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AN APRIL DAY.
WHAT MAKES IT RAIN?
BY GEORGE P. MERRILL.
\ OW often on showery days little
folks have asked themselves
or their elders, What Makes
it Rain?" and how very sel-
dom they have been able to
Sget a satisfactory reply! Some-
times those who know have no
time to tell, and oftener, those
who have plenty of time do not find it quite con-
venient to explain.
Let us sit down and talk it over, and see if we
can discover, first, why it rains at all; and then,
when it does rain, why it does not rain in the same
way over the whole earth.
Did you ever stop to think, when you looked out
of the window and saw dull, gray clouds from
which the rain was so steadily pouring, and which
seemed to shut in the world all around, that, in
reality, they extended over a very small part of the
country; that somewhere else, perhaps only twenty
or thirty or a hundred miles away, the sun was
shining, and all was bright and beautiful? This
is really the case. For storms, however long and
dreary, do not extend over many miles; and
though it always is raining at some place in the
world, yet always and at the same time it is pleas-
ant somewhere else. Now, let us see why this is.
Suppose that on a warm summer afternoon we
were to bring a pitcher of clear, cool water, fresh
from the well, and to place it on the table in the
dining-room. Now, no matter how carefully we
may have dried the pitcher before bringing it in,
we shall discover, if we watch closely, that the out-
side soon becomes wet or misty; and that the mist
grows heavier and then gathers into drops and
perhaps even runs down the pitcher to the table.
Now, where does this water come from? Not
through the sides of the pitcher, that is impossi-
ble; but from the air. We can not see it, perhaps,
but still it is there, in the state of vapor. How
came it there ? Did you ever notice, after a rain,
how in a short time the puddles became dry, and
how the moisture disappeared from the grass and
leaves, as soon as the sun shone out and the wind
blew? Or, did you ever notice that if you left
a pan of water out-of-doors the water each day
grew less and less, until all was gone and the pan
was dry ?
All the water that was in the puddles, on the
grass and leaves (except that which soaked into
the ground) and in the pan, was taken up as
vapor into the air-has "evaporated," as we say.
The same thing happens when water boils, only it
then evaporates more rapidly, and we can see the
vapor arising as steam. If you live near a river,
or in a country where there are brooks, perhaps
you can see this evaporation actually taking place.
Get up early some morning, before the sun rises,
and look out toward the river. You may see a long
line of mist or fog, like a big, white cloud, hanging
over the water. Now, this mist is only the water
evaporating from the river and is just now visible
as fog because the air is cool. After the sun has
shone, the air becomes warmed and the fog disap-
pears, but the evaporation goes on, nevertheless.
Indeed, it is going on continually, and all over the
Copyright, 1888, by THE CENTURY Co. All rights reserved.
WHAT MAKES IT RAIN?
earth; so that if the water were not returned to us
as rain, snow, and dew, all the oceans, lakes, and
rivers would in time dry up and disappear. All
the trees, grass, and plants would then wither,
and our beautiful land would become as dry and
parched as the great desert of Sahara.
Having now learned how the water is drawn into
the air, let us see how and why it comes down
again as rain or snow or dew.
There is a singular thing about this moisture,
which is this, the air will hold only a certain
quantity of it, and that quantity depends upon the
temperature of the air. But warm air always
holds more than cold; so, however warm the air
may be, or however much moisture it may con-
tain as invisible vapor, we have only to cool it
enough and the vapor condenses, as we say; that
is, it becomes visible, first as fog or mist, and then
as drops of water, such as we see on the pitcher.
And the reason we see a white fog rising at night,
after the sun goes down, is only because the water,
which has been evaporating all day and going up
into the air as invisible vapor, becomes condensed
to fog by the cooling of the air when the sun's
heat is withdrawn. When the sun rises, the fog
disappears; but the vapor still ascends, and when
it reaches the altitudes where the air is always
cool, it becomes condensed again as fog, only it is
then called "clouds." And if it becomes con-
densed enough to form in drops of water, they fall,
and it "rains"; or, perhaps, it snows, for snow is
but frozen rain.
Thus we have learned that rain is caused by
the cooling and condensation of the moisture in
the air. Bearing this in mind, let us study the
surface of our country and see why the rain does
not fall equally on all parts of it; instead of fall-
ing very abundantly in some places, as in New
England and some of the Gulf States, and very
sparingly in many parts of the West, as in New
Mexico and Arizona.
The winds which blow to this country from the
south and the east, being warm tropical winds,
can hold much moisture, and are full of this in-
visible vapor of water which they have taken up
from the Gulf of Mexico and the ocean. Coming
to the cooler land, they gradually become cooled.
