Half Title
 Map: Our sea and the surrounding...
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Book III
 Book IV
 Book V
 A partial dictionary of proper...
 Map of Iberia
 Map of Celtica

Title: The geography of Strabo
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065780/00002
 Material Information
Title: The geography of Strabo
Series Title: Half-title The Loeb classical library. Greek authors
Physical Description: 8 v. : front. (map) ; 17 cm. --
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Horace Leonard, 1879- ( tr )
Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, 1851-1914
Publisher: W. Heinemann
G. P. Putnam's sons
Place of Publication: London
New York
Publication Date: 1917-33
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: with an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones ... Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett ... --
General Note: Greek and English on opposite pages.
General Note: Bibliography: v. 1, p. xxix-xliii.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065780
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000608778
notis - ADD7916
lccn - 17013967

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
    Map: Our sea and the surrounding countries according to Strabo
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
    Book III
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
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        Page 15
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        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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        Page 30
        Page 31
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    Book IV
        Page 161
        Page 162
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        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
    Book V
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
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        Page 472
    A partial dictionary of proper names
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
    Map of Iberia
        Page 481
    Map of Celtica
        Page 482
Full Text






A4 A

,hy G aI m










\ ,



Printed in Great Britain.



BOOK III . . . 3

BOOK IV . . . 163

BOOK v . . . 299



MAP OF CELTICA (MAP IV) . ... .. nd










1. 'ATro8ew/oa o-t 7p1lv TOV 7TpGTOV TV'7TOV T7v
yewoypaofiag olicelo fO-rTtv e()ejS{ Xo'yo? repi T7V
Kica' 'KaoCTa /cal yap v7reaofie0a OVTW&I, Kal
oKac p.eXpti vvv Op0(v ? 7rpayTaTe a lteptep'iu0at.
apxcreov e ra Xiy Vrob r7ri Etvpohryi Kal Trv
apepv avTr g TOVT)V oV' orep /cal 7rp'repov,
KcaTra Ta avTac atTiaq.
2. Ip&TOV Se pIEpov aVT79 UarT TO ea-7rptOV,
C 137 4v 'ofapev, 'I/rlpia. T7avT'q y' TO b Uv 7TXE6o
oliceFTart cavxw opy? yap K/al 8pv/uov KIcal rela
XE r'rjv eXoPra yYv, obBV TavTqlv ~6/daX^ov ei'uvpov,
olicoD-va T'V oTroXX'v' S' 7rp6o'3oppo *rVXpd Trd
Eo-TI TXeOi tWrrpO 7T0 T7paXVTr Ti Kal trapioxKavVtT;,
7r7poaeitX 7va TO a/iticrov cdve wKL rrXEKcrov Tro1
ikXXoit, SaO' vbrepflp ah e 7j Io'lX0opla 2 rr7 olcrj-
cew(o. TaVTa IuE Sq Ta /iepi7 Tota0ra, '? 8' v67To
iraaa evSaaly/wv acrX ev TI, Kal Se&aepov'rw; fw e

1 See 2. 5. 4. 2 See 2. 5. 26.



1. Now that I have given the first general outline
of geography, it is proper for me to discuss next the
several parts of the inhabited world; indeed, I have
promised to do so,1 and I think that thus far my
treatise has been correctly apportioned. But I
must begin again with Europe and with those parts
of Europe with which I began at first,2 and for the
same reasons.
2. As I was saying, the first part of Europe is the
western, namely, Iberia. Now of Iberia the larger
part affords but poor means of livelihood; for most
of the inhabited country consists of mountains,
forests, and plains whose soil is thin-and even that
not uniformly well-watered. And Northern Iberia,
in addition to its ruggedness, not only is extremely
cold, but lies next to the ocean, and thus has acquired
its characteristic of inhospitality and aversion to
intercourse with other countries; consequently, it
is an exceedingly wretched place to live in. Such,
then, is the character of the northern parts; but
almost the whole of Southern Iberia is fertile,
particularly the region outside the Pillars. This


7T)XW eo rat 8e 87Xov &v roF KcaO' eKaora,
brroypd'araatv 7Jlttv 'rporepov TO re oaXqLa IKal 7b
3. "Eolue yap /3pao- y EaY19 Ka /^A ICOF L
arbo 7 T Lr-repa,; erl T'7v oe, Ta 7rpo'o-Oa eXovry
/1Eirl 7rpso 7r em,, icara 7rXa'TO, 8' aTro Twv apicrov
7rpo; vo7ov. eXes (8 eraolv aKtiro-XLXh av poDfo
T7b 1ICKO9, 7rXaro 86 7revTraKitxtaolv TO I EytU-Tov,
eo-Tr S' OTrov 7roXh heaTTOV r vT ptopX XLwv, ial
ptaXh-ra rpo 7I; ITlvpjvyy rT voIovao- 77jv EOav
7rxevpav. 5pow yjap tSrveKeiS A(o vorovV rTpo
3oppav 7TerTa.evov op'eI 7e Tv KeXTriKIjV a1 ro 72T7
'ISqptav. oivarjv ical 7Tv? KeXTtcIK avw .raXov
TO TrXaTO Kcalb T'? 7l Irplaq, TO a-TreVraTOV TOV
tr7Xo70Uv elarTpa,; aTrO 7T j Ler7paF OaXaTLTr7;
E7f' TO7 WKceavov Eo-Tts 7 711 rHvpv7' rrwXatadov
phaXIo-Ta, E4' CKa7repov av7Tf7 TbO /I'po0;, ical 'rotoVV
KOX7rOVU, T70oU EV 7L 7 T Wceav, TOV e 8 E7 Ty'
Ka0' 'aYi OaXdrry? pelov9 8\ roVb; KeXTcoieV,
oiq 87' Kal FaXatKobv KcaXoDotr, oa-TEvTepov 7TO
la O~ ,1 7obroLorva 7arapa 7rbv 'IrptiKcv. Kal p\
T70 ev E( v 7rXeupbv T?79 'Il/3pla ia Hvpvqr
votel, Tb 86 VOTtOV o 0 e T ca0' IjUaK O dhaTra a7ro
7Ti ITlvpryjv2l pLeXpt '17XoV, Kal 7 IC7TO9 70 E7'9
EXpt To70 'lepoD KtaXovuivov aKp(OA7plov 7TPpiov
er-7 T. To rerptov rrXevpov 'rrapadhrl7ov '7T0W Ty
1 TdY, Corais from sec. man. in B, for Td.
1 According to Strabo, there were two "Galatic"
("Celtic") gulfs, the one "looking towards the north and
Britain" (2. 5. 28), and the other on the Mediterranean
side; that is, respectively, the Gulf of Gascogne, in its
extent on the French side of the Pyrenees, and the Gulf of

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 2-3

will become clear in the course of my detailed
description of Iberia. But first I must briefly
describe its shape and give its dimensions.
3. Iberia is like an ox-hide extending in length
from west to east, its fore-parts toward the east, and
in breadth from north to south. It is six thousand
stadia in length all told, and five thousand stadia in
its greatest breadth; though in some places it is
much less than three thousand in breadth, par-
ticularly near the Pyrenees, which form its eastern
side. That is, an unbroken chain of mountains,
stretching from south to north, forms the boundary
line between Celtica and Iberia; and since Celtica,
as well as Iberia, varies in breadth, the part of each
country that is narrowest in breadth between Our
Sea and the ocean is that which lies nearest to
the Pyrenees, on either side of those mountains,
and forms gulfs both at the ocean and at Our Sea.
The Celtic gulfs, however, which are also called
Galatic, are larger, and the isthmus which they
form is narrower as compared with that of Iberia.'
So the eastern side of Iberia is formed by the
Pyrenees; the southern side is formed in part by
Our Sea, from the Pyrenees to the Pillars, and from
that point on by the ocean, up to what is called the
Sacred Cape 2; the third is the western side, which
Lyon. The latter, however, comprised within itself the
two "Galatic" gulfs (4. 1. 6.) here mentioned as "larger";
that is, "larger" than the two gulfs on the Iberian side of
the Pyrenees, which Strabo does not name (see small map
inserted in'Map III in this volume). The fact is, however,
that the shortest distance across Spain, say from San
Sebastian to Tarragona, is shorter than that across France,
say from Bayonne to Narbonne.
2 Cape St. Vincent.


IIvpqjvr, TI Tro TO70 'Iepov dacporTplpov teXPt
7rs 7rpOb9'ApdT/3po9 dlcpaq, 'v KaXovcri Neptov
reTaprov 8 b T vO\ v8vSe p'eI ToV 83opeov aKcpov
Tr7 HIvp17vrI7.
4. 'AvaXapvTE re 8 XE'yo/eer Ta 'ca' e'KaoTa,
ar 70roT 'lepoD a cKpWTrfpov 1pWdp/fevot. TOVTr 8O
EoTt TO 8vrti KTaTov, o0 7T?1 Eup7rrv' ptvov, dXha,
iKal 7To9 OlcoV1uvi07 aT-na oig o-e77ILeov" 7reparovira
/1Ev yap vTro Tr V SveLv jTreL ppv W7 oliOVeYV'7 7rp0?
SwrV TOE? 7T6 T79, Espchri77 ilaKpoVt lca TOL ro pWTOVt
7T79 AtiN3L;, (ov rh pv "Ir3rpe;9 'ovUo-, TA 8e
Mavpoiro-to, "rpo1Xet 87 T 'I3ptiKa oov XIXo0?
ICat 7revTaKCO T7jpiov. Ical 877 cal 7Tr7 rpoeeX 70oU)7) yapav Ty7
AaTriv wvy^ icaXoDit Ko'veov, aorva iytpalve'w
/3ov evot. auro 8& T6 aKcpov Kal 7Tp0po7rerr-owicTo
ei T2 0daLXarTav :ApTre/tiLpo9 el/d Cet 7rXtoI,
C 138 yevo/devo9, 0r7o-7] Ev Ti rT(, 7rpooXa/~p/udver 8~
7T a- rjTaart vyiSa 7rpla, To /1ev ep//3dov TatrV
e'Xo, Ta 8 E7r&MO8T(i e '6p/1oV9 EXOVTa /1e6piov;.
'Hpa/cXeov9 8' ofil'1 ltpov evravOa SeiKvvo-'aL
(fevoaaacOa 8e TOVTO "E opov), 017e /3w0/yV, ov8'
aXov T oV Oe ov, dXXA XlovF9 cvyicetcOat irpS 7
i TETT7apa Kcara 7roXXobv Torouv9, o9 Vb7Tr T7(v
arcKVouEuvwov o-rpe edfOat Kara Tt 7radptov ical
1 oWO', Kramer, for 0'; so the later editors.
1 Cape Finisterre.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 3-4

is approximately parallel to the Pyrenees and
extends from the Sacred Cape to that Cape of the
Artabrians which is called Nerium1; and the fourth
side extends from Cape Nerium up to the northern
headlands of the Pyrenees.
4. But, to resume, let me describe Iberia in detail,
beginning with the Sacred Cape. This cape is the
most westerly point, not only of Europe, but of the
whole inhabited world; for, whereas the inhabited
world comes to an end in the west with the two
continents (in the one case, at the headlands of
Europe, and in the other, at the extremities of
Libya, of which regions the Iberians occupy the one,
and the Maurusians the other), the headlands of
Iberia project at the aforementioned cape about
fifteen hundred stadia beyond those of Libya.
Moreover, the country adjacent to this cape they
call in the Latin language "Cuneus," meaning
thereby to indicate its wedge-shape. But as for the
cape itself, which projects into the sea, Artemidorus
(who visited the place, as he says) likens it to a
ship; and he says that three. little islands help to
give it this shape, one of these islands occupying
the position of a ship's beak, and the other two,
which have fairly good places of anchorage, occupy-
ing the position of cat-heads. But as for Heracles,
he says, there is neither a temple of his to be seen
on the cape (as Ephorus wrongly states), nor an
altar to him, or to any other god either, but only
stones2 in many spots, lying in groups of three or
four, which in accordance with a native custom are
2 "Rocking Stones." They were so nicely poised on their
points that they could be rocked or turned with merely a
slight force.


lJeTa 'peaOat crrovSotrot ro-aa.ovwv 1 vev 8' OVK
elvac votuii/ov, oBr, vIcrTp eit/paveL 2 T70 TO'rov,
Oeobv opao-KovTwv ica'rietv abrTv ev T7) TOTe
Xpovq,, aXXa TOV; e7rl Oav '7icovra, v Icc 1,y7
7rX~aolov VVcKTepe v ecr' e'rtal/3avetv pe'paz, vMop
eviriepofJ'vov', 8th rTv dvv3plav.
5. Taora teav oi'v ob'Trw eXetv dyXWipe, cal 86
mat'Tevetv Se To 8r o roXXoF K/Ct xv8atoU ? OF tO 0w
etp?7]cv, ov rd-vv. Xyetv 7'yp 84 f 7crt Hoo-et-
Svtor Tov 7roXXov;, telwa) 8Vewv TOv SiXtov dv
T 71 apwKeaviTiLt Ical perTa Froov Trapa7rXl.]low
Stih Tb Lw/n7riTeT el;, rTOV /3vO6v. r*eESoo 8' elvat
Kat TroOo cal Ttb rrapaxprpia vvcKTa icoXovuetv
ferie Tv SP 8-av ovb yap rapaXpljpta, ItxKpov 8'
vi-repov, icaa7rep ical ev TrolF; 6Xotv 7reXa'ye-o
Tot; pteya'Xot(. oTrov teyV yaep eti o 8pr verat,
vrXeo) TOV /iETA 80tawv Xpovov Tr7'; 7iepa'; avl-tpal-
Pvev Kc TO7 7rapabpwTrtao-ov, eKel 8 7rXelO fciv
Obc b7ratcKOovOel, ju' eVTOt ,u .7 7rapaXplpa
a-vvda7Ter v TO o-EOTroz, Ka4Oa'rep Kai EV Troll; e6ya-
Xotq 7rerOot. TIV S T70 p,'eyeOov'; kavraaLav
av -e-oOat /phv o1Lo0a; KaTa Te aT' o-et ical Ta'
avaroXa' v e TO 7reXdyeart SA TO7 Tar dvaOv-

1 o*rovSovrotraAlvwv, Corais, for uevsoron~o-a/idvwv; gener-
ally followed.
2 &ImatveIw, conj. of Meineke, for tdriiAXtpw; generally

1 That is, to the original position; but the Greek word
might mean "transferred" to other spots. Hiibner (Pauly-


turned round by those who visit the place, and then,
after the pouring of a libation, are moved back
again.' And it is not lawful, he adds, to offer
sacrifice there, nor, at night, even to set foot on the
place, because the gods, the people say, occupy it
at that time; but those who come to see the place
spend the night in a neighboring village, and then
enter the place by day, taking water with them, for
there is no water there.
5. Now these assertions of Artemidorus are
allowable, and we should believe them; but the
stories which he has told in agreement with the
common crowd of people are by no means to be
believed. For example, it is a general saying among
the people, according to Poseidonius, that in the
regions along the coast of the ocean the sun is larger
when it sets, and that it sets with a noise much as if
the sea were sizzling to extinguish it because of its
falling into the depths. But, says Poseidonius, this
is false, as also the statement that night follows
instantly upon 'sunset; for night does not come on
instantly, but after a slight interval, just as it does
on the coasts of the other large seas. For in regions
where the sun sets behind mountains, he says, the
daylight lasts a longer time after sunset, as a result
of the indirect light; but on the sea-coasts no
considerable interval ensues, albeit the darkness
does not come on instantly, either, any more than it
does on the great plains. And, he says, the visual
impression of the size of the sun increases alike
both at sunset and sunrise on the seas, because at
those times a greater amount of vapour rises
Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie, vol. iv, 1908) thinks the stones
" apparently were carried away" by the visitors.


ittaao-et 7rXetovw ec T7v bypcov avaaepepo-Oat 8ta
8 TroVTWV )'& 8' bdvaXwv1 KcXW1iev7v TrV bOw
7arvrepa9 SXeo-Oat Ta? ipavrao-a'a, /caa7rep
Kal &a ve0Cov9 ~j7poD /ca X7TTOv /3X Erov(av
8voJevov APaTe'XXovTa TOVy ?iXLov 4 'TV OeX` -
vrv, jv ica cal eepev9F calveo-Oaa Tb aloapov.
T 8 ~efeb8o e eXy/at (rl q Tptbacov' Atxepa9
SaTp[i'raq -?v Fa&eipoes tcal Tripdina, ras roet;.
6 Se 7ye 'AprTetdL8po; KaTroIvTraXao-tovad orat
6eo-Oa TOa V 7Xtov, /cat avTiKa vvKia KaraXa.tu-
3dveiv. ks ite'v ov3 abTOrs elSe TOVTO er v rT 'Iep,
aJ/pwrrpiL(, ovX VTroX?17TTEr 'n-poo-aFovTa9 T77
darooaest avrov, e Tyap vya cp VViTW eva E7t-
/3alveLv Wro- obve' vohe'vov Xtlov ovSetI av
erti/alvot, eiTrep ebOkb 5 vb; KarTaXa/pi3vet. \hXX
ob8' edv l'X TO7 T T7S 7rapw(oeavItiSov K/cal yap
Ta rTFdetpa TrTi T Wiceavw,, Kal o HloCoeti&ovL
avTtjTapTVpeL Kal l a.ot 7rXheLOV .
6. Ti) S& aVveyoX, T5) 'lep aKcp&r7jpiw r7rapa-
C 139 Xtla Ij e4Cv eo'TLrv arpX 7TOV cTroeplov 7rXevpoi Tq)4
'Il/pla' /.LJXPt T7rp dEc/JoX? 70To TTIyov 7roTra/ov,
7 8' TO voriov p'LOV pX XXo 7ro7 ora/ov TOO "Ava
Kcal T79 eKc8oX?79 abvro. (CpeTrat 8' adrro Trw
EnwOv p)iepv eOKaTpoFI aXX' o /zev eTr' ebvOaq el,
T)7V wirepav efK'Swot 7roXv Lb peLOv wv OaTepov,
6 8' "Ava? 7rpo6 vorov E'7rtiTrpeGe, T6V /ueo0-o7o-
1 diAwv, I. Voss, for a.xirv; so Schneider, Groskurd,
Meineke, Forbiger, and Tardieu.

1 A globe filled with water, apparently.
2 We should say "refracted." Empedocles (quoted by
Aristotle, De Sensu et Scnsili, chap. 2) advanced the theory

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 5-6

from the water; that is, the visual rays, in pass-
ing through this vapour as through a lens,' are
broken,2 and therefore the visual impression is
magnified, just as it is when the setting or the rising
sun, or moon, is seen through a dry, thin cloud, at
which time the heavenly body also appears some-
what ruddy. He convinced himself, he says, of the
falsity of the above assertions during his stay of
thirty days in Gades, when he observed the settings
of the sun. Nevertheless, Artemidorus says that
the sun sets a hundred times larger than usual, and
that night comes on immediately However, if we
look closely at his declaration, we are obliged to
assume that he did not himself see this phenomenon
at the Sacred Cape, for he states that no one sets
foot on the place by night; and hence no one could
set foot on it while the sun was setting, either, if
it be true that night comes on immediately. Neither,
in fact, did he see it at any other point on the ocean-
coast, for Gades also is on the ocean, and Poseidonius
and several others bear witness against him.
6. The coastline adjacent to the Sacred Cape, on
the west, is the beginning of the western side of
Iberia as far as the mouth of the Tagus River, and,
on the south, the beginning of the southern side as
far as another river, the Anas, and its mouth. Both
rivers flow from the eastern regions; but the Tagus,
which is a much larger stream than the other, flows
straight westward to its mouth, whereas the Anas
turns south, and marks off a boundary of the inter-
fluvial region, which is inhabited for the most part
that the visual rays emanate from the eyes, but Aristotle
(1. c.) controverted it. See also Plato, Timaeus, 45c and
46 n ; and Seneca, Quaestiones Naturales, 1. 6.


ra/ulav adopi~'wv, 'v KeXTtco' vePlOVTat T 7ariov,
Iat TWV AvoLcTavCO TtvCe K Tj'c 7T repata( 70T
Tayov fCeroTtO'-OfvTe9 vro 'Pwezaltov dv $ TOt9
aVW /L peri Kca' KapTrr7Tavo Kai' 'lpyrTavo' Ka/c
OveTTOVW aVO Vyol v eIovTa. aVb'r /nV o0 17
'ywpa JTerpw) er'iv ev8alt v, 8' E egei rrpo
Ow Ket/LEPvr Kal VrTOv v7rep/c3oXA ob;c 7aroXaeTret
Trpko aTrao'av icpIvotEVfl T77V obcoviftevr apETr7y
Xdptv ial TeOV ed 7y?s KIal 0aXdiTT7 dJyaOcov.
avTr 80' E rTt'v v 6 BaiTT Stappel wroTrajLo, ajro
TWCV abvTrv /.tepJv 7Tv APXy A'wv d &)' v67rep ical
6 "Ava Kical o Tayo9, p/eo-oq 0 rw9 tApoFv TOVTWV
vTrdpywv KarTa /P7yeOo" 7rapa7rX tows /EvTrotI 7T
"Ava ica apdxa9 7ri T7rjv eo-irpav pvels ei
e7rtoTpE'fet srpo VoTrov ical KaTa Tr7vo aVrTv E'/c71-
Swco~, TroVT TrapaXiav. caXoDo-s 8' d7ro .i uv 7TO
wo'ra/tov BatT crajv, a1ro' 8 TWV evoI1covvTov Tovp-
8i7Tavi'a TOVr 8' eVOUKovvTaq Tovp8rTavo,9 Te
Kal Tovp8ovXov, 7rpoo-ayopevovao-v, ot OEtv 7rob
abTOvL voP0lfovre, ol 8' cTepovU wv e'o-Tt Kca
IIoXht/3(o, ovvolKovq p o-a9 Tr70 Tovp8?rTavolE
7rpoq apicToPv rov Tovpo6Xovvo vvvl 8' ev av'roL
outei dbalaverat 8toptaolov. -roOt(TaTO7 8' ieed-
ovrat TWOV 'I/jpwov oiTro, Kcai ypalujaTruKrj Xpwv-
Tat, Ial T;'r 7raXatac9 Wtt7L?jS eXoo- v a-vyp/pjU/arTa
Kal 7roI/LaTa Ical VO/"ov e//irpov' eaKioe-ayTXtXI
,Tpv,1 wc< faat-' Kal0 ol aXXot 8' "I/`Spe Xypwvra
7/pa/Lp.aTi'/c, ov pu 8' &1ea, ov6 y7ap yXWcTThr Lia.
Telvet o8 X(& Ppa avTr7], evTO? TOt "Ava, 7Trpo 6e

1 Paulmier de Grentemesnil conj. E7rcv for eTr ; Meineke
following. Cp. Caesar Bell. Gall. 6. 14.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. i. 6

by Celtic peoples, and by certain of the Lusitanians
who were transplanted thither by the Romans from
the other side of the Tagus. But in the regions
farther inland dwell Carpetanians, Oretanians, and
large numbers of Vettonians. This country, to be
sure, has only a moderately happy lot, but that
which lies next to it on the east and south takes
pre-eminence in comparison with the entire inhabited
world in respect of fertility and of the goodly
products of land and sea. This is the country
through which the Baetis flows, which rises in the
same districts as both the Anas and the Tagus, and
in size is about midway between the other two
rivers. Like the Anas, however, it at first flows
towards the west, and then turns south, and empties
on the same coast as the Anas. They call the
country Baetica after the river, and also Turdetania
after the inhabitants; yet they call the inhabitants
both Turdetanians and Turdulians, some believing
that they are the same people, others that they are
different. Among the latter is Polybius, for he
states that the Turdulians are neighbours of the
Turdetanians on the north; but at the present time
there is no distinction to be seen among them. Theia
Turdetanians are ranked as the wisest of the Iberians;
and they make use of an alphabet, and possess
records of their ancient history, poems, and laws \
written in verse that are six thousand years old,1 as
they assert. And also the other Iberians use an
alphabet, though not letters of one and the same
character, for their speech is not one and the same,
either. Now Turdetania, the country this side the
1 Some think the text should be emended to read "six
thousand verses in length.".


ieUV ie'Xpt 7T ) 'flp)ravta', 7rpO vro'Tov 8~ /,Xp
T7 rapaXlaq 7"Tr arrO TCv I3cpoXv 'rov "Ava
feXPL irT17Xr v. av'ycil & &ah TXeidvO)v wept
avTrTl elTretv KcaL TOZV a-vVTeyyv rorrwv, oo-a avv-
\NTErvet 7Trpb TO /aOfet T7V ev;,vav 'Cv To'drwv Ial
Tip ev atyoviar.
7' 9U 8 7raapaXlla ravryT, el s i re BaTiLT
Kal "Avav exi8w ati, Ixaal Tv Xda'Twv T 7
Mavpovlo'a' el; TO /IxeTra eJTr7rTrov TO 'ATrXav-
TLKOv 7reXayo 7Trotet T'v icaTa 2T74Xa? 'nopp.o'v,
KaO' by EvTO' B Odka'ra avv'nret Ty- e'KTO.
evraiOa 8 6'po o.T 7 T(v 'IS3jprwv Trc KaXov-
uevv a BaorTOravi v, ok Kaic Bao-To7dovu KaXoD-
aiv, n KdaXrr?, TJy IreptoXy fEV ov lueya, T7 8'
free peLya Ial 8p 0ov, ware roppwOev vrooetSe'
C 140 alvec-0at. E/c7rXovatv oviv 4e 71T jiETejpa;
OaXaT'r7y? el6; T7V 6' 8Ge6tov e cfTL TOVTO, Kat 7rpoF
abVT I KadXayr 7roXtq, EV TeTTapaKovra oTrasto;,
JatoXoyo c Kal 7raXata, vavorauoov WTore 7evoP/E'r]
Trv 'IofjpwP. 'vtot 8 Kal 'HpaKXE'ovv KTilapa
Xe yov-tv avT rv, wv Eao0 Kal7 TtiooUeriv, os rnao
Kal 'HpaXelav ovolta ceoal TO '7raXatav, eiKrvv-
aoOale ,f /Eyav repL/3oXov Kal vewo-oiKova.
8. Elra MevXapia, Taptxela ex'ovara, Kal peTa
Tavra BeXcwv 7rohXt Kal roalro' evTevtev ol
8ta'rXot iXaXtra-Td elfivel Ti/y'tv rTq Mavpovaroai
1 aT', Jones, for arTd.

1 Previous editors have unnecessarily emended Calpe to
Carteia. Ancient writers, in describing the highway on the
coast from Malaga to Gades, thought of Calpe and its
close neighbour, Carteia, as a single halting-place. In the

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 6-8

Anas, stretches eastward as far as Oretania, and
southward as far as the coastline that extends from
the mouths of the Anas to the Pillars. But I must
describe it and the regions that are close to it at
greater length, telling all that contributes to our
knowledge of their natural advantages and happy
7. Between this stretch of coastline, on which
both the Baetis and the Anas empty, and the limits
of Maurusia, the Atlantic Ocean breaks in and thus
forms the strait at the Pillars, and by this strait the
interior sea connects with the exterior sea. Now at
this strait there is a mountain belonging to those
Iberians that are called Bastetanians, who are also
called Bastulians; I mean Calpe, which, although
its circumference is not great, rises to so great a
height and is so steep that from a distance it looks
like an island. So when you sail from Our Sea into
the exterior sea, you have this mountain on your
right hand; and near it, within a distance of forty
stadia, is the city Calpe,' an important and ancient
city, which was once a naval station of the Iberians.
And some further say that it was founded by
Heracles, among whom is Timosthenes, who says
that in ancient times it was also called Heracleia,
and that its great city-walls and its docks are still
to be seen.
8. Then comes Menlaria, with its establishmentsi
for salting fish; and next, the city and river of\
Belon. It is from Belon that people generally take 1
ship for the passage across to Tingis in Maurusia;
and at Belon there are trading-places and establish-
Antonine Itinerary (Ilin. Prov. Ant. Aug. 406. 3) the halting-
place is called "Calpe Carteia."


cal eTlropta Kcal TaptXeEia. jv B KIcal ZXtv r71,
Tiyyto ao-rvTye )v irepalav 'PoTatolt, Kal c 7r, T Tyy-tog rporo-a-
d6vTre; 7rtav '- e/frLav 8' cal 7rap' avrcov E'rol-
Kovg, KIal c4vLaoaaav 'lovXtav "Iogav Triv 7ronXv.
ctLa Pa'8epa, VopOJl oa-revw StetpyoItevr vYrl'o-
a7ro '7TF TovpbSraTvia9, 8tLeovo-a rrjv KX7rrip;
7rept e7rTaKoo-lov Kal e7re27vT icova aTa6iovy, Ot
S OIcraKcooloug aoaiv. "ort 8' i3 vIaoq a'vj
Ta'XXa tjEv obO'v Sitafepovo-a TwV aXxowv, advpetla
Se TWVi vo ovvrcovWO 7, rrept Tag vavtrrXla Kal
sXl~a rrpo 'Powpoalov' roo-avtIYv e1rioaoLv elp
7raaa evTvXlav ea-Xev, woae, Kalrrep ao-Xe'ry
t1pv/iv ) 7r 'yqiV, >ovo/iaa-TroTaTr7 'r aTraoaov
ao-riv. d AXX rrepti /Iv TraVT77 epovpev OTav iKal
rrept rT7v a'XXvP vir-ov XAc'yo/ev.
9. 'Ee? 85' ear`iv 6 Meveao-Oew KaXoJLevov
X(%ntv ical i Kara "Ao'rav Aviva' i Kcat Niptoa-
aav.1 XEhyovrat 8c avaXvoa-et( at rrXlhpoveevat
Sa OaXadrT IcoXdSea' v Ta^, a rXrqi.ivptiat cat
wroTajtwov UGiKTv avd7rXovV eCl TIV peaoatyatav 'ov-
a-at Kat Ta fr r' avTatf 7roeC. e~Z' ev83F al
Ec/3oXal Tro Batrtov 8ty ao-Xtyio6var 7 B8 da7ro-
Xat/l3avolp1vrj vlo- vrro VO rTv o'rolTarw eIaVrov,
W 8' e"vtOL, Kal rweaCooi v o-ralwv d op t ieer a-
paXlav. evravOa 8e 7rov Kal TOb pavTreov TOV
Mereo-'eov o-r, Kal 6 ToO Katrrwovoo I'pvTrat
7rvpoyog e7r rri reTpags cdo Xarov, 0avaaacozw Kar-
ea-cevaoa-evoV, owa-7rp 0o dpov, 7rT TWV rrXoi~o-
tlvwov -awtrpiay Xadptv i? rCe yatp 'fc3aXXofaev
SNdlpirav, Corais, for AvdiBparis; so subsequent editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 8-9

ments for salting fish. There used to be a city of
Zelis, also, a neighbour of Tingis, but the Romans
transplanted it to the opposite coast of Iberia, taking
along some of the inhabitants of Tingis; and they
also sent some of their own people thither as
colonists and named the city "Julia loza." Then
comes Gades, an island separated from Turdetania
by a narrow strait, and distant from Calpe about
seven hundred and fifty stadia (though some say
eight hundred). This island does not differ at all
from the others except that, because of the daring
of its inhabitants as sailors, and because of their
friendship for the Romans, it has made such advances
in every kind of prosperity that, although situated
at the extremity of the earth, it is the most famous
of them all. But I shall tell about Gades when I
discuss the other islands.
9. Next in order comes what is called the Port
of Menestheus, and then the estuary at Asta and
Nabrissa. (The name of estuaries is given to hollows
that are covered by the sea at the high tides, and,
like rivers, afford waterways into the interior and to
the cities on their shores.) Then immediately comes
:the outlet of the Baetis, which has a twofold division;
and the island that is enclosed by the two mouths
haswa coastal boundary of one hundred stadia, or, as
some say, still more than that. Hereabouts is the
oracle of Menestheus; and also the tower of Caepio,
which is situated "upon a rock that is washed on
all sid&s by the waves, and, like the Pharos tower,1
is a marvellous structure built for the sake of the
safety of mariners; for not only do the .alluvial

1 See 1. 2. 23 and 17. I. 9.


ovf v7o TOOr 7rroTa/iuov 3paXea voieF, /cal xotpa-
8&o8 r9 ea7rl 6 7rpo abroiD 7r'roo, Aore Sei o~- r'Cov
TLVoI mf ravoOv. EvrEVOeV 8' 6d TO BalTo9
dAvrrXov< ar' Kca' 7rhXt; 'Epobpa ical TO 71
oauacopov Iepov, Ijv KaXovDor AotKecy Aovl/3a/l'
el'0 o7 T0WV avaxvaeow 7V T aXXCov avahrXot' KcaL
pferIa Tava 6 "Ava 7ro7a/o5?, &arTO/oq tca'L obo7q,
ical 5 ~4 abTrv Lva'7rXov" el0' aTraTov TO 'IepOv
AicpwrTptov, SeXov TV r Pa8etpv e'XkdrTovq I'
8to-XtXVovr aTa ovS TtoC)e 8' adro 'PEV 70T 'IepoO
aKIcpw(lpov rr1 70 70o "Ava a'rop a er1'covra
pjuitd catv, EVTev0ev o' eVl 70 70T Bam7to
C 141 o-rdSopa ecarov, ela a el e/Spa 80oujiKOv a.

1. Ti) 8' orv EIrTO TOO "Ava rrapaXlaq brep-
KICEoOat a~~v/P3aLvELt 7r Tovp8,qTavyav, ')v d Bart7
8tappe W7OTa/po',. aoopl~ec 86 av7rTv 7Tpob ev
Tr1 lecrepav cal apK rov o "AvaF 7rO7rapoSF, 7rpbO
86 TV 'o Kapr ravv V@ 7r 'tveI Kal '1p?7'ravol,
7rpb6 vroTov 6 Baa-Tr7avw o 0 /teTaB T,' KadXTrm
icat 7(ov Fa8elpwv 77ev1rYv VeP/oeLvO L rapaX`av, Kac
E~7 OdaXaaa peXXpt "AVia. Kcal ol Bao-Taravot
6e, ov& etrrov, TI7 Tovp8r Tavla 7rpoacKEtvTat Kat ot
e T'o 70o "Ava, ica of roTXool 7wv rpooaXwpwv.
/e'yeo? 68' ov 7r7-Xeov dEot 7Trq Xpa 7Tavylq rLt
/t coo Kal 7rXa7TO A71 (8tcrXtXot (Tr atot, 7rOXetq 8'

x Thaf is, Artemis Phosphorus ("Light-bringer.")
2 Strabo refers to the Roman mile, which was equal to
eight stadia.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. I. 9-2. I

deposits that are discharged by the river form
shallows, but the region in front of it is full of
reefs, so that there is need of a conspicuous beacon.
Thence is the waterway up the Baetis, and the
city of Ebura, and the shrine of Phosphorus,'
which they call "Lux Dubia." Then come the
waterways up the other estuaries; and after that
the Anas River, which also has two mouths, and
the waterway from both mouths into the interior.
Then, finally, comes the Sacred Cape, which is less
than two thousand stadia distant from Gades. Some,
however, say that the distance from the Sacred Cape
to the mouth of the Anas is sixty miles, and thence
to the mouth of the Baetis, a hundred, and then, to
Gades, seventy.2
1. AT all events, it is above the coast this side
the Anas that Turdetania lies, and through it flows
the Baetis River. And its boundary is marked off
on the west and north by the Anas River, on the
east by a part of Carpetania and by Oretania, and
on the south by those of the Bastetanians who
occupy a narrow stretch of coast between Calpe and
Gades and by the sea next to that stretch as far
as the Anas. But these Bastetanians of whom I
have just spoken also belong to Turdetania, and so
do those Bastetanians beyond the Anas, and most
of its immediate neighbours. The extent of this
country is not more than two thousand stadia, that
is, in length or breadth,3 but it contains a surpassing

s Strabo means geographical "length" and "breadth," as
defined in 2. 1. 32.


b7rep3aXXovaat 7T rrXl7 o9, ,calt yap 8taKcoo-la
actr. 7ryvoptt/ a rarit al errl TOtS rroTa/ttot
18pvetvva Kae Ta va a-eot cal tr1 OaXdr'rTT 8tA
T7h Xpela. 7rXdear-ov 8' ij re KopSvt3a 7fv77rat,
MapK/e\Xov Kicrla-a, Kal 86do Ical 8UvdiLet, Ical
1 7Trv raS travv trodXt,, 7 pUev 8ta T7a' vavTuiXla
ca St r 7To rpoado'o-Gat, 'Powaiot9 KaTra a-vltua-
Xla', U 8. Xpa;q Aper, ical pteyeOfet, 7rpoa-XajL3d-
voVTr9 xa ral TOO rattoD Bablto" pL',ya /epos'
i)c(7adv rT6 e tipX; 'Pupailav rT xac r6Tv E7t-
XwpLwv av8pe eTri' ecroC T cal 8\ Ical 7rphrrLv
a-rotiav raVTu7v eCi TOVC-8e rov\ T "OTOvq ea'-reiXav
'Pwiyaiot. peETa 8& Taviarv Kcal T'V 7Tv PaSt-
TavO&v ?7l Icv "lo-TraXt9 i-rtavi9j, cal aV7r i1rrouico
Pwoaltawv, vvvl 8\ Tob tev ~h Tr6pLov o-vIIUt ewt, T1
Tiftu & Kcal 7T e'7rotucraatE veworTi roVb Kalo-apog
arpartUTraq 5 BaZtq9 vbrepe' t, Kcarrep ob a-vvot-
IcovLev'q XapLirp&g.
2. MerTa e Tra7vra 'ITdXuca Kal "IXrra 6rr Tr
BarTt, "AO-Tcyr 8' 'rTwTorepo Ical Kdpliwv ical
'OPloc'XKCwv 'eL 8 dev alt ol HlovjnrrlIov rraSe'
KaTr7roXe/jj0lo-av, MoOvSa Kal 'Areyova Kcal Ot p-
-owv ical TOOcKK;s ical O lvXa cal A'tova ai-raoat

1 The Turdetanian city of Baetis cannot be identified.
C. Muller proposes to read Asidigis, i. e. Asido (now Medina
Sidonia), citing the "Asido surnamed Caesariana" of Pliny
(Nat. Hist. 3. 1. 3). Hiibner (Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclo-

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 1-2

number ot cities-as many, indeed, as two hundred,
it is said. The best known are those situated on
the rivers, on the estuaries, and on the sea; and
this is due to their commercial intercourse. But
the two that have grown most in fame and in power
are Corduba, which was founded by Marcellus, and
the city of the Gaditanians: the latter, because of
its maritime commerce and because it associated
itself with the Romans as an ally; the former
because of the excellence of its soil and the extent
of its territory, though the Baetis River has also
contributed in great measure to its growth; and it
has been inhabited from the beginning by picked[
men of the Romans and of the native Iberians;\
what is more, the first colony which the Romans
sent to these regions was that to Corduba. After
Corduba and the city of the Gaditanians, Hispalis,
itself also a colony of the Romans, is most famous,
and still remains the trade-centre of the district;
yet, in the matter of distinction, that is, in the fact
that the soldiers of Caesar have recently colonised
it, Baetis 1 ranks higher, albeit a city not notable for
its population.
2. After these cities come Italica and Ilipa,
both near the Baetis River; and Astigis, farther
away from the river, and Carmo;and Obulco, and,
besides these, the cities in which the sons of
Pompey were defeated, namely, Munda, Ategua.
Urso, Tuccis, Ulia, and Aegua2; and all of these

padie, ii. 2764) says, "Undoubtedly Italica is meant," but
the manner in which Italica is introduced below makes this
seem improbable.
2 The city of Aegua, in Turdetania, is otherwise unknown.
Escua is probably the correct reading.


8' avTra Kop8vP/38 obic airielv. rpodrov 86 rtva
prp-rporoXtL9 Ka'reOa- T7 TO 7rov TOVTro MoDiv8a
&8tXet 8c Kaprytla? 5 Mo3v8a oaTatovu XtXlov 1
icat 'Te paxoo-lovE, el; jv fv/yev TF'rT]6es F6vaLov
eZ-r' ec7revdo-a ee KaLev /c a f Tva V7repIcet-
pievrYv 0aXn'T77r OpewtvV Se60Idprt. 6 8' a8eXO(f;
abrTOi3 i~TO9 6c KopP/3Ui owacOle al cLKpov ev
TOZ, "IIIpo-t 7TroXef/4raa f Xp6vov a'epov dcIKeXlav
a(reaTsrOev, eLT' K7TreaOV evfl6v8e elt T75) 'Aolav
dXov; vro Tiv 'AvTrovov O-TpaT7y)^ov ev MIX2TrO
Kar'Tpe'fre TOV &3'ov. Ev 8 rTolf KeXrTtco Kovm-
O-Topy eoTt V Wypl.jyWTaT7i' ei S TL at avaXvae
q "AoTa, el? v ot To vvv Pa8itavo avvlaao-t idEt-
o-ra, v7repKieqILevjv To OV ErwVETov T7 S' v -ov o-a8lov
o 7TroXV TrXeLov' TOiV ecaTov.
3. IfapotiKeait7 V nO 7rXhtelTwv 6 Bai~rt, ical
ava7rXE7Tat X -yev t 17ri XtXhovw Kcal 8Mtacotovqs
C 142 -Ta8lov? dic aXaTT'r~ IIe'Xp Kop8/Ph; /ical T'o
priKpov e7radv Torov. Kcal 8 cal eleIpyaaras
7reptTTWr 7v Te 7rapa7roTa/Laa Kac Ta ev T r, 7-orai,
vryrl8ta. 7rpoo-eo-rT SK cai T Tq bei)w reprvov,

1 Xthious, the reading of A, adopted by Casaubon instead
of tatciaLXiAous (BC1).
1 Hiibner (Pauly-Wissowa, iii. 1618; iv. 1223) would
delete Munda, thus making apply to Corduba the reference
to the capital city (Ptolemaeus 2. 4.9), and to the distance
of "four hundred stadia from Carteia" (Caesar, Bell. Hisp.
32. 5, makes the distance from Carteia to Corduba one
hundred and seventy miles, i. e. one thousand three hundred
and sixty stadia). But according to Strabo's text Munda
was a city near Corduba, and must not be identified with
the Monda of to-day (four hundred and forty stadia from

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 2-3

cities are not far from Corduba. In a way, Munda
has become the capital city of this region. Munda1
is one thousand four hundred stadia distant from
Carteia, whither Gnaeus fled after his defeat; he
sailed away from there, and disembarked into a
certain mountainous region overlooking the sea,
where he was put to death. But his brother Sextus
escaped from Corduba, carried on war for a short
time in Iberia, and later on caused Sicily to revolt;
then, driven out of Sicily into Asia, he was captured
by the generals of Antony, and ended his life at
Miletus. In, the country of the Celti,4 Conistorgis
is the best known city; but on the estuaries Asta l
is the best known, where eGS ama of to-day
usually hold their assemblies, and it is situated not
much more than one .hundred stadia beyond the
seaport of the island.
3. The Baetis has a large population along its
shores, and is navigable for approximately one
thousand two hundred stadia from the sea up to
Corduba and the regions a little higher up. Further-
more, the land along the river, and the little islands
in the river, are exceedingly well cultivated. And
besides that, there is the charm of the scenery, for

2 Caesar's defeat of Gnaeus Pompey at the battle of Munda
took place in March, 45 B.c.
3 According to Dio Cassius (49. 18), Sextus was captured,
and, apparently, executed at Midaeium (a city in Phrygia
Epictetus); but Appian (Civil Wars, 5. 144) says that he
was executed at Miletus.
SThe Iberian Celts, who lived in what is now. Southern
5 Pliny (Nat. Hist. 3. 1. 3) says that there were four
jurisdictions in Baetica, those of Gades, Corduba, Astigis,
and Hispalis.


aXoeo-t Kcal rata7 aXXatc vTrovpyt-at K7cre7rov7-
nevCov TOv XWapLOf ) PVXPte ft6 ov IOV 7raXLto
oXrcioV a I-t oXo'yots d6 varXov9 orIY v7t or-a-
UlovI ob 7roX' Xhelrovrav TWv 7revrTaotri)w, e7Tr
Se TA a&lvo 7roXet? /IeXpt 'IXiTraq Ta EXad-TTOo-Lt,
iXypt Se~ KopSvip$t rois 7rorTaylotvS ocYda ctt, 7r,]-
rKTOI9 Ui v Ta viv, Tr 7raXatrv S& Ical gtovoAhXotv"
Sr S' tv t) T. l Kao-raX(ovo i o'ic 'crrt 7-rXotiov
7rapdXXloXot 86 TrtvE pAdXet opwv -rapaTrevovoat 7
7roray, ptaXX6 TE Kaat JTT ov avT7~ acvvrd ov-'at,
Trps p3oppav, ,uerTXXwv 7rXpetq. 7Th'Xelro- eo'Tv
appyvpoq vv TroV KarTa "IXt7rav Tro't Kal aTOt KaTa
StroTro)va, Tov Te 7raXat v Xey76/evov ical TOv v ov*
IcaTa Se Ta KWtorva Xeyolurvaq xaX/o' e Ta- a
yevvarat Ical Xpvao-. dv Aptarepf pu v owv o'art
TroZ Ava7rXfovUa t Ta ,'pI7 raDra, Edv &ete 8E\ reSriov
leya cal v~X ov Ical evicap7rov ical /e-yaX'SevSpov
Kal 6f'3oTOv. e'Xt 8 Kat d "Avaq avdTrXovv,2
oiiTe Ce rrXiKotrot' aoKiect-wv, oT' E7rl TroCovTv.
vrepceLrat 8~ al atvroGv ueraXXeaa? e'ovra opbf,
KaO~Ket e TaV'ra -rpo Tovr Ta yo. Ta ptev ovv
Ta? /erTaXXela? Xovra xropla avday/cI Tpa x a re
etvat Kail rapcXvTrpa, oldarep /cal 7 Ta KapTrq-
Tavia avva7rrovTa, Kaal e'r yU XXov TroE KeXd-
/3'pout. Totavr' e 8 Kai Ba BaTrovpa, ph a Xovo-a
VreSa Ta 7rap'covTa 7 "Ava.
1 Kar aAxvos, Kramer, for KAar'r&yvos.
2 6"Avas a&Ydrouv, Kramer, from the conj. of Casaubon,
for fdvas & avdrxovs; editors following.
3 abvro (ToD, AC, rd, Bl), Meineke.

x Cotinae is not elsewhere referred to, and cannot be

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 3

the farms are fully improved with groves and gardens
of the various plants. Now, up to Hispalis, the
river is navigable for merchant-vessels of consider-
able size, that is, for a distance not much short of
five hundred stadia; to the cities higher up the
stream as far as Ilipa, for the smaller merchant
vessels; and, as far as Corduba, for the river-boats
(at the present time these are builded boats, whereas
in antiquity they were merely dugout canoes); but
above Corduba, in the direction of Castalo, the river
is not navigable. On the north, there are some
mountain-ridges which extend parallel to the river,
approaching it closely, sometimes more so, sometimes
less, and they are full of mines. Silver, however, is
the most plentiful in the regions about Ilipa, and
in those about Sisapo-I mean what is called the
Old Sisapo as well as the New Sisapo; and at the
place called Cotinae1 both copper and gold are
mined at the same time. Now on your left, as you
sail up the river, are these mountains, while on your
right is a large plain, high, very productive, with
lofty trees, and affording good pasturage. The Anas
also is navigable, though neither for such large
vessels nor for so great a distance. Beyond the
Anas, too, lie mountains that contain ores, and these
mountains reach down to the Tagus River. Now
the regions which contain ores are necessarily rugged
as well as rather poor in soil, precisely as are the
regions that join Carpetania, and still more so those
that join Celtiberia. And such is the nature of
Baeturia also, which contains arid plains that stretch
along the Anas.'
identified. Du Thiel conjectures Constantia, about twenty
miles from Almaden.


4. Avb~1 8' 1 Tovp3ir-avla Oavuaoc-Tv e bTVXEl
7rapo4pov 8' ovo'qF avr)?j, 6wavTcoa 8' cal 7roXv-
4dopov, 8tr"Xao-tacieTat Ta evTrvy4Ijara Tavraia r
EitKOICOI 0 "' TO' yap 7rep LTTevo ToV fcapir&v
aTreTroXeFTat Pa wo T, 7 rXi7 ei TCOv vavicXrptsv.
7rotoict TOUDTO o' Tre 7roray ol ical at AvaXvo'evt,
(g elTrov, irepeEp ToFT Vroratzo uo o'o-at cal ava-
7rXe6/evat 7rapaTrXrlo-ilw c OaXdnT'r] ob )iKcpo~9
,uovov, daXXa cal /6eyaXob? oi'ccao`w el Ta? Ev 'T?7
/ietroyala roXet. arao-a ydap erTt TrV h iTrep
TrI 7rapahlac E7rl 7TroXv T)l? teraTau To Te 'Iepoi
dicpwTqrpLov /cal TJ17Xv. euTaOOa 3Se roXXaXoD
IcotiXae e6ls T)V peo-yatav tc 7rj 0S OaXaTTqr]y Jv-
XoUo-t, cadpagyjt iterplatg Aj ical P6el0poV; doucKviat
7roTalutolt, EKicTTeapLevat, Tr OXXos o TaioLv"
T7ara9 8' 7rrXpovaDiv aTl T7I OaXdTi79 Erif3Ldret's
KaTa Ta 7rX~hppu/liav, CloTr' vaaT0rXEelo'0at Serv

C 143 yap iaTaTrXotS e'otiC ToL 7wOTa1L'otL, aLdTtKO7rTOP-
TO70S EVr OSeEdoY, jeTOVpiftOVrTO 8' TO0 7rEXa'yov9
KaOadrep TOD 7roTal'ouv p'ev/aTOq S8 TrV 7hXr]yX Uv-
pl8a. at S' 7rPt/3o-e6L eItteovS ebllv evraTOa t ev
TO?0 aXXot' ? T7roLo, o Tt el 7ropoPv cvv ovLe ovrl
aTEOv 77 OtiXarra cK EyadXoV 7rXaeyouI?, by 7'
Mavpova-la 7roteL Trpo Tjv 'I.qplav, avaKO7ra
Xa,~.3dvet, ical E>perTat 7rpko Ta erKOPTa pe'py Trij
71? cbreTW'd?. e'vtat ,ELL oP TCOV TOoTWV) Kcot-
Xad'8u KevoUrTat KaTa Tra' ajLTrr)Tei', Tta'? o' 0
7ravrTaraoatv e'rtLXeheles TOb VOop, evtaw ical veqrovu

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 4

4. Turdetania itself is marvellously blessed by
nature; and while it produces all things, and
likewise great quantities of them, these blessings
are doubled by the facilities of exportation; for its
surplus products are bartered off with ease because
of the large number of the merchant vessels. This
is made possible by the rivers, and by the estuaries
as well, which, as I have said,1 resemble rivers,
and, like rivers, are navigable inland from the sea,
not only for small boats but also for large ones, to
the cities of the interior. For the whole country
beyond the seaboard that lies between the Sacred
Cape and the Pillars is a plain for a considerable
distance inland. And here, at a large number of
places, are inlets which run up from the sea into the
interior, resembling moderate-sized ravines or simply
river-beds, and extending for many stadia; and these
inlets are filled by the overflows of the sea at the
flood-tides, so that one can sail inland thereon as
readily as on the rivers-in fact, better, for it is like
sailing down the rivers, not only because there is
no opposing current, but because, on account of the
flood-tide, the sea wafts you onwards just as the
river-current does. And the overflows are greater
on this coast than in the other regions, because the
sea, coming from the great ocean, is compressed into
the narrow strait which Maurusia forms with Iberia,
there meets resistance, and then easily rushes to
those parts of the land that yield to it. Now, while
a number of the inlets of this kind are emptied at
the ebb-tides (though some of them do not become
wholly dry), yet a number of them enclose islands

1 3 .9.

a'7roXap/3vovo-tv ev eavrat rotairat Luev ovv
elatv at avaXvaret al /~ITav T70, re 'lepoi aEcpW-
T1pLov cKa Tr7v 2r EmXwv, EriSocriv Xova-at arCoSpo-
repav rapa r7a ev TroF aXXoVt ToTroV I Trotaivrr]
8' Ei78oat< f'e( yev 'T Kt ialTXeovEKTr7J.ta wpsOO Ta,
Xpeia? Trv 7rhooi0o/pevwtov 7wheovq ydp Kal /eiovf
77oie a T a dvavates', roXXda'Kt KaN dri OKTW o-r a-
68tovq AvaTrXeo/EvaS, &oare rpoTrov rTia 7o-ar
7rXorTrrv 7rapexerat 7rqv 7ryv Kai E?6YfT)? 7rpo0 76
-a, 'ayouya4 Tojv Oopriwv Icatl Ta etl-aywy^a.
@eet U T8 cacl jXX77pov atl yp ev TOvL 7'ToatoZPo
vaVTIXlar l at1 Sta rTv o-por-pra rj 7rihX/j/ivpt8oy
Loa-vpOTepov T pvao-e2 Tlv 7roTaIp&v atvTa7rvE-
ovoav3 Ktidvvvov ob IiiKpov Tal vavcKXIptaty errTt-
Sepovar, KcaTaKo/ittop vatg re ol/ot0 '? Icai avaxKo-
ptto/e'Lvatv. al t8 a/trcreTt dev ra'l avaXvae'rlv
eirt #/a/3epai 7ra'iv 7rp 7rX?7/plJvpLwv djva X5yov
Kal avTal rapo!vovTrat, 8t6d Te TO TaXo' al K 'a Cn'
q97pa~? voXXltvts deyKcaTrX7rov T7? vavv. Td re
)foo-KrijtaTa elr Tq vja-ov Sta/3atvova rd\ Trpo
TCWV '7orayOiv 94 7rpo TWV dvax-crewv TOT8 1Ev
o K aic etreck-aOi, TorE 86 da7reXfh 07), /tao6tieva
8' E7raveXfewv obcK 'torXvoev, AXXA 8tie ddpy- ra
8 /3oDo fa-cat cal rTer'p'rjcvia TOr a-vfjLaFvov rrept-
Uievetv TrV AdvaXapr]iov r4j OaXd-iay-s, Kal TOTe
Travpetv e9 T' rrv f7rretpov.
5. KarTaaao'Bdre 8' owy ,r-v 7 ( ~vo-v *rTV TrrWCo
1 at, before Sit, Corais deletes.
2 iraei, Siebenkees, for ipveit; so subsequent editors.
a av/nrviouvav, Corais, for &vrrve'ovratr; so Kramer, For-
biger, and Meineke.
4 1, Jones inserts.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 4-5

within themselves. Such, then, are the estuaries
between the Sacred Cape and the Pillars, for they
have an excessive rise of tide as compared with those
in the other regions. A rise of tide like this affords
a certain advantage to be utilised by sailors, namely,
the estuaries are made more numerous and larger,
oftentimes being navigable even for a distance of
eight stadia; so that, after a fashion, it renders
the whole country navigable and convenient both
for exporting and importing merchandise. And yet
it also affords a certain annoyance; for, on account
of the vehemence of the flood-tides, which press
with superior force against the current of the
rivers, .navigation on the rivers is attended by no
small danger to the vessels, alike in their descent
and ascent. But in the case of the estuaries the
ebb-tides too are harmful; for the ebb-tides too
grow violent in proportion to the strength of the
flood-tides, and on account of their swiftness have
oftentimes even left the ship stranded on dry land.
Again, the cattle which cross over to the islands
that lie off the rivers or the estuaries have at times
actually been engulfed; at other times they have
merely been cut off, and in their struggle to get
back to the land lacked the strength to do so, and
perished. But the cows, they say, are by observa-
tion actually aware of what happens, wait for the
retirement of the sea, and then make off for the
5. At any rate, it was because the people had
1 "Eight," the reading of the MSS. cannot be right
(cf. 3. 3. 1). Penzel, followed by Corais, proposes eight
hundred, and Groskurd, followed by Forbiger and Tardieu,
proposes one hundred.


o( a'dv"pwrot fal Ta' avaxvcre. ; O/pOLO, V7roVp/yElv
TOq rOTa/Io? 8vva/Eva 7ro Xse i/cTtoaav e'r' avrwv
cal XXkha KaTrorKcia%, acal irep irr T&rv 7roTapov.
TOVT&v 8' Eo-r T 'r Te" Aoa Kal Ndapto'oaa catbOvo-
p/a ical'Oaro-ovo8a /ca' Maivo,3a cal AXXat TrXelov9.
'rpocXap/3dvovaot 8 Ktal tSipvye 'o-0' 'roy yeyo-
vviat T7~ roXXaxOBr elvat ical 7roXXaXO-Ce T 'lv io-
iwtSv ica'l rp oaXXI'Xovu? ca'l rp rob 7o e'. Icat al
avppotat 8e oc-avT( co cOeXovrit aTa Ta; Ewrl 7roXb
7rXr/La?, Staxeo/e'rat' eril1 TrV 8ItepyOVTCV l0-pw Wv
Toovs 7ropov; xai 7JrXworobv arepyao/iEva,,2 Owar
7ropOp8eveoat cai 6C T rv 7Tro'TatJo)v eTl~ t ada-
X a-eis Ea~KKEWOv Sepo. arao-a 8' 7 ptrropla rpof
7v 'ITaXiar eoT7T Kca' T7y 'PVpyLr, 'exovaa oTv
C 144 7rXoDov p'Xp TWrv T17X(iv T yaOlv, 7rXlv et' Tr
e'Trt rept 7Ov 7rop0Opov SvaocoXla, ical TOV rITe-
Xa'yLto Tbo E Tby icaO' )za9 OaXidrT. 8ta 7hp
ebvSov IKXl/arTO ot Spo'lOt uvv'reXoivvrat, ical Fd-
Xo"Tra T53 7reXa'yITov'r TOVro oe rpo-aoopdv dCar
Tas ep.ropiKaLE OXKcOaV. Cyovat S' Kal ol avel/ot
TrdaIv ol 7reLXdytot. 7rpoeor-t S /cail 17 vv elplIrV,
jr&v Xr0-T7Pwv caKaXvOav0Tvwv, & ia' aO-vg/ra-a
vTrdpXct aoP-T(rV TOE 7TrXhoiFtbof ot. 't'SOV El T7
Ocyt( IIouot68cvtov, Tprrir)at KaTa TO bvda7rXhovv
TOV /c 7 T 'I3 lpltaF, OT'r ol Epot KaT-' eiceivo TO
'reXayo, E'o TOO Sap 8ov Koh'rov 7rvTotLv erp rJLa
1 8taxeop.vas ?d, Meineke, for s6tepyop/vas tbrd; Forbiger,
and Tardieu, following.
2 Kal rwTrobs arepyanoi4var, Meineke, and Miiller-Diibner,

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 5

learned the character of these regions and that the
estuaries could subserve the same purpose as the
rivers, that they built cities and other settlements on
their banks, just as on the rivers. Among these cities
are Asta, Nabrissa, Onoba, Ossonoba, Maenoba, and
several others. Again, canals that have been dug in
a number of places are an additional aid, since many
are the points thereon from which and to which
the people carry on their traffic, not only with
one another but also with the outside world. And
further, the meetings of the waters when the flood-
tides reach far inland are likewise helpful, for the
waters pour across over the isthmuses that separate
the waterways, thus rendering the isthmuses navigable
also; so that one can cross over by boat from the
rivers into the estuaries and from the estuaries into
the rivers. But all the foreign trade of the country
is carried on with Italy and Rome, since the voyage as
far as the Pillars is good, except, perhaps, for a certain
difficulty in passing the strait, and also the voyage
on the high seas of Our Sea. For the sea-routes
all pass through a zone of fair weather, particularly
if the sailor keeps, to the high seas; and this fact
is advantageous to the merchant-freighters. And
further, the winds on the high seas are regular.
Added to that, too, is the present peace, because all
piracy has been broken up, and hence the sailors feel
wholly at ease. Poseidonius says that he observed a
peculiar circumstance on his return voyage from
Iberia, namely, that the east winds on that sea, as
far as the Gulf of Sardinia, blew at a fixed time each

for Kial rAwrbv &arpyaColfvwv (ABC) and rA'wTobs a&repya o'ueva


8toi al rptali ,~yatv el I 'ITaXiav KaTapat pyoXiv
7rapa8tevey xclt 'repi re r a F vtvaYo'la4 vij0ov9
cal 7rept CapGova cal ra a\XXa aTravTicpv TOV'TCO
/tepr] T?}< A(/3u^?.
6. 'Eadyeral 8' Cdc T9 TovpS7Taava O (TOq Te
ical olvoy 7roXv1v cal e'atov ob 7roXb ptiovov, AXXA\
ical daXXo-rov* ,cal icJpoo S K cal A e Kacl 7r1TTa
ed&,ye-rat ial KticKcoi 7roXX\? Kcal ~hXro ov y XeIpw
T7q9 SvtWr fic4 ryry 7- Tie vavUr7jyta auVIa07TaaY
avbro9t, e E rti3(wpaz i'vX)9, aXCe Te opVICTo& 7rap
avrol; elo-ts ca roTrao av aXltvp&v pev/Aara ovw
oiya, oVl oXlyqr 86 ovj8 Ei 7;WV 6'~ rwv aptxci a
owK -vsev Movo, aXXa ical ec T7) aXXil; T7/ eKTdICo
7ir-\Xwv 7rapaXia<, ob Xyepwv T7j HOVTULICvj. 7roXX?7
8 Kal 'o-a8r]7 -rporepov IpXCero, vvv 86 epta putaXov
T<^ov icopa~&v. ical b7repp/oXl 7I ea07t TOi KacX-
Xov~" Taaavptaiov ryovv aovovvTab rovI icptobV; el
Ta- Z5elaw. b7rep/3oX 8\ iKal T&V XerTrwv boa-
o-ptd7to, a, d p ol SaXacetrTa 2 IcaTao-evdCovo'v.
acJQovo 86\ Kal p)ooa'KrCLdrTwv &o ovia 7ravrolwv
Kal IKvvryealo. TWv 8' odXcOpLwv OtpiLov o-ravr
'rX i'jv T-V 'yempvoyv Xay-i/eow, o ?'9 ivtoi Xe,3pl8a
7rpooayopevovtr" Xv/taltovorat yAp IKal Ovra Kcal
1 ?apa6rsveOe is, Kramer, for y&p tseveXy6es; so Meineke.
2 axaKttjrat, Harduin, for cXaXh- TTai; so Groskurd, For-
biger, Tardieu, and C. Miiller.
1 Poseidonius was near enough to Libya on this trip to see
a number of apes on the shore (17. 3. 4).
2 A crimson dye-stuff obtained from the dried bodies of
the female scale-insects of the genus Kermes ilicis. The
species referred to by Strabo feeds on the Quercus coccifera,
a dwarf-oak, and is very common in the Mediterranean

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 5-6

year; and that this was why he barely reached Italy
even in three months; for he was driven out of his
course in both directions, not only near to the Gym-
nesian Islands and Sardinia, but also to the different
parts of Libya 1 opposite to these islands.
6. There are exported from Turdetania large
quantities of grain and wine, and also olive oil, not
only in large quantities, but also of best quality.
And further, wax, honey, and pitch are exported
from there, and large quantities of kermes,2 and
ruddle3 which is not inferior to the Sinopean
earth. And they build their ships there out of
native timber; and they have salt quarries in their
country, and not a few streams of salt water; and
not unimportant, either, is the fish-salting industry
that is carried on, not only from this county, but also
from the rest of the seaboard outside the Pillars;
and the product is not inferior to that of the Pontus.
Formerly much cloth came from Turdetania, but
now, wool, rather of the raven-black sort.4 And it
is surpassingly beautiful; at all events, the rams are
bought for breeding purposes at a talent apiece.
Surpassing, too, are the delicate fabrics which are
woven by the people of Salacia.5 Turdetania also
has a great abundance of cattle of all kinds, and of
game. But there are scarcely any destructive animals,
except the burrowing hares, by some called "peelers";
for they damage both plants and seeds by eating the

3 As in 12. 2. 10, Strabo uses miltos" (" ruddle ") as a
general term in comparing, as sources of dyes, Spanish cinna-
bar (red mercuric sulphide) and Sinopean "red earth."
4 Cp. 12. 8. 16.
s Alcacer-do-Sal. Pliny (Nat. Hist. 8. 73) also refers to
the fabrics woven in this Lusitanian town

c7reppuaTa ptobayovVTrer Kai TOVTO c7vyj,3aa'veC
tca' o\lXv Tv7P 'Irplav aXe8ov, 8taTeLveS 8e Kal
pueXpt MaOo-aXal'a, oxXe 8e Kcal Tat vj'-ov.- ol 0 e
7 T rFvuvrlaa olICKOVPT XeyovTrat rperoS'cvo-ao-Oal
w pore rpv 'P/PaovIT /icaTa' Xowpa,. arlT-iv' ,c3iiX-
Xecraat 7yp 7rbO 7V TOW V vWV, aVTeXeIv 107
8vvad1ievoL Stat 78To 0o v 7rpo? p j orV Tov
ToOc-oTov to-'w r 7re/uov, '0 o'/c ~ ae avl-.Oalvet,
000opal1 Se TLM XoLoIcy, icaldrep biewv ical Lmvwv
T o apovpaiwv, Xpeia T'71 TocavTr),; rtovpiav,
'poo 8e\ TO ie'Trplov feevpy] vt7 a w'XcovU 9ipat' cat
8rj Kal yaXa? d ptag, a9 7 Atrlj n epfE, TpeovUatV
7idTLTeE, Aq OtjeocravTe 7raptaoitv Cel 9 O 7rd"'
a' 8' e~~fcovar-v 'o TOv ovviv, obv av icaTa-
d3 C 145 cpdvetav, eKcreaoov'Ta 8 Oypevovaotv ol e'ea'CoTWes.
Trv SC& 'cOovayv T'OV ecKKotJolo'voi v 6ic T17 Toup-
SiqTavliav detavl e Tb pE'/yeOov Kcal rTO wrXl}Oog
TVoPV vavKcXplov) oXicadeg yap leyto-Tat 7rapa
TroVTV 7rXeovo-Iv el AtKaapXeLa v /caV Ka l TOra ,
7T5 'P'?>v e7rilveO TOv 86\ 7rX000o PuicpoD 8eiv
vdjUIctXov Tolv At/vtcoZE.2
7. Totaiv~r ; 7rj T1 eo-oyalaV ocm(y; 717 EV T7-
Tovp3r7TavLa, cal 7 'v vrapdXtov edivluxov e6Vpol
LTtV a TO / C ca'X(iTT7l aya9oi;. ~ri re yap
aorpe(LS TrdarTa ica' KoyXoetiS1 Kal TroLs 7rvXjeatcv
v7repp/3dXXet ical To /pIee'Yeoat KcaloXov icara aTrv"
&'O O daTTav a rav, evTavOa S& SiacepvT'wr ,
1 (Oopa, Jones, for >Odpov. Meineke, Forbiger and others
emend to Oopf. Cp. Aristotle, Hist. An. 6. 37 (&vuv .
I (pOopd).

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 6-7

roots. This pest occurs throughout almost the whole
of Iberia, and extends even as far as Massilia, and
infests the islands as well. The inhabitants of the
Gymnesian Islands, it is said, once sent an embassy
to Rome to ask for a new place of abode, for they
were being driven out by these animals, because
they could not hold out against them on account of
their great numbers. Now perhaps such a remedy
is needed against so great a warfare (which is not
always the case, but only when there is some de-
structive plague like that of snakes or field-mice),'
but, against the moderate pest, several methods of
hunting have been discovered; more than that, they
make a point of breeding Libyan ferrets, which they
muzzle and send into the holes. The ferrets with their
claws drag outside all the rabbits they catch, or else
force them to flee into the open, where men, stationed
at the hole, catch them as they are driven out. The
abundance of the exports of Turdetania is indicated
by the size and the number of the ships; for merchant-
men of the greatest size sail from this country to
Dicaearchia, and to Ostia, the seaport of Rome; and
their number very nearly rivals that of the Libyan
7. Although the interior of Turdetania is so pro-
ductive, it will be found that the seaboard vies with
it in its goodly products from the sea. For the
various kinds of oysters as well as mussels are in
general surpassing, both in their number and in their
size, along the whole of the exterior sea; but
1 See 3. 4. 18. and foot-note.

2 ?K1iroiavXrao'staLos, after AivKcoZs, deleted by I; and so
the editors in general.


aTe KIa Tv r'Xtf/.Lvplw8v cal TCoV pL.Trcreowv
v-raGva av oIevwv a& eiLcK alia< elvat Kcal Tro
rXj6ov iKcal roD /jre'yo/ovy Sth rT7v /yvawvaro-av.
co av-wTro es ical 7repl TOv IcKyeTv wia7ra v,
Zpvywv Te ical OaXaatvwv Kal cvo-riTpwv, ov azva-
cvo-anorvTewv aiveral rT ; veb eowoovw 5rI9 Kicovog
ToF '7rrppwoev df op&Oa-' cal ol yo/yypot Se Tro-
0l7PLovvDat, 7roXv rTv tap' 'uv 7 repf3e/3pjX7jevoI
KaTa To peyefo,;, icat al o(rppatvat ical aXXa rrXelo
Tr V otoL'Tv 6Owr)V. Jv 86 Kap7r7la KtjpvIcag
8eeKaKorvXov9 Kai 7rop 'pa9 paoalv" Ev TroF?
teWroepo TOd'roet KIcal zetouv oySoi0corv a pyvv
T'v Oapdpatvav Kal rTv yoypov, TraavTiataov e
Tryv 'roX'7roSa, 8 7rr' ei 8e rah revftiSaa Kal Tra
7rapao7rX -ta. 7roXv S Ka ialo 6vvvoo covveXavverat
Seupo a7rob T a 711 r Tr? efa)OEv 'rapaXias2
7rtrlw Kal K raXfy. TpEceTat 8' /3aXdv' Spviv
bvoVeVy? Kcara T?7 OaXrarTTfly xa atLa XX, TrPL 7rav-
ravraatv, dCporaTV 8' e'icepovo-' icapTrov. arrep
Kal vy '7Tj pfi OTverat 7roXXj Kara 7 v 'I38 plav,
piaq {jev eXovo-a fLeydXaq co Av Te eXla Spvo',
e~atpo'I q vr B Oajtvov Tarer~TV9 r/TTrov0 ToTo-rov
8' eKicpep icaprdov, (cTe C/era T71 aK/c.7jv 7rjpy
7T) rr'apaXlav3 elvat 7rjv Te vTo ical 7Tv &cKTO
1 tA-~r, Kramer, for &Axiis; so generally the editors.
Casaubon reads &Aheis, Groskurd, &Waas. Probably the con-
text should be emended to suit &Adas (cp. Aristotle, Hist.
An. 8. 19, and Athenaeus 7. 63, 301 E).
2 rapaxlas, Casaubon, for 7raxaas ; so all editors.
3 Apparently BaXdvou has fallen out after 7rapaMahv.
Groskurd, Forbiger, and Meineke so read.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 7

especially so here, inasmuch as the flood-tides and
the ebb-tides have increased power here, and these
tides, it is reasonable to suppose, are, on account of
the exercise they give, responsible both for the
number and the size of them. So it is, in the same
way, with respect to all the cetaceans: narwhals,
"phalaenae" and spouting-whales; when these
spout, the distant observer seems to see a cloud-
like pillar. And further, the conger-eels become
monsters, far exceeding in size those of Our Sea;
and so do the lampreys and several other edible fish
of the kind. And at Carteia, it is said, there are
shells of trumpet-fish and purple-fish which hold ten
cotylae,2 and in the regions farther out to sea the
lamprey and the conger-eel weigh even more than
eighty minae,3 the sea-polypus a talent,4 the cuttle-
fish are two cubits long-and other things in like
proportion. Again, large numbers of plump, fat
tunny-fish congregate hither from the other coast,
namely, that outside the Pillars. And they feed on
the acorns of a certain very stunted oak that grows
at the bottom of the sea and produces very large
fruit.5 This oak also grows in abundance on the dry
land, in Iberia; and although its roots are large like
those of a full-grown oak, yet it does not grow as
high as a low bush. But the sea-oak brings forth so
much fruit that, after the ripening, the seacoast,

1 The typical genus of whalebone whales called by the
Romans "balaenae," which is the term still used by
zoologists. 2 About five pints.
3 About eighty pounds. 4 About sixty pounds.
6 Apparently the Quercus coccifera (see note on Kermes "
3. 1.6.) is meant, but so far as is known no shrub or tree-like
plant grows in salt water.

7'iTXcv, 9v & / XXovotv atl rXjar e S VTro
7ST1Xv e Xdrnv del /cal p.aXXov evplo'/cerat. XEei
8' HloXvl3o ical ueXppt Tij?. AaTrt')iv eICmrretv
Tr7 p/3 avov rTavT7v, e p6j apa, rrla-t, ical f ap8'o
(bepet Kical wrXlro-ttio po TavrT. cal ol 0vvvot
8' o-c 7rXeov ovveyyTlovo-i Tat YTrXat? 'w0Oev
*fepo/evoI, ro-W' lao-xaltovTrat r'heov,' ,17 T P0o
E7rXt7r0Eovo-ay evatl e apa2 OaXa7TTtOV v vT
wov T70TO' "8ecrOat 'yap T~7 /3aXLdv xcal rtatve-
a-Oat 8ta aepvrO 9 Av' a7FvT bopai re T( /3aXadvov
eyevop/evig, 5ophv Ical 7'T Ouvvwv elvai.
8. ToovorotO 8e T77 7rpoetprhievris X)wpa, a-ya-
C 146 Oolvi KeXopyyr/evril7 ovX iKsctra, 4XXa lcal u ia-Tora
a7vo8eat'T' av T1? ical Oavudo-etee To 7rept 7aq
)ieTaXXeiaa ea ove"v a"raca /kev yap lpeo-7T 7To
TOoTWVrLv eJarT 1 TWv 'I/3jpwv Xopa, ov 'rao-a 8'
eircapvro9 ov' e Sal/ov oivrwm, tcal a idXa-ta f
TroV tzerdcXXv evjropoDo-a. a-rdavtov 8' Jv Audfo-
T7pot9 evrvxye2v' oaravtov Se ical TO T7]V avrTv ev
AoXlyo %cop w ravToLoot 7rX'Ovvet p /eTar'XotL. q.
e 3 TovpjSrTavia cal 11 7rpoo-erX; airT XO6yov ob-
8eva atov taTar\eTeet 7repi Tjv8e Tov dperTjv Tro1
eratvwev /ovXopevot. OUre yap ypva-o;, o7r'
apyvpov, ov'8 8\ XaXKo,, oo8e o-r8iypov ov8afoiv 7T29
yj ovTe Tro'0OVTo ovi6' OlT(U d&ayao\; 4?r7ae;ra t
yeV(Vw~LEVo9 p~XypL vOv. 6 86 XPpuVOb o) IAeTaX-
XeveiTat ILovov, dX\a Ical apeTrat KcaTaoepova-'
8' ol Trorao. ical ol Xyelappot T7v Xpvar-tTv a/d-
1 rxov, Corais, for 7rxeovp; Kramer, and Meineke,
following. 2 re &pa, Tyrwhitt, for rapd.
3 8S, for re; so the old reading (before Kramer), and so
Meineke. 4 oWr', Jones, for obc.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 7-8

both inside and outside the Pillars, is covered with
the acorns, for they are cast ashore by the tides.
However, those inside the Pillars are always smaller,
and are to be found in greater quantities. Polybius
tells us that the sea casts these acorns ashore even
as far as Latium, unless perhaps, says he, also Sar-
dinia and the neighboring land produce them.
And further, the nearer the tunny-fish approach the
Pillars, in coming from the exterior sea, the leaner
they become, since their food fails them. This
creature, says Polybius, is therefore a sea-hog, for it
is fond of the acorn and gets exceedingly fat on it;
and whenever the sea-oak has produced a large crop
of acorns, there is also a large crop of tunny-fish.
8. Now, although the aforesaid country has been
endowed with so many good things, still one might
welcome and admire, not least of all, but even most
of all, its natural richness in metals. For the whole
country of the Iberians is full of metals, although not
all of it is so rich in fruit, or so fertile either, and in
particular that part of it which is well supplied with
metals. It is rare for a country to be fortunate in
both respects, and it is also rare for the same country
to have within a small area an abundance of all kinds
of metals. But as for Turdetania and the territory
adjoining it, there is no worthy word of praise left to
him who wishes to praise their excellence in this
respect. Up to the present moment, in fact, neither
gold, nor silver, nor yet copper, nor iron, has been
found anywhere in the world, in a natural state,
either in such quantity or of such good quality. And
the gold is not only mined, but is also washed down;
that is, the gold-bearing sand is carried down by the
rivers and the torrents, although it is often found in


/pov, 7roXXaXov Kal ev TO i (vV6poL TO7rrotL ovav,
AXX' KeSl 1ev diav4', EaT-v, Ev 86 TOtF frstKXVSTO1;
a7roXal/7ret To TOOV Xpvcov ~fya' i KaL Trov\ avv-
8povw 86 bopT(r e7rrxK C ovreSe VSaT~ o'rTX7rvov
7rotovit To *frj'yy/a, cal t peara 8' opvaaovTre Kal
aXXaT TEr'va9 e7rtvoovvTre 7rrTvoe T? I/ Uaov TOV
Xpo-bv KchXapldvova-t, Kal 7rXeLa T V Xpvoopv-U-
XEwoP eCrL vvV Ta Xupvao-rXv'aa 7rpoo-ayopevo-
eva. atooc8 86\ TadraX i 'lara' 7irap' eavTor elva
Ta P.eTaXXa Tard 2 ev Tr KeUUl;E opet /cal Ta
vrr aV ryi KieIeva TY7 Tvpvj v LT pr ro t reov3
TeVTe60vev eSoicl/e Ev S8 TO' *4/,patyO 70rov
Xpu-lov aaaciv evpio-~a a' 7rore icaLt ~i/pXtTptaLag
h6ovq, a' icaXo0c0- rtrXaq, /iMcpaS Kaadipa-ew9
8eo/evaw'. Oao"i 8e Kal XtiOwv aox otevWov evpt-
alcetyv fwXdpta 9 ral, oe/ota" ec 8 TODy Xpvaov
e'o*fevov Ical KicaapopLeuov crTv7TTr ptwSeE Tlv 7
VV Ktat rr6Ptv O8 roTro0
TO IcLaappa keKTpov elvar 'rXv 86 TOVTOV
icale'frolivov, pLuy/a eXovTos ap'yvpov icaly Xpvaov,
TOPv /ev apyvpov arrocaleaoOa, TOyV e Xpvoaov
V7roT0ewveV ev8tdvrTOv Tyap 6 Tvrro icaKl XAoLry
&ta TODTO Kal T7 aXupo Ticerat paoXX o' XpVO-ov,
OTt ( Xo, paXai ovo-a, a\-v/erpTo 'ee rpov
TO eticov Kcal 8taxeofevov paLiL&, 8\e avtpa-
eravaXiVIKet rroXv, V7repTrijKAv 7rfT odo8poTr ical

1 Yaa, Madvig, for rd.
2 Td r7, before Iv, the insertion of 1, and the editors.
3 irA'ov, Meineke, for areiov.

1 The Gauls. See 4. 4. 2. 2 The Cevennes.
3 Apparently a native Iberian word. Op. Pliny, Nat. Hist.
33. 21.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 8

the waterless districts also; but in these districts it
cannot be seen, whereas in the flooded districts the
gold-dust glitters. Besides, they flood the waterless
districts by conducting water thither, and thus they
make the gold-dust glitter; and they also get the
gold out by digging pits, and by inventing other
means for washing the sand; and the so-called
"gold-washeries are now more numerous than the
gold-mines. The Galatae hold that their own
mines, both those in the Cemmenus 2 Mountains
and those situated at the foot of the Pyrenees them-
selves, are equal to those of Turdetania; the metals
from the latter, however, are held in greater esteem.
And in the gold-dust, they say, nuggets weighing as
much as half a pound are sometimes found, which
are called "palae,"3 and they need but little re-
fining. They further say that when stones are split
they find in them small nuggets resembling nipples,
and when the gold is smelted and refined by means
of a sort of styptic earth the residuum thereof is
electrumm" ;5 and, again, that when this electrum,
which contains a mixture of silver and gold, is
smelted, the silver is burned away, while the gold
remains. For the alloy-type is easily fused and
stone-like.6 For this reason, too, the gold is pre-
ferably melted with chaff-fire, because the flame, on
account of its softness, is suitable to a substance that
yields and fuses easily; but the charcoal-fire con-
sumes much of it because, owing to its intensity, it

4 Containing alum and vitriol.
s Electrum is defined by Pliny (Nat. Hist. 33. 23) as con-
sisting of one part of silver to four parts of gold.
In fact, the alloy is more easily fused, and harder, than
either of the constituent metals.


eatpwv. v &' roZ? peLOpot l o-perat Ial 7rXv-
verat wrcrtov 2ev ocd, r opvTTeprat cbapeap, I
Se dvAeve~edo-a 7y 7rXvverat. Ta? 'E TOD apyvpov
IKaplvovU9 7roitoOv b*r lXd9, T'e r 7v eT/C Tr)v
31 wov Xt-yvvv eIrewpov eCalpeOav" /3apela ydp
ea-r Kcal ojE0pow. Twv Se XaXtcovpyelv Triva
KcaXeTat XpvaeZa, e Wov retciqLaLpovTat Xpvo-bv O
aurowv opvrTeoaOat Irpofepov.
9. IIoo-et68(toro TON rXjOo1;v rcv /ierdXXdov
C 147 d'rawtvv Kcal T7V apeTrjv, ovi' adrexerac l T7f avvij-
Oov; pr7ropelav, aXXa o-vevOovTra raTal frrep-
f3oXai. ob 'yp a'vwtoreWv 7r VLtv0 (prl Civ, OTt rv
Spvytcv 7rore dziTrpilo'-'vrWv v 17 ylj Traiceo-a, are
ApyvpL'ri Kial XPVOlT'r, el; 7Trv 7rijdvetav E4'eo-e
8ta Tr 7rav opoqv Kal 7ravra /ovvbv V\rlV elvat
voi-,aTro' viro TIVO' d4Aodvov rvxr ae-oWpeCv-
pfevrnv. Kca0oXov 8' av elre, 7riativ, I&a rtv TobV
T7rrov9, Orl'avpov9 etval dOpo-ew daevaov9 A rTa-
utelov jyetov lar ave'/CEetrrrov ob yalp TrrovuOia
povov, AXXa\ ial v7ro7rXovTroi; roalv, 1 X' pa,
Kal trap' ceivoti on AX 9jcoq ToV vTroxylovwv TOrov
obX o"ASrq, dXX' IIXoovrov icarotce'. Totaraa
ple our ev cpal 2 ao-Xr tarT e'prl7Ke rept rovrwv,
( i av Ec /ieT aXXov ical avrb 7 roXXw XPWP'evoV
Trw Xoy,. rv 8' errtp1'Xeiav ofpdrgv T-v T-coV
f/eraXXevOvTcwv 7raparlro'7-t a TO aO (aXrlpEow,
OTe fo-rlav e/cetvo; err7 Tr&v 'ArrtcI&v apyvpelwv
1 0IEpoIs, for pv'epots; a correction of Corais, from a
conjecture of Casaubon.
2 &paif, for ovpav~ (ABC), 6paiy (1) ; so the editors.
1 In the word-play here Pluto is identified (as often) with
Plutus, the god of riches.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 8-9

over-melts the gold and carries it off as vapour. The
soil is carried alongin the streams, and is washed near
by in troughs; or else a pit is dug, and the soil that
has been accumulated is there washed. They build
their silver-smelting furnaces with high chimneys,
so that the gas from the ore may be carried high
into the air; for it is heavy and deadly. Some of
the copper-mines are called gold-mines, and from
this fact it is inferred that in former times gold was
mined from them.
9. Poseidonius, in praising the quantity and the
excellence of these ores, does not abstain from his
usual rhetorical speech; indeed, he enthusiastically
concurs with the extravagant stories told; for ex-
ample, he does not discredit the story, he says, that,
when on a time the forests had been burned, the soil,
since it was composed of silver and gold ores, melted
and boiled out over the surface, because, as he says,
every mountain and every hill is bullion heaped up
there by some prodigal fortune. And, in general, he
says, anyone who had seen these regions would declare
that they are everlasting storehouses of nature, or a
never-failing treasury of an empire. For the country
was, he adds, not only rich, but also rich down below;
and with the Turdetanians it is verily Pluto,1 and
not Hades, who inhabits the region down below.
Such, then, are the flowery utterances of Posei-
donius on this subject-himself drawing much of
his language from a mine, as it were. Again, in
speaking of the industry of the miners, he cites the
statement of Demetrius of Phalerum. Demetrius,
he says, states in reference to the Attic silver-mines,2

2 The silver-mines of Laurium.


ob'W OadVTOYO)w pV;TTe TOV aOp (vpcrrov, <0? av
7rpoaO-8oIvcr v aC a drTv va'uetv 7O'v IIXoTorwva Kal
TO7VTO) oNv e/.davitELt 7rapa7rk iy-lav rTv oa7ov8nv
cal T1V i tXepylav, o-cOXta T re/tuv'VTovr Kal a0e[Las
Ta; aovpvyyav, Ica '7rpo T70o ev avrTat aTrav-
TrjvTra WOTaobv 7roXhXaXctl Tro~s AltyvTp lolt avav-
rTOVVTWV 1 KoX'itat. rTv 8' bXov 2 ov raTaro
elvat TOVTO;9 7rore Kac T09o 'ATTUCOL, IdXX' e'Keivot"
jzev aivt'yiUaTt eouciava 7Tiv LerTaXXeavP bo-a pt'v
yap aveXap3ov 3 0 falv, o0i/ e'Xapov, braa ~e eltov,
a7reraXov' TOVrTOI9 8' b7repdyav XV'arX7 TOt9
/Ixv XaXlcovp TTyoai raprov tpIpo 'yIoval TV
77 TObv XahlKcv, T(W 8' 8 pyvpeuvrwv T Vq 4
18WTWrT eV 7TpLi'v pipav9 ESo'itov raXavTrov
eialpovo-a Tby av carr. i epov o/C e7rtn7roXl evpl-
lxceaOal dpratv, (ce Trob9 ltaropIKco Oppveiv, dXX'
opVTTeafrat yeevvaa-a 8' b'v re Tot9 v7rp TOV9
Avouravoiv PapP/3po; Kal ev ra9 KaTTtreplo-s
vjcrot9, cal EK Tov BperTaavtcitv 8 etI 7271 Maao-a-
lXav Icoil eoa-8a. ev 8j T0o9o 'AprdfSpotv, o' T279
Auvo-Iavpa9, voao-T aTO7p09 apKTov tcaL 8tvaL el v,
e~avOev 7rla-'v Trv 7'y v apyvpiUp, KicarreTpp,
XPvUIY XevKrI (Apyvpolptyl9 yap do-rt), Trvo 8\ 7y
1 &vavTwotv-rav, Corais, for &vaTrAo;va ; so the editors.
2 Tv 8 b'ov, conj. of Sealiger, for Tbv Aov. But perhaps,
Tby 8' aeAo (C. Millerr, which is generally accepted, is right;
or Tbrv Odov. (Meineke's conj.).
3 Meineke and others emend &Y4\aiaov to tA xov, the word
of Athenaeus (6. 23).
Tw v, Corais, for T.v; so the editors in general.
I Archimedes' screw. Another method was that of divert-
ing the water by subterranean trenches (Diod. Sic. 5. 37.)

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 9

that the people dig as strenuously as if they expected
to bring up Pluto himself. So Poseidonius implies
that the energy and industry of the Turdetanian
miners is similar, since they cut their shafts aslant
and deep, and, as regards the streams that meet
them in the shafts, oftentimes draw them off with
the Egyptian screw.1 However, the whole affair, he
says, is never the same for these miners as for the
Attic miners; indeed, for the latter, mining is like a
riddle: What they took up," he says, "they did
not take, yet what they had, they lost" ; 2 but, for the
Turdetanians, mining is profitable beyond measure,
since one-fourth of the ore brought out by their
copper-workers is pure copper, while some of their
private adventurers who search for silver pick up
within three days a Euboean talent 3 of silver. Tin,
however, is not found there on the surface of the
ground, he says, as the historians continually repeat,
but is dug up; and it is produced both in the
country of the barbarians who live beyond Lusitania,
and in the Cassiterides Islands; and tin is brought
to Massilia from the British Islands also. But
among the Artabrians, who live farthest on the
north-west of Lusitania, the soil efflorescess," he
says, with silver, tin, and "white gold" (for it is
mixed with silver). This soil, however, he adds, is
2 This riddle was said to have been propounded to Homer
by some fishermen after they had had bad luck. They sat on
the sand with their small catch, and became covered with
vermin. The fish they abandoned, but the vermin they
could neither abandon nor catch. Demetrius, Poseidonius,
Diodorus Siculus (5. 37), Athenaeus (6. 23), and Strabo apply
the riddle to Attica's loss of invested capital when the
revenues from her mines failed.
3 About fifty-seven and one-half pounds avoirdupois.


TavTi7v pe0iv TOV VOTayovs* TV S tKaXi Tt- T9
7yvalKa Stapj1 ra' 7rXVvetv v i~ 9T iplot;s 7rXeic-
ToFq ede cLOr-Tv.1 oVrov p1,v 'repi 7T8OV eTLcXXwv
TOiavT etprXce.
10. HoXtf/3o' Se, TCOv 7rep KapX?8'va Neav
apyvpelwv vUw17crOe, ,/eytra /.Lv elvat frlat,
8etXeiv S Tq 7rvohXew boov eicoot ou-ra ltovv, 7reptet-
C 148 X~~roa KVKicov TeTpaloa-Lwv oaraiwv, oT7rov TCTTa-
paf .vpipdSaq dv9pd7rwov givetv Trcv 'pyafodoevwv,
avacapovrav Troe T' 84,/Wi T&ov 'Pwo.auaiv KaO'
fKta-TrTv 7/Cipav Sto/1uvpLav Kac r7revTactroXtXiLa
SpaXduiE'. 7Tv 86 KaTepyaodlav T\v IPEV a'XXiv eA
(paiacpha ryp Edo-), '7vy SE crupT-v /93(Xov T7~
apyvpTriTv nqat Kic6rTerO0at Kal KaOcK7vo09 et vSwp
8tapTiro-Oat,2 KOrTT6~roat Se W7rXtv 7lT9 TrooTadoet,
Kal nrXtYv 8&r)ovuJfvaq -7TroXeo/iEVcov T7~v vSadTW
KItTarfa T*I v S6 Vjr6TTr7lV rroO-Taarv vro wvev-
Oetoav, daroXveVTOV TOO 1oX70i oL ov, IcaOapov rov
apyvpov edyetv. eort 86 Kal viv TA dpyvpela,
ov perTOt Siooo'a, ov're evrava oi'rE eV TroI
d\\ot'Z T 'rov?, !XX' elq ISwtLOTKeI p.LerTeoTaoav
KT7rjeL'' Ta Se Xpvo-ela Stoao-teveTaz Ta 7TXereo.
ev & Kal KaorTaX v KaIc aXXosv T70iOtV, 'iv eor'T
iaETaXXov opvKxcTOiD oXij3Sov' rapa/e/iratTat 6r TI
Kal rTOVT) 70T pyvpov Ioi/cpOV, ov wJore Xvoa-
TeFeV dcronKa alpetv avLrv.
1 els KiLtTnv, Kramer, for wiZal~rr (AC), irl KdfoIT (B);
so the editors in general.
2 Casaubon emends atapTaeOat to SiaTaTiarl; all later editors
This simple method (now called "jigging") of separating
the mineral from the light refuse is still in use. The sieve is

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 9-10

brought by the streams ; and the women scrape it up
with shovels and wash it in sieves woven basket-like.
Such, then, is what Poseidonius has said about the
10. Polybius, in mentioning the silver-mines of
New Carthage, says that they are very large; that
they are distant from the city about twenty stadia
and embrace an area four hundred stadia in circuit;
and that forty thousand workmen stay there, who (in
his time) bring into the Roman exchequer a daily
revenue of twenty-five thousand drachmae. But as
for the processes of the work, I omit all he says
about it (for it is a long story) except what he says
of the silver-bearing ore that is carried along in the
streams, namely, that it is crushed and by means of
sieves disengaged in water; 1 then the sediment is
again crushed, and again strained through (the
waters meantime being poured off), and crushed;
then the fifth sediment is smelted, and, after the lead
has been poured off, yields the pure silver. The
silver-mines are still being worked at the present
time; they are not state-property, however, either at
New Carthage or anywhere else, but have passed over
to private ownership. But the majority of the gold-
mines are state-property. Both in Castalo and else-
where there is a special metal of mined lead; this,
too, has a slight quantity of silver mixed with it,
though not enough to make the refining of it
shaken up and down under water, and by gravity the heavier
substance goes through the sieve to the bottom, the lighter
forming a layer on top, which is scraped off. The Greek
phrase (translated literally above) is syncopated, as is the
further description of the process.


11. OV 7roXv 8' arw~ev 70oi KaorTaXwvo'9 eaor
ical Tb 6po0, e o45 pev Oaor- Tov BaTtv, 8
KcaXoDrov 'ApyvpoOv Sth rT dApyvpea Ta dv avbT.
HoXlp/to o 8 Kcal Tov "Avav ical TOTro Pov e TI)
KeXrtl37pla Pev 0jy1at, 8teyovTra !aXi;Xiwv 'oaov
dvvaicoaoeov9 aTaSov"' avyfoevre 'yapC ol KeXTt-
/3pe dTrooat iav Kca 7irv 7rX'yo? Xoopov 7rtaav
oplwvvbovv eavTroL. colcaat 8' ol 7raXatol KcaXev
Trv Ba'rtv TapTPo-acro, Ta 8e rdetpa cal rTa
arpo? avTrv vr~jaov 'Epvleav" Storep ODTWO' elretiv
b7roXap)p3avovort CTyo-LXopov 'rep 70To PFrpvuvo9
/3ovKcov, 8or0TL yevrl v eq
aX.eSbv dvTr7repa; KXetva? 'Epvdela;
TaprT l'ao-i roTraj.aof 7rapa araya' atrelpovav
ev KevO/uvt i TreTpa9.1
8velv Se oboa-v d'cEoXOv 7ro0 roTa/lov, roXtiv ev
T7 plerafv XWopka IcaToUicelaoOat rp Oepov 4aa-tv,
jv icaXelaoat 'apT1aa-ov, 6/twuvv0ov O 7 roTra/p,
cKal -v Xypav Taprrloja-aa, jv vbv TovpSoDXot
veovrTat. KaC 'Eparoo-08'v? S' T e v aVVXre 7 T
KdtyrrX TapTro-i'8a KcaXeZlOa'al fii-t, Kcal 'Epv-
Oetav v4-ov e val~ova. vpo\- ov 'ApTet/i(opoa
avTXeyoCOv Ka' ravaa Crev os Xe'yeaaita 0ro-t vi7r
avTro, KaOcTrep K/ca TO 71 Ci PaSepwv J7rA TOr
'Iepov atcpwT'iptov 81da'-T?7ja arreXeiv tpLepwov w7rne
7rXovv, ov' 7rXEovv V'T(v 0 i XtXlv cal rEITTaco-
Ciowv o -aSowv, ical TOb r7ad clpTr(Tre6 IlC'Xpt Sevpo
rrepaTro0vaat dVTr\ 70T KKxX 'T efp'i traav Tryv
olicovtevnrv a-vtLailves Kai T7 T 7 papoaapCKTIt
1 See Bergk's re-arrangement of the words, Poet. Lyr. iii.


11. Not very far from Castalo is also the mountain in
which the Baetis is said to rise ; it is called "Silver
Mountain" on account of the silver-mines that are
in it. According to Polybius, however, both this
river and the Anas, though distant from each other
as much as nine hundred stadia, rise in Celtiberia;
for, as a result of their growth in power, the Celti-
berians caused the whole neighboring country to
have the same name as their own. The ancients
seem to have called the Baetis River "Tartessus";
and to have called Gades and the adjoining islands
"Erytheia" ; and this is supposed to be the reason
why Stesichorus spoke as he did about the neat-herd 1
of Geryon, namely, that lie was born "about opposite
famous Erytheia, beside the unlimited, silver-rooted
springs of the river Tartessus, in a cavern of a cliff."
Since the river had two mouths, a city was planted
on the intervening territory in former times, it is
said,-a city which was called Tartessus," after the
name of the river; and the country, which is now
occupied by Turdulians, was called "Tartessis."
Further, Eratosthenes says that the country ad-
joining Calpe is called "Tartessis," and that
Erytheia is called Blest Isle." Eratosthenes is
contradicted by Artemidorus, who says that this is
another false statement of Eratosthenes, like his
statement that the distance from Gades to the
Sacred Cape is a five days' sail (although it is not
more than one thousand seven hundred stadia), and
his statement that the tides come to an end at the
Sacred Cape (although the tides take place round the
whole circuit of the inhabited world), and his state-

1 Eurytion.


pe'pv r7 I7plar ebvrrapocrepa etvat 7rpbo T7v
KeXTIKrcv ~ Kara TOv wcKeavov TrXeovo-t, Kal oc-a
8j iXXa e'ipr7ce IIvdea 7rtoTrei-av, 8t' Xaaovetav.
C 149 12. 'O 8 7rootTv, 7roXvwovo' Tt? tavy /cat
WroXviotrowp, 818ao-tPv a opp, (? ovS T TOUT.r)
avr(IOO' E'-Tt TWo TO7TrW, ei Tr9 opooq oavXXo-
yi'eo-9at /3oVXotr0o T7r' al~4oiv, 7 TW e Xetpov
Xeyo,"evov 7repl avrwv, KaL T(^v alietvov Ica EX17-
O"eCTpov. XELpoV ev, Ort 7rpO 8v-OLtv do-XaT?
rjlovev aVT7, S7rov, Ica0drep abvTo9 p7~F -, elt9 TO
OKeavoyv epdtriwre
Xapt-rpov cdo' rjeXlioo,
XxIcov v ct a pteXatvav e7rr e'&owpov apovpav.
(II. 8. 485)
8' S v 6'TbL S6(frEiL0ov Ical 7T "A y rXrhaltdfov
S10jov, 0 'S "AS86 7rw Taprdpw.. elcaot o3vx1 av
TrL aKcovovra2 7rep TapTr ao-o5 Ov T-dprapov
dEce fv 7rapovo/au-aa obv b'oXaTrv rTv vroX0oviwv
T0rrov, 7rpoa-Oevat 6r Kal jpDOov, bTO 70'roS~7Tic
ca ovra. KcaOdrep Ical rovq Ktl~ltep1ov9 elS8
ev /opetlor Ica&l 6oFepol9 o0iKcraavTa TO 7TrotL TO
Kara T V Bocrrropov '8pvUQev aVTov; 70pO9 TS
"4A7, crdia Ical caT t coLv Tov 'ovwov XS0o
7rpo'9 o' boXov TroVT' Koal yyap KaO' "Opqpov 21
-icKpov 7rpb abvTo Xeyovo-t Tr e r&v KtIutep[wv

1 oSv, Groskurd inserts, after Eilcdot.
2 asio6vova, Kramer, for a&Koawv rd; Mtiller-Diibner, and
Meineke, following.
3 (pepo7s, Corais, for C(cvpots; so the editors.

1 Cp. 14. 3-5, 2. 4. 1 and 3. 4. 4.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 11-12

ment that the northerly parts of Iberia afford an
easier passage to Celtica than if you sail thither by
the ocean;,and, in fact, every other statement which
he has made in reliance upon Pytheas,1 on account
of the latter's false pretensions.
12. The poet,2 man of many voices, so to speak,
and of wide information, affords us grounds for the
argument that even these regions were not unheard
of by hirn, if one were only willing to argue scientifi-
cally from both statements that are made about these
regions, not only from the worse, but also from the
better and more truthful. Worse, namely, the state-
ment that Tartessus was known by hearsay3 as
"farthermost in the west," where, as the poet him-
self says, falls into Oceanus "the sun's bright light,
drawing black night over earth, the grain-giver."
Now, that night is a thing of evil omen and as-
sociated with Hades, is obvious; also that Hades is
associated with Tartarus. Accordingly, one might
reasonably suppose that Homer, because he heard
about Tartessus, named the farthermost of the nether-
regions Tartarus after Tartessis, with a slight altera-
tion of letters; and that he also added a mythical
element, thus conserving the creative quality of
poetry. Just as the poet, because he knew that
the Cimmerians had taken their abode in northern
and gloomy regions about the Bosporus, settled them
in the neighbourhood of Hades, though perhaps he
did it also in accordance with a certain common
hatred of the lonians for this tribe (indeed, it was in
the time of Homer, or shortly before his time, they
say, that that Cimmerian invasion which reached as far
2 Homer. 3 In Homer's time.


k' oSov yeveio-0al T V Ip-Lpt 7TF ALOXISo, cal 4),?
'ICovla9. Traq 8' Kvaveat? erolyo-e 7rapaTrXyo-l]
T7h IIXayTcra, ade Tor 70 pIovO9 aTrd tiTyov ltro-
pt6v vdym~c. XahXera yp Ttva9 piuveveL 7re'Tpa9,
KcaOdrep Tha Kvave'a? aaiv, e ob Kcal :vLVTrXy-
yad8e KcaXoovrat" S8twrep Ica' TOV 'IdoLovo9 rap&-
0clKe St' aTC&wv \rXoirv. Icai o icar Ta' a' Tr'Xa?
6e "ropOtA0 ceal K KcaTrh Ztxcelav vTr rlyopevov avrc
rTov 7repi T&v IIHay cKxrv 1iiOov. rrpo pIt6v 86 To
Xe6pov a7ro Tl roD TapTapov /uv0oTrodia9 avTwr-
ToT6r Tqt Av Tr )vy 'T@V TWr(rpV LfVljrv TWV 7repi
TapTr co-ro'v.
13. IIpa 8' Tr /3~EXTtov eK TOVTwV 7 re 7ap
'HpatXfovw or-parTea iteXp Sevpo rpoeXOoDo-a xcal
'Tv totwpi/cv vTrripaoev abvr 7r'XoDiTO' TWva Kal
pavtiauav T6V avOpwcrwv. oibroI yAp iolvItv
Oir;TW eyevoro o C 8pa vTroXelptot, Wi-Tre Ta
rXelov9 TrV E'v Tv Tovpor7Tavia vr6 eowv cal rTov
7rhyXlo'ov -oTrrtl) V'' dieiv olicelo a. Ica'l 7
ToD 'OSvo-a-edo S o-TpaTrea Soxce6 pIot &efpo yevr-
0etoa Kal I-roprel o-a bvr' avrou wrapaSoDvat
'pOao-arv waore ical Tv 'O8v'o-o-etav, Icadirep
iai 7~V IXsd8a, aro wv a Vt/3dvrwv ueTayayetv
el6 rolrLa-o v Kca o'V Cvvjr9y ToE9 7rorl7raiE ytvOo-
7rorav. ov 7yp povov ol Kcara 7TV 'ITraXav KCa
ttKeXfaV roT Ict a a2 Xot TiPe Trv otIOV'Tn
ar'teda VTroypdaov-tv, aXXah aK Jv Tr, 'Inrpl'a
'O8uacr-ea 7roXtg eiKVVTUrat Kcal 'AOBivdt tepoIv Kal
1 Odyssey 12. 61; 23. 327.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 12-13

as Aeolis and lonia took place). Again, the poet
modelled his "Planctae" 1 after the "Cyaneae,"
always bringing in his myths from some historical
fact or other. For example, he tells amythical story
of certain rocks that are dangerous, just as they say
the Cyaneae are (from which fact the Cyaneae are
also called Symplegades "), and this is the reason
why he cited Jason's voyage through them. But
both the strait at the Pillars and that at Sicily
suggested the myth about the Planctae. As regards
that worse statement, therefore, one might get a
hint from the mythical invention of Tartarus that
Homer had in mind the regions about Tartessus.
13. As regards the better, on the other hand, one
might get hints from the following: In the first
place, the expeditions of Heracles and of the
Phoenicians, since they both reached as far as
Iberia, suggested to Homer that the people of
Iberia were in some way rich, and led a life of
ease. Indeed, these people became so utterly sub-
ject to the Phoenicians that the greater number of
the cities in Turdetania and of the neighboring
places are now inhabited by the Phoenicians.
Secondly, the expedition of Odysseus, as it seems
to me, since it actually had been made to Iberia,
and since Homer had learned about it through
inquiry, gave him an historical pretext; and so he
also transferred the Odyssey, just as he had already
transferred the Iliad, from the domain of historical
fact to that of creative art, and to that of mythical
invention so familiar to the poets. For not only do
the regions about Italy and Sicily and certain other
regions betray signs of such facts, but in Iberia also
a city of Odysseia is to be seen, and a temple of


XXa pvpla 'vrI TV T6e beelvov 0 rXCdvry, xcal
aXXwv T&v dic ToO Tpwtico rroXe'tov 7yevope'vwv
Kcatl e' i'o-? caKoo(-avTwv TOV; Te 7rOXT eUr70vTaq
C 150 cai TroV' eXovras 7rv Tpolav (ical yap oVrot
Ka8uelav vlitc iTvrvyxavov rlpitevot), Trv Te o'lKWV
KcaTecB apievwv, cal T'7 ha Xaopwv ZXt'ywv eld
efca~rov dXoXv eTr)v o-vve' l T0'rl repceltXctrOec
dareX0ov0ar 'i eV c Tr KtvSvpwv KaC'r XyoT'reia
Tper-crat Kal roi "EXXho-t, To 0 1q v &t a T b dc-
7rer opO7la-at, TO? 8e Sh rA T aloa'Xvrv, ,ca-'rov
alo-Xpov T70 S 'pv e piUevev
avev TWOV oltceLiV,
Kceveov 7e vecyat
(II. 2. 298)
Trap' avrovs 7rdXav. r 7Te TO Aivelov rapae'-
Sorat 7rXdv2 /cal 'AvTijvopo9 ical 7 7 ov 'EveTyiv
(wo-av'T /aet 5 Atlo/jsov r1 a'e al MeveXdov ical
'O8vCo-ev ica'l XXowv rXetovov. 6 TObro V 7rrOt lTh7
Ta7 Toc-avTa~ aT paTelaF e7Tr Ta ea-xaa 7T2
'I/ piaa lta-opl7KW;, 7rvv0avO evoevo Kcal 7rXoiovTO
cal Ta? aXa? ipe i a (ol yap toivicKE9 e~8iovv
TOrTO), CevTavOa TO'v TV evo-e/3cv erXaoe X(pov
Ical TO 'HXvtorv realov, ov 'or]-cv o ITIpaTewr
a7rOtKlc-OetI TOv MeveXaov"
aXd o'' E' 'HXV'cor rov 7rev cal 'relpaTa /yaly7
dOdvaTrot re'y rovotv, o60 avOo'v PaBdptav0v,
77 rTEp p rL-Tr 1ori rT 're te a roP itOL'0-I
o0 vtceo' OUT' adp xeitLwv 7roXv' o8E' 7To7'

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 13

Athene, and countless other traces, not only of the
wanderings of Odysseus, but also of other wander-
ings which took place thither after the Trojan War
and afflicted the capturers of Troy quite as much
as it did the vanquished 1 (for the capturers, as it
happened, carried off only a Cadmean victory 2).
And since the Trojan homes were in ruins, and the
booty that came to each Greek was but small, the
result was that the surviving Trojans, after having
escaped from the perils of the war, turned to acts of
piracy, as did also the Greeks; the Trojans, because
their city was now in utter ruins; the Greeks, for
shame, since every Greek took it for granted that it
was "verily shameful to wait long" far from his
kindred "and then" back to them "empty-handed
go." Thirdly, the wanderings of Aeneas are a
traditional fact, as also those of Antenor, and those
of the Henetians;3 similarly, also, those of Diomedes,
Menelaus, Odysseus, and several others. So then,
the poet, informed through his inquiries of so many
expeditions to the outermost parts of Iberia, and
learning by hearsay about the wealth and the other
good attributes of the country (for the Phoenicians
were making these facts known), in fancy placed
the abode of the blest there, and also the Elysian
Plain, where Proteus says Menelaus will go and make
his home: "But the deathless gods will escort thee
to the Elysian Plain and the ends of the earth, where
is Rhadamanthys of the fair hair, where life is easiest.
No snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor ever any
1 Cp. 1. 3. 2, vol. I, pp. 177-179.
2 Alluding to the myth of Cadmus and the dragon's teeth.
SIliad 2. 852.
1 are\X0ooLiv, Kramer, for &~reOo a l (ACI), anrmoNiv (B);
so the editors.


oX' alel Zeovpoto Xty7 Irverovros dara,
'flteavo' advtoItv ava'Xfretv av0pcrovs.
(Od. 4. 563)
To Tre yap vdaepov ical TO evrrvovv ro Zefvpov
Tav7Tn1 eT o- TiTj X;pa? oiceEwv, aoreplov e icat
aXeetvj;9 o0VJal9, T6 Te 677T TO'r9 7rpaao- T7 V 7y09,
f' olt xcalt TVo "A L8rv tjivOeove at alterv. 0 re
'PaMdtJav6vu '7rapaTelels bvTroypdaiet 'Tv rX]'o-iov
7o Mlvo rTrrov, 7replt o0b fra-tv.
v To' Tt Mi va a'iov Atro ayXaov vtov,
XpV'eo-C o'tcjnrrpov 'eXovTa, Oet/rTe"ovra ve-
(Od. 11. 568)
Ical 01 /Tera TaGa 8~ 7rotl'ral 'rapaiXriota Opv-
Xovort, TrjV e 7Trl 7 T Th r opvovov 86a orTpavreav
ical, Trv err Ta u}Xa TrOv 'ETorep 18ov T Xpvaoea
ocravTrw a-'paTreav, Ical MaLcdpwv Ttva vao-ovJ
Icarovo~daoveTC, a', /caL vvv Savevv.lyva' ftoerv ob
7roX' a&'rwOev Trav a'cpwov Tr)' Mavpovat'a rov
auvTitCet1,icvv rToz raSe'ipots.
14. Tob' 8o & Iotivotca' Xe'/yw ) vvTrdv Kal T7
'I1rplaas Ka 7al T At/3nvp y 'TV apt'o`Trv oVTro KaaT-
o-Xov rpo T7)9 r aXtictaq 7T" s 0j4pov Kca 8terTeeaav
K/cptOt TCOv Tr0oTv OvreT, /l XPts o5 'Pwoltatot Kcar-
C 151 Ekvaav avrwv Trfv 'yeliwovtia. TOO S' 'l /3ptxCOl
rXov'rov Kai T rava uIapTvplta KapXq86wvos /fTA
T70 Bapica O-TpaTeva'avTE KCaOTa/30ov, ks c0aoaw
ol o'vyypaodet, dparvat dpyupa,;' ical 7rlOot' Xpw-
,~ivov Tro9 v dv Tovp8qravia. v7roXd/3ot aiv
T? se T7s' 7roXXl49 ev8atjovia' ical Maicpal vaz

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 13-14

rain; but always Oceanus sendeth forth the breezes
of clear-blowing Zephyrus." For both the pure
air and the gentle breezes of Zephyrus properly
belong to this country, since the country is not
only in the west but also warm; and the phrase "at
the ends of the earth properly belongs to it, where
Hades has been mythicallyy placed," as we say.
And Homer's citing of Rhadamanthys suggests the
region that is near Minos, concerning whom he
says: "There it was I saw Minos, glorious son of
Zeus, holding a golden sceptre, rendering decisions
to the dead." Furthermore, the poets who came
after Homer keep dinning into our ears similar
stories: the expedition of Heracles in quest of the
kine of Geryon and likewise the expedition which
he made in quest of the golden apples of the
Hesperides-even calling by name certain Isles of
the Blest, which, as we know, are still now pointed
out, not very far from the headlands of Maurusia
that lie opposite to Gades.
14. The Phoenicians, I say, were the informants
of Homer; and these people occupied the best of
Iberia and Libya before the age of Homer, and
continued to be masters of those regions until the
Romans broke up their empire. The wealth of
Iberia is further evidenced by the following facts:
the Carthaginians who, along with Barcas, made a
campaign against Iberia found the people in Turde-
tania, as the historians tell us, using silver feeding-
troughs and wine-jars. And one might assume that
it was from their great prosperity that the people
there got the additional name of "Macraeones,"1

1 "Long-livers."


ovoyao-Orivat TOV'; vdS'e dvOpwrrov, Kcal duAXtaTra
To, iIyet8ova9, Ical sth roDVT 'AvaKpeovTa pEv
"Eywcoy' o'V7' Av 'AJtaXBlif
/3ovXoI~rv IKcpa oi7T' "'Tea
7rcvTjiKOTa Te Katl ecaTOv
Tap-r rroo3 /actXevTGar
(Frag. 8, Bergk)
'Hpodorov 8 Kca'i To 'voya roOi, paatXe'wv /caa-
/pdrFat, KcaXeOav'Ta 'Apyav d6vlov" 1 yap oiTJr
86earT' av rt 9 'IO ov rovTr ro1 'AvaKpeovroIv, 7
IKowTTepov OVi 7 TapTrro-o-D roXvv Xp6vov faat-
XeGo'aa. vtot 86 Taprro77'o v r)v vbv KapTr'lav
15. Ty &e 71^ X 8pa a e tvSafovia Kal To' Jtepov
Icai TO rOXrtLKov o-vv ooXovrloo e Troq Tovp8Si-
Tavoir ia'l o70 KeXLXTKOiF 8a 8Th 74v 7etrviaorv,
t et'pryce IlIoXdl3o, 13 8ta Trv oavyeveLav, aXX'
EcevotV OP v 7Trov" Ta 7roXXa yap Iwpco/8ov oatv-.
ol tIEvTOt ToupSrTavdo, Iacl /haXtOTa o01 repit Trv
BairL, TeXe&o' ew Tb 'vPotalev ue1Taie'7ap B X Tai
T7pO7ov, ovo 7T9 StaXeCKTrv T)7 S oF eTepa, e'rt 1e-
1.zvlp vot. AarTvoI Te ol 7rXLeTroi yeyovao-t, aca
Trobicovw elX ao- 'Po-aaivov, WUae fe tKpov rwe-
1 ILd, Siebenkees and Corais insert, from the conj. of
2 Meineke (followed by Forbiger and Tardieu) regards
4 yap .irpoaa"yopevovet as a marginal gloss and unwar-
rantedly omits it from the text.
3 4, Jones inserts.
1 The sacred she-goat which suckled Zeus in his infancy.
For gratitude Zeus placed her among the consteHlations,

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. 14-15

and particularly the chieftains; and that this is why
Anacreon said as follows: "I, for my part, should
neither wish the horn of Amaltheia,l nor to be king
of Tartessus for one hundred and fifty years "; and
why Herodotus recorded even the name of the king,
whom he called Arganthonius.2 For one might
either take the phrase of Anacreon literally or as
meaning "a time equal to the king's," or else in a
more general way, "nor to be king of Tartessus for
a long time." Some, however, call Tartessus the
Carteia of to-day.3
15. Along with the happy lot of their country, the
qualities of both gentleness and civility have come to
the Turditanians; and to the Celtic peoples, too, on
account of their being neighbours to the Turdetanians,
as Polybius has said, or else on account of their kin-
ship; but less so the Celtic peoples, because for the
most part they live in mere villages. The Turde-
tanians, however, and particularly those that live
about the Baetis, have completely changed over to
the Roman mode of life, not even remembering
their own language any more. And most of them
have become Latins,4 and they have received Romans

Her horns gushed, one with nectar and the other with
ambrosia. The horn of Amaltheia became proverbial for
the cornucopia inexhaustible.
2 "Silver Locks" is a fair equivalent of the Greek word.
Herodotus says he reigned eighty years and lived one hundred
and twenty (1. 163).
3 Strabo's thought reverts to 11 above. Op. Pliny (Nat.
Hist. 3. 3), who speaks of Carteia, called by the Greeks
4 That is, they acquired the so-called "Latin rights of
citizenship," which comprehended more than "foreign rights"
but less than Roman rights." Cp. 4. 1. 12.


ovo-t roD 7ravTe' elvac 'Pwoatot. al' re vvO
oavvoyictopt/evaLt w7ToX j re ev Tro? KeX7T coZ IIat-
avyova-'a Icat I Ev TroE? TovpSovXotv Avyova-ra
'H/ eplra /cal rwep TrowV KeXTt'/3r pa, Karaapav-
yovr'a i- al aXXar evtat KaTroucat Tr v /yerTaPoXlv
Trcov XeXOeto-r v 7roXt'retv e/javtovOa. ical 87
Trv 'IT3prpwv oo-ot Tav7yi) eo0 7r T 18t''a TOyaTro t
Xe'yovTrae dv 8 Tro rotvs' el' ica ol KeXATi3fpef ol
7ravrTov vo.trofv'TeeS TqOTE OPptcoSeaTraTot. rai7a
pIEv 7rept TroVTv.

1. 'ArO 8 Trod 'leIpov irrdhXv aIKpCrWpTL'v Trv ap-
xr hXap1a3dvovarv E'rLJ Odarepov /16poSv Trv 7rapaXia;,
TO rrpoF TOv Tadyov, i oXTro' ea"rLv e'retra Caicpa TO
Bap/3dptov Kcal at 70TO Tdyou i/c3oXal krXy ov,
e 'v evOv7rXoLa 2 or-Tatot etoll 8'/ca-3 vraiOa Se
Icat d rvaXov-et, wv /la 6r't 7rXelovq r TerTpalcoo-ov

1 ToyaTro, Kramer, for rroAd'oti; Miiller-Diibner, Forbiger,
Tardieu, and Meineke, following (the accent being Meineke's);
mgor read -'TroAdra t rToyd'roI. Cp. 3. 4. 20; and Dio Cassius,
46. 55, ccaXe7ro 8e KidIV (i.e. Gallia Narbonensis) IiPv Toyara,
71 "re elp TvIKW'pa lrap& rTS t &Naas ISdiceat al KCa l b ImL Tf
E6eO-T1 Tlj 'Pwjtalraj rGT dTKC iXPFwVTo %8l.
2 e90urXola, Corais, for eboirxomat ; editors following.
3 For Stca Corais (followed by Groskurd, and Forbiger)
writes Stacdrtoi (o') or itarKdroti SKca (a't'), omitting the 5'
(MSS.) before ldoi. C. Miller (followed by Tardieu), con-
jectures ,a (X[Atot) for 8' and writes as follows : o-rdStoi X[ALot
ci'-l SL Kal dvrai0a Kr.T.. But the problem is further complicated
by Strabo's later reference to a "tower," which indicates
that several words have fallen out of the text-probably
after bevvrAola.


GEOGRAPHY, 3. 2. i5-3. I

as colonists, so that they are not far from being all
Romans. And the present jointly-settled cities, Pax
Augusta in the Celtic country, Augusta Emerita
in the country of the Turdulians, Caesar-Augusta
near Celtiberia, and some other settlements, manifest
the change to the aforesaid civil modes of life.
Moreover, all those Iberians who belong to this class
are called "Togati." 1 And among these are the
Celtiberians, who were once regarded the most
brutish of all. So much for the Turditanians.

1. Now if we again begin at the Sacred Cape,
following the coast in the other direction, namely,
towards the Tagus River, there is first a gulf, then a
promontory, Barbarium, and near it the mouths of
the Tagus; and the distance to these mouths in a
direct voyage is ten 2 stadia. Here, too, there are
estuaries; one of them extends inland from the
1 The MSS. are nearly unanimous in support of "Stolati,"
"wearers of the stola," but this was a matrons' garment at
Rome. Cp. 3. 4. 20. Again, Dio Cassius (see note on opposite
page), in speaking of Gallia Narbonensis, says that it was called
"Gallia Togata," both because it was reputed to be more
peaceable than the others and because the people there were
already (43 B.c.) wearing the Roman garb.
2 As the MSS. stand, "ten" cannot be right. Strabo
probably wrote "two hundred" (or "two hundred and ten "),
if he meant from Barbarium; or "one thousand," if from
the Sacred Cape. The latter seems more likely, for it is in-
conceivable that Strabo would leave out the distance from
the Sacred Cape to Barbarium and thus break his otherwise
continuous circuit of distances extending all the way from the
Trophies of Pompey (3. 4. 1.) to Cape Nerium. See critical
note on opposite page.


o-ra8lovr adrO Tro XeXVooc 7rvppyov, ica0' ?'v
'8peovTrat r' Et aXdKcetav.1 S~ T oyoz ical TO
7XCTro; F et 'TO o7y'aro? eltcoo-6 WT V orTa8a v
Iat TO f da00 1eya, waoe-T lvplaymoyo; dva7rXeZ-
o-at. Svo 8' avaxvo-et v v TOv vTrEp~KEeiLevoti
C 152 roteZTat '7rae[Olo, o'Ta at vrXkqjati rlvwvrat, o-~6e
jreXayletv ev eTr'l 'icaTr Kca 'revticovra oara-
Otov ictal rOieLv 7rTWhTOV TO 7 retoi, ev 8' 7T '7dvw
avaXvoe ical vcjaov aioroXap3dvewv Soov TptaKOVTa
craUalowv rTO fijco%, 7XaTro 87 pitcpoYv d'roXe7irov
TOD PIcKov9, evaXEo-2 caL ebvaLreXov. ce-rat 8'
1 v o' KcarTa Mdpcova weroXtv 6 3 icetUie'vrv v Oepe
70T 7rOTa/oD 7rXro-aiov, a oea-r7Trav T7O 80aXLdrryv
oaov 7revTaoKoa-ov a-trTaiovv, EXovoav 8e Kcal
Xypav iyaO~lv Tl7V r.pt. ical TOV"U avaTrXov' e vre-
T7 PLXp UE'V 7 -roXXoD ical aeeydaot aCcd(t ao-, TO
8 X0oTrov To0L? roTrapLtot; Kal ra p v Mo'ppwva
8' ert ItaKpoTepov avdarXov eo"r71 T TavTy e 8 y
7roXet BpoDTro 6 KaXXaZtis Trpoo-a'opev0ei'
oppIT77r]plI XP0p4evo eCroXetriace 7rpo; Trov? Av-
o-travovs icat KaTao-Tpeife rorvTOv. T70o9 8 ToD
7roTra/toDi xXelpot 4 e7rereLO'6e 5 7T)v 'OXvO-r ~va,

1 Eril 2aAdKEav, C. Miller, for Erov aaela ; so Tardieu.
SEbaXors, conj. of Casaubon, for ebaxhrds; so most editors.
3 iarT Mdpwva Jrdxtv e, Corais, from the conj. of Casaubon,
for KaTl AXdyov &TroXtrei; so Forbiger, Miiller-Diibner,
Tardieu, and Meineke.
4 KlAeipots, conj. of Meineke, for TrAlpots.
I e rei'xioe, Casaubon, for ivXeElpre ; so Kramer, Miiller-
Diibner, and Meineke.


afore-mentioned tower1 for more than four hundred
stadia, and alofig this estuary the country is watered
as far as Salacia.2 Now the Tagus not only has a
width of about twenty stadia at its mouth, but its
depth is so great that very large merchant-ships can
ascend it. And when the flood-tides come on, it
forms two estuaries in the plains that lie above it, so
that it forms a sea for a distance of one hundred and
fifty stadia, and renders the plain navigable, and also,
in the upper estuary, encloses an island about thirty
stadia in length, and in breadth a trifle short of the
length-an island with fine groves and vines. The
island is situated opposite Moron,3 a city_ happily
situated on a mountain near the river, at a distance
of about- five hundred stadia from the sea. And
furthl er-fnotf only is the couintryibii6id about thle city
rich, but the voyages thither are easy-even for
large shnsiaeMonsiderable_ art_of the way, though
only for the river-boats the rest of the .way.. .And
beyond Moron,lso, the rivers navigable for a still
greater distance. This city Brutus, surnamed
Callaicus,4 used as a base of operations when he
warred against the -usitanians~-:ind I'rought these
peo'ople ud,-r jibhjiti n .\ nt, to command the bar5
of the river, he fortified Olysipo, in order that the
1 Strabo seems previously to have referred to a tower (on
Barbarium ?); but if so, the words have fallen out of the
2 The Greek text is corrupt, but it seems certain that
Strabo wrote "Salacia" here. It is about 400 stadia from
Barbarium. Cp.'Ptolemaeus 2. 5.
3 Now Al-Merim.
4 D. Junius Brutus was thus surnamed from his subjection
of the Callaicans, 136 B.c.
6 The narrows at Lisbon.


'l eXot ToUw ava7rXovI 'evOepovU; at Tal dra-
KouiSa' T@)v En7rTT eb8wv, iaOre Kal TWV Trepi Nov
TUryov wroXewv aTrat tcpartITat. 7roXuviuOv 8' '
roTapIt a / Tcat "orPeV 7rkprXl. *e' XrV rTa
apXal dc KeXTIL9pcov &8t OenrrTvowv Ical KapTr1-
Tavv Kcal AvaoUrav6iv 7ri v'acrt laoirpeptvi'v, "yxpe
iroo-ov rrap'XXrlXos wv Tr7 re ""Ava Kal 7r BatTt,
jera Se rTaava ato-Tadevo e/ceivwv, aroickvowv
7rpo T7 v v'7toV rapaliav.
2. Ol 08 VbrepKpejVOL TrOv XeXEvreOWv opCv '(2prn-
Tavol /jev eiot vortaroTO Kal pI'apL 7TI rrapaXiac
SiLjovrTe EIK UELpov 7g devr4b Tr17X'OV. Kap7rm-
ravoI 8e /f7tT TOrTOvW Trpo acpKrov, etra Over-
Twve ical OvaKxKaot, S' 'v Ao po;pto et, carT
'AKoVretav 2 rr, Xv TCOv ObalcKalwv Xwv w8tdao-tv.
KaXXnai'col '"o-rarot, Tri, opet iY rEXOv e
7roXXrv' 81o KIal 8voiaXy'rTaTOt OvrTe TC T6 Kara-
7roXe/7 oavrt rov Avo-Tavo O avTrot rapea-Xov Tv
cnrwovuitav, Iat vv v G ToUV 7TrXet'oTrov T&nO Avat-
Tav)p KaXXaiKcovb KcaXkeldOat rapeo-acevao-av. T1
p/e o;V 'ITplravla9 KpartLaret voa-d ecrrT wr-X
Kao-TaXdv, xal 'fpifa.
3. Tod &e Tdiyov T7 r7rpo apKrov I AvoUaravia
CoTT71 lyaTrov TV T)V'IpfrP1piKv )vn v Kalt rXeroTOt9
Xpovo V To 'Pw/alov 7rOXelroep'v. rreptexet 8
T7I? X)pa9 TavT)T r TO /eV vodrov TrXevpov d Tayov,
1 'OXvartraya, Kramer, for ShowL, retaining the 6s &v (after
b'Xociv in the MSS.); but Meineke reads as above.
2 'Ao'Tretay, conj. of Kramer, for 'AIkrotav; so Meineke,
and Tardieu.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 1-3

voyages inland and the importation of provisions
might be unimpeded; so that among the cities about
the Tagus these are strongest. The Tagus abounds
in fish, and is full of oysters. It rises in Celtiberia,
and flows through Vettonia, Carpetania, and Lusitania,
towards the equinoctial west,' up to a certain point
being parallel to both the Anas and the Baetis, but
after that diverging from those rivers, since they
bend off towards the southern seaboard.
2. Now of the peoples situated beyond the
mountains mentioned above,2 the Oretanians are
most southerly, and their territory reaches as far as
the seacoast in part of the country this side of the
Pillars; the Carpetanians are next after these on the
north; then the Vettonians and the Vaccaeans,
through whose territory the Durius River flows, which
affords a crossing at Acutia, a city of the Vaccaeans;
and last, the Callaicans, who occupy a very consider-
able part of the mountainous country. For this
reason, since they were very hard to fight with, the
Callaicans themselves have not only furnished the
surname for the man who defeated the Lusitanians
but they have also brought it about that now, already,
the most of the Lusitanians are called Callaicans.
Now as for Oretania, its city of Castalo is very
powerful, and so is Oria.3
3. And yet the country north of the Tagus,
Lusitania, is the greatest of the Iberian nations,
and is the nation against which the Romans waged
war for the longest times. The boundaries of this
country are: on the southern side, the Tagus; on the
1 Literally, the sunset at the equinox. a 3. 2. 3.
3 Identical, apparently, with Nuestra Senora de Oreto, near



To eo- reptov Ktal Trb pKTicov 0 wKceavov, TO
8' ewoOtvbv o' "Te KapTrraTavol Kcal ol Ov'T onve
Kal Ovbatcato i Kal KaXXab'cot, T7a yvcpptala eBv?'
ra&XXa S6 ovc aitov ovoIdaewtv 8l Ta]V /jipoT'77Tra
ical 7TV aSo~ v'av' irevrTawk 8' Tort vvv vtoLt Ial
TOrTovo Avot -avobv ovoadeovro-. oUopot 8' elo-'v
dE TOD 7Trpov &oy p/pov; ol /pev KaXXa'tKool 7) ToWV
'Ao-ropwv '8vet Kcal TOq KeX'Ttarpo-Iv,' of 8'
C 153 iXXho T'oE KeXTi/3Ppo-t. bT ptv otv Kico, /tE'XPL
Neplov 2 rpto-aXIXtov o-a7a8wv, TO Se 7rXa'ro 7roX'
\hAaTTOv, 8 7otel TO e7ltovv 7rXevppov el6 TiV aVnTt-
Ketievyv 7rapaXtav. v-*X"brv 8' EOrT TO dOLVo'V
Itea TpaXy 1 8' VTroewlmicqvj Xopa 7re~ta? reaTaa
Kca peXpt 0aXaTimry 7rXrv dXtywov opov ov Lfeya-
wo- 8 Kal TOV 'Apta-TorTeXi ]-LV 6 I IoeEt-
Svto o p'x 8p( alrtaro-9at Trv 7rapaXlav Ka'l Tr
Mavpovoiav TV 'v TrX~rytiupilWV Kal T' V a/wrr-
TeOV' 7raXtppoeYv yap datvat rTv OciXaTrav 8Si TO
T? alcpa,' v'7Xd6 r'e Kal Tpaxelav elvat, 8exofJ'-
va Tre TO cKvya o'ricKp& Kcal dvraTro& oo-w'a; 'l7
t'o-y l/33 Ta vavTia yap Otvw eti elvalt Kal ra'Taeva'
Ta, VrXeL'oaTa op9ow XE'lyV.
4. 'H 8' otv vwpa, 7repl f Xe yopyev, eb8atlwov
TE dErtL Kcal 8tapperTat TroTa/oEa /eCsya Xot? re Kal
pLKcpot', at7rai-v eK TCV &ewOtvwov fep&ov, 'rapaX-
X2o(t 7) Tadyp 'xeovo- S ical\ avaiorrXovu ol 7rXeovo
Kal 'F jya/a 'TO XpvoOD rXeoTov. 7yvopPlrrTa'TO 8e
7 TV Iworap&iv e'0eS4 7) T Tdyp MovvSav, dvAirXovz

1 KEAirSlportwv, Groskurd, for 'Iiprw ; so the other editors.
2 PXp Neplov, C. Miiller, for ivupiv al; so Tardieu.
3 Ig firp i T. G. Tucker, for T7 'IBp(yi.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 3-4

western and northern, the ocean; and on the eastern,
the countries of the Carpetanians, Vettonians, Vac-
caeans, and Callaicans, the well-known tribes; it is
not worth while to name the rest, because of their
smallness and lack of repute. Contrary to the men
of to-day, however, some call also these peoples
Lusitanians. These four peoples, in the eastern part
of their countries, have common boundaries, thus:
the Callaicans, with the tribe of the Asturians and
with the Celtiberians, but the others with only the
Celtiberians. Now the length of Lusitania to Cape
Nerium is three thousand stadia, but its breadth,
which is formed between its eastern side and the
coast-line that lies opposite thereto, is much less.
The eastern side is high and rough, but the country
that lies below is all plain even to the sea, except a
few mountains of no great magnitude. And this, of
course, is why Poseidonius says that Aristotle is
incorrect in making the coast-line 1 and Maurusia the
cause of the flood-tides and the ebb-tides; whom he
quotes as saying that the sea ebbs and flows on
account of the fact that the coast-lands are both
high and rugged, which not only receive the waves
roughly but give them back with equal violence.
For on the contrary, Poseidonius correctly says, the
coast-lands are for the most part sandy and low.
4. At all events, the country of which I am
speaking is fertile, and it is also traversed by rivers
both large and small, all of them flowing from the
eastern parts and parallel to the Tagus; most of them
offer voyages inland and contain very great quantities
of gold-dust as well. Best known of the rivers
immediately after the Tagus are the Mundas, which
1 Of Iberia.


e'Xvr /icKpov, cal Obalova cra(voro" /er 86
TrovTOv Aovpto ytatcpolev re pwcv rapa Nootav'rnav
cal 7roXXa a'XkXa 7trV KeXTlq3ppwov cal O'baicalwv
KaTrotItca, /z6eyaXot 7T' dva7rIXeo/evoo a'/cadactv
e7rt OKcTaicoo-lov9 auSov TL t-Ta8iov. eLT' aiXXo
wrora/ol Kal /er Ta 7roVTrov 7Tq A 40"m, ov rTVEI'
Atzaltav, ol 68 BeXtwva caXoo'" KIal o ro d8 c
Ke6rL3p4pav Kalt OvacKcalov pet, icaL o teT' avrov
Baivig (ol 8e MivoLv aa-t) 7roXv e/ey-iro-To T ~V
ev AvOa-savia Wrorap&wv, E7rl oKTcraKcoov KatL aVTroI
avarXe6otfevo o-araS8ovw. Iloo-etSvtoo 8' dec Kav-
rTd3pmov ial atvrv p'ev co"a-c TrpoxrICrat 8 Tr9
/cox'js avTro vOao /cal XlaXoa 8o0 6pIov Y'Xov-
aat. ETraiverv 8' diiov TrV, ( Ov', OTW Taq, o)Xa
v*XaLi e Xovaiv olt ro'a/tot ical bicavac 8Se'XeoOa
T709 pefpot9 rTv 9cdkarTav 'rXflVhl poDvrav, 'aure
inT bvepXe~o-at, yqCS8' EiTrnroX detv v To 7reSIotE .
j)j )aUv ov Bpofrov Bp o paTeias 8po, oi3rov, 7repat-
epo 8' elalv aXXot TrrXeov 7wrora/oil 7rapaXXi~ Xo
'ro'L Xexleo-tvw.
5. "Tararo7 8' olicovv "ApraP3pot 7'rept rv
adcpav, 7 KaXeTrat Neptov, 4 'ica7 T9, correptov
rXevpipa? ical T q l3opelov 7repa dcr-Tt. 'ieprotKovro-
8' aarTv KeXrTKcol, o-vy7yevey TWV erwl T7r "Ava.
\cal yap rTOVTV Kc al TovpSo hov9 ao-pare o-avra9
EIKetae oraao-tdcat aal~ / Ee rT'v 8tda/taato- TO
At/uala 7roTap/.ov 7rpot Ty7 a crdaEL ic al adrof3oXr9
TOO 27ye/1 yevo/levrfEl7, icaTrapevat ow-cK8a-Oe-vra'

1 "Forgetfulness."
2 "Belion is probably an Iberian corruption, or cognate,
of the Latin "Oblivio."

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 4-5

offers short voyages inland, and likewise the Vacua.
After these two is the Durius, which, coming from
afar, flows by Numantia and many other settlements
of the Celtiberians and Vaccaeans, and is navigable
for large boats for a distance of about eight hundred
stadia inland. Then come other rivers. And after
these the River of Lethe,1 which by some persons is
called Limaeas, but by others Belion;2 and this
river, too, rises in the country of the Celtiberians and
the Vaccaeans, as also does the river that comes after
it, namely the Baenis (others say Minius "), which
is by far the greatest of the rivers in Lusitania-itself,
also, being navigable inland for eight hundred stadia.
Poseidonius, however, says that the Baenis rises in
Cantabria. Off its mouth lies an island, and two
breakwaters which afford anchorage for vessels.
The nature of these rivers deserves praise, because
the banks which they have are high, and adequate to
receive within their channels the sea at high tide
without overflowing or spreading over the plains.
Now this river was the limit of Brutus' campaign,
though farther on there are several other rivers,
parallel to those mentioned.
5. Last of all come the Artabrians, who live in the
neighbourhood of the cape called Nerium, which is
the end of both the western and the northern side
of Iberia. But the country round about the cape
itself is inhabited by Celtic people, kinsmen of those
on theAAnas; for these people and the Turdulians
made an expedition thither and then had a quarrel,
it is said, after they had crossed the Limaeas River;
and when, in addition to the quarrel, the Celtic
peoples also suffered the loss of their chieftain, they
scattered and stayed there; and it was from this


avToo't "ic TOr aov l 8 V Ka' rb roTrazov A'rOli
C 154 dbyopevOjvat. Xovort o ol "Aprappot 7roXetr
ov-vav erv KoXtqr oavvotiov/fevas, ov ol 'rrXovTeq
Kat XpoJWpEvoI TOtL 7roTOtv 'Aprdlippwv Xtipva Trpoo--
ayopevovo-tv ol S viv robv 'APprdlT/povU 'Apo-
Tpep/aa icaXoirtv. 'Ovr) eLv oiv rrep' TptaKcovTa
T7V Xpav vefJeTai TV feraTa Tayouv cal T&v
'ApTad/3pv, eb8attlovog SE 79 XCWpay vrrapxovao-y"
iCarT Te icapTrowv Kal 3ooa-i'j/aTa Ial Tb ro XpOV-
a-ov Kat apyvpov xac TOv i7raparXnaiwv rrTX8o9,
01M ol TrXetou avrTv, TOP a7ro T7 y?-)' apevrTeq
f8loV, E) Xl'oT plo 8t6T eriXOuV cal avveFei TroXep/m
rrpo' w e aXXijXov ; Kal Tob otopove av'roZt9 ea-
fSalvovTera 'v TVlTyov, e'rrc ~ravo-av aroIVTV 'Powuaot,
Ta7retVwuo-aVT Kca ic o/aq 7rotj7o-avTeq 7T9 'roXet
avTiov Ta rrXeto-TaT, eviav 8e Ical OavvotIltovTre
38eTtrov. 7pXov Se T17V avo/tla? Tav1rr7 ol Opetvol,
KaOirrep elicov' Xv7rpav yap ve/o/y.evot xai /ItIcpa
6KTEcTPoevOI TWCV AXXoTpIwv eTreOvoVV. 0ol U
apIVVoJLevoL TOVUTOV aKIcvpoL TOV 16ov e'pyov Kca-
OIaoTavTO e' avayYavy ()Wo- avrP Tov yeompyelv
droX!eiovv KaC OVTOI, Ical avv43atve Tr7V x(pav
ayxeove'vryv ETelpav ovao-a TOvV e TIrovv dayaWvl
oliceFdaOat brr Xyar&v.
6. Tobv 8' o'v Avotravovg? aoa-tv ev6pevrttcog,
e~epevvrlTtKoIC OO, KOes, iJcOIve, ebefeXtKiovv adorrl-
8tov 8' aVrobv 8Lrrovv 'Xewtv Tv Stdajerpov, coZXov
1 Cl, and B.(after a correction),read revrpKovra ; Groskurd

1 Some of the MSS. read "fifty." Pliny (4. 35) says there
are "forty-six peoples" in Lusitania, but his Lusitania

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 5-6

circumstance that the Limaeas was also called the
River of Lethe. The Artabrians have many thickly-
peopled cities on that gulf which the sailors who
frequent those parts call the Harbour of the Art-
abrians. The men of to-day, however, call the
Artabrians Arotrebians. Now about thirty 1 different
tribes occupy the country between the Tagus and
the Artabrians, and although the country was blest
in fruits, in cattle, and in the abundance of its gold
and silver and similar metals, still, most of the people
had ceased to gain their livelihood from the earth,
and were spending their time in brigandage and in
continuous warfare both with each other and with
their neighbours across the Tagus, until they were
stopped by the Romans, who humbled them and
reduced most of their cities to mere villages,
though they improved some of their cities by adding
colonies thereto. It was the mountaineers who/
began this lawlessness, as was likely to be the case ;
for, since they occupied sorry land and possessed but
little property, they coveted what belonged to the
others. And the latter, in defending themselves
against the mountaineers, were necessarily rendered
powerless over their private estates, so that they, too,
began to engage in war instead of farming; and the
result was that the country, neglected because it was
barren of planted products, became the home only
of brigands.
6. At any rate, the Lusitanians, it is said, are
given to laying ambush, given to spying out, are
quick, nimble, and good at deploying troops. They
have a small shield two feet in diameter, concave
comprehends more territory than that of Strabo. Ptolemaeus
(2. 5) gives a list of fifty-seven cities as belonging to Lusitania.


elS To 7poaf6ev, TeXa/Cjo-tv J)ipTr7Apevov (ob're yap
r~opraKa o0U7' aPTtXat/3ha; 'Xet). rapa tl'9 7rp7
T7outro0 KoTrLF XtvowcpaKces ol 7rXesov9* 0ora'vtdo
8 aXvo'-LOTOI pv Xpvrat cal 7ptXoolats, ol aX-
Xot veuptvotv Kpdve -i 0ol rero1 8 L cal cvl/~i 8aa
eXOva'v, aKotVta 8' eicaoGo 7Wreldo"w Tr7 81 ical
86pa7ct X&p ra. edrto0pa7186ev 8t dXiceat. evIovu
Se TSV 7rpoa'oicovVT) TC7 AovpL'p 7rroTayjp Aa-
i/ovutclk 8Stdyew Osacriv, Xe7rrvY)pt[o Xppw oIvoUv
84? cal 7rvpiat eic Xilopv 8tarrpwv~, rvXpoXov-
TpoDvTrav Kca.l /tovoTpooiDvra9 Kaicaapl(o Katl XT(Sq.
9OvTir o 8' eloi' Avo-ravol, a re o-rXadyXva '7T1-
/3Xe7rovo-v, OVIC eKCTr1ovre07 7rpooae7r/3xe7rovatL 8'
IKatl Ta e 7T r7X9evpa OXAf3a, maK Ic rXa(povTre 86'
7TeKcalpovTat. cr-rXayXvevovTrat e lcal St' avO-
pwcrnw al taXoTwrwv, /caXvrrrovrev o-ayotr" ew'
g~av 7rXy br V7To 7T oTrXayfXva r7ro 70 letpo-
-KoT7rov, /tavTreovTat 7rpW7Tv 7dK r70 7rTO/aTO9.
7(OV 8 ovrov T7a Xdpa aTroKoTrTovTre ra
8etaq a.vaTtOe'aoav.
7. "Arav7re 8' ol b'petot Xthroi, v 6poTrwTat,
XalIatevvas, &Sadeav KaTraaK c vtevoti 7V Ko0171V
ryvvatriv 81iK27' /.Jpwo-adIevot T /E T O7 pera
C 155 tadYovTra. TpayocayoGo-t 8\ pakXto-Ta, /cal 7
"Apei Tpdyov Ovovo-t ical 7ro0 aly xaXoLrov ca'l

1 Not "eating only one kind of food" (Stephanus'
Thesaurus, Liddell and Scott, and elsewhere). Athenaeus
(2. 21) quotes Phylarchus as saying that "the Iberians
always eat only one meal a day." Cp. also Xen. Cyropaedia
8. 8. 9. See the translator's note in Classical Quarterly,
London, April, 1917, pp. 132-134.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 6-7

in front, and suspended from the shoulder by means
of thongs (for it has neither arm-rings nor handles).
Besides these shields they have a dirk or a butcher's-
knife. Most of them wear linen cuirasses; a few
wear chain-wrought cuirasses and helmets with
three crests, but the rest wear helmets made of
sinews. The foot-soldiers wear greaves also, and
each soldier has several javelins; and some also make
use of spears, and the spears have bronze heads.
Now some of the peoples that dwell next to the
Durius River live, it is said, after the manner of the
Laconians-using anointing-rooms twice a day and
taking baths in vapours that rise from heated stones,
bathing in cold water, and eating only one meal
a day; 1 and that in a cleanly2 and simple way.
The Lusitanians are given to offering sacrifices, and
they inspect the vitals, without cutting them out.
Besides, they also inspect the veins on the side of the
victim; and they divine by the tokens of touch, too.
They prophesy through means of the vitals of human
beings also, prisoners of war, whom they first cover
with coarse cloaks, and then, when the victim has
been struck beneath the vitals by the diviner, they
draw their first auguries from the fall of the victim.
And they cut off the right hands of their captives
and set them up as an offering to the gods.
7. All the mountaineers lead a simple life, are
water-drinkers, sleep on the ground, and let their
hair stream down in thick masses after the manner
of women, though before going into battle they bind
their hair about the forehead. They eat goat's-meat
mostly, and to Ares they sacrifice a he-goat and also
2 Op. Diodorus Siculus, 5. 33, where the cleanly habits of
the Celtiberians are similarly spoken of.


Tr'7rov'" 'rotovo-e Ical E caTo/ypa3a; Kaacrov y7vovI
'EXXirvti cc, 04 Katl tlivapo'v irao-t
rcavTa O'etv EcaTov.
TeXoDo-t 8 c Kal dy6va yvulviKo ical dO- t XTIKcov'
ical 7rrcrtKoUq, rrvypyt Kcal Spo~Lp Kcal 8taKpo3poXtoLa-
Kal r7j -TretprSbv tp XP. oi 8' petot Tp 8 vo fep77
T7O Tov' 8pvop3aXdvp XpCrnay gipdvavre Kal
c*aravTre, eLTa LXeXCavrTe a ial apT'or -aospvol,
o ea-aVT69 Ka o a ,
t rT a17orT'Oeo-at el Xpovov. ypov'rat 8 c Kal
Ole'* Ol'voV1 8 a-ravl~ovTat" Tov 8\ yevo'/evov
Twa avaXlaKcovaot IaTEVowXOVIL6vot /eaTa TOv Uvy-
ryevcvw avT eXalov 8e /ourTvpq) Xpvrat. cKaOj-
Iervol re SetTrvova, 7r6ept T70ov TO~XovI KaOeSpav
oiK0oSo~17'Tar 'XjOVT 7r, rpocdKalvTat 8 KIcaO' XtcKiav
Kal r T7I rneptb op7Torb 86 To Se7-rvov, Kcal 7rapa
VOTOv opXovv"rat rpb ahbXv Kal adX'Yrty/a Xo-
pevoves, XXa Ical avaXXo6devot Kal OKdXacoVre'
ev Bao-'riravia 8e Kcal yvvatKce; dva.dt dvSpdo-t
avrtXalpiavo6ievat2 'Tov yetpv. /eXavely/ove
atravTe9, Tb 'rXeov Ev oav yore, ev olo-rrep ical art-
/aSocot'roDic. K~i]plvoit 8 cyyeitoS Xp(pvrat,
KcaOadrep cal oKeXTrol. at yvvatice 8' d ev e pvSvaa
Kal avOtvaFt ao-80'a6Sct &8yov-av. adyT 8~ voPit-
c-.taros o' rye3 Xav ev 3det fopTiwv djitoi/3j
XPwvrat, To ApyvpoY v epady -tXa'0 a T roTe/vovreT
mtdoaa-. Tobv S8 OavarovIe'vovv KcaTareTpovat,
1 ofvov, Jones, for of y. Cp. &v Tos ivravioCoevois 2. 5. 26.
2 a&vpdcit &rTAaearapavd~vat, Groskurd, for avrl 7rpo'avTrriaA-
6avdp4vat; so Forbiger and Meineke.
3 o ye, Groskurd, for oi aS.
1 Athenaeus gives a rather full description of the Celtic
banquet (4. 36), but he says nothing of waxen vessels. The

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 7

the prisoners and horses; and they also offer heca-
tombs of each kind, after the Greek fashion-as
Pindar himself says, "to sacrifice a hundred of every
kind." They also hold contests, for light-armed
and heavy-armed soldiers and cavalry, in boxing, in
running, in skirmishing, and in fighting by squads.
And the mountaineers, for two-thirds of the year,
eat acorns, which they have first dried and crushed,
and then ground up and made into a bread that may
be stored away for a long time. They also drink
beer; but they are scarce of wine, and what wine
they have made they speedily drink up in merry
feastings with their kinsfolk; and instead of olive-
oil they use butter. Again, they dine sitting down,
for they have stationary seats builded around the
walls of the room, though they seat themselves
forward according to age and rank. The dinner
is passed round, and amid their cups they dance
to flute and trumpet, dancing in chorus, but also
leaping up and crouching low. But in Bastetania
women too dance promiscuously with men, taking
hold of their hands. All the men dress in black,
for the most part in coarse cloaks, in which they
sleep, on their beds of litter. And they use waxen
vessels, just as the Celts do.1 But the women
always go clad in long mantles and gay-coloured
gowns. Instead of coined money the people, at
least those who live deep in the interior, employ
barter, or else they cut off pieces from beaten silver
metal and pass them as money. Those who are
condemned to death they hurl from precipices; and
editors have variously emended the Greek word for
"waxen": to "wooden," "earthen," "plaited," and
" made of horns." But see the translator's note in Classical
Quarterly, London, April, 1917, pp. 132-134.


Trov; 8e rarpaXolas 'o i T&v op&v 7 TCOv 7roTapjov
KaTaXetovovcr. yaouo-t 8' aoTrep ol"E'lXXve<. TOVs
8' appcwarov9, So-7rep ol Al'Ty7rtot1 To *r aXatdv,
7rpoT iOeaao e; TE a d oov T70L rret7rpa/ljevot9 TOV
rnrdov; VrroO8ri7c; Xyptv. 8Lt0eptvotI re rXooIo
'XpCovo e'w e'rit Bpovr'ov 8th ra? '7rXiliuivptlBa
cat Ta 7Tevday, vvvl 8 Ial a t pjovovXa '8&j
r vduta. iXe' wrropcpvpot, 7ptpfOderev 8 XevKlol.
eoTo 86 TjrV opeiwv 0 /3lo4 oTro9, a-7rep 4fwv,
Xyw 7O obV T\7v fpeiov 7rXevphv JaoplfovrTa; 7rjS
'I/3ilpav, KaXXaticobv tcal "Aa-rovpaq Ial, KavTd-
/3pov; ,/eXpi O iaaoicvwv KCal 7T2f Hvprjv"r 6Otpoes-
Set /yap acradrTwv ol /31 to. o)cvoa roZ ovo/,ao't
rXteovad'ev, fev ywv TTO d286? 7T79 ypao9q, el j
TrvI 7Trp ovqF' eci Ttvi daicove IIXeuVTapov; Kcal
Bap8vITrav ical 'AXXo~ptya, ical a"XXa Xeljpw ca
aai77/.OTepa 7OVTOW ovo/ara.
8. To 8e va-rj4,Lepov Kcal aypito8e; ovcK Ec 70T
?TOXe/eZv o-V1-P3e/3' /e pfLOov, aXXha Ial 8't T
ecroT07tTov" Kal yap 6 7rXoiv; E' avu7o9 aKpo
S cat al o860, Svo'eTrbi/.ticr 8' "ve a7roe 3evof3,Xicact
C 156 7Ob /oCvovtWlv Kcal 7T (AXc7dvpw)Trov. 'rTOV 8\
vvv TODTO rrao-ovo-t 8ta T 7jV elpijV v Kial T77 7T7V
'Pwitalwv eTriq8j/.av" 0o-oV S' ]Trov TO7Tr aO-v1-

1 Kramer conjectures 'Aowvplot for Alyb7 rot, citing Hero-
dotus 1. 197 and Strabo 16. 1. 20. So read Forbiger, Miiller-
Diibner, and Meineke.

1 Since this custom was followed by the Assyrians (Hero-
dotus 1. 197 and Strabo 16. 1. 20), and since there is no other
account of such a practice among the Egyptians, some of the
editors have presumed to emend the text, perhaps rightly.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 7-8

the parricides they stone to death out beyond their
mountains or their rivers. They marry in the same
way as the Greeks. Their sick they expose upon
the streets, in the same way as the Egyptians 1 did
in ancient times, for the sake of their getting sug-
gestions from those who have experienced the
disease. Again, up to the time of Brutus2 they
used boats of tanned leather on account of the flood-
tides and the shoal-waters, but now, already, even
the dug-out canoes are rare. Their rock-salt is red,
but when crushed it is white. Now this, as I was
saying, is the mode of life of the mountaineers, I
mean those whose boundaries mark off the northern
side of Iberia, namely, the Callaicans, the Asturians,
and the Cantabrians, as far as the Vasconians and the
Pyrenees; for the modes of life of all of them are
of like character. I shrink from giving too many of
the .names, shunning the unpleasant task of writing
them down-unless it comports with the pleasure
of some one to hear Pleutaurans," "Bardyetans,"
"Allotrigans," and other names still less pleasing
and of less significance than these.
8. The quality of intractability and wildness in
these peoples has not resulted solely from their
engaging in warfare, but also from their remote-
ness; for the trip to their country, whether by sea
or by land, is long, and since they are difficult to
communicate with, they have lost the instinct of
sociability and humanity. They have this feeling
of intractability and wildness to a less extent now,
however, because of the peace and of the sojourns
of the Romans among them. But wherever such

2 See footnote 4, page 63.


3pavet, XaXelrTTepol e- ic Kal Olptw8oT rTepot.
rotaviriT 8' oir' ica Kal TV Trw or XV7rpOTr)TO
evlotL ical TOPv Opelrv,1 elic deTrteveoa-at Tr\V
TotavT1rv aTo7Tr-av. a XX& vv, i EV ov, 7r'7ravTra
7roXepofDvTa 7rdvTa* Tow; re ryp O-vvXeovra e'T &
vvv pikta X-a Ta XoarTapa Kav~dppov? Kal a ov'
yeltrovevovTra avrolS r;ar-Eva7ev 6 Zepao'-ro KaK -
a-ap, ical avr' T70 7ropOeCv Trov; T7CV 'Pweuatwv
o-'/,ayov; crTpaTevovat P v rv pp 7T 'PwLalwv
o'i e KavtaKcol Kal ol 7rpo Ta 9 7 ryaai9 TOv
"IS3fpov OilcoDPTCr IlX 7 vroTOvtot. 0 7T' Eicelvov
8taedtalerovo Tt3eptoq, Tpdiv Toay-1iaTo)V arpartw-
TtICOV eTrta' ~T7cas TO7 TO7rTOt, TO a'7rofetxOev vrbo
Trov ie3ar-TOv Kal~rapo9, ov u6vovv ecpriplKov',
CaXXa cal TroXtrticob ij9S] rtvwta aT6(v aTrpepya-
adLevo r Tv'yXaivet.

1. Aot7r)I S' T i T i1 'IIpla7pI re a7ro\ "TqlXOv
exttp T II),? vp'r7?, icaO' Laq 7rapaXla Kal 7
TauT&? vTrepiEep)evr /ea-oyata 7raoa TO /IV 7rXd-
TO'; av(L4/aXoq, TO\ 86 PfiCO /I1UKp( 7rXetouvwv
TeTpaKacYXtXLXwv crTaS~l To 8 8r\ TrapaXiLa9 ert 2
7rXerov ical 8tor-tXXots ocTailot( efplTat. aau 86
a7ro auep KaX7r?), TO KaTica ITr4Xa9 o'pov?, 6'7r
KapXoirva Near S cXItXhov,9 Kal SataKoaovq O-Ta-
louv" otidelo-at \ T)r 7Ly a TraLvTr v7r Baor-Ty-
TavJov, ob ical Bao-ToXov icaXo actv, eic pitpov9

1 opdwv, Jones, for 3p&v (cp. opelwa 3. 3. 7).
2 TI, Groskurd, for Art.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 3. 8-4- I

sojourns are rarer the people are harder to deal with
and more brutish; and if some are so disagreeable
merely as the result of the remoteness of their regions,
it is likely that those who live in the mountains are
still more outlandish. But now, as I have said, they
have wholly ceased carrying on war; for *both the
Cantabrians (who still to-day more than the rest
keep together their bands of robbers) and their
neighbours have been subdued by Augustus Caesar;
and instead of plundering the allies of the Romans,
both the Coniacans 1 and the Plentuisans,2 who live
near the source of the Iberus, now take the field for
the Romans. Further, Tiberius, his successor, has set
over these regions an army of three legions (the army
already appointed by Augustus Caesar), and it so
happens that he already has rendered some of the
peoples not only peaceable but civilised as well.

1. There remains of Iberia the seaboard of Our
Sea from the Pillars to the Pyrenees Mountains,
and also the whole of the interior above it, which is
unequal in breadth but slightly more than four
thousand stadia in length, though the length of the
seaboard has been given as still greater than that
by as much as two thousand stadia. They say that
the distance from Calpe, the mountain near the
Pillars, to New Carthage is two thousand two
hundred stadia; and this coast is inhabited by
Bastetanians, who are also called Bastulians, and,
1 Possibly a corruption for "Coniscans," whom Strabo
mentions later on as being a Cantabrian tribe (3. 4. 12).
2 A people otherwise unknown.


Se al a br 'lprlrTavwv. evrPeiev r'Ti rTW "IfSrfpa
aX oov To rov 'TOV9 eSv Tr Tav'Tv 8' XyetV
'ET8rjavo. eT'o 8e Tro "I1/3poy iXpt HvpjvrfI
Kal T7V lol 7rrl[ov ava0]lpdTrv XXIovU ICal
alcoalovpj olKcev 8' 'E68r7av&v r6e o Xiov cal
Xot7rov TOq? rrpoca'opevoltevov'9 'IvStc7Ta;, Pleze-
ptLO-vLovC Te paxa.
2. KarT /e'poq 8& adro KadXr? daphalue'vot9
paq 6e0-TlV opewPv 7T Bao-Trravia KIal -vY
'flp7Tavov, 8aaeiav Vi\Xv e'ovaa Kal ueyaX6-
8ev8pov, topiova-a T7v wrapaXiav a7rro 7T9 /eoo-
'yalaq. 'roXXaXoD 8 icCavrav&od oGr t Xpvaela Kal
aXXa ji-raXXa. 7rdXig 8' o-T~T v i Ti 7rapaXla
7ary nprT M'Xaaca, o'ov 8te'ovo-a 7T9i KdaXr;,
ba'ov Ial T~I rfdSelpa' e'Cpropv S' aorl viv 1 "ro4
Ev 7y irepata NopLUac,2 cal a rtap Xelas S ee, e-
yXd9. TavTrlv rtves r Matvdc y Trlv avr'7v
voILuovrtV, ojv varTa'r7v T2V (wcaiKacv jr6eiXwv
jrpW; 8Voet KceqpIvhjv 7rapetX0jd afev, ovKc a'o-r e'
cXX' eceivr pluv aTrrwerpw T KdXTrr E' arlT, KaTe-
KaicafLyEr, Ti 8' t~'vry a-covaa 'EXXv U7rK9 7rroXe)W,
I 8' MaXaica rXrw7atov tiXXov, PotMvui ~ic r7
xIrntanr. egg 8' &'o7vy I Tr& 'Egtravv vroXtL,
E 9 Kal Ta rapir7 e'7wrvv1(poq Xeyaerat.
3. MeCTa ravrTv "AfSiTpa, DotwviKv IKtrla
C 157 Kal abrTi. '&r\p S T7(W o Trorrv y Tf^ ?pevy --
1 ?O-r vvv, A. Miller, for ?&rlv ev; A. Vogel approving.
2 No/de4i, Tyrwhitt, for the corrupt acalacsi; so Groskurd,
and Meineke.

1 These Trophies were set up near what is now La Junquera.
Op. Sallust, Hist. Frag. 4. 29 (Dietsch).

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 1-3

in part, by Oretanians also; thence to the Iberus is
another distance of about the same number of stadia,
and this coast is occupied by Edetanians ; and thence,
this side the Iberus, to the Pyrenees and the Trophies
of Pompey is a coast of sixteen hundred stadia,
which is inhabited by a few of the Edetanians, and
also, for the rest of the way, by the peoples called
Indicetans, who have been divided into four tribes.
2. In detail: if we begin from Calpe, we have a
mountain-chain belonging to Bastetania and to the
Oretanians, which has dense forests of tall trees,
and separates the coast from the interior. Here
also, in many places, there are mines of gold and
other metals. The first city on this coastline is
Malacaw .h a is- ar..Aistant.-from.-Calpe as Gades
is; it is now an emporium for the Nomads on the.
oppositf i oast,2 nd it also has great establishments
for sailing' fish. Some regard Malaca as identical
with Maenaca,3 which, as we have been taught, lies
farthest of the Phocaean cities in the west; but this
is not true. On the contrary, the city of Maenaca
is farther away from Calpe, and is now in ruins
(though it still preserves the traces of a Greek city),
whereas Malaca is nearer, and bears the stamp of a
Phoenician city. Next thereafter comes the city
of the Exitanians, after which the salted fish take
their trade name.
3. After this city comes Abdera, which is itself a
place founded by the Phoenicians. Beyond the
regions in question, in the mountain country,
2 Of Africa.
3 The present site of Almunecar.
4 The name of the city was "Sex according to Ptolemaeus
(2. 4. 7), Hexi" according to Pomponius Mela (2. 6).



KVVTa '08caea Ka' T' Iepv T4 7,'A0flva ov IloreGSivtoM Te EtlpfKeE Kal 'AprTe1PUOpov Kai
'Aoa Xr7rttLaSy 6 MvpXeav6o, av'p ev Trj Tovpy-
Tavia 7rat&eo-v'a Ta ypaji/uaTtia Kai 7rreptqryr'iv
rTta TWV ~Ovdv eicKe0)Kicwo T(WV TavTrj. ovTro Ue
77ao-tv VTro/v4ljLa'ra 7rP 7rX')vr T3 '"OSVo-o-e~oa
ev TOr Iep, Try 'AOAvcqi aorTrT8a' 7rpocrTerraTra-
XeDi-Oata ical ipoo"r7'a. ev KaXXai'oi? 8' Trov
/LeTa TevKpov oapaTevcrapvT Tlvas' oic0ro'at, /cal
vrIp'p at 7roXhe a or0st, T-v uC~v IcaXovlitevv
"EXX\7veV, T Sv Se 'AyutIXoXo(, 0s4 Kal Tov 'A/ -
XdXov TeXevTc-javTro Sevpo Kal TOV aVVOVTOwV
7rXhavl)0evTW V EIEXPL 1Tqs /Iea-oyalaf. Kal T V
pte9' 'HpatcXeov? 8 TrIvas Kal TWv r7-0 Meo-o~-4jv
lo-ropao-0al frio-tv EIrotucKjat T7V 'ISrplav, T7 7
S~ KavTa3plaa /pEpo? Tr KIaTaa-xev AdaKwvals Kal
oV'ro-s 07o-t cKal aiXot. evrava & Kai lTttKeX-
Xav 1 7rrXtv 'Orxa a1 icv'aoa XE7yovo- 70T5 erb
'AvT'lvopo'v Ial rTov vral&ov avTov 8ta/3a'vTo ely
T7'v 'IraXlav. Kalt ev T q A,83v Sa re\rovicao-I
TIve', Tot 7W I'ae&tptrwv EtrprpoLts rpoaoXOYvre',
as Kal 'Ap'Tepi8&opov Ei'p17ev, 'TI ol V5rp 715
Mavpovai-a oKcovvres' 7rpbpo Tro? ereplotv Al-
[lofrt AWorobdTyoI KaXoDUTat o-'tTovgevoL Xa)'rv,
roav TLva Ial piav, ob Sedo/ivo 8e 7rToro, obV
eXOVTev &8t T\V avv8paav, 8aTe'voVT-e Kai /.tept
T7v Vrep Ti)7 Kvpvrj T 'roTrov. XXot Te 7rdXtv
1 Siebenkees is probably right in emending 'awiixe to
'nKecav and 'OKdic to 'nlcAAa; so, in general, the later
editors read. Strabo apparently has in mind the 'OKtexov
(or 'OKEhov) of Ptolemaeus (2. 5. 7); cp. the Ocelenses of Pliny
(4. 35).

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 3

Odysseia is to be seen, and in it the temple of
Athene, as has been stated by Poseidonius, Artemi-
dorus, and Asclepiades the Myrlean, a man who
taught grammar in Turdetania and has published an
account of the tribes of that region. According to
Asclepiades, shields and ships' beaks have been
nailed up in the temple of Athene as memorials of
the wanderings of Odysseus; and some of those who
made the expedition with Teucer lived in Callaicia,
and there were once two cities there, of which one
was called Hellenes,1 and the other, Amphilochi;2
for not only did Amphilochus die at the place, but
his companions wandered as far as the interior of the
country. And, he further says, history tells us that
some of the companions of Heracles and of the
emigrants from Messene colonised Iberia. As for
Cantabria, a part of it was seized and held by the
Laconians, according to both Asclepiades and others.
Here, too, they mention a city Opsicella, founded by
Ocelas, who in company with Antenor and his
children crossed over to Italy. Furthermore, in the
case of Libya, some have believed, giving heed to
the merchants of Gades (as Artemidorus has already
stated), that the people who live beyond Maurusia
next to the Western Ethiopians are called Lotus-
eaters because they feed on lotus (a sort of plant
and root) and do not need drink, or have any, either,
since there is no water in their entire country,
although it stretches even as far as the regions of
Cyrene. And there is still another people called

1 Named after Hellen, the eponymous hero of the
2 Named after Amphilochus. Cp. 14. 4. 3.


caXoy'vrat Awro dyo,-Trjv Te rpav oicoivvrev r7&v
7T'po 7T)L Iucpa-i I pTCOO vO'-vV, 7rTv Mrvteyya.
4. Ov 8"7 Oavapdot TtK av oVre ro0 TrovrTov Ta
7rWpt 7"rv 'O8vooTrew;v avrv olv0oypafjo-aavTro
TODTOv TOrv 7rporov (aorT 'ew '( X T y7Xv E' 'Ar-
,avrKc 7reXayet TA a roXXa\ Sa9aOat. rSOv Xeyo-
ILevov 7repb aurTO (Ta yAp lo-ropovpdeva yy'yv 17v,
Icat T09 TOrTrotL ICa TOZ; a' XO1 9 T7Wy VT' etIevov
7'erXhaoievwv, wo-e O 'icK ,7rlavov e7rolet TO
vrXaoyia), o,' eT Tive aTral9 Tre Tav'ata eai
latoplant olae7TvaavaTrev Ica 7f roXvyala0a Tro
'rotILroV ical 7rp2o etoiarrTlovPtKa vrroeo-ets 'epe-
'*av rjv P'Oprjpov 'rolv0o'v, icaOaTrep Kpa'rT1 T6
6 MaXXdTr? e'royl oe xcal aXot Ttve'. ol 8' ov o' r
adypolkwcs ee8avro 7rTv ertXElp7or-Ov T 7v ToaV'qT7
ware ov /Iovov Tov 'rotrTrv oa-carave'o; 0ept-
rroD SLI2VV dei raorLq T7 17 Toatavr17rq er7TrLOTr/17
R3paXov, AXXA ical TrobVs ifrat vovW T 7r avoa77r
trpay/laTaeaq iatvoluevovq bTrieaf/ov o-vvrjoptav
8e ap drravpOwo-tv r oto fLUrov eTepov el TAr
XeXye'vra vTr' iceivov eloCeveyltcev obK e'Odpp9-ev
C 158 or'T rTv ypappt/artIKw oVre rT v Vrepr TrA taO2-
tjara 8etvwv ob.8el. KaLTroI Eol ye 80oceE 8vva-
Tov elvat Kal ovvryopro'at r77-OXXo' Trwv eXOf'eTov
cKa el; eravOdpwootv ayetv Kal XtaXIo-Ta el6 Tavra,
oo-a IIvOe'a J7rapecpovo-aTo TOW; 7-rtOaTrev-avTra;
avJT KaTc apyvolav TOr 76 eTrep(wv Tro7Trwv cal
TWv 7rpoo G3ppO)v Tr&v raph aov wlicavov. dXXh
ravra p!ev Edo-Ow, X6yov eXovra I'ttov Kal ataKpvY.

1 See 2. 5. 20. 2 Homer.
3 That is, Crates and others.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 3-4

Lotus-eaters, who dwell in one of the two islands
off the Lesser Syrtis, I mean Meninx.1
4. So no one could be surprised if, in the first place,
the poet2 has written his mythical account of the
wanderings of Odysseus in such a way as to set
most of his stories of Odysseus in the Atlantic Sea
beyond the Pillars of Heracles (for the stories he told
were so closely related to the facts, both in respect
of places and of everything else created by his fancy,
that he rendered his fiction not unplausible); nor
surprised if, in the second place, some men, having
believed in these stories themselves and also in the
wide learning of the poet, have actually turned
the poetry of Homer to their use as a basis of scienti-
fic investigations, as has been done by Crates of
Mallos and certain others as well. Other men, how-
ever, have greeted all attempts of that sort with such
ferocity that they not only have cast out the poet,
as though he were a mere ditch-digger or harvest-
labourer, from the whole field of scientific knowledge
of this kind, but also have supposed to be madmen
all who have taken in hand such a task as that; but
as for introducing any defence, or revision, or anything
else of the kind, for the assertions of those men,3 no
one either among the grammarians or the scientific
experts has ventured to do so. And yet, to me at
least, it seems to be possible not only to defend
many of their assertions, but to bring them under
revision, and in particular all those wherein Pytheas
has led astray those men who, in ignorance both of
the regions in the west and of those in the north
along the ocean, have believed him. But let us pass
by these matters, since they involve a special and
lengthy discussion.


5. T 8 6 rcTv 'EXXjvrwv wrXad'v eli Ta 3dp3papa
B9v97 voplt oi Tv; Ai, a't'Lov T' 8tea-TrvdaOat KaTa
pipr iKp Kal xa vvaTrrela' dCTrtrXoolcv o XK XOV-
caa 7rpov; an4rov Ka' aar' a8Eav, a O7E e IC TOV-
TOV Trpo TOV e'rt6OvTa; '9ev do-eveV eZvat.
TOTO Se To aOaSe' Cv 1 TOi "lt8'potI, oaX-Tra
dr-reTve, 7rpoa-Xa3po0-t ical To 'nravovpyov vo-et
Kal TO j i70Xo TrELECOL yap KIa Xoo'Tpt-
Kol Trop / io? eTyeVOTO Tra piicKp TOX.5KVTEIs,
/eyaXot 8' o' c e'itpaXX6evo 8tLa To PWeydXac
/L KcaTaa-Kcvda'ecralt 8vvditetn Kal IcowLVlav. el
yap S ervvaa-rrLetv e/3ovhoro VT0 dXX oire
KapXyrovioea vb7rjpeV av a KaTaoTpf'aaBal CreX-
OOvor T'7V I7r hlaTr]v avTjv /C Treprovo-las, Kal
et 7rpOTrepov Trvptlo, elt a IKeXrroL, op vr KXTlT-
/rper Kal Br4powre C aXovv ra, ov e 7T 'Xa7
OvpLdo W Kalt epTOpl IfieTa Tavra Kalt eL T'e?
rTepot 8vvao-Trela dr'eOvf/i0jav uelbovoV; 'Pwptaoi
Te 7T KaTa fte'p7 Trp TOV;I "I/3rpa 'roXefiev Ia0'
e1KaaT'iv 8ta TavT'v T7V 8vvaaTretIav 7OX'v Tiwa
terTeXheav Xpeovo, daXXor' AXXov icaraTaope 6-
1e1Pot TeCi), Ce onravra; vTroXetplove lXa/3ov S.a-
Koaoa-rT( O-eXov T 'ret ? yfaKcpoTepov. e 7rdvetpF
Se 7TL Tr7 7T repp'yrojtv.
6. MerTa Trovvv"A/3Srpd Cci o Kapq8)OSv n' NEa,
KTi-/jia 'Ao-pop3a, ToD ta8eGaeiuCvov Bc'pKav
1 8l, Meineke, for U.
2 MrOLeTIrcoi, Corais, for IVri'eroT; so the later editors.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 5-6

5. Now the wanderings of the Greeks to the
barbarian nations might be regarded as caused by
the fact that the latter had become split up into
petty divisions and sovereignties which, on the
strength of their self-sufficiency, had no intercourse
with one another; and hence, as a result, they were
powerless against the invaders from abroad. This'
spirit of self-sufficiency, among the Iberians I mean,
was particularly intense, since by nature they had
already received both the quality of knavery and
that of insincerity. For by their modes of life they
became inclined to attack and to rob, venturing
only upon petty undertakings, and never throwing
themselves into large ones, because they would not
establish large forces and confederations. For surely,
if they had been willing to be shield-fellows with
one another, it would not have been possible, in the
first place, for the Carthaginians to overrun and sub-
due the most of their country by superiority of forces,
or in still earlier times for the Tyrians to do so, or
after that, for those Celti who are now called Celti-
berians and Veronians; nor, in the second place,
later on, for the brigand Viriathus, or for Sertorius,
or for any others who may have coveted wider
dominion. And the Romans, since they carried on
merely a piecemeal war against the Iberians, attack-
ing each territory separately, spent some considerable
time in acquiring dominion here, subjecting first
one group and then another, until, after about
two hundred years or longer, they got them all
under control. But I return to my geographical
6. After Abdera, then, comes New Carthage,
which was founded by Hasdrubal, the successor of


oV 'Avvi8a wraTepa, /cpaT'Trl T 7rov' TOP raVTr
7r 'wCv' Kal yap pvuVOT&rir xa ra ELXet KarTo-Kev-
ao-rievw KiaX Ical ToL T 7 TV appyvpICv /erTaXXot0 7rept clv eiprj-
Ka/.ev' KacvravG a 8N Kcal d TO?9 7rX-crlov TOTTO9
TroXX) f TaptXela' Kal ga7L TOTO iro e~ov e/iTropLov
TW V e Kv OaKXarTT r) TO7 eCv 7T7 /ipeaoyaLa, TWV 6
eiceioev Toq e'ow ratarw. 6 8' vO8evBe IJXpt TroO
"I/7po3 w rapaXta Kiarta )ieov 7rTo TO~ 8taorVl/ya
vexe TOV Zovicpwva 'rorapobv Kca Tlv eKf3poX7v
avrov ica 7r' rv o~uovvov* pet 8' e 7TO o-vvEXov,
Obpov Ty vTrepCe /eptEvy padXet T79 Tr MaXadca?
Ical TroV 7rept Kapx G8ova TO7TTWr 7repaTrov we)^,
C 159 rrapdaXXlXo, 8e' 7rrw~ 79 "ISTqpt, ptcp'bv 8e Se'Xe
T77' KapXin8ovov 777rov T o I7p p0g. fteraFb
IUev ofv T70O lOWIpwvoY K/al 7T7 KapX?7ovo Tplia
roXtxvta Mao-aXta)rorwv elaiv obv ro;v an rawev
7'ro TworaeoD TorVUW 8' "o7T IyvwpsptLTaTov T
'H/epoaKowreiov, eXov 7r T717 a'Kcpa T7~ 'E eatoa,
'AprTe/Ois'0 lepbv a-co'8pa TrtijcLevov, xprao-aro
eprCptoI opI prTpr' xaIca- K Oa 0 aTTav' epvuFLvo 'yap
eoTt cal X'qaOrpic6v, Karorrov 8 dic tiroXXho TOZv
rpoo-rXe'ovot, /caXeiat 8e Atinvov, olov 'AprTeI-
otov, e~lov oat8'pela eivi 7rIXi7a[ov Kal vylo-ai8a,
ITIavai7-av Kal IIXouvp/apIav, ical Xqivo0dXarTav
VbrepKcet.eLv7v, AXova-av Kvhov2 ao-Ta8Iv 'erpa-

1 b7rEpKeigpvwv before Trdrwv, Xylander omits; so the later
2 KicvAov, Casaubon, for Ev ~iKcAp.

1 That is, colonised from Marseilles.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 6

Barcas, the father of Hannibal. New Carthage is
by far the most powerful of all the cities in this
country, for it is adorned by secure fortifications,
by walls handsomely built, by harbours, by a lake,
and by the silver mines of which I have spoken.
And here, as well as at the places near by, the fish-
salting industry is large. Furthermore, New Carthage
is a rather important emporium, not only of the
imports from the sea for the inhabitants of the
interior, but also of the exports from the interior
for all the outside world. On the coast from New
Carthage up to the Iberus, about midway between
these two points, are the Sucro River and its mouth,
and a city with the same name as the river. The
river rises in the mountain which connects with the
mountain-chain that lies beyond Malaca and the
regions about New Carthage; it can be waded,
runs about parallel to the Iberus, and is slightly less
distant from New Carthage than from the Iberus.
Now between the Sucro River and New Carthage,
not far from the river, there are three small
Massiliote cities. Of these, the best known is
Hemeroscopeium,2 a place held in very great esteem,
since it has on its promontory a temple of the
Ephesian Artemis; and it was used by Sertorius
as a naval base. For it is a natural stronghold and
adapted to piracy, and is visible at a considerable
distance to the approaching sailors. It is also called
"Dianium," the equivalent3 of "Artemisium"; it
has iron mines with fine deposits near by, and small
islands, Planesia and Plumbaria, and above it a lagoon
of salt-water four hundred stadia in circuit. Next,
2 The word means "Day-watch."
SThat is, in Greek.


KoOiwv. eI O roi 'HpatcXKovu vlao 'o9 8 rrpy
KapX,8o6vt, fv KaXovDt Scoplfpaptav1 a7ro rwv0
aXto-Koiceovwv a-Kox1c3po e wv TO apltrrov acK6v-
d'eTat r ypov e'i~coart e StiXet OaTaSovS Kal TTr-
rapa? 7"9 KapXrSo6vo. rrdXtv 8' e7rl OdTepa 'ro7
ZoVipCovo LOWTL o E7T 7 7v eKflokAv ro "TI/Olpo9
:dyovvrov, c'rto-ria ZaKvvOliov, 'v 'Avvlpa a Kara-
0oca'ra, 7rapa ToA O''YKEeifeva 7rpo 'PaoaLov9 ov
Sevfepov avroL9 J;ifre 7r'Xepov 7rp09 KapX?78o-
vtov. -wX7r]oov 86 7roXEt elado Xepp6ovro-F TCe ral
'OXeaa'rpov Ical KapraXllav &r' aT7 j 87 8t7a-
/dcrei roD "I/3ripo09 Aeprcoora IcaTroiKta. pe 8 8
"IfSp, a3do Kavrd3ppov E'erwv Tra apXd, e'7ri
/,eo-r71jpav 8ta 7roXXho 7re6ov 7rapa~XXh Xoq Tovo
IIvp)rvaiol; opeaot.
7. MeTra r Se 7T(0 TOO ', ISrpo9 E cTpo7r&,v Kal
T70 aixpo~ v r17j IIvpgv1)9, eP' (v {Sapv'rat Ta ava-
0ruara TOV Ilop/7r7Lov, 'rpfrnT Tappdicov eaCr
7roh(t', a/lXeo 1j.v, ,v idoTXo 8 t8pvuepvr Kcal
KaT7E-cevao rEvY 70)T9 a'XXot9 tIavoo4, Kal ov
j7TTro eavSpoOo-a vvl T71) Kapx98ovoq. wrpos
ryap Ta9 7TWvo Ijye)6luwv E7JTL7rita9rl;a evv XEe,
Kal earTIv &OTrep P 7'Tp 7roXt 0s ob T719 eTOn "I/3rpov
Puovo, aXXad al r~f71 ) d9 eTT T)9 wroXXi a. a' re
Fvvvrio-tat vYrot rrpoKcelpevat TrX97orov Kai c 7
"E/3vao9, a&toXoyot V 0-ot, Trqv OEa't efivcapov
7719 ,TroXeW9 vb7rayopevovo-(T 'Epa'ro-0e'Vi';
Kal vavo-TaOipov XetFv l7o-Lv avT 7v, o;v6 CtKvCpo-
3oXiot o-d68pa evI'rvXovav, co9 avTLrch rv e'iprl7K
1x Kopypaplav, Xylander, for Soppgpoaptav; so generally the

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 6-7

and quite near to New Carthage, comes the Island
of Heracles, which they call Scombraria, from the
scomber-fish caught there, from which the best fish-
sauce is prepared. It is twenty-four stadia distant
from New Carthage. And again, on the other side
of the Sucro, as you go towards the mouth of the
Iberus, is Saguntum, founded by Zacynthians, which
Hannibal destroyed despite his treaty with the
Romans, thereby kindling the second war against
the Carthaginians. Near Saguntum are the cities
of Cherronesus, Oleastrum, and Cartalias; and at
the very crossing of the Iberus is the settlement of
Dertossa. The course of the Iberus, which rises
in Cantabria, is southwards through a great plain
and parallel to the Pyrenees Mountains.
7. Between where the Iberus turns out seaward and
the heights of the Pyrenees, on which are situated
the Trophies set up by Pompey, the first city is
Tarraco. It has no harbour, indeed, but it is situated
on a bay and is adequately supplied with all other
advantages; and at present it is not less populous
than New Carthage. Indeed, it is naturally suited
for the residence of the Prefects, and is a metropolis,
as it were, not only of the country this side the
Iberus, but also of the greater part of the country
beyond the Iberus. And the Gymnesian Islands,
which lie near by off the coast, and Ebusus,1 all
noteworthy islands, suggest that the position of the
city is a happy one. Eratosthenes says that the
city has also a roadstead, although, as Artemidorus,
contradicting him, has already stated, it is not
particularly blessed even with places of anchorage.
1 Elsewhere (3. 5. 1.), Strabo spells the word "Eoovaos
(MSS. "APovcros).


8. Ka' i 'v lTrraaoa 8' a.rot rl7XCOv cr'avleTrat
X(pero-t yeXpe 8epo, EVTre6ev "' jr] 7r V eab-
Xl~peva Kxa Xpa dy7aO' T-v re AeTrav&v ical
AapToXatnTr&)v Kcal aXoXXwv TOtOoTrVv 4Xpt 'EpIro-
plov. avTO 8' do-rT Mao-roaXt'iTCv icTIro-a, boov
StaKoo-iov91 8teXov T 7) IIvpv'r] o;-Talovw ical
TWV I.e opl[wv r7P 'I/3srplav trpb Triv KeXTucv'
cal airrT 8S' eo7i 'riao-a dya'i Kcal ebXiLfevo9.
C 160 ev'ravOa 8' o-rt Kcal 7 'Poov,,2 7roIXov 'E/oro-
pCT(v, Ti7LVe 8 rico-ya 'Po8owv ao-l' KivTra3Oa
Se Kal ev T~ 'Eytproplw T'v "ApTre.yv Tjv 'Eecriav
TtWaCOOit, epoVeLCv 8~ T alrlav ev Tolv 7repI Mao-
craXIav. Wiovv 8' 3 o 'EroopFrat 7r poTepov ov lcov
TI 7rpotceKIevov, o v3v icaXETrat TIaaia 7rollos, vvv
8' olicoo-wv v 7rf rdelpi 8rVoXt 8' e'oT', TeiXeC
81wpto-api/rl, 7rp&Tepov 7TW 'IvSucCw77T v rcvaq 7rpoo--
olcov e'Xovo-a, or, ialTrep 181a 7TroXrTev(/ervot,
KOIVOV o8/Lu 7replf3oXov 'xetv /36oXovTo 7rpo\y Tov
"EXXiYva dao aXeia xadpiv, tr&Xoiv \e Trorov,
TCeXte peU~l-w 8twpttoe'vov' XpT 8' els TabrTO
IroXiTevCa ovvj0XOov tULCTOnV TI 'K Te /ap/3dpov
ical 'EXX'IJvtKo vogdI/yPwv, o7rep ia der' dXwv
7roXXev avve3f].
9. 'Pel 8 K ca' worTap o w7rrXlov, eJ T7r) HIvpjv ?r
1 Btamcoo-iovs, Groskurd, and Corais, for TrepaicomrlXious.
'Pdsos (as in 14. 2. 10), Casanbon, for 'PoSidari; so
Siebenkees, Corais, Forbiger, and C. Miller. Meineke
reads 'Pd5a, following the spelling of Ptolemaeus.
3 S', Meineke inserts.
1 The MSS. read 4000 stadia, which is, of course, corrupt.
Strabo has already given only 1600 stadia ( 1 above) as the
distance from the Iberus to the Pyrenees. The emendations
of the editors run from 4 to 400 stadia.

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 8-9

8. Further, the whole coastline from the Pillars
to Tarraco has few harbours, but from Tarraco on,
all the way to Emporium, the coasts have fine
harbours, and the country is fertile, both that of
the Leetanians and the LartolaeEtans, and of other
such peoples. Emporium was founded by the people
of Massilia; it is about two hundred 1 stadia distant
from the Pyrenees and from the common boundary
between Iberia and Celtica, and this coast too, all of
it, is fertile and has good harbours. Here, too, is
Rhodus, a small town belonging to the Emporitans,
though some say it was founded by Rhodians. Both
in Rhodus and in Emporium they worship Artemis
of the Ephesians, and I shall tell the reason for
this in my account of Massilia.2 The Emporitans
formerly lived on a little island off the shore, which
is now called Old City,3 but they now live on the
mainland. And their city is a double one, for it
has been divided into two cities by a wall, because,
in former times, the city had for neighbours some of
the Indicetans, who, although they maintained a
government of their own, wished, for the sake of
security, to have a common wall of circumvallation
with the Greeks, with the enclosure in two parts-
for it has been divided by a wall through the centre;
but in the course of time the two peoples united
under the same constitution, which was a mixture
of both Barbarian and Greek laws-a thing which
has taken place in the case of many other peoples.
9. There is a river that flows near by,4 which has
2 4. 1.4-5.
3 The isle of Medas, near the mouth of the Ter River.
The Clodianus, now the insignificant Muga (cp. Ptole-
maeus 2. 6. 19 and Mela 2. 89).


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1 The Romans called it "Campus luncarius," from luncus,
"rush." Cp. etymologically Eng. "junk."
2 "Colony of Veterans": the Praetorium mentioned by
Antoninus (Itiin. p. 398); exact site unknown, perhaps

GEOGRAPHY, 3. 4. 9

its source in the Pyrenees; and its outlet serves as
a port for the Emporitans. The Emporitans are
quite skilful in flax-working. As for the inland
territory which they hold, one part of it is fertile,
while the other produces the spart of the rather
useless, or rush, variety; it is called "Juncarian"
Plain.1 But some of the Emporitans occupy even
some of the heights of the Pyrenees, as far as the
Trophies that were set up by Pompey, past which
runs the road from Italy to what is called "Farther"
Iberia, and in particular to Baetica. This road some-
times approaches the sea, though sometimes it stands
off at a distance from the sea, and particularly in the
regions on the west. It runs towards Tarraco from
the Trophies that were set up by Pompey, through
the Juncarian Plain and through Veteres 2 and what
in the Latin tongue is called Fennel Plain, because
it produces so much fennel.3 From Tarraco it runs
towards the passage of the Iberus at the city of
Dertossa; thence, after passing through Saguntum
and the city of Setabis, it gradually departs from
the sea and joins what is called the Spartarian-or,
as we should say, "Rush "-Plain.4 This plain is
large and has no water, but produces the kind of
spart that is suitable for twisting into ropes, and is
therefore exported to all regions, and particularly
to Italy. Now formerly the road must have passed
through the centre of this plain and through Ege-
lasta, a road rough and long, but at the present day

3 Literally, the Greek is: "Plain of Marathon, .
marathon." Strabo avoids transliterating "Fenicularius"
(the term actually used by the Romans) into Greek.
4 The Romans called it "Campus Spartarius."

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