 8c] 6bySofiiovTia ye Cova KTc. with the MSS.
See note on opposite page.
1 The Lacinium derived its name from Cape Lacinium (now
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 1o-11
Greeks had with one another, and thus command
with impunity the people inside; but the people
outside came in and prevented the undertaking.
11. After Scylletium comes the territory of the
Crotoniates, and three capes of the lapyges; and
after these, the Lacinium,1 a temple of Hera, which
at one time was rich and full of dedicated offerings.
As for the distances by sea, writers give them with-
out satisfactory clearness, except that, in a general
way, Polybius gives the distance from the strait to
Lacinium as two thousand three hundred stadia,2
and the distance thence across to Cape Iapygia as
seven hundred. This point is called the mouth of
the Tarantine Gulf. As for the gulf itself, the
distance around it by sea is of considerable length,
two hundred and forty miles,3 as the Chorographer 4
says, but Artemidorus says three hundred and eighty
for a man well-girded, although he falls short of the
real breadth of the mouth of the gulf by as much.5
Cape Nao), on which it was situated. According to Diodorus
Siculus (4. 24), Heracles, when in this region, put to death
a cattle-thief named Lacinius. Hence the name of the cape.
2 Strabo probably wrote "two thousand" and not "one
thousand (see Mannert, t. 9. 9, p. 202), and so read Gosselin,
Groskurd, Forbiger, Miiller-Diibner and Meineke. Compare
Strabo's other quotation (5. 1. 3) from Polybius on this
subject. There, as here, unfortunately, the figures ascribed
to Polybius cannot be compared with his original statement,
which is now lost.
S240 Roman miles= 1,920, or 2,000 (see 7. 7. 4), stadia.
4 See 5. 2. 7, and the footnote.
6 This passage ("although much") is merely an
attempt to translate the Greek of the manuscripts. The only
variant in the manuscripts is that of ungirded" for "well-
girded." If Strabo wrote either, which is extremely doubtful,
we must infer that Artemidorus' figure, whatever it was,
JiaTOI T70 KoX7rov. A3e'7ret S 7rrpho aPvaoXa;
Xetelptvdy, dpXr S~' avbroiv T Aaclvlov KacATfravTr
'yap e 0v; at Trv 'AXatcv roXheLt, at vvv ovc
elWT rrX v rTj TapavrCvov. (aXXaa &a' Tr'V 86oav
TIVwO atiov Ka'l E 1 rrXnov abriOv Ivrzao-lrat.
12. IIp'rry 8' Ieo' KpoTrv Cv E/carby ca'l
7revTrljovTa a-TaStotq a7ro T70 AaKivlov Kal
7roTratzo Atoaapo xaiKc XqtIv Kac atnXo9 rroTa/oIg
Ne'atlo, 2 Trv eIrwvvUtIav yeveCOat bacrv adro
TO7 o-vt,/3e&937CdroT. KaTax'rv TaF ryp 7tva9 TrV
dtro TO7 ')Xtafco) O'TO'XOV rXaVrf90vrcov 'Axatwv
ecK/3fvat Xeyovra-v e'7r r~iv KcaTdaKeriv TWv Xwptwv,
dTa B av/z7rkeovcTaV avTrov Tpwdoa, KraTaa-
Booraa 'pry~ a avh3p&v Ta 7rXola ept rpiaoat, /apvvo-
/ievas TOP 7rXODi, (O'T avay/caao-Olat /tveLv
dKxevovU, aa Kal 7~'v r yv aTrrov83aav odpvTaa'
Eve;b S\ Kal dXXwv 7rXet6vwv elIa(rlKvovpLi'vow
/al l\7Xovvorwv e Ieivovp Kcar TO oI/oc vXov, oroXXh
KaroiKiag yeveJCoat, &v al whXelov' de7rrvvtoI Tov
1 eav, after 7rdAets, Jones deletes.
2 Meineke, for v ; Corais reads o4.
pertained to the number of days it would take a pedestrian,
at the rate, say, of 160 stadia (20 Roman miles) per day, to
make the journey around the gulf by land. Most of the
editors (including Meineke) dismiss the passage as hopeless
by merely indicating gaps in the text. Groskurd and C. Miiller
not only emend words of the text but also fill in the supposed
gaps with seventeen and nine words, respectively. Groskurd
makes Artemidorus say that a well-girded pedestrian can
complete the journey around the gulf in twelve days, that
the coasting-voyage around it is 2,000 stadia, and that
he leaves for the mouth the same number (700) of stadia
assigned by Polybius to the breadth of the mouth of the
gulf. But C. Miiller writes : "Some make it less, saying
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 11-12
The gulf faces the winter-sunrise;1 and it begins
at Cape Lacinium, for, on doubling it, one im-
mediately comes to the cities of the Achaeans,
which, except that of the Tarantini, no longer exist,
and yet, because of the fame of some of them, are
worthy of rather extended mention.
12. The first city is Croton, within one hundred
and fifty stadia from the Lacinium; and then comes
the River Aesarus, and a harbour, and another river,
the Neaethus. The Neaethus got its name, it is
said, from what occurred there: Certain of the
Achaeans who had strayed from the Trojan fleet
put in there and disembarked for an inspection of
the region, and when the Trojan women who were
sailing with them learned that the boats were empty
of men, they set fire to the boats, for they were
weary of the voyage, so that the men remained
there of necessity, although they at the same time
noticed that the soil was very fertile. And im-
mediately several other groups, on the strength of
their racial kinship, came and imitated them, and thus
arose many settlements, most of which took their
1 i.e. south-east.
2 As often Strabo refers to sites of perished cities as cities.
1,380 stadia, whereas Artemidorus makes it as many plus
30 (1,410), in speaking of the breadth of the mouth of the
gulf." But the present translator, by making very simple
emendations (see critical note 2 on page 38), arrives at
the following: Artemidorus says eighty stadia longer (i.e.
2,000) although he falls short of the breadth of the mouth of
the gulf by as much (i.e. 700 80 = 620). It should be noted
that Artemidorus, as quoted by Strabo, always gives dis-
tances in terms of stadia, not miles (e. g. 3. 2. 11, 8. 2. 1,
14. 2. 29, et passim), and that his figures at times differ
considerably from those of the Chorographer (cp. 6. 3. 10).
Tpwv E~~e'vovro, IKal 7TOTaazo 86 N atOov airo
T7ro 7rdOovg Tqv rrpoo-wvvjlav 'o-Xe. lo-t 6'
'AvrtoXo9, TOO O eo 4(7-cavTro 'AXatol Kpo'wva
IrTIetI, dArreXOefv Me/OxeXXov KaTaacaraexe* evov
TOv TOrroV, tIsova S' eKTicLtejv~Pv `i787 '/S3aprv,
'roTraup 7r 7rXhlcrov oJWvvu.pov, Kplvat Travrlv
a/telvwO e7ravepero-at 8' ovv a7rrrVTa TOV 6eov, el
XMov1 et'7 TaVTrYv avr' edcetviy ICTrleLV, T TV
avetrewv (&TVyave 86 brn-o';ivy v o Mv'o-iceXo1)'
Mv'o-a XXe 3paxVVore, TrapKc 0oev2 aXXo
KXdla'.araT3 oqppev 94' p 5 Tt Tt'
e7raveXOdvra e "CTrlat riv KpoTwva, avrjirpd-
tavTO9 Kal 'ApXlov TO7D T I T'i paKova-as oliI-
o-avTro, 7rpoo7rXevroavTO; KaTa TrvyX7v, 7vbica
WPrI7TO E7Tr To 7T0 vpa ovoPv octOV0) OLKLp (KOVV
8E 'Id7rvyeT rov KpOTrwva 7rporepov, (L "EEopbo
-1rat. 8oiceL 8 '; 7rXtd d Ti 7roXe/Lta Jdcrxjaas
cal Ta 7rept T7v a7jv iOXlrtv Cv 1ILt /yo0i 'OXvULTrtvtd
ol T&)V haXXwv IrpOTepjoavrTe ri O-ra871) 7rrTa
AvPpe9 al7ravTes bv"7ijpav KporTovirTat, WOrT
1 Ayov (Apr. mn.), for Sor'v ; so the editors.
2 rapi e adev, Toup, Siebenkees, Kramer, and Miiller-
Diibner, for rapes teOev ; 7rapeiXB', Epit. ; vapc Beo'v, Corads,
and Meineke, following the versions of Zenobius (3. 42) and
Diod. Sic. (8. 17).
3 For dcAaPiara (all MSS.) Corais, Meineke, and Miiller-
Diibner read Kha6gara ("tears"), following the versions of
Zenob. and Diod. Sic.
4 For 3pedv (all MSS.) Corals, Meineke, and Miller-
Diibner read &~pov, following Epit., Zenob., and Diod. Sic.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. 12
names from the Trojans; and also a river, the Neae-
thus, took its appellation from the aforementioned
occurrence.1 According to Antiochus, when the god
told the Achaeans to found Croton, Myscellus
departed to inspect the place, but when he saw
that Sybaris was already founded-having the same
name as the river near by-he judged that Sybaris
was better; at all events, he questioned the god
again when he returned whether it would be
better to found this instead of Croton, and the god
replied to him (Myscellus2 was a hunchback as it
happened): Myscellus, short of back, in searching
else outside thy track, thou hunt'st for morsels
only; 'tis right that what one giveth thee thou do
approve;"3 and Myscellus came back and founded
Croton, having as an associate Archias, the founder
of Syracuse, who happened to sail up while on his
way to found Syracuse.4 The lapyges used to live
at Croton in earlier times, as Ephorus says. And
the city is reputed to have cultivated warfare and
athletics; at any rate, in one Olympian festival the
seven men who took the lead over all others in the
stadium-race were all Crotoniates, and therefore the
SThe Greek Neas aethein" means "to burn ships."
2 Ovid (Metamorphoses 15. 20) spells the name" Myscelus,"
and perhaps rightly ; that is, "Mouse-leg" (?).
3 For a fuller account, see Diodorus Siculus 8. 17. His
version of the oracle is: "Myscellus, short of back, in
searching other things apart from god, thou searches only
after tears; what gift god giveth thee, do thou approve."
4 The generally accepted dates for the founding of Croton
and Syracuse are, respectively, 710 B.c. and 734 B.c. But
Strabo's account here seems to mean that Syracuse was
founded immediately after Croton (cp. 6. 2. 4). Cp. also
Thucydides 6. 3. 2.
e tKor0 eipoaOat S60ce, &OTt- KpOTwvtar(Ov
e'o-aroq 7rp&oro9 7v Twv AXwv 'EXX\vwv, Kai
Trv 7rapotltav B b'yteo-aTepov KporTWvo XE'yovo-av
vrevfOev elp i-atal ao'v,, Co 70'o ToT-rov 7rpb?
vyeLav Kaal eealav XovTro qt cop6v 0 ta To rXijOo
TWV a0k9Tr7v. 7rXeto'Touv obiv 'OXv'L7LoviKaT
'o-X, Kal7rep ob 7robv Xpovov oliqetoaa 8ta Tbv
C 263 401pov T7 drl dypa 7reCo-r'rwv Avpw(lv Troo-vrw
TO 7rX ~o" 7r'poo(Taa3e 86j 86' Kai T T 0 To v
TIIvayopehwv 7rX'OoT Kal MiKwv, e'ritave'o-TaTro
/1tv T7(V aBlX7TCOV 'yeyovw0 Ol&tXl?'T Se HIv9ayopov,
8ta'Tpti avToq jv r, 7Tr6Xet 7roXv Xypovov. oao- 8'
ev TW a vT-atT~ w 7rOT 7T) bitXocro-wv 7rovrYjavTO9
rTVov TOV MiXwova J7ro8vvTa to'at a 7avTra,
vTrocrwa~at r 8 Kal eavrov T7? av7,r pP'y
7e67roioLTCl eLKOc a KaG Trjv o 'TOpovtUePvrp VITO TLVOV
ebpacOat KaTaIca apofvv Toy 3ov. XEyeTrat 0yov
8otTrop&jv 7roTe St' \'Xq /a9ELta' 7rapa/3frvat T7'
oov er\t 7TrXE'ov, eO"' ecpwv 'Xoov ILe'ya eof-lvw-
yUevov, t flpaXdoiv Xepa al~ia Kalt roTas el's 7\v
8tdo-rTao-v tcidteo-Oat 7rpo T6 Staa-Tro-at Te rheo
TOCOUTOPV V S' t(o-YUOe /POvov, WO"T e/cTre -' TO70
ou-vaq, eT7' evf'v e'7nLo-ve7r Oelv 'T Ap'j 70T
dXov, AtroXy O evTra1 avrov eJ Ty TOtaVry
Tra'y f 9rpo3pWTov yevE'TOat.
13. 'EceFf 8S' dao-rv taKoaroo-lo't -TaaOILT
'AXatiwv IKzloia V;/3aptl SvEv 7roTa/Mav /AEra;v,
1 aroXv\7pOia, the reading of the Epil. (a&roxhAeti'Ta,
A BC ); so Corais, Meineke and others (cp. aTroX-Oiels,
7. 3. 14).
Cp. 6. 1. 10.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 12-13
saying "The last of the Crotoniates was the first
among all other Greeks" seems reasonable. And
this, it is said, is what gave rise to the other proverb,
" more healthful than Croton," the belief being that
the place contains something that tends to health
and bodily vigour, to judge by the multitude of its
athletes. Accordingly, it had a very large number
of Olympic victors, although it did not remain
inhabited a long time, on account of the ruinous
loss of its citizens who fell in such great numbers 1
at the River Sagra. And its fame was increased by
the large number of its Pythagorean philosophers,
and by Milo, who was the most illustrious of athletes,
and also a companion of Pythagoras, who spent a
long time in the city. It is said that once, at the
common mess of the philosophers, when a pillar
began to give way, Milo slipped in under the burden
and saved them all, and then drew himself from
under it and escaped. And it is probably because
he relied upon this same strength that he brought
on himself the end of his life as reported by some
writers; at any rate, the story is told that once,
when he was travelling through a deep forest, he
strayed rather far from the road, and then, on
finding a large log cleft with wedges, thrust his
hands and feet at the same time into the cleft
and strained to split the log completely asunder;
but he was only strong enough to make the
wedges fall out, whereupon the two parts of the
log instantly snapped together; and caught in
such a trap as that, he became food for wild
13. Next in order, at a distance of two hundred
stadia, comes Sybaris, founded by the Achaeans;
KpdSBov i cal v dpi8o" otiKo-TQ? 8' abT 7V "I l
'EXrtKcea ToC-oirov 8' evrvXta Stfveycer 1 7rwo
a'r Tob 7raXatov, a), TCeTTapOV tv EffV/ V TCo v
7riXyalIov eip4e,2 revTre 8 Ka ca e'lcoat 7roXetz
v7rIKoov o -ye, 7ptaiKOVTa 8' JpvpLdoLtv av8pv
iTrr KpoT'wovnraT w-rpLaevoev, 7rev'rixovra &e
T7ai'wev KcXkOV v aveTrpovv ol olKov're 67rt
T7 Kpt L8L. vTro PIEroI0 pvpF ical ipfpea
airaaav r7Vv e18aLiovlav dCypll~0crav rb Kpo-
Twvtarwv ev ~p'ipati; Eo80ioKOVT Xovre' yap
'rTv I7rowv eTr'jya/yov TOV 7oraalov Kal Ka-recXva-av.
Vi rpov 8' ol 7repyevopLevo a-UVEXd0EVTe' e7 KOVV
oXlyot Xpovw S8e Kal o5roto Sete/dpaoav v7ro
'AOrvalwv Kal a'XXwvo 'EEXX4 l of o-vvoiKi-ovTre
EP CKceiVOLI lsibcovTO, KaTraPpov4jaavTe 86 aVTrOV
robV /Lev 8teXetpli-aaTo, 7~v 86 w7rXtv Edti Tepov
To0rov fLTerlXaav 71rX' 'ov Kal eovplovq 7rpoo--
,iyopevaav aTro icpr )v ojIp wv poov. 6 pI6V o'v
v/3api; 70T9 ov vovTa9 L'7 rrov9 dar' avTroD wTVp-
TIKcoV9 wrote 8b icaKl Tai9 ayeXa9 Trdepyova-wv aw'
abTrov 6 86 KpaiOt T'ob dvAvOpcrov9 favOoTrptIEe
ical XevKorptxIelv rote? XovojXvov icaKl d'Xa
7roXXa TrrOBi) liirat. Ooiptot 8' evTVijravTe9
7roXvv Xpovov VT'rb Aevxavr&v ivparo8aO8l'cr-av,
TapavTewv 8' dpeXo1evwv ieKetov; eIrl 'Pwupalov;
carecvyov, ol 8 7r 'r'avreF o-volicovF AXvyav-
Spoo-1t eTrowvso/aaa Kwma T 7rv riv.
SThe MSS. read 6 'IaeAshcEs; Ols 'EAiK (Corais);
6 'lo[os] 'EAlKuC (Meineke); but C. Miller, 6 "Is.
2 grfpe, Meineke, for bSrfpSe.
3 o, before oliKOOrES, Jones inserts.
For S60ou1fcov'Ta (o'), the Epit. reads bvi[ (0).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. 13
it is between two rivers, the Crathis and the Sybaris.
Its founder was Is of Helice.1 In early times this
city was so superior in its good fortune that it ruled
over four tribes in the neighbourhood, had twenty-
five subject cities, made the campaign against the
Crotoniates with three hundred thousand men, and
its inhabitants on the Crathis alone completely
filled up a circuit of fifty stadia. However, by
reason of luxury 2 and insolence they were deprived
of all their felicity by the Crotoniates within seventy
days; for on taking the city these conducted the
river over it and submerged it. Later on, the
survivors, only a few, came together and were
making it their home again, but in time these too
were destroyed by Athenians and other Greeks,
who, although they came there to live with them,
conceived such a contempt for them that they not
only slew them but removed the city to another
place near by and named it Thurii, after a spring of
that name. Now the Sybaris River makes the
horses that drink from it timid, and therefore all
herds are kept away from it; whereas the Crathis
makes the hair of persons who bathe in it yellow or
white, and besides it cures many afflictions. Now
after the Thurii had prospered for a long time, they
were enslaved by the Leucani, and when they were
taken away from the Leucani by the Tarantini, they
took refuge in Rome, and the Romans sent colonists
to supplement them, since their population was
reduced, and changed the name of the city to
1 The reading, "Is of Helice," is doubtful. On Helice,
see 1. 3. 18 and 8. 7. 2.
2 Cp. "Sybarite."
14. MerA 8' OovplovU Aayapla dpotpzov,
'ETreooD cal 4)wKcev Kicrl'oa, Moev cal Aaya-
ptravov; oLvov, 7yXvlcv Ka/t JraXo KIal rrapah ol7
0 264 la'rpoiv ao-d pa evSoKic/&Zv Kal, 6 Oovpivo. & r76V
ev ovoduart o'ivv eO-Tl. e70' 'Hpa/ckXea troXa
,pLKpov bvrep TV) OaXdrTr q, iKal rroTa/to 8vo
'rXworol "AKttprt cal :Zpts, e)' ov 7rroXt 7iv o/ td'-
vvPLoq Tpwiot c- po'vo 86 r'v 'HpaKcheXta EvrfTeev
otlva-ela-r; Vrrb TapavrTvov, diriveto avTr7 TrW
'HpaKCXewro v Trrp e. &SteXl S' 'HpaK elaa pIv
rETrapav Kalt et~loo- aoraSovs, Oovplwv Se rrepi
Trpltacoa-lov Tptaov Tora' r 8F T v Tpdwv Karot-
KlaF TEICKJ 7plov 7ro0iv0rTa T 7Tr r 'Afflv7y 7T
'IXTdSo0 oavov 18pvuivov arn-0t, orrep KarapTva aat
1ve6vovrtv arwoo~-r( ryov v TV IKCeTv vIro 'Im6 v
T v eXovroT Tv 7rovXl ToVTrov yap e7reeilv
oiKc4Topa9, ezyovTraq 7rv Av8v a'pydv, Ical /81a
Xa/let Tv trv 7oXt XOvYov ovcrav, KcaXe'at Be
avr]v IHoXt'etov" Selvvo-aat 86 / al vvv icaraiov 1
TO (oavov. I'ralpov pfev ovv Kal To ofrw jivOeew,
TCo'-e ~.77 aTa/%vDat avat to'vov,2 Kiaawep Kat
TO 3 ev 'JIXI daroorpac/iqvat Ka7-a Trv Kao-advpaq
Ijtaautov, dXXa Kcal KcaTra/jvov SeltcvvrlOat. T7oXv
8\ ira/jW'repov TO Too-aDTra* votev df 'I iov /erco-
puLLtou va 06ava, 'o-a Oaailv ol a-vyypa/e"i Kal
'yap dv 'Pp Kcal Ev Aaovtviw Kal ev AovKetpia
1 vv KaraUPov (kno and corr. in B), for vtIvra pZov (ABC ) ;
so the editors.
2 pdva. IAdvov, Kramer, for 0arvdwEuvov. Corais: pavi'va
Idvov ; Meineke: &vatvoievov.
3 T7, Meineke omits, without cause.
4 ro-aiOa, Tyrwhitt, for -roiavia; so the editors.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. 14
14. After Thurii comes Lagaria, a stronghold,
founded by Epeius and the Phocaeans; thence
comes the Lagaritan wine, which is sweet, mild,
and extremely well thought of among physicians.
That of Thurii, too, is one of the famous wines.
Then comes the city Heracleia, a short distance
above the sea; and two navigable rivers, the Aciris
and the Siris. On the Siris there used to be a
Trojan city of the same name, but in time, when
Heracleia was colonised thence by the Tarantini,
it became the port of the Heracleotes. It is
twenty-four stadia distant from Heracleia and about
three hundred and thirty from Thurii. Writers
produce as proof of its settlement by the Trojans
the wooden image of the Trojan Athene which is
set up there-the image that closed its eyes, the
fable goes, when the suppliants were dragged away
by the Ionians who captured the city ; for these
lonians came there as colonists when in flight from
the dominion of the Lydians, and by force took
the city, which belonged to the Chones,' and called
it Polieium; and the image even now can be seen
closing its eyes. It is a bold thing, to be sure, to
tell such a fable and to say that the image not only
closed its eyes (just as they say the image in Troy
turned away at the time Cassandra was violated)
but can also be seen closing its eyes; and yet it is
much bolder to represent as brought from Troy all
those images which the historians say were brought
from there; for not only in the territory of Siris,
but also at Rome, at Lavinium, and at Luceria,
I Cp. 6. 1. 2.
Kal dv TPbirTI8 'IXtad 'A90jva Kalesrat, co, 'ceaWe
/co/.catr-ca. Ka' T T7O T TpwdSwv 8 'BrCX/.TOura rept-
i- fperat ?roXXaxoO Ial LnMa-roV alveraC, /calrep
8vparTO or. TIte? Kica 'Po8Tov IcTriao-a bao-I
cal stpiTrv Kal Tv r Tet9pa ov o1 8 paptv.
4nia1 8' 'AVYTloXI Toyq TapavTivov9 Oovpp'io0 Kal
KXeavSplSa2 7~ aTpaT'ry) cvydi dec AaaK/eal-
/oovOP 7roXe/touvTaq 7repi T7- StpItTtov av'u&/3fvat
Ical avvotclc-at P/Lv IcotIV, TNV 8' anroIlcav IcpLtrO-
vat TapavTvrwv 'iHpa~tetav 8' ivrepov cXnAX9vat,
/eTarapaXoDoav Kal Trovoota ica' TO TO'rov.
15. 'E^ 6' iE t MeTa7r6orovr, el9 ^Iv 7ro roT
E7rvLEov T7~ 'Hpa~cXeiar elol o-ardtotr TreapacoVra
7Tpo T70I carTov. HIVX'lw 86' Xeyerat KTipLa
rTWV e 'IX ov vrXevua'vTwv IerA Nheropov, obv
oTwi) (7ro ryewpyla9 ebvTvwjaai ~ aotv, (OCre 0epog
puvo-oDv ev AeX\boZ dpAavaLevat. olueiov 8$ 7rot-
oiPTra 7-T K'To'Ico9W TorV riv NVXAltS&v svatyLaulov
f4 avtio-0r 8' ';7ro Eavvriv. 'AvrioXov 86' 0i7a-t
eKX6tce vrTa TrOv To7rov E'rroIc Kiaat TWOV 'AXatlv
rtvaq peTra7rCepl 6evTa, ib7ro TW7 edv 2v3apet
AXatfov, iera 7rep4oivat 8' aTar OKa i TO'b 'rp9
Tapavrivov9 'rov 'AXatov, Tr&v f ireaowvPTv dic
1 TE pavTos is the reading of all the MSS. Groskurd conj.
TpaevTos, and so reads Meineke. See note to translation.
2 KAeavSplG, Corais, for KAeav3pyi; so the later editors.
1 The "Teuthras" is otherwise unknown, except that
there was a small river of that name, which cannot be
identified, near Cumae (see Propertius 1. 11. 11 and Silius
Italicus 11. 288). The river was probably named after
Teuthras, king of Teuthrania in Mysia (see 12. 8. 2). But
there seems to be no evidence of Sybarites in that region.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. i. 14-15
Athene is called "Trojan Athena," as though
brought from Troy. And further, the daring deed
of the Trojan women is current in numerous places,
and appears incredible, although it is possible.
According to some, however, both Siris and the
Sybaris which is on the Teuthras were founded
by the Rhodians. According to Antiochus, when
the Tarantini were at war with the Thurii and their
general Cleandridas, an exile from Lacedaemon, for
the possession of the territory of Siris, they made
a compromise and peopled Siris jointly, although
it was adjudged the colony of the Tarantini; but
later on it was called Heracleia, its site as well
as its name being changed.
15. Next in order comes Metapontium, which
is one hundred and forty stadia from the naval
station of Heracleia. It is said to have been
founded by the Pylians who sailed from Troy with
Nestor; and they so prospered from farming, it
is said, that they dedicated a golden harvest at
Delphi. And writers produce as a sign of its
having been founded by the Pylians the sacrifice
to the shades of the sons of Neleus.3 However,
the city was wiped out by the Samnitae. According
to Antiochus: Certain of the Achaeans were sent
for by the Achaeans in Sybaris and re-settled the
place, then forsaken, but they were summoned only
because of a hatred which the Achaeans who had
Meineke and others are probably right in emending to the
" Trais (now the Trionto), on which, according to Diodorus
Siculus (12. 22), certain Sybarites took up their abode in
2 An ear, or sheaf, of grain made of gold, apparently.
3 Neleus had twelve sons, including Nestor. All but
Nestor were slain by Heracles.
7T Aa ovmic )q, i'va ju TapavrTvoIt yeLTVI6vreF
eTnlrnlIja7ataev r T7oTrw. 8veiV o;vOv 7TvXeCV,
700ro e MeTra7rov rlov dyyvepO 70ro TrpavTroo,
7reao-Orvai To a7'; L YpvouvTr Vro TWv v#3aptrcTO
0 265 T' MTra7rovrtov IcaTrao -ew X ro TO' vap 'XovTra
fetLv icalb T7V tplTiV, el 8' ETl 7rV tpLtnv 7pd-
7roLVro, 'rpoo-Oljo-ev TO7, TapavYrvotq To MeTrarov-
TtoV v 7rEwevpai< oorn. TroXe/zoirTa? 6' vo-repov vrpoy
royv TapavrTvovF Kal robV vTrepKeq etvov" Olvo-
7pov emTri tepeL 8taXvO~vai r 7y, o',rep yeveo-at
77T TOTE 'IraXlla oopiov /cal T'Ia'la7rv'a. varaDOa
8 KIcal Tr MerTarOVrOV pvOLevovart Kal Tr)v Me-
Xavl7rrlv rTiv 8eo,-cr/LITv Ka TOV y auTrI BotIoL V.
0oxcei S' 'AvrIPtl XO o T rroXiv MeTrarovtov eL 7-
aoat 7rpoTepov METag3ov, rrapwovoitdaaat 8' arepov-
TIjV re MeXavtrrrrrv o; rrpov TOvrTO, a XXa rpo)o
AFor KoIo/Lr-vaWl E'XE i YXEV 7p&oov roO Merd/ov
ical "Atrov 7rov 7rOtrlrv fr~jaavra, OTn TrO Bo(o(rTO
A'ov Mvit teyaapots rT6eEV evES89j MeXavwl7r7r,
WI ITrpO? 6ceitvov yzeOioav TrIv MeXavt7r'nr1v, ov
rrpo? ME'raTov. oiKtrO-T e r70 MeTa'rovTrov
AavXtov 6 KpiCr'O TLupavvoq 7ye'vevrrTat T?7? rept
1 B, after o7o, Corais inserts; but instead, Meineke and
Milller-Diibner, following Groskurd, insert T-s S1 s2plrTsos
a7rw'wpw after Jyyvurpw.
1 The other, of course, was Siris.
2 The old name of Tarentum.
3 i. e. the Metapontians gained undisputed control of
their city and its territory, which Antiochus speaks of as
a "boundary" (cp. 6. 1. 4 and 6. 3. 1).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 15
been banished from Laconia had for the Tarantini,
in order that the neighboring Tarantini might not
pounce upon the place ; there were two cities, but
since, of the two, Metapontium was nearer to
Taras,2 the new-comers were persuaded by the
Sybarites to take Metapontium and hold it, for,
if they held this, they would also hold the territory
of Siris, whereas, if they turned to the territory of
Siris, they would add Metapontium to the territory
of the Tarantini, which latter was on the very flank
of Metapontium; and when, later on, the Meta-
pontians were at war with the Tarantini and the
Oenotrians of the interior, a reconciliation was
effected in regard to a portion of the land-that
portion, indeed, which marked the boundary be-
tween the Italy of that time and lapygia.3 Here,
too, the fabulous accounts place Metapontus,4 and
also Melanippe the prisoner and her son Boeotus.5
In the opinion of Antiochus, the city Metapontium
was first called Metabum and later on its name was
slightly altered, and further, Melanippe was brought,
not to Metabus, but to Dius,6 as is proved by a
hero-temple of Metabus, and also by Asius the
poet, when he says that Boeotus was brought forth
" in the halls of Dius by shapely Melanippe," mean-
ing that Melanippe was brought to Dius, not to
Metabus. But, as Ephorus says, the coloniser of
Metapontium was Daulius, the tyrant of the Crisa
The son of Sisyphus. His "barbarian name," according
to Stephanus Byzantinus and Eustathius, was Metabus.
5 One of Euripides' tragedies was entitled Melanippe the
Prisoner; only fragments are preserved. She was the
mother of Boeotus by Poseidon.
6 A Metapontian.
AeXA o,', WS paotv "Ebopoq. 'wrt 8' e't1 Ka
ovro 6 2 Xo670y, (j? 6 7ref Jt4l9 L; T7& 'AXatwv
rl rOv aUVoiLKioaJLO AeIL7Tr7Tro e'lr7, Xpprlaa-devo9
\6 7rapA Trcv TapavrivrwV Try rorov ci ',a'pav tcal
vvica tL ar7oSo' l, fteO' ipepav pjAv X&yo v 7rp)o
Trob arroat-oivTa, OTte al Ela T;PV e~Eq vvKTira
alTr(iatro Ical ad/ot, vUiCTOp 8', 'Tt Kal Trpos Trv
7i 1 e*fipav.
'Eerj 8' earTyv 6 Tdpas Kat 'Iarrv/yla, Trept
Ov epoviuev, 'rav 7Tporepov Ta? 7Tpoiceqtevap T?~9
'IraXtaV v a'ov' 7repo08evao'pev KIcaTa Tv e
apx9 TrpoOeo-tv, ael ryap To eO vec-tv E Kcao'TOt
Ta( yetrvUtm-a 7Trpoo-icaaXey/oveE vrjo-ovg KIca vvv,
"EO'rt 8' i EtKXeX a TrpL"yovyV9 T o-XrUart, IKa
&ta TOVro TptvaKpla3 \iv 1rporepov, OptvatcK4
8' Larepov 7rpooayope6VOr, eTrovo/iaOeto-aa ev w-
vbCepov. Tb 8e orX-,y a 8toplrovo-a rpetsq alpat,
HIeXwphia l v I rrp6o rjv KaFvvv Kal Tv7 a-rv iSa
TrV 'Prsylvwov 7rotoDca rTv IopOp0 v, IIdxvvo' S
SEcKKetev'r? Trpo9 co Kal T r ILKeXtlK ICKXvUo'ofeV
TreXayet, /3XTrovo-a 7rrpbo 7Tv IlTeXo7rvvioov Kal
1 8' sT, Capps, for B rTs.
2 6, before Adyos, Jones inserts.
3 For TpivaKpia, Jones.suspects that Strabo wrote Tptvaicps.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. I. 15-2. I
which is near Delphi. And there is this further
account, that the man who was sent by the Achaeans
to help colonise it was Leucippus, and that after
procuring the use of the place from the Tarantini
for only a day and night he would not give it back,
replying by day to those who asked it back that he
had asked and taken it for the next night also, and
by night that he had taken and asked it also for
the next day.
Next in order comes Taras and lapygia; but
before discussing them I shall, in accordance with
my original purpose, give a general description of
the islands that lie in front of Italy; for as from
time to time I have named also the islands which
neighbour upon the several tribes, so now, since I
have traversed Oenotria from beginning to end,
which alone the people of earlier times called Italy,
it is right that I should preserve the same order in
traversing Sicily and the islands round about it.
1. Sicily is triangular in shape ; and for this reason
it was at first called Trinacria," though later the
name was changed to the more euphonious "Thri-
nacis." Its shape is defined by three capes: Pelorias,
which with Caenys and Columna Rheginorum forms
the strait, and Pachynus, which lies out towards the
east and is washed by the Sicilian Sea, thus facing
towards the Peloponnesus and the sea-passage to
4 For Opwvais, Meineke reads OpWvaiKa, following E and
Eustath. ad Dion. 467. C (?) and the editors before Kramer
tvr T e'i- KpIjri rrTopov rpit7 o' EarTtV 7 npoo-ex
7? At 97, /3X7rovc-a ?rpbf r7aryv pT a Kal Trl
yetL/JepwLv Sv 8o-v, AiXU3aUIov. T7WV 8, rXevpWOv,
av Aoplrovutv at T7pse acKpal, 6vo yev elat /coEXat
C 266 /ueTPtow, j 86E 7p7pr KiVpTr7, 27 a7ro rTO7 AtXvfalov
KaOriovUaa 7rpbs rTv THexwptdSa, 7Trep teyt'O(Tf?
rOiT, araStwv XtXtLiv Kal ErrTalKoiwv, so IIooet-
8Mvtos etpilpce rrpoaolet Ka l et lcoa. 7TWv 8' aXXo,
i 7' cr TIIdxvvov ro ro 70T AtXdvalov pIelfv r t
eT9pav' ekXaXo'a-T7~ 8 e l T opfOi KIcat T7 'Iralia
rrpooeXi7, 1 a7rb T2 H eXwpIedo9 E8o t r v ldXyvvov,
o-raL'cwv oo-ov tXLX) v Kcal e~Carov ial TptaicovTra.
ToV 8e rreplrrXovv o Ioo-etSivto rra&wv rI epa-
Koo-lwv ECrl TO' TTepaKct'a-tXlot drrocfalvet. ev 8e
7. Xwpoypaia telw Xederat CT &8taorL ITara, Kcar
iepo' tlpyujeva utXtao-i. Ec 8c ITeXwpid8o' e
M;Xa; etKoa-t irevTE' rocra-ra 8 Ical ic MvXJov
el' TvvSaptl8a elTa els 'Aaydavpvov TpiaKovra Kal
a i'aa E' "AXao-aaa Katl 7raliv 'a-a el Keca-
Xolt'8ov 7avTa fev 7roXlXvwa el' 8' 'I1ie'pav
7ro7a/ibv 6cKaoK7cwr a tLEata' pEva 7 i.tiKeX;lar,
eCIT elf HdvopP/ov rptaKOrTa 7rrECTTe' o 8 Kal,
T7ptdcoVa eldF TOov Al'yea -Tv E/proptipov XotrraN
S elt' AtXA~3atov TptiaKovra dOKZ EdTre6fev 6&
Kapci, avri Erl TO a-rvvEee '7rXEVupv el' t16v 7T
'HpcdKXeov q3SSo/~u.rovra 7rrere, rrt 6 bTO 'AKpa-
1 AAaa-rv, Corais, for "AA.aLoa; so Meineke.
See footnote 4 on page 39.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. i
Crete, and, third, Lilybaeum, the cape that is next
to Libya, thus facing at the same time towards
Libya and the winter sunset.1 As for the sides
which are marked off by the three capes, two of
them are moderately concave, whereas the third,
the one that reaches from Lilybaeum to Pelorias, is
convex; and this last is the longest, being one
thousand seven hundred stadia in length, as Posei-
donius states, though he adds twenty stadia more.
Of the other two sides, the one from Lilybaeum to
Pachynus is longer than the other, and the one next
to the strait and Italy, from Pelorias to Pachynus,
is shortest, being about one thousand one hundred
and thirty stadia long. And the distance round the
island by sea, as declared by Poseidonius, is four
thousand four hundred stadia. But in the Choro-
graphy 2 the distances given are longer, marked off
in sections and given in miles: from Pelorias to
Mylae, twenty-five miles; the same from Mylae to
Tyndaris; then to Agathyrnum thirty, and the same
to Alaesa, and again the same to Cephaloedium,
these being small towns; and eighteen to the River
Himera,3 which flows through the middle of Sicily;
then to Panormus thirty-five, and thirty-two to the
Emporium of the Aegestes,4 and the rest of the way,
to Lilybaeum, thirty-eight. Thence, on doubling
Lilybaeum, to the adjacent side, to the Heracleium
seventy-five miles, and to the Emporium of the
3 C. Miiller (see Map V at the end of this volume)
assumes that Strabo exchanged the Chorographer's distances
between (1) Alaesa and Cephaloedium, and (2) Cephaloedium
and the River Himera (see C. Aiiller, Ind. Var. Led.,
4 In Latin, Emporium Segestanorum.
yravrTLvv1 4propov e6icoreo KU, a\XXa erICOo-t e
Kauidpivav" e rIT' '11 Hixvvov 7revTricovra. 'v0ev
rAXt KTcar TO 7piTOV 7rXevpZv el' p iv vpacovo--
oa'a TptdaKOVTa 6,2 eily e Kardva r $icovUra" e6r'
elv TavpopLvtov 7rptdKovra Tpla" eCI' el! MecroCa7vv
TpiaKOVTUa. wre dSe e'ic cv p Haxvov el, HeXcopadSa
eKar-ov eZcKOVa OiKTC, ic Se Meo-o-u e
AtXtf3atov T7^ OvaXepla o68s tadcoa-a 3 TrpixKOvra
rePvre. 'vtot A7rXova-repov "lprfiaatv, cwnrep
"E opo;, T7v 7e rrepirwXovv I)jpep&v Kca vvUICT)V
7revre. Hoo-teIvto'q Te ro KxiciUaaoiv d abopt)v
7Tv vrj-ov, local 7rp)9 dpicrov p1V v Tv HleXwptd8a,
jpoo vOTro 86 AsiXvatov, 7rpo' o e TO v Hidyvvov
triLeOra Avdy i ol TS w KXLLtti drov v 7rapaXX?7-
Xoypadtp a-r)(Xtart St&aorEXXOotLEvov, Ta Jyypa 6-
ueva rpty-ova, Ical /taXLoa ob'avao caX'ivk icat wv
ove/la 7rXevpa o8e'a'i4 rewv. 'TO 7rapaXXrlXo-
7pap.feov e appoTTre, avapiooa'TCoe eXev 7rpo rTa
1 'Aspayavivrwv (k), for 'AspayavT'ivov (ABCI); so Miiller-
Diibner and Meineke.
2 For Tptiaov'Va Qi, Bl have eFloat, but B sec. m. As'.
3 8taxdo'ta (a'), Cluver conj. ; so read the editors. See
Klotz Quellen u. Forschungen z. all. Geschichte u. Geographen,
Heft 11, p. 55; also Detlefsen, Heft 13, p. 65.
obSeuty, after rAevupd, Corais inserts ; so the later editors.
1 In Latin, Emporium Agrigentinorum.
2 This distance is in fact more than sixty miles. C. Miiller
assumes in the Map (I.c.) that the copyist left out the interval
from Emporium to Gela and put down an extra distance of
twenty miles therefore. But elsewhere (Ind. Var. Lect., .ec.),
he believes (more plausibly) that two intervals were omitted
and assigns twenty stadia to each, viz., Emporium to the
Harbour of Phintias, and thence to Calvisiana.
3 Note in connection with the next sentence that the text
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. I
Acragantini twenty, and another twenty2 to
Camarina; and then to Pachynus fifty. Thence
again along the third side: to Syracuse thirty-six,
and to Catana sixty; then to Tauromenium thirty-
three; and then to Messene thirty.3 On foot, how-
ever, the distance from Pachynus to Pelorias is one
hundred and sixty-eight miles, and from Messene to
Lilybaeum by the Valerian Way two hundred and
thirty-five. But some writers have spoken in a more
general way, as, for example, Ephorus: "At any
rate, the voyage round the island takes five days
and nights." Further, Poseidonius, in marking off
the boundaries of the island by means of the
climatea," 4 puts Pelorias towards the north, Lily-
baeum towards the south, and Pachynus towards the
east. But since the climatea are each divided off
into parallelograms, necessarily the triangles that are
inscribed (particularly those which are scalene and
of which no side fits on any one of the sides of the
parallelogram) cannot, because of their slant, be
fitted to the climatea." 5 However this may be, one
does not give the distance from Messene to Pelorias, which
is about nine miles.
4 On the climatea" (belts of latitude), see 1. 1. 12 and
6 Though the works of Poseidonius are lost, it is obvious
that he properly fixed the position of the three vertices of
the triangle according to the method of his time by the
climatea," i.e. he fixed their north-and-south positions
(cp. "latitude") and their east-and-west position (cp.
"longitude"). Strabo rightly, but rather captiously, re-
marks that Poseidonius cannot by means of the climatea"
mark off the boundaries of Sicily, since the triangle is merely
inscribed in the parallelogram and no side of it coincides
with any side of the parallelogram; in other words, the
result of Poseidonius is too indefinite.
iXIyuLara 8ta T1r Xobwc-'w. ob' ; 8' oiV ev TOt'
7r9 tEceXla? TI^ 'IraXia ,rpjO, vroTo KICetlepr?1 '1
IleXwp(ta dpI/ctKoE ard'T XEyotr' aP KaXhc 7T@v
T7ptv 7ywvLCv, ao-O' A7 erfTievyvv/Eltvr 2 A7rM' abv7i
e7rb r IITaOxvvov ecKelOeraL3 7rpo g /.w 4 '47rpo
apIcrov 3X frova-a,5 r7ot~roet 8' Tr70 7Tevpav 7Tr 6
7rpo; TOv IHop0ldov. ed 8' etrio-pocv /.iKpav
Xap.lpdvetv d7ri e ipepi ai avaroXad" oV7w yap i
tov wrrapaKtclvet 7rpolovo-tv anro 7 Karavyij e7r
Tar :ivpaKovao-aao Kar 7TO TIIdvvov. 8tappza 8'
eCarv arro Ho IaXvvZov 7rpo9 TO Trotda T70
0 267 'AX etoO o7rdtoit reTpaKtorxtctot. 'ApTreJl8pov
8' 7aro 70T Haxvrov dpra9a ea7rr Talvapov elvat
TerpaKcto-XtXIov9 icat eiacoo-rov, a7ro\ 8"AXetovD
e7r\i Flaitov XtXov etcarbv Tptaicovra, rrapacryeL
av Soice? pot Xo'ov, ti ovX ojtoXoyovufeva Xeyp r
fi'avo e TerpaictaXXl ov elvat To? e'Tr T
'AXbetov rb ro7 H IaXtvov. 7i 8' .aro IIaxvrov
Wpos AtX,8aitov, 'o-repIr)epov 86 rTi9 lleX(optidov
tlcav&w'7 E'Ortl, iKeav9 av cKav'r Xo o'Tro 8 aTro
T70V /teO-yt/3pivwo a(?7Elov rrp7o Tr i eaw7rpav,
S/3kerot Se av ,aa 7rp9 Te T17v eW Kalb rrpbo TO
1 KeivEiy)s, the reading of Bk; so Siebenkees, Corais, and
Miiller-Diibner. Meineke follows the reading of the other
MSS., but stars the preceding v o'Tos.
2 For i cinrev-yrjv, Bk read Trv ev4i7rLypij v; Meineke
and other editors read the former.
I3 KKEIacTal, Corais, for KKoealt t; so Kramer and Miiller-
Diibner. Meineke retains the infinitive, inserting Sv before it.
rpbs w plv [tat], Corais (and so Kramer and Miiller-
D)iibner) for wrps 'w ipau'y, though Jones omits the Kai.
5 SBhrovea, Corals, for BAdvrovuav; so the later editors,
though Meineke inserts Eiua before rpbs &pKTrov, and deletes
SE after rotieLt.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. I
might fairly say, in the case of the climatea" of
Sicily, which is situated south of Italy, that Pelorias
is the most northerly of the three corners; and
therefore the side that joins Pelorias to Pachynus
will lie out1 towards the east, thus facing towards
the north, and also will form the side that is on
the strait. But this side must take a slight turn
toward the winter sunrise,2 for the shore bends
aside in this direction as one proceeds from Catana
to Syracuse and Pachynus. Now the distance from
Pachynus across to the mouth of the Alpheius3 is
four thousand stadia; but when Artemidorus says
that it is four thousand six hundred stadia from
Pachynus to Taenarum4 and one thousand one
hundred and thirty from the Alpheius to the
Pamisus, he seems to me to afford us reason for
suspecting that his statement is not in agreement
with that of the man who says that the distance to
the Alpheius from Pachynus is four thousand stadia.
Again, the side that extends from Pachynus to
Lilybaeum, which is considerably farther west than
Pelorias, should itself also be made to slant con-
siderably from its southernmost point5 towards the
west, and should face at the same time towards the
east and towards the south,6 one part being washed
1 That is, will point. 2 South-east.
3 In the Peloponnesus; now the Ruphis.
4 Cape Matapan.
5 i. e. of the side; hence from Pachynus.
O That is, a line at right angles to the side would point
6 Ti-, before vrpds, Corais, for Kai.
7 iaavcs, Meineke omits, following C.
8 Adotro, conj. of Tyrwhitt, for do1Tro ; so read the editors.
YOrov, r7 IV 70w TOD ~LcekXtcoD TreXayo
IKXvIopIEV, T7 8' brbO TO7 Atl/3voV ToV70 17pT T7a
SpTare 8L1OvTov r 7aTO T7IF KapiB8ovia'. erTT
8 Ical '"rb AtXv/3a[ov 'ovXdEcrov 8lapua erl
At,3v'rv XIXtot cKal TrevTraKcol'ot 7orepi KapX8aSva"
ica0'1 87 Xdeeral 7r9 T&v o'uvopKOivwTw( a7Tr
TIvoq K'oTrTio dTra yyEXXfet Trv dpc0pt atv v dva-
'yoLeCvo2 be KapXYSdvo9 cKaca l, 70iroZ v AiXv-
3 aalt. d ro & TO7 AtXvl/3aov T~7v 1'rri lXoptdaa
7rXevpav avayKic Xoo va0at 7rpo' &0 KIa /3XB'eiv
Trpo,4 To fIera; 7Tj eeorwpa a Ka T 9 ptpcrv,
7rpo~ apIpTov /Iv yovaav T~v 'ITraXIav, 7rpd3
8varv 6 T Tvpplvtucov IreXayoq Kal 7Ta A'oXov
2. IIdlet9 8' elo' Kara pIEv TO 7rTXvpOf v 7r otoLO
TGV Ilopf9piv Meoa0v-4 7rpWrTov, er tena Tavpo-
6u'vov Kal KaTdv7V Ical CvpdCovaoatr a18 IeTa;v
Kaardv' vial a vpaKov-oaov dKXEXo[l'ao-t, Na~os
Kai M'yapa, 6'TOv KaIc aT Trv 7TroTaptJv K3oXa
:vjtaiO ov Kcal 7Tr7vTW 3 KaaappeovrOv e1i 711
AirTvi7 i e Xy eiXueva o-rTo'ara eC'vraDOa 8e Kal TO
1 KaO', Xylander, for Kai ; so the later editors.
2 &va'yopvwv (n o); &youcovwY (ABCI).
3 vPaleou Kal rTadvrw, Jones reads. The MSS. read:
auvveXOooiat (ruvviAov, n o) irdvrov (ial 7dvTa, AB, though in
B Kai, sec. m., is indicated as wrong and rdavrv is written for
rdvra). Madvig, and C. Miiller (independently) conj. 'vual-
6ov Kail IavTrarlov.
1 Cp. 17. 3. 16.
2 Lilybaeum when held by the Carthaginians (250 Bn..)
was besieged by the Romans. Pliny (7. 21) says that Varro
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. i-2
by the Sicilian Sea and the other by the Libyan Sea
that reaches from Carthaginia to the Syrtes. The
shortest passage from Lilybaeum across to Libya in
the neighbourhood of Carthage is one thousand five
hundred stadia;1 and on this passage, it is said,
some man of sharp vision, from a look-out, used to
report to the men in Lilybaeum the number of ships
that were putting to sea from Carthage.2 Again,
the side that extends from Lilybaeum to Pelorias
necessarily slants towards the east, and faces to-
wards the region that is between the west and the
north,3 having Italy on the north and on the west
the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Islands of Aeolus.
2. The cities along the side that forms the Strait
are, first, Messene, and then Tauromenium, Catana,
and Syracuse; but those that were between Catana
and Syracuse have disappeared-Naxus4 and Me-
gara; and on this coast are the outlets of the
Symaethus and all rivers that flow down from Aetna
and have good harbours at their mouths; and here
gave the man's name as Strabo; and quotes Cicero as
authority for the tradition that the man was wont, in the
Punic War, looking from the Lilybaean promontory, a
distance of 135 miles, to tell the number of ships that put
out from the harbour of Carthage. But, assuming the
possibility of seeing small ships at a distance of 135 miles,
the observer would have to be at an altitude of a little
more than two miles!
3 That is, a line at right angles to the side points towards
4 Founded about 734 B.c. and destroyed by Dionysius
in 403 B.c. (see Diodorus Siculus 14. 14), but it is placed by
the commentators and maps between Tauromenium and
6 Founded about the same time as Naxus and destroyed
about 214 n.c.
Ti? Etfwovia9 dicpwTriptov. p7rrl S6 TaVTas
"Eoopov .rpprac Ta iczrcOivat rohXecr 'EXXyvi8a; dJv
KeXI a SexaTy 1 yevea 1eTA T TTpwoItd Tov 'ap
WrpoTrepov teieval Ta r 'aTr pta T&v Tvppnvwv Kcal
T7lv Wf rIoT7Ta TCOV TaVT? f3apPlpwv, Wor-e if
KaT' d troptav rXEZe. Oeo/cXa 8' 'AAvazov
7rapeveX0evract tvILot el6 T v .dcEteava KcaTavojoat
T)V TE ovBevetav TOVJ) avOpw7rcv Kat T7? a peTrT7
rjv yE7, E7raveXdovTa 8 'A60ivalovg pep p7 7reto-aal,
XaXLcti~ 'aq 8e Trov Pv Eb8fola Tavvovb 'rapa-a-
So6vTa cat r (w 'Idovwv Ttv~a, e'Tt e AWpLeov, Wv
o01 rrkXove 'o-av MeyapeZ,, 7rXe raar TO"b? ftE oV'
XaXKcS&ala KTcrtaa Na ov, Tro 8E\ AWpLe'a M&yapa,
T7v "'T,3av 7rpTrepov KaXovuEv77v. atl iv ov
vrXets ovKer' elOiL, TO Se 7Tr' S"TSAh Gvopya oavjpe-
veIt 8ta T'V apeTv ro70 'T/3Xaiov etXTT roq.
3. Tv 6\ a v1aiuPevova-ov icar TOb Xexlv rXhev-
pbv Xewv e ] pev MeaOTj;V) 7 6r feXwputaog? e'
C 268 KF0X7r KceTrat, Katr7TOze~iEF 7r roX 7rpo, iw /cat
taao-XaXrv rtva\ rOtoro-q*7 davnXel 86 7Toi pev
'Prylov &Gapua ervrcovraoa'rdi o, T-r Se o-TrvUXIo
7roXv eXaTrov. TicT7'a 8' E'-T Meecaar0viv T&P
Ev IleXorrovv4a-jo, 7rap Wv Toivo/Ja PeT77fXXaae,
iaXovi4vr1 ZayxXrjc 7poTrpov 8ta 7r crOXtOTL17ra
T(MV O'roTv (dyiXctor ryap eicaXdetTo T a/coXto),
Natwv oo3oa 7rporepov ic tIaa T&O 7rV rp KardvOvq
eTicKro-av 8' vo-epov Ma/jep'rvot, KajTrav&v rT
1 Seip, Scaliger, for Kal rT ; so the editors.
2 Corais inserts; so the later editors.
1 The noun "zanclon" (corresponding to the adjective
"zanclion") was a native Sicilian word, according to Thu-
cydides (6. 4).
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 2-3
too is the promontory of Xiphonia. According to
Ephorus, these were the earliest Greek cities to be
founded in Sicily, that is, in the tenth generation
after the Trojan war; for before that time men
were so afraid of the bands of Tyrrhenian pirates
and the savagery of the barbarians in this region
that they would not so much as sail thither for
trafficking; but though Theocles, the Athenian,
borne out of his course by the winds to Sicily,
clearly perceived both the weakness of the peoples
and the excellence of the soil, yet, when he went
back, he could not persuade the Athenians, and
hence took as partners a considerable number of
Euboean Chalcidians and some lonians and also
some Dorians (most of whom were Megarians) and
made the voyage; so the Chalcidians founded
Naxus, whereas the Dorians founded Megara, which
in earlier times had been called Hybla. The cities
no longer exist, it is true, but the name of Hybla
still endures, because of the excellence of the
3. As for the cities that still endure along the
aforementioned side: Messene is situated in a gulf
of Pelorias, which bends considerably towards the
east and forms an armpit, so to speak; but though
the distance across to Messene from Rhegium is
only sixty stadia, it is much less from Columna.
Messene was founded by the Messenians of the Pelo-
ponnesus, who named it after themselves, changing
its name; for formerly it was called Zancle, on
account of the crookedness of the coast (anything
crooked was called zanclion "),1 having been founded
formerly by the Naxians who lived near Catana.
But the Mamertini, a tribe of the Campani, joined
oXov c'Xpiaav-ro 8' op rT?7Tpti q'Pota Eot 7rp0; Tov
2tICeX(tcOv 7TXe/o40v Trov 7rpoXP KapXySoviovu, Ixa
terTa TaiTa IIotTrjvto 6 e~ro' TO v7 ravOa o-vvexe
To vavTriKo, 7roXec/iOv )rph9 70by e/pao-~T Kal-
oapa, EVTre6iev 8 Kca Tr V vyjv e'7rotoaTo,
eicreCfoWv d T71? v4rVov. SeLicvwTat S tcal 1
Xdpvup8tq ItICpbv trpo Tri 7rosXeo) T4 7( T 'p ,
3dOo, ?aioatoov, el; 8 al 7raXlppotat 7roDi opUOpoD
KarTtyovOtV e6v4ovQ 7Tr oKlc 7r 7rpaX1jXt~oueva
/erTa Oav0'po~q9 Kcal 8Lvrl /ilEyaX1'9? KcaaTroOev'o v
a Ki 8iaXvOevTro v Ta vavcita rrapaO-vperat 'rpo?
trova 719 Tavpo/.evwaq, jv c KaXovatv daro -TO
o'v/kr7Tt7pa70 9 TVTov KoT-rpav. TOCOVTOV 8'
edretcpaT7raav ol MacepTrvot -rapa TO70 Meauo-ti)rvo,
O-7T' Tr' eKELVOt9 bvTrpev 7 7rd6Xt, IcaXoDo-t e Ma-
/Ieprivovq /IiiXXov a'ZTavTes avrov79 Meo-'ovlovq,
KaXoacI TOV olVOV, aXX1C MafuepTrvov, TO9I apO7TOLc
evr/itXov ovra TOV 'ITaXtKicv. olicelrat uicaviw;
i '7rXt6s, ua\XXov 86 KaTC&vr), Ial yap otl'ar7opa9
88eICrat 'PPua'Lov*- ?7-TTOV 8' ap Coly TO Tavpo-
LEvtov. Kal Ka'avr a 8' eo-t7 NaKov Troj av CotV
KTiOrp.a, Tavpoue'vlov 8 T.ov dv"T/3\Xr Zay/cXat o r
a7re'/aXe 86 T70i olicrTopaq TOVq e apX^F 7'
KaTa7cV, KaTOiLKC aVTO' e7epOUV9 'lpOiVOq TOD
EvpaKovacro-ov Tvpa'vvov Kal 7rpooayopevo-avPTO
avcT v A'irv]7v av7ri Ka'ravYs. ravTaV79 8 o Ka
IlivapovI K7ict opa XeyEL a7VTO, OTav
;vveyC rot1 Xeyw, a0e'v iepav
o0/wcovv/e -raTep, icTt-rop AlTrva.
[Bergk, Frag. 105.]
1 (cs ,rc, Meineke, and Bergk, for twfzroi.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 3
the colony later on. Now the Romans used it as
a base of operations for their Sicilian war against
the Carthaginians; and afterwards Pompeius Sextus,
when at war with Augustus Caesar, kept his fleet
together there, and when ejected from the island
also made his escape thence. And in the ship-
channel, only a short distance off the city, is to be
seen Charybdis,' a monstrous deep, into which the
ships are easily drawn by the refluent currents of
the strait and plunged prow-foremost along with a
mighty eddying of the whirlpool; and when the
ships are gulped down and broken to pieces, the
wreckage is swept along to the Tauromenian shore,
which, from this occurrence, is called Copria.2 The
Mamertini prevailed to such an extent among the
Messenii that they got control of the city; and
the people are by all called Mamertini rather than
Messenii; and further, since the country is exceed-
ingly productive of wine, the wine is called, not
Messenian, but Mamertine, and it rivals the best of
the Italian wines. The city is fairly populous,
though Catana is still more so, and in fact has
received Romans as inhabitants; but Tauromenium
is less populous than either. Catana, moreover, was
founded by the same Naxians, whereas Tauromenium
was founded by the Zanclaeans of Hybla; but
Catana lost its original inhabitants when Hiero,
tyrant of Syracuse, established a different set of
colonists there and called it Aetna instead of
Catana.3 And Pindar too calls him the founder
of Aetna when he says: "Attend to what I say to
thee, O Father, whose name is- that of the holy
sacrifices,4 founder of Aetna." But at the death of
SCp 1. 2. 36. 2 "Dunghill." 3 476 B.c.
SThe Greek here for sacrifices" is "hieron."
KaTa1 18 e 7 re2 1 TevX ToV 'pi) pvo icareT6X0vre
ol Karavaiot "row ie evoLKovU eefp3aXov /cal TOv
rd'ov av' icaIav TOD TVpavVov. ol S' Arlvaot
TapaXopcravreT S T27 "IvvPyoav IcaXovY)v 7v T.rI
AitvT opetvLYv icxrjcav Kai 7rpoOrlyopevaav TO
Xwplov ALTvrv, te'Xov 7rj KarTVa7? to7ra~ovo
oySo~icKOva, Ical TOr 'IVpwva olicTLrrU rI E'qvav.
virepKelrat 8 $daXto-ra r7TF Karaidv 71 ATrv7,
KcaL Tv TrWp' Trob icpaT'pa, 7ra&wv rXTheirov
C 269 KotvaovEl KaIC y7p o0 pvIaKce ci9 rv KaTavalav
eyyVTaT&) IcaraciepovrTa, Kac Ta 7T-Eep TOW evOe-
RdSe eicel repVrXTTa t2 TOv 'AuoIvolpov vcal TOv
'Ava7riav, o' Tov< yovea be Trwv w0uwv apdptevot
leca-wcrav ETrLepojievov T70 KaKOlv. orav l o
Ilooe8ovto( forai, 7 rl 17TaS Ta 3 rep TN 5poT ,
KcaTaTeOppovTat 7roXX 3dlOet Ta KaTavalov Xo-
pla' Aj Iev orV (0Tro0o8, XvTnrr-ao-a Trpo0 icaspov,
eepyeTeTre T 7^v pav Xpovotq 4vaTepov, ed/jat7reXov
yap 7rapExeTaat Kal Xpnroicap7ov, T7q dX\y
ovy 6poem o vow ) ebovov r re pwar, ahv
ouX oo1 Ova0v Eq V .OLVOU Tv T're PT a9,
c/ 4pe Ta KaTa.Tec)pw0eVTa X tpla, rtaivet@ v 7Tr
TOToLrTOV T7a rpo3arTd C aartv, woa-re 7rv'LyeaOat
i76rep EKi T& V rIWv d atpoDvtv al/.a Vd' Ipep&ov
eoaaap&wv 2* TreV17e,6 KaOaarep Tro o Ical KcaTa 7-)v
'EpvOetav avfiLpaivov edpKcaptev. 6 SE Pva eld
1 icaT, Corais and Meineke emend to Uead.
2 KE TEOpi A'rTat, Xylander, for Kr pe0hpv'lrat; so the later
3 brav 8', 6 lotiEsiLoUvs (tl, t6vyfr1a, Meineke, for ,'~av Ti'
Inor~E6av 0 talvrpTat.
gs, Corals inserts ; so the later editors.
6 8', after wralverv, Corais deletes; so the later editors.
6 But k reads *rsTCapdacov'a 4 ?vrivTKov a, "forty or fifty."
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 3
Hiero' the Catanaeans came back, ejected the in-
habitants, and demolished the tomb of the tyrant.2
And the Aetnaeans, on withdrawing, took up their
abode in a hilly district of Aetna called Innessa, and
called the place, which is eighty stadia from Catana,
Aetna, and declared Hiero its founder. Now the
city of Aetna is situated in the interior about
over Catana, and shares most in the devastation
caused by the action of the craters;3 in fact the
streams of lava rush down very nearly as far as the
territory of Catana; and here is the scene of the act
of filial piety, so often recounted, of Amphinomus
and Anapias, who lifted their parents on their
shoulders and saved them from the doom that was
rushing upon them. According to Poseidonius,
when the mountain is in action, the fields of the
Catanaeans are covered with ash-dust to a great
depth. Now although the ash is an affliction
at the time, it benefits the country in later times,
for it renders it fertile and suited to the vine, the
rest of the country not being equally productive of
good wine; further, the roots produced by the fields
that have been covered with ash-dust make the
sheep so fat, it is said, that they choke; and this is
why blood is drawn from their ears every four or
five days 4-a thing of which I have spoken before 5
as occurring near Erytheia. But when the lava
1 467 B.c. 2 461 B.c.
s Groskurd, Mtiller-Diibner, Forbiger, Tardieu, and Tozer
(Selections, p. 174) supply as subject of "shares" a pronoun
referring to Catana, assuming that Aetna, the subject of the
sentence, is the mountain, not the city.
One of the later manuscripts reads forty or fifty days."
6 3. 5. 4. (q.v.).
r4jtv /fETa/3aXXOv JvroXtiol jV cEtrbdvetav TTj
75?y^ 1' lacavov /3ad0o, Woc-e XaTro/ilav eivat Xpeav
ro7F 4vatcaXvfat /3ovXofevot 7i TV e d apXrv rt-
oatvetav. TaK tcaf 9 yap E TO'i KcpaTljpob T7 j
irdTpaw, eir' ava3phX'Oeia-n, TO bvrepXvOev T 9v
Kcopvoj iV ypo'v 7rrflX6 Eo-TL pea', pejv Kara T7T
opetvjv' eiTa r'TwLtv Xa,9wv 7yLverTa XiOoq /,vXtia,
7?v abUTv vXdrr77rav xpoav, v peov elZe. Kal 7
cvro8o 68 KLoCitopevov TwV XIaowv 69 da7ro 'T
vXwv ylveTra' icaOdirep o3v TO 7rjyavov, T7
owIa rrpho Tiv i a'ireXov xelI' T'v Alrvalav
4. Tad? S8 lvpaKcoowaa 'ApXta? LCv rIc-Pev
ei Koptivov rXevo-av 7rep/ Tov' avrovs XpOVovv,
olT wurci-Onav Tre Nadov Ical Ta Meyapa. a/a
86 M6o-xeXXcd TC Caovw ei' AeX ob v eXOetv tKal
Tov 'ApXlav' Xpo'rT7lptao/j1Evcov '1 Qpic-8aL TO
6eov, 7roTepov aipovrTat 7rXoOTov j byIetav' TOb
ptv o~v 'ApXlav X ao-0at TOPv rXoD3Tovv, MioaseXXov
oe T7y vylelav' Te7d pv 8 $)vpaKovao-aqa SoDval
cKTietE, T7 8e KpoTrova. Kalt 8i aovl3j vat Kpo-
Twvtdrav Ta v OvT'Wv btewvPjv olticr-at 7rdXtv,
wo-rep elpriKatpev, ivpaKovo-aav E '7rt' TrO-OVTOV
eccreaeilv 7rXoXTro, wCo-E Kal aTro' Edv vapotLLa
taooOpvat, Xe6y/vTwV 7rpoy rov TO yav 7roXueTXeiv,
(A) OiK av 6dcvoTro2 aTrot' 1f $VpaKcova'Crwv
SecdaTi 7TXEovTa e TOVv 'ApXlar elt TIfv EtceXlav
KaTaXL7Tnerv fIETh Lepov9 T7) oTpaTtai TO7 T(WV
'HpaKXtes8ov ryeovV Xepoa-txpdaTl ovvoItctoiTra
1 Xpo- rlTlptaopbucwv 5', Meineke, for Xp?77rpiaSdtcdrorv.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 3-4
changes to a solid, it turns the surface of the earth
into stone to a considerable depth, so that quarrying
is necessary on the part of any who wish to uncover
the original surface; for when the mass of rock in
the craters melts and then is thrown up, the liquid
that is poured out over the top is black mud and
flows down the mountain, and then, solidifying,
becomes mill-stone, keeping the same colour it had
when in a liquid state. And ash is also produced
when the stones are burnt, as from wood; therefore,
just as wood-ashes nourish rue, so the ashes of
Aetna, it is reasonable to suppose, have some quality
that is peculiarly suited to the vine.
4. Syracuse was founded by Archias, who sailed
from Corinth about the same time that Naxus and
Megara were colonised. It is said that Archias went
to Delphi at the same time as Myscellus, and when
they were consulting the oracle, the god asked them
whether they chose wealth or health; now Archias
chose wealth, and Myscellus health; accordingly,
the god granted to the former to found Syracuse,
and to the latter Croton. And it actually came to
pass that the Crotoniates took up their abode in
a city that was exceedingly healthful, as I -have
related,2 and that Syracuse fell into such exceptional
wealth that the name of the Syracusans was spread
abroad in a proverb applied to the excessively
extravagant-" the tithe of the Syracusans would
not be sufficient for them." And when Archias,
the story continues, was on his voyage to Sicily, he
left Chersicrates, of the race of the Heracleidae,
1 See 6. 1. 12. 2 6.1.12.
2 4tvoi',Ko, conj. Meineke, and Madvig independently, for
&KyivoL'ro; so Forbiger and A. Vogel.
riv viv K picvpav KcaXovufie'vl, rrpdrepov 8
Fxeplav. ecetwov lev orv eJ/1aXodwa AtL/vpvovF
C 270 KarTeovray otlca-at Tr7v v- ov, ToV S' 'ApXlav
/caraa-cova 7rpo- rT ZeOptov TrV AwpteIw
eLpovra rtva'z Sevpo &ty/evov; e'A T? CKeXlar
7rapch Trv Ta Mdyapa IKrt'vTowv Trtwvrag1
avaXa/3ev abvrov, Ical Kotvp ier avTrwv ICTtat
Tal IvpatcoTcraF. Vr]'Vrj0 Se Kat Si a Trlv r7~I
XcpacL ebSat/ovlav 7roXt c al Sth TrV T7O
XUlevOwv ebivitav. ol' Te a'vpeq j'yeovKco' icarT'-
Ocr-crav, Kcal a-vve~p/i vpaxov-cralote Tvpavvov-
voV Tre2 e 07Beorr'V TV av XXcov Kal eXevUepw-
dfotav eXev6epovv Trovb; vrb rWv /3ap3dpwv
KaTa8vvaaTCevooUevoV'W O aav y7ap O)V 83ap/3dpwv
ol fLev 6voucot, Tv? S' 8 eK Tr9 7repalaq E7Tryeaav,
obvE'a 86 7T rrapaXtia efwv ol "EXXT]ve, a're-
o-Oat, T7i Se Ltecroyala at epyetv 7ravTarracrtv
OVK ''o-yXov, \XX\a 8tereIXeoav I'EXpt SeDpo I tKeot
ial ricnavol Kcal MOdpyfTre K ail 'Xo rtve C ve.to-
/evot 7TV v-qcov, av 1r7av calZ "IK3pe, oV-7Tep
7rp(orov? bio^ ra /3aapj3dpov "Eopov Xe'teaOat
T7j- 2iceXla9 oi/ctKTaq. Kal T6 Mopydvrtov 8\
eiK09 V1rTO TcOV MopyiOTWV cOicala' rt ro Xt o v
aC5T1, vvv S' O'IK cc oI. eCreXOdvCe 8e KapXiu-
8vtot IKat TOVTO0U OVICK eravoapTO KaKcovvTe Kat
robv"EXX7vaq, dvreyCov S' towv, ol :vpaKoo0rot.
'Pwtoaotr 8' va'repov Kcai Tob KapxySovt'ouvq e;J3a-
Xov ical T7 EUpaKovTo-raI dic 7roXtopicaa elXov. e'
ir vrevas, Groskurd transfers from position after Jvpa.
Kosr-aas (below) to position after KrirdOrrv ; so Forbiger and
Tardieu; Kramer approving. n o omit the word and
Meineke relegates it to the foot of the page.
Tt, the editors, for rd.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 4
with a part of the expedition to help colonise what
is now called Corcyra, but was formerly called
Scheria; Chersicrates, however, ejected the Libur-
nians, who held possession of the island, and colonised
it with new settlers, whereas Archias landed at
Zephyrium,' found that some Dorians who had quit
the company of the founders of Megara and were
on their way back home had arrived there from
Sicily, took them up and in common with them
founded Syracuse. And the city grew, both on
account of the fertility of the soil and on account
of the natural excellence of its harbours. Further-
more, the men of Syracuse proved to have the gift
of leadership, with the result that when the Syra-
cusans were ruled by tyrants they lorded it over
the rest, and when set free themselves they set free
those who were oppressed by the barbarians. As
for these barbarians, some were native inhabitants,
whereas others came over from the mainland. The
Greeks would permit none of them to lay hold of
the seaboard, but were not strong enough to keep
them altogether away from the interior; indeed, to
this day the Siceli, the Sicani, the Morgetes, and
certain others have continued to live in the island,
among whom there used to be Iberians, who, accord-
ing to Ephorus, were said to be the first barbarian
settlers of Sicily. Morgantium, it is reasonable to
suppose, was settled by the Morgetes; it used to be
a city, but now it does not exist. When the Cartha-
ginians came over they did not cease to abuse both
these people and the Greeks, but the Syracusans
nevertheless held out. But the Romans later on
ejected the Carthaginians and took Syracuse by siege.
1 Cape Bruzzano.
e ]tv o8i TloJnrrIlov 7d T re d Xac Ka cLcavTOf 7roZXet
Ka8 c Ka TO YvpaKotac-aa;, 7rTE/ bfa dIrotCav
o 2 faarTo KaFtap rroXvb ptpov TOV rraXatoD
I TcrIMLaro dv'Xae. revTa7rroXL'; ry /p ,ev bT
rraXatlv, 3y8O6rjovra cal ecarTOv o-ra8tov kXova-a
TO reLXO. atravTa JEV 8N Tv i Kicov TODTOV
Kr7rXcppovv ovSe 8v 6e, TO S avvorKOVuc EVov
TO 7rpo? Tj V7c vja 7T^ 'OpTuylia ljepoS (pnoO
Bev oLKioat /3eXTIov, datoXoyou1 7roXeOBo 'X v
7repIFleTPOV' 17 8' 'Oprvyia a-vvd'rret ye(kvpa 7rpy?
Trv i7retpov 7rX~cov 2 ovaa, KpjVl7 8' eyEt LTr
'Ap4Oovaav, eitetaav 7'roTaov vv eb' ? eCi TV
Mvoetovor-t E TO'V 'AX'fetov elvat ToVrov, apyd-
/evov /Y ,e V 7 H IIeXoTrovvwov, 8th Be Tro
1reX.aov9 vbr TO y TO petOpov eXovTa letXpt 7rpo
T7v 'Ap'eovo-av, er eK81SvYTa evO &ve rdXtL elF
T7 V OdXaTTav. TEK/crJplovvTat 8 TOtOVTO( T'Ul
ical yap aXl )71v rtva reao o-av el6; TOv 'orataov
Ev6ftcrav 3 v 'OXvlxrlta Sevpo aveveXOfjva el T' v
ipr'jvv, ica OoXoovaa cnro 7 ri Tv v 'OXvv/lTra
fSovOvcoI&. 8 re HIlvSapov ebraKoXovOov o TOUTOte
adtZrvvlja Crefivov 'AXceo3,
iXCXetzL 4 dvparcoo-rav OdXoI, 'OpTvyla.
C 271 avvarro alve rat 8A T7 ITiv8adp rabrTa ical Tt'iatov
o urvyy7pace6v. el Iev ovv 7rp~ ToiV avvd'ra T1
OaXa'Ty KarTE7TTC rE 'AX etdo elF Tt /Pdpa0pov,
1 a&~oAdyov, Casaubon, for aJdhAoyov; so later editors.
2 Xrloov, Jones inserts. Meineke reads 6iuopovo-a.
3 vdiatrav, Corais deletes; Meineke suspects.
KtYvav, the editors, for Kpvas.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 4
And in our own time, because Pompeius abused, not
only the other cities, but Syracuse in particular,
Augustus Caesar sent a colony and restored a con-
siderable part of the old settlement; for in olden
times it was a city of five towns,1 with a wall of one
hundred and eighty stadia. Now it was not at all
necessary to fill out the whole of this circuit, but it
was necessary, he thought, to build up in a better
way only the part that was settled-the part adjacent
to the Island of Ortygia-which had a sufficient cir-
cuit to make a notable city. Ortygia is connected
with the mainland, near which it lies, by a bridge,
and has the fountain of Arethusa, which sends
forth a river that empties immediately into the
People tell the mythical story that the river
Arethusa is the Alpheius, which latter, they say,
rises in the Peloponnesus, flows underground through
the sea as far as Arethusa, and then empties thence
once more into the sea. And the kind of evidence
they adduce is as follows: a certain cup, they think,
was thrown out into the river at Olympia and was
discharged into the fountain; and again, the fountain
was discoloured as the result of the sacrifices of oxen
at Olympia. Pindar follows these reports when he
says: "0 resting-place 2 august of Alpheius, Ortygia,3
scion of famous Syracuse." And in agreement with
Pindar Timaeus the historian also declares the same
thing. Now if the Alpheius fell into a pit before
1 Nesos (the island Ortygia), Achradine, Tyche, Epipolai,
a Or more literally, "place to breathe again."
3 Nemean Odes, 1. 1-2. Pindar further characterises
Ortygia (1. 3) as "the bed of Artemis."
,iv Ti? av 7TtraYvrd'i7; ivTevfev LBicetv icara 7/ y
eOfpov pexpt T (' ;C6ilac, ttlyiq T7 OaXd'rTy
Staoawcov TO 7rrdrOTov i08wp' E'retiS 8 Tb TroD
'TroTaiov orToyta (avepov Jcr-v El r7 v O"XaTrav
cKS3tOV, eyyv ae 78V CV T(dv 7 rodpt Ti) 8ad777(;
bativ6fevov aToCLa Tb caraTTrvov TO pevita Tro
7roTaytof (icalrep obV' OV"iW av a-v/,ietva yXUviKV,
0uw1o TO ye e7Tr 7TrXEo, el KaTara vot eld TOb Kca
7y/ peW0pov),' wravTawraaov a~j 4xavov raT 0. TO
TC yap T? 'ApeOolvatJ? i8op adVTr/aprupet, 7TroTiLov
OP. TO Te 8la TOOCOVTOV 7Topov avfi/EveIv TO pev/Ia
rTO 'noTrapovI, iz Btaxeo4ievov T7 0aXadr'TT, IeyXPL
av Cel To r7reXaot7evPov petOpov pa trry e', 'TavrT6XS
y96~8v". Lx6tSv 'yap der' TOD 'PoSavoD T70Dr
rCTo-revvo/e, 0 o-v/lver TO peDi.Pa 81h Xl/jvf t1v,
opaTPv Ca(wov t v T7 opvcv. JXX' ce?2 /leP Kal
/3paX'b idtrar ta icat ob KvJatvov'rV T7j VlIvr7F,
evdraia 81, o5rov XEioWver ei alirtot cal KcXv8aototl,
art7avdrOIvov ovbe8/zti oi'ceto; j XdoyoT. eIrtLTvel
6 TO '\rfevO; 7' tdi7 TrapaTe9eo-a' ovSe\ yap
avbrb 3 ev iawei eve0fTret, OVX T 7 T(0 TrOlOVT re
cKat La TOtOVTO)V wTopDov 5 06pO/6Vtr.
DepovTat 8' 7vrr yn7j 7roTapLoi 7TroXXoL Kal TroX-
XaXov T)? 71 9 dXX1' OK eTrLt TroCroVTOV Ldoa'Trta
1 Sits .. eOpov, Meineke relegates to the foot of the
page; C. Miller approving.
2 &4I, Epit., for d~irvo (ABC1); so the editors in general.
3 avbr, Corais, for abui7; so the later editors.
4 obx 'rT T p TrotrYor, Meineke, for obxl Tyr rdr ob'rw.
r6 ~pwv, Corais, gpav ; so the later editors.
1 That is, whirlpool.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 4
joining the sea, there would be some plausibility in
the view that the stream extends underground from
Olympia as far as Sicily, thereby preserving its
potable water unmixed with the sea; but since the
mouth of the river empties into the sea in full view,
and since near this mouth, on the transit, there is
no mouth visible that swallows up the stream of
the river (though even so the water could not remain
fresh; yet it might, the greater part of it at least,
if it sank into the underground channel),2 the thing
is absolutely impossible. For the water of Arethusa
bears testimony against it, since it is potable; and
that the stream of the river should hold together
through so long a transit without being diffused with
the sea-water, that is, until it falls into the fancied
underground passage, is utterly mythical. Indeed,
we can scarcely believe this in the case of the
Rhodanus, although its stream does hold together
when it passes through a lake,3 keeping its course
visible; in this case, however, the distance is short
and the lake does not rise in waves, whereas in case
of the sea in question, where there are prodigious
storms and surging waves, the tale is foreign to all
plausibility. And the citing of the story of the cup
only magnifies the falsehood, for a cup does not of
itself readily follow the current of any stream, to say
nothing of a stream that flows so great a distance
and through such passages.
SNow there are many rivers in many parts of the
world that flow underground, but not for such a
distance; and even if this is possible, the stories
2 The last clause is suspected; see critical note.
3 Lake Lemenna, now the Lake of Geneva (see 4. 1. 11 and
4. 6. 6).
el 8' ToD3ro 8vvaT6v, Td ye 7rpoetpfl/eva o'Svara
Kal a T 7rep' To 'IvdYou pd1uO rapa7rXocta
pet yap a7r a ipa;
IlvSov (o-,atlv 6o oo/cM)X) Ada~cov
T' art Ileppat/wov
e' 'A/ ttX ovo Ka'L Aiapv&vaq,
aliayet 8' v;aaO-v TO 'AXEXcorv
evev 8' de "Apyo, 8ta KDutLa re61wv
71cet 87/lov rov AvpiKeov,
E'rnt'rvova- 2 8~ Tr TO otaVTrV TepaToXoyiav ol rTv
'IvwTrbv el A1jXov e'/ 70T Neitov repatov'reT.
'AXoetov 8U ZwoXoT p)'r wp Ev 7~ Teve8lOv
yKa w ep0l a'tv ex Tevc'ov pev,, 6 Tov "Oparpov
*rytwr & uiv0oypdEiov. "IlvIKoT 8& Tobv ev IKVcivt
'ATrWrdov eK Ppvylav peiv lqar-t. 83eXTiOv 8'
'EaiTaaoa o't cro-t Tov er TOE 'A((cktXoxot
"Ivaxov dIC 7To AaIacoD pAeovra, e' ob calt Aya?
pet, eTepov elvat T70 'ApyoXtKoD, voyda-Oat 8'
vTro 'AltlX6Xov T7o ical T'v 7roXtv "Apyo/
'AI tcXoXLKico KaXe'oavroq' 'rovrov pLEV otv otvrTO
a-tI elv 'AeXov eC/3deXXiv, Trv S8 A'avTra
els A7roXwoviav trpot ova-tv petv.
'EKaarepwOev 8T rI v a-ov XI vrjv earI /' 4ya?,
'v 6 /ewv Kcal tySoiKovra o-ra\iov eaO-T. TaVT17V
C 272 86 7'rrv 7rdoXtv advXa/ev 6 Kaoa-ap Kal Trv KaTdvV,
(o 8' a'Tawd Kev pt7ra, aovyzaXo.ievl'v 7roXXa
7rpo T7v rHO/z7Lr7 ovu KaTCadX.vtv. KevTatra vTrtep
1 Td, Jones restores; Corais and later editors emend to rp.
SMeineke, without warrant, relegates to the foot of the
page the words rInelvov0ct .. dv f y.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 4
aforesaid, at least, are impossible, and those concern-
ing the river Inachus are like a myth: "For it flows
from the heights of Pindus," says Sophocles, "and
from Lacmus,1 from the land of the Perrhaebians,
into the lands of the Amphilochians and Acarnanians,
and mingles with the waters of Acheloiis," and, a
little below, he adds, "whence it cleaves the waves
to Argos and comes to the people of Lyrceium."
Marvellous tales of this sort are stretched still
further by those who make the Inopus cross over
from the Nile to Delos. And Zoilus 2 the rhetorician
says in his Eulogy of the Tenedians that the Alpheius
rises in Tenedos-the man who finds fault with
Homer as a writer of myths! And Ibycus says that
the Asopus in Sicyon rises in Phrygia. But the
statement of Hecataeus is better, when he says that
the Inachus among the Amphilochians, which flows
from Lacmus, as does also the Aeas, is different from
the river of Argos, and that it was named by
Amphilochus, the man who called the city Argos
Amphilochicum.3 Now Hecataeus says that this
river does empty into the Acheloiis, but that the
Aeas 4 flows towards the west into Apollonia.
On either side of the island of Ortygia is a large
harbour; the larger of the two is eighty stadia in
circuit. Caesar restored this city and also Catana;
and so, in the same way, Centoripa, because it
contributed much to the overthrow of Pompeius.
x More often spelled Lacmon; one of the heights of Pindus.
2 ZoYlus (about 400-320 B.c.), the grammarian and rhetori-
cian, of Amphipolis in Macedonia, is chiefly known for the
bitterness of his attacks on Homer, which gained him the
surname of "Homeromastix" (" scourge of Homer").
3 Cp. 7. 7. 7. 4 Cp. 7. 5. 8.
KaTrdary Ta KevoptpTra, o-vvdurrovTa roto AlTvatoti
opecrc Ial T() IvpzalO 7roTa/q P6ovTn el6; TdJV
5. Tcv Se XotWr'cv 74)j; tKceXlia 7rkevp5ov j IEvP
aro o ToO IIaxv'ov 7rp,? AtXs/3,atov 8ticovo'a
edcXk'eterTai TeXdwe, 'Xyvr' Trva o-rJovaa TWv
apyaxLwv iarotuct v, Wv fv KCal Kataptvva, iarotrov
ivpalovacrowv. 'AicpcIya, & PeXwwv oioca1 Ial
To drivetov icaU AtXr,8aitov & t Oa-vtpe'v EI. Tr yap
KapXrSovt'a TOdrwv puaXrO-Ta vT1OT7i'rn'TrTo'T TrO
tLepwv, tza/cpol Kva l vveXeL9 ol ro~Xe/tot yevo/,evot
Ta 7roXXa KCaar7ehetpay. 7 86\ Xot7r Kai l pey7' -T
7rXsvpd, xat'rep oN' ar'T 'roXvdvtpOpcroq obo-a,
oylw itavo avvoioKuceras. Kal yap "AXa a ical
TvvSapl i al 70 T&O AiyeaorTev e~droptov iKa
Ke aXotGl2 7roXklitaard dert' Ildvopp/o 86 ic al
'Pwoalwv ''Xet IcarotIav. T7lv 8 Alyea-raiav
I/crTWiOjvai Oatrv V7rO TCrV pera 'I Xoicrsrov
Stapf3dvTa eCl v jv KpOTa)7vaTtv, Ka9darep Edv TOl
'IraXtKoi e'lpp7ra, 7rap' auToa o'raX'VeTwv elV 7Trj
'ticeKav p.eTa Aly7evTOV TO Tpwco.3
6. 'Ev S 7T E^eauoyaia 7)ly yevP "Evvav, evy TO
lepov 71Ts Arj/17pov, e'ovarv oXtyot, KELLEPv3i v Er7
Xo6PW, repte~XI7/LLeppvJTv 7rrX'dreov OpoTre'Lotr dIpo-
alosi 7rarlav.4 ecKaeKwav a;T'. v d'Xro-Ta
fe.TroXtopiCl0evTer' o0 7repi EVilovv 8parer'at, ical
1 Se rEjwov ohra, Kramer, for Be Neyw cwvovaa (sic); so
the later editors. See Thucyd. 6. 4.
2 KepaootiVs, Meineke, for KepaAoi~ESs.
SSchleiermacher proposed that the passage oiKE!ratL .
aF dAoyov ( 6) be transferred to a position after Tpeds.
Kramer is inclined to approve, C. Miiller approves; and
Meineke, Forbiger and Tardieu so read.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 4-6
Centoripa lies above Catana, bordering on the
Aetnaean mountains, and on the Symaethus River,
which flows into the territory of Catana.
5. Of the remaining sides of Sicily, that which
extends from Pachynus to Lilybaeum has been
utterly deserted, although it preserves traces of the
old settlements, among which was Camarina, a colony
of the Syracusans; Acragas, however, which belongs
to the Geloans, and its seaport, and also Lilybaeum
still endure. For since this region was most exposed
to attack on the part of Carthaginia, most of it
was ruined by the long wars that arose one after
another. The last and longest side is not populous
either, but still it is fairly well peopled; in fact,
Alaesa, Tyndaris, the Emporium of the Aegestes,
and Cephaloedis1 are all cities, and Panormus has
also a Roman settlement. Aegestaea was founded,
it is said, by those who crossed over with Philoctetes
to the territory of Croton, as I have stated in my
account of Italy; 2 they were sent to Sicily by him
along with Aegestes the Trojan.
6. In the interior is Enna, where is the temple of
Demeter, with only a few inhabitants; it is situated
on a hill, and is wholly surrounded by broad plateaus
that are tillable. It suffered most at the hands of
Eunus3 and his runaway slaves, who were besieged
1 Another name for Cephaloedium (6. 2. 1). 2 6. 1.3.
3 Eunus was a native of Apameia in Syria, but became a
slave of a certain Antigenes at Enna, and about 136 B.c.
became the leader of the Sicilian slaves in the First Servile
War. For a full account of his amazing activities as juggler,
diviner, leader, and self-appointed king, as also of his great
following, see Diodorus Siculus 34. 2. 5-18.
4 raaav, the reading of all MSS., Jones restores, for 7raov
(Corais and Meineke).
eopLt efatpeOevre' br 'Powalt(w E'valov &8 Ta
avria Tra a Kal KaTavaFio Kal TavpoievTrat Kcal
OiKceirat 86 al 6 "Epvo Xo'Ado Iv'*XjoV;, iepov
'xCOn 'A .po0irlTy rTIjtjievov 8taoep6vrurw, lepo-
Sov~Xv ryvvatictv 7r-Xpe~ TO waxatov, at ave'eo-av
KcaT' ezUXv o'T' rc 7Erl Y.teXila icat k'Oev WroXXol"
Pvvut S' artep abTr ^ icarolca' nrav~pel rb lepov,1
vvSl 8' c(taIerp aiT'r '7 KaTot Ca XetLrav8pEFt TO IEpoP,
Kcat TWv IepWov Ow COraTv de eXot're TO'rX8jov.
I~ISpvpta 8' ei'T KIal e 'VwPcj 7f 0eoi TaIT7?)
To p Trp v rvVXrif T4) KoXXiY? tlepov 'Acpo8T17?
'EpvcLv'}9 Xeyo6~/E OV, eXOV Ka'I vecov Kat Coav
7reptiKetC iLevv atioXoyov.
'H 8' AXX IKcarotKi/a Kc'ial Tr4 pearoyalaq 7roi/.tEvwv
17 rXerh -TE 'eyE yraC oire yap 'I/Tepav et crvvoL-
KOVuLerP7 ito-ipLEV o-re Pe'av oie KaXXIrroXtv o ire
X F av o7r OT
eXtvoDura oiT' El',ootav olT' ahXXa 7rXelov9, (Iv
Tv p/.iv 'I/epav ol ev MvXai? e6icTav Zay/cXatot,2
KaXXlhroXtv 8 Ndiaot, :eXCvoDVVa Se ot avbr7O
1 i, before T-b i'ep6, Jones deletes (B see. mn. reads Kat).
But other editors, following Corais, delete the whole
2 Meineke, without warrant, inserts rFxav e 'Pdltot after
1 Now Mt. San Giuliano. But Eryx is at the north-
western angle of Sicily, near the sea, not in the interior,
and for this reason some editors consider the passage out of
2 Also called Eryx. Hamilcar Barca transferred most of
the inhabitants to Drepanum (at the foot of the mountain) in
260 B.c. After that time the city was of no consequence,
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 6
there and only with difficulty were dislodged by the
Romans. The inhabitants of Catana and Tauro-
menium and also several other peoples suffered this
Eryx, a lofty hill,' is also inhabited. It has a
temple of Aphrodite that is held in exceptional
honour, and in early times was full of female temple-
slaves, who had been dedicated in fulfilment of
vows not only by the people of Sicily but also by
many people from abroad; but at the present time,
just as the settlement itself,2 so the temple is in
want of men, and the multitude of temple-slaves has
disappeared. In Rome, also, there is a reproduction
of this goddess, I mean the temple before the
Colline Gate 3 which is called that of Venus Erycina
and is remarkable for its shrine and surrounding
But the rest of the settlements 4 as well as most
of the interior have come into the possession of
shepherds; for I do not know of any settled popu-
lation still living in either Himera, or Gela, or Cal-
lipolis or Selinus or Euboea or several other places.
Of these cities Himera was founded by the Zanclaeans
of Mylae, Callipolis by the Naxians, Selinus by the
Megarians of the Sicilian Megara, and Euboea by
but the sacred precinct, with its strong walls, remained a
strategic position of great importance.
3 The temple of Venus Erycina on the Capitol was dedi-
cated by Q. Fabius Maximus in 215 B.c., whereas the one
here referred to, outside the Colline Gate, was dedicated by
L. Portius Licinus in 181 B.C.
4 i.e. the rest of the settlements on "the remaining sides"
(mentioned at the beginning of 5), as the subsequent clause
C 273 MeyapeZ,, Ei/3oav o8' ol AeovTrvot.1 Kal, T7v
/3ap/aptcKv 8' eFrXef0, 9aav2 vroXXat, KaOaTrep
ol KautuKot 3 7T KwodxXov /3aoa-keov, 7rap' m Mivw
SoXoo/JoviOr)va XeKyeral. 7T V ov Ipryiav cKaravoij-
o-avrTe 'Pitaiot,, KaTal/cr taTOtlvoI Tre T p' Icai
T ov 7Tres8y Ta 7rXeL-Ta n7rrooop/ol i Kal /ov-
ichot Kal 7roTtec Ea 7rapeSoo av' v' ;v 7roXXatcvC
El lctvSvov KaVreorT T /Ze7yXovU 77 v 770o, TO I/ev
7rp Coov Trk XaTE'Tae T rpe6ro1.ew0 v oTropadSr l TOW
vo/pewv, eCta ia r ca KTa 4rtj8rl ao-vviTa/ea vrv ical
7rop0ovPvTw(v Taq KcaTOtLK aq, KaBdrep ,ivKa ol vrEpl
Ewvovv Tr7V "Evvav KaTCbYov. vwOTrT- 8' 40'
( 61&v et'; T7JV 'Ptw0')]v avelTtUOn 'q 2XoUvpd TS?,
AITV4ri vldo Xey6o-evo', O-Tparta? drlyrl7-/ievo;o
ica Xe eXao-at lac vic ,atq Ka1TaeSpa/jpc7Kw To a VKICXC,
Tj9 Atrvn 7rnoXB'v Xpovov, ye Tp ayopa wovo-
IdaeXOv aylcvor V9 vowTro TOr eFopt8 eV 8taaoraT erTa
VrTO 0flpic e7rL 7Tr / 7aTO yap TtVO) V Xoio
TeOelC 9 At av E67r T7, A'Trv1, 8taXvOevTo9 altvt8LoWs
Kal av 7rTe'ovTo0F, KaT7Yvey0 Kcal avaT0 els eyaXe-
d'ypaq Otpplov evoiaXvrovi, '7ri'TLT?7Se rapeaceva-
ap0 vas vTrb 7rO vr ?yIraTt.
7. TIv 8U 7)9 xcopa9 aperV pvXovptvo v I viro
IrdaTWnV, o0V8v XeItpw Tr9 ITaXlra a7rO)aivo.oevwv,
7 86e? Xeyetv ; o-To) oe call eXL(T ea Kcpo icpy /cal,
1 Following Siebenkees, Meineke and others transfer to a
position after AeovfrotL the words KecdIICOTai aet (at end
2 9lhei9 Ooav, Meineke emends to dte~OhEIf rav.
3 Kayciof, Xylander, for Kw yKoi; so the later editors.
1 A number of the editors transfer to this point the sen-
tence "The whole fortunes," at the end of 7 below.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 6-7
the Leontines.1 Many of the barbarian cities, also,
have been wiped out; for example Camici,2 the royal
residence of Cocalus,3 at which Minos is said to have
been murdered by treachery. The Romans, there-
fore, taking notice that the country was deserted,
took possession of the mountains and most of the
plains and then gave them over to horseherds,
cowherds, and shepherds; and by these herdsmen
the island was many times put in danger, because,
although at first they only turned to brigandage in a
sporadic way, later they both assembled in great
numbers and plundered the settlements, as, for
example, when Eunus and his men took possession
of Enna. And recently, in my own time, a certain
Selurus, called the "son of Aetna," was sent up to
Rome because he had put himself at the head of an
army and for a long time had overrun the regions
round about Aetna with frequent raids; I saw him
torn to pieces by wild beasts at an appointed combat
of gladiators in the Forum; for he was placed on a
lofty scaffold, as though on Aetna, and the scaffold
was made suddenly to break up and collapse, and he
himself was carried down with it into cages of wild-
beasts-fragile cages that had been prepared beneath
the scaffold for that purpose.
7. As for the.fertility of the country, why should
I speak of it, since it is on the lips of all men, who
declare that it is no whit inferior to that of Italy?
And in the matter of grain, honey, saffron, and
2 Camici (or Camicus) is supposed to have been on the site
of what is Camastro.
3 The mythical king who harboured Daedalus when he
fled from Minos.
aXXot, T(io-' 1cv dLelvow Tsv 0al'i7. rnpoaeari S
Kai TOb ey ylVOv aoavel yap ptepos Tt r77, 'IraXlaT
er'iv i~ v Ktco, Kal b7royopryel T7 'P&wLz, cKa9drrep
CdK Trv 'ITaXxtiK v cdypw, efcao'Ta e6vlapcov cxa aTa-
XatLrwp&O;. Ka l SK cat KaXov -tv airv 7raILpeov
r7F 'P; P,.I' ICoylf 'raL, yap Ta rtvodleva rdvraVra
7rX'v ohXycoW TOW avTorO avaXtoKcotIeCov Sevpo.
Tavra S' terT'v ovb ol KapTTol ovov, AXa Ia
oo-icjUaria Ical 8eppuara Kcal 6'pia Ka' ra roiavTa.
(flul S' 6 TIoo-etSvo0 olov dKIpo7roXetq e'irl 0aXdTr-
T1(v 8o0 T-a Svpatcovo-o-a9 I8p0a-al KaL TOyv
"Epvxa, io-'LPv d ~iCLov vTrepxK eo-Oat ToJv KVK'X(
reSi'wv Ti'v "Evvav.
KeKa'xdcrat 8 Kal i AeovrivV rraaaa, Naltov
ovo-a Kai abT) TW&v abvTo0d' TWv pv yap aTVr -
f-drnv EKcotvwvro-aV del at ot'? vipaicovo-a-tol;, TOW
S' evrvX'vfXtaTr o0VK ael.
8. IIXy oiov U T&V KCevop7r-ov ~a-i 7r'~tao' a,
77 ,tcpV e0iTrpoao-v XcX\eMoa-a A'Irv7y, Trov dva-
/)Savovra4 ci Tr Tb 6po SeXo/.te vr al 7rapaTret/-
7rovra- ervTe~vev yap apyx T7rr aKpopecav. oTL
8e 'ftXa Ta avr Xwpia Kal rTeppdP 7 real XLYVOV
,Ea-Ta 70T Xt/ELroso, Tia KaT 8e Spvipoi'; ica
vTear~iat' tIiX'qTirat 7ravTro&ara fv. fouce 86 Xat-
/daveCv iCeTa3oXat, rroXXad T- a Kpa TOV0 pov s ta
T'v voLLv 700 T rupo TorTE ICu el6 Lva cpaTr@pa
C 274 o-vf jepopcTvov, TorTe O aX4l'ovov, Kal TorTe ev
pvaKcav dvavTrC'rovroTo, TOTE 8e )Xoyaq KIa Xctyviv,
ilXXore 8 Icai LV8povg divafcwv-rvTO< aVayrK 7
rol iarrOcf-i TOVT roV; TOV Te wvrro yijv 7ropov
1 See footnote on Leontines, 6.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 7-8
certain other products, one might call it even
superior. There is, furthermore, its propinquity;
for the island is a part of Italy, as it were, and
readily and without great labour supplies Rome with
everything it has, as though from the fields of Italy.
And in fact it is called the storehouse of Rome,
for everything it produces is brought hither except
a few things that are consumed at home, and not
the fruits only, but also cattle, hides, wool, and the
like. Poseidonius says that Syracuse and Eryx are
each situated like an acropolis by the sea, whereas
Enna lies midway between the two above the
The whole of the territory of Leontini, also, which
likewise belonged to the Naxians of Sicily, has been
devastated; for although they always shared with
the Syracusans in their misfortunes, it was not
always so with their good fortunes.1
8. Near Centoripa is the town of Aetna, which
was mentioned a little above, whose people entertain
and conduct those who ascend the mountain; for
the mountain-summit begins here. The upper dis-
tricts are bare and ash-like and full of snow during
the winter, whereas the lower are divided up by
forests and plantations of every sort. The topmost
parts of the mountain appear to undergo many
changes because of the way the fire distributes
itself, for at one time the fire concentrates in one
crater, but at another time divides, while at one
time the mountain sends forth lava, at another,
flames and fiery smoke, and at still other times it
also emits red-hot masses; and the inevitable result of
these disturbances is that not only the underground
passages, but also the orifices, sometimes rather
Ot*7vieTa3CWXketv tat Ta orTOua Evlore 7rXoeio1
KcaTa rTjv 7rtindvetav Trv weTptF. o0 S' o0v vewoe't
dva/3dvTre 81 ltyovvTo fJv, OTt KaTaXda/3otv avto
re&iov poaXov, oo-ov e'tKoart OraIwov T~jv 7repl-
/erTpov, KXeIofievov o(bipu Te7 0rpwet, rELtXV 705
*01o A'XOVrt, CoaT6re b~ KaOdAXeEtat roV ell
To redov w poeX0eX v /ovXojuevovv opavy T' v er 7r
MapO, 3ovv6Y T ,pwr27 TrIV xypav,, ota7rep Kat 71
etricdvea KaOewpcaTo Toi ,reSlov, Vtrep o Tro
3ovvoD ve'/0o o 'ptLov Stave rTOrb el if6 ; o Sa-ov
&aKoo-iwv 'roSi vlpeygovv (elvat yap cal vrlve/lav),
eldacetv $ xrcarrvo 3o b0 TroXtjo-av'raq 7rpoeX0etl
el' Tb re&lov, edret8 01epLpo'rpa; de7refatvov r 7
1A/ttov teal aO vT' pa,, avao-rpe9*at, ,fl;&v b'ov-
Trag 7preptT ov epoZ pd)etv rpoV catvo~hevwv TroL
rroppw 0ev d10op io-. vopEI'ew 85' 6cK T'; TotaT'TjV;
oieOws 7roXXa pvle6ear-at, Keal tiXwtara ocld bacri
Ttve P repi 'Ep re8SoKcovs', rt Ka0daXoIo elt rov
KpaT'rpa Eal rcaTrahlorot To70i rdaovo t"'Xvo' TOv EL-
adc6ov 7TvV erTpav, as Ek6pei XaXKa" ebvpcOfval
ycp .'Bw ptIKpov i'rwoev TO7 XelXoov ToP KpaTpo ,
w; aveppt.pvrv b Trb T71 i pla? ToOv 7rvpoq' oVTe
yap 7rpoatTov etvat rOa T rrov oVO' paro', elid-
'fiv Tfe tILqe xaTappilejlvatl t Svaauat Cte ao-e
vrro Tqr JvrtTrvota" rEv deK j3dovs dave'ov ical
T r Cep/.tOT'l'ro', 'Fv -rpoawravrav e\koyov 7roppweev
Meineke inserts Svra after wrxAfw; Corais, etva, before
Siv is not found in ABCI.
1 This is the small cone of eruption, in the centre of the
wide semicircular crater" (Tozer, Selections, p. 175), which
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 8
numerous, which appear on the surface of the moun-
tain all round, undergo changes at the same time.
Be this as it may, those who recently made the
ascent gave me the following account: They found
at the top a level plain, about twenty stadia in
circuit, enclosed by a rim of ashes the height of a
house-wall, so that any who wished to proceed into
the plain had to leap down from the wall; they saw in
the centre of the plain a mound I of the colour of
ashes, in this respect being like the surface of the
plain as seen from above, and above the mound a
perpendicular cloud rising straight up to a height of
about two hundred feet, motionless (for it was a
windless day) and resembling smoke; and two of
the men had the hardihood to proceed into the
plain, but because the sand they were walking on
got hotter and deeper, they turned back, and so
were unable to tell those who were observing from
a distance anything more than what was already
apparent. But they believed, from such a view as
they had, that many of the current stories are
mythical, and particularly those which some tell
about Empedocles, that he leaped down into the
crater and left behind, as a trace of the fate he
suffered, one of the brazen sandals which he wore;
for it was found, they say, a short distance outside
the rim of the crater, as though it had been thrown
up by the force of the fire. Indeed, the place is
neither to be approached nor to be seen, according
to my informants; and further, they surmised that
nothing could be thrown down into it either, owing
to the contrary blasts of the winds arising from the
the poem of Aelna (1. 182), ascribed to Lucilius Junior,
describes as follows: "penitusque exaestaat ultra."
7rpiv 71 T( aTOL/otp ToV Kpar'lpo '?rpoaTreXda'ar
el e8 KcaapptkOefl, dcavot av Stao0apv 7rpiv
avapptjvat irdXtv, ioroZov rapeXyr00) 7rporepov.
To p)uv orV .Kdcelwtv VOTE Ta' 7vev' u ara ical To
rr7p, e7rteiTroV'oid 7rorTe 7T) \i;, obvc aXoyoV,
ob fL77v eTrL TOoUorov ye, (,'0' aVd T'? TooavT?79
/3itaF eLKTOV dAvOpd7r rr ye'eo at TOb V WXv rohy aoav.
TrepKceLrTat j A'TVrl /iaXXov /U eV 74F Kara Tov
IlopO)Fbv eal TI/v KaTavalav rapaXlag, XXA Ical
T79 ICaTa TK TvpprvucWy 'rXayog Kal Ta At7ra-
paiwv vijoovg. vVcI-wc p piv oiy Ktcal Pfyy7 pal-
veTat Xan7ph pa c T17F Kopv f yg, fe 'l' ftepav 6e
caTrv) aca adXvl /caTexeTrat.
9. AvTaipet 8\ 7Tf ALTvy Ta NepdEL8n2 opr.)
TaTretvoTepa. pev, 7rXaTet 7oroX6 7rapaXXaT-
TOvTa. a7aaa 8' '7 v/co0 K oixr Kcara y'l7 OTo,
rwoTra wv Ical 7rvpbi JecTrTi, KcaOdrep Tb Tvppi-
Vitco 7rehayoq, ; elpijKcaev, 'FXpt T7' Kvuzalag.
C 275 Oepl uv yovv 68dT',V ava/aoXa ca a'ra roXXobv
XeGt TO7roVg 77 v7c7O, Wv TIa pEv ZeXtVovrTta Kcal
Ta 'Ituepaa3 AX ivpd eart, Ta 8e Alyeoarata
wroTtWa. 'repi 'AKpdayavTa & X X~vat rT7v IEv
7yeva v eXoovtaa OaXar'TT?, 7TV 8oe brov -8tda opov"
ov~ y Tap TOt? aKoX1V ois. 3a7TT'rOceOat aIv/p-
Satvet, AXowv Tpo7rov E7Tt7roXdaovo-tv. oL HaXt-
1 Wro, after irthAetroaous (the reading of the MSS.), Jones
restores; Meineke deletes, following the Epit.
SNep6p~S, Corais, for NeupdM ; so Meineke.
Kal ara 'Ilpaia, Meineke, for KaTa 'I/jpav; C. Miller
approving. Corais inserts Kal T before the Karh 'IliEpav.
1 Now the Nebrodici. 5. 4. 9.
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 8-9
depths, and also owing to the heat, which, it is
reasonable to suppose, meets one long before one
comes near the mouth of the crater; but even if
something should be thrown down into it, it would
be destroyed before it could be thrown up in any-
thing like the shape it had when first received;
and although it is not unreasonable to assume that
at times the blasts of the fire die down when at
times the fuel is deficient, yet surely this would not
last long enough to make possible the approach of
man against so great a force. Aetna dominates
more especially the seaboard in the region of the
Strait and the territory of Catana, but also that in
the region of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Liparaean
Islands. Now although by night a brilliant light
shines from the summit, by day it is covered with
smoke and haze.
9. Over against Aetna rise the Nebrodes Moun-
tains,1 which, though lower than Aetna, exceed it
considerably in breadth. The whole island is hollow
down beneath the ground, and full of streams and
of fire, as is the case with the Tyrrhenian Sea, as far
as the Cumaean country, as 1 have said before.2
At all events, the island has at many places springs
of hot waters which spout up, of which those ot
Selinus and those of Himera are brackish, whereas
those of Aegesta are potable. Near Acragas are
lakes which, though they, have the taste of sea-
water, are different in nature; for even people who
cannot swim do not sink, but float on the surface
like wood. The territory of the Palici has craters 3
3 Strabo refers to what is now the Lago di Naftia, a small
volcanic lake near the Eryces River and Leontini, and not
far from the sea.
KO 8 KpaTrpay e'Xovo-tv dva3dcXovraF viop el;
OoXoetSG; dtvaoca-tua Kal 7rdXtv elF rov abrTv
S~XOUvovV pIVovV. rb ~B rep Mdravpov1 arr4-
Xatov evrb' 'Xe ao-dpyya eb.iEeyEd8r cal 7rorapov
St' avIrfj peovT'a acavj tj'Xpt 7roXXoD S8a-
o-T yiaTro9, erT a(vaKic7rTovra 7rpob rT2v eTr d'vetav,
iKaOavep 'OpOv'T77; Ev 7T :2vpia, KaTraSbv eld;
'pe6afb Xcdira 'A7a "eta< Icas 'AvTitoXelaq, o
KaXoDta Xdpvp Stv, dvarekhXet 7rdXtv Cv TreTa-
padKovTa orTaiol'o TA &S 7rapairXiao-a Kcat o
TlyptL 7v T7j Meo-ToorTaytai Kal o NeXo; o v T'7
Atijvy IUKpVy 7rpO TWV 'r"ryoWv. TOb e 7repl'
7rvutcbaXov o8wp TrL S&aKooaov' oCTaSov' Vbro
y7 v evex6y v ev ri 'Apyela \y 'Eepapvov Edc1-
Swat 7roTraov, KaL -raXtv To 7rpp; Trv 'ApKcaSticv
'Aae'av bvropfpvtov ac-ebv re 7T ore r6v re
EbporTav Kal Tby 'AX0etIov Ava8ilwortv, (a're
Kca rtrevro-Tefo-Oat pjv 86o T rT, OT4 TWoV e Trt?]-
/itaOevTwv v o-reCOV EcKaTrep, Kal epptoev-ra2 el'
To KOtVYO pvipta avaalveTar Kat ca 7rovy E'r 7-
pllro.pV IeCdrepo; ev rT olicel O 7rroTap. e tCiTat
S\ Kal T6 XeyEozevov rTepi TOy Tt av ov.
10. vy77ev j KIcal TodrTOti Kal TOFt Kara T v
LicKeVav Trade t Tr 'rep'i Ta, Anrapalwv v4jaov;
Ial avrij7 7-7v Atrpav elIcKTrat. elatl e TT'a
UEV TOev rptOLdov. / eyiEr3C T 0 f Airrdpa, Kvirowv
1 For Mdravpov, an unknown place, Cluver suggests Md&a-
pov, and others, MdCapa; the former is probably correct.
Corais' Miravpov and 0. Miller's 'Ipidapov seem groundless.
2 ?pptpEvra, Jones, for I4PvTra, on a query of Dr. Rouse.
1 The form "Mataurus" seems to be corrupt At any
rate, it probably should be identified with Mazara (now
GEOGRAPHY, 6. 2. 9-o1
that spout up water in a dome-like jet and receive
it back again into the same recess. The cavern
near Mataurus 1 contains an immense gallery through
which a river flows invisible for a considerable dis-
tance, and then emerges to the surface, as is the
case with the Orontes in Syria,2 which sinks into the
chasm (called Charybdis) between Apameia and An-
tiocheia and rises again forty stadia away. Similar,
too, are the cases both of the Tigris 3 in Mesopotamia
and of the Nile in Libya, only a short distance from
their sources. And the water in the territory of
Stymphalus 4 first flows underground for two hundred
stadia and then issues forth in Argeia as the Erasinus
River; and again, the water near the Arcadian Asea
is first forced below the surface and then, much
later, emerges as both the Eurotas and the Alpheius;
and hence the belief in a certain fabulous utterance,
that if two wreaths be dedicated separately to each
of the two rivers and thrown into the common
stream, each will reappear, in accordance with the
dedication, in the appropriate river. And I have
already mentioned what is told about the Timavus
10. Phenomena akin both to these and to those in
Sicily are to be seen about the Liparaean Islands and
Lipara itself. The islands are seven in number, but
the largest is Lipara (a colony of the Cnidians), which,
Mazzara), near which there is now a small river flowing
through a rocky district.
2 Cp. 16. 2. 7.
3 So Pliny, Nat. Hist. 6. 31.
4 Strabo refers to the lake of Stymphalus in Arcadia in
the Peloponnesus. For a full description see Frazer's note
on Pausanias, 8. 22. 1, Vol. IV, p 268.
S5. 1. 8.
a7roLKco, ElyvrYTaTw TA ) 7 iIeXlaq iceitpevrl, Jeard 'ye
Tjv Oe'p/Jeacrav" KcaXeZTo U o rpprepov MeXvyov-
vi l/yrlo-aTro 8 Ica a- To t cal 7rpo Ta T&v
Tvppijvwv e'Trtpojtai 7roXvv Xpovov aVT 'xEv,
vrricoovu f; ovaa rwa vDv Xeyo/Ie'as Atnrapaiwv
vrco-ovq, at Aiohov Ttrtve? 'poaayopevovar. ical
8 icatl TO l6phV TOD 'A7r6Xwroq hJc'o-f'l7uee
o dXXcat TO 4E AeX0Lo o I -7rO TOWV aICPpoOwlwV*
'xet 86 c al ei Tv yrv ef;cap7rov Kal aCrv7rrptas
/IeTaXXov e/7rp6o-oSov1 Kal Oep/a v8aTa xal
7vp arvop ava Trav'T oe B pTera4v v6F 9 e Tt
Iaca T7? 2ItceXIa ? Oe'p/Leo-aa,a2 j)v viv 'Ieply
'Hoaltrov Iu aXooat, 7re'rpc~S'; toaa Kai be'p))/o0
Ka 3 8tdr'vpo' eX'et 8~ dvaTrvoal 7'e p ? av eK
7ptoi Kcpars4cpw. Ce 86 T70i TueyTrTov Kal jLv'Spovv
at t(oXye} avade'povatv, ot 7rpoaoK'eye ,aatv q17
7roXlu itJpoF TO7 7ropov. CIC T71~ 7'r) Trpr-e
7TreW6rTevr-at, 810to TOt 9 avefzot oavut7TapoVvovTur
Kcal at bXoye6 ati e evravfa ,cai at Kara Tsv
A'Trvlyv, 7ravo/ievol v 8 '7avovTat Ica al aX'yeS.
C 276 ovK Ahoyov 86' Kal yap oi aveftot yevvvPraat Ial
TpEiovTrat T27 ; pypXv Xa/3vT'irev '7 T&rv htK r
0aXd arrl ivavulotdo-ewo, wOaT' a7Tn o-rvyevov;
BXs< Ka rd ouF K a T\ irvp eaTrr7TOp~Ee OVbl
'a Oavudaew Trov opcV~'ra atwtoTye'7rwI 4 'r
g lsrpd4sov (A, Epit., Meineke); twrpdosoov (no, Corais);
v Wrpdfooov (Cl).
2 Qeps~eo-a, Corais inserts; so the later editors.
Kal, after fp7nos, Corais inserts; so Miiller-DiAbner and
Sauwwaytrrs, Corais, for &\Xws y- irws ; so Meineke.
1 Styptic earth (= Latin alumen) is discussed at length by