Their moisture, therefore, falls as rain while they
pass over the land, till, by the time they reach
western Kansas and Colorado, the moisture be-
ing gone, no more rain can fall. But the winds
which come to this country from the north and
west are colder than the land, and, as they sweep
over it, toward the south and east, they gradually
become warmer; so that instead of giving up their
moisture in the-form of rain, they are constantly
taking up moisture from the earth; It is for this
reason that our north and west winds are dry
winds, and mean fair weather; while the south and
east winds bring rain. For this reason, also, the
Eastern and Southern States have an abundance
of rain; while the Central and Western States are
often very dry.
And there is still another point to be considered.
We already have noted the fact that at great
heights the air is cooler. Hence, when a warm
wind full of moisture comes blowing across the
country and strikes a mountain range, it bends
upward and rises high in the air to pass over.
In so doing it becomes cooled, giving up its moist-
ure, and passes over to the other side a dry wind.
It is for this reason that some islands, like the
Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean, where the
winds blow almost always from the same direction,
are subject to almost continuous rain on one side,
while on the other rain is exceedingly rare. This
also shows why California, west of the Sierra
Nevada mountains, receives sufficient rain to
make the soil fit for cultivation; while Nevada,
on the east, is nearly rainless and barren. The
moisture coming from the south and east is all
condensed by the Alleghany, the Rocky, and the
Wahsatch ranges; while that from the west is
cut off by the Sierras. Hence the great extent
of country known to geologists as the Great Ba-
sin-which reaches from Oregon on the north
to Mexico on the south, and from Colorado on
the east to the Sierras on the west, comprising
an area of not less than 200,500 square miles
which is nearly equal to the whole of France -
receives over a great part of its surface an annual
rainfall of not over four inches, and is therefore
There are many other interesting facts about
this vapor. Let us consider a few.
After the sun goes down at night, the earth,
cooling rapidly, soon cools the air near it, which
consequently gives up a part of its moisture. This
moisture forms in drops on the grass and leaves,
just as it does on the cold pitcher in the warm
room, and we call this "dew." If it becomes
cold enough, the dew freezes, and we then have a
frost." On cloudy nights a frost is very rare,
simply because the clouds act as a tent or blanket,
and prevent the earth from becoming cooled so
rapidly. Professor Tyndall has calculated that of
all the heat daily received by the earth from the
sun and given off again into space, one-tenth is
intercepted and absorbed by the vapor of water
within ten feet of the earth's surface. Hence, the
vapor forming the clouds above, and extending in
its invisible form down to the earth, absorbs the
heat given off; and, like the glass screen in a hot-
house, prevents the earth becoming so cool as to
i888.] WHAT MAK
freeze the dew. This fact will enable us to under-
stand, in part, why it is that deserts and all dry
regions are subject to such sudden extremes of
temperature, being very hot when the sun is shin-
ing, but becoming chilly as soon as the sun goes
Moreover, water, and consequently anything wet
with water, takes up and parts with heat much
more slowly than dry land; and water and other
liquids, when evaporating, take away a great
amount of heat with the vapor. The more rapid
the evaporation, the greater the amount of heat
taken up in a given time. This is the reason a
drop of ether feels cold when placed on the hand.
It evaporates so rapidly as to take away heat from
the skin quicker than it is restored and produces the
same feeling as would a piece of ice.
Now we are ready to understand why it is that
a hot day in dry climates is much less oppressive
than in moist climates. People who live in the
East and South, where the air is full of moisture,
read that the temperature on a hot day in the
West rises as high as Ioo0 or 110i, and they think
' ]', l i 'w
* '' H '. O,' .
NOW SHE'S OFF."
"NOW SHE 'S OFF!"
iS IT RAIN? 405
the West must, therefore, be a very uncomfortable
place in which to live. But in reality it is not so,
and for these reasons: In the dry Western air the
perspiration from the body evaporates so rapidly
as to keep the skin cool, and none of the heat
given off is held in by a screen of moist air; so
the body is kept cooler than it would be in a moist
climate. But in the moister atmosphere of the
East evaporation is slower, and the heat of the
body does not radiate so rapidly into space. Hence,
the perspiration gathers in great drops, and satu-
rates the clothes, while pulses throb and heads ache,
till relief is sought by fanning. And this fanning
cools the skin only because it increases evaporation
by blowing air across its surface. This also ex-
plains why a warm, overcast, muggy day is so op-
pressive. I have ridden horseback all day over
the dry prairies of Montana, with the temperature
above 1oo0 in the shade, and have not suffered the
slightest inconvenience from the heat; while with
the temperature at 90' in the humid air of Wash-
ington, I have sat in my office so overcome as to
be scarcely able to work at all.
A Rhyme for aRainyDay.
BY JULIA M. COLTON.
ITH pitter-patter, pitter-patter, on my window-pane,
Tapped chipper little visitors, the tiny drops of rain;
They did not ask to enter, but in liquid tones I heard
This story, which, as told to me, I tell you word for word:
S"Within a cool, deep well we lived, quite happy, side by side,
Until an empty bucket came, and asked us out to ride;
Then springing in, away we went, drawn up into the air,
And a pretty china pitcher stood waiting for us there.
Beneath that pitcher's brim we thought much happiness to see;
iBut soon a lump of ice popped in, with whom we can't agree,
For though Ice claimed relationship before it married Frost,
With such a hard, cold-hearted thing all sympathy is lost.
"Ice tried to steal our heat away, but Air was on our side,
And when it felt how cold we were, it just sat down and cried;
You might have seen the tears upon the pitcher where they pressed,
Till Ice itself was forced to melt, and mingle with the rest.
"But next I have to tell you of a most amazing thing,-
Above a blazing fire we were made to sit and sing,
Till Bubbles brought the message up, that Heat would set us free;
When, boiling hard, we just steamed off, and gained, our liberty !
"We bounded off with motion swift, but met a colder wind,
Which blew so fast that everything grew cloudy to our mind.
We cared not to go higher then, we felt a-heavy chill,
And down we came quite suddenly upon your window-sill."
Now little people everywhere, there is a saying old
That Truth lies at the bottom of the well; and, we make bold
To say: Within this bucketful of water you may find
Some grains of truth drawn up to store within each busy mind.
THE RED PARTRIDGE TELLS HIS STORY.
BY MARIA ELLERY MACKAYE.
(From the French of A Iflonse Daudet.)
You know that partridges go about in coveys,
and lodge together in deep furrows, ready at the
first alarm to rise in scattered flight, like a handful
of grain thrown from the hand of the sower. Our
own covey is large and happy; and our home is
where a wide plain skirts a deep wood. There we
find good food and safe shelter. So, ever since my
feathers were grown, and I learned to run, I have
had plenty to eat, and have found life very pleasant.
I have had only one anxiety,-the opening of the
hunting-season. Our mothers were always talking
about it to each other in whispers. One day an
old partridge, who saw that I looked uneasy about
what I overheard, said: "Never mind, Ruddy"
(they call me Ruddy, because my beak and legs
are so red), don't be afraid. When the hunting-
season opens, you shall go with me, and I am sure
that nothing will happen to you." This old par-
tridge is very wise, and still spry, although the horse-
shoe mark is quite plain on his breast, and he has
a few white feathers here and there. When he was
young he was wounded in one wing, and, since
this makes him rather clumsy, he always looks
carefully before flying, takes his time, and gets
along very well. He used sometimes to carry me
from the chimney, and the door and the windows
opened, it will go hard with us." I believed what
he said, knowing that he was a bird of great
The other morning, at daybreak, I heard some
one in the furrow calling softly: Ruddy!
Ruddy! It was my old friend. His eyes were
starting from his head. Come quickly," he said,
" and do as I do." I followed as well as I could,
half asleep, not flying nor hopping, but running
like a mouse between the great clods of earth. We
went toward the wood, and as we passed the little
white house, I saw that smoke was rising from the
chimney, that the shutters were down, and before
the wide-open door stood a group of hunters, all
equipped, and surrounded by leaping dogs. As we
passed, one of the hunters cried: Let us take
the plain, this morning, and leave the wood till
after breakfast." Then I understood why we must
go to the forest. My heart beat fast, and I grew
very sad, thinking what might befall our poor
friends whom we had left behind. Suddenly, just
as we reached the edge of the wood, the dogs
started and ran toward us. Keep close to the
ground,-close!" said the old partridge, crouch-
SI -- --- -
OU N COVEY I LARGE AND HAPPY.
to the entrance of the wood, where, deep down ing as e spoke. At this moment, not more than
white house, as quiet as an empty burrow, and wings, opening her beak very wide, and flew up-
always shut up. ward with a cry of terror. I heard a deafening
"Look well at that house, little one," said the noise, and we wee enveloped in a white mist, that
old partridge. "When you see smoke coming smelt queer and felt quite warm, though the sun
7 _II i
OUROWNCOVY I LRGEANDHAPY.
toteetaneo h woowee epdw nga i pk.A hs oet o oeta
4THE RED PARTRIDGE TELLS HIS STORY.
had just risen. I was so terrified that I could
not run. Fortunately, we were sheltered by the
wood. My comrade hid behind a young oak; I
crept up close to him, and we lurked there, look-
ing out between the leaves. In the fields all around
there was firing. At every report I shut my eyes;
and whenever I dared to open them again I saw
the wide plain, and the dogs searching in the high
grass or ferreting anong the sheaves, running
round and round as if they were distracted. The
hunters, their guns glittering in the sun, called
after them and spoke angrily to them.
Once, out of a little cloud of mist, I thought I
saw something falling that looked like scattered
leaves, although there was no tree near. But my
old partridge said these were feathers; and pres-
ently, sure enough, not far from us a superb gray
partridge dropped in a furrow-and his wounded
head fell back. When at last the sun rose high
and it became very warm, the shooting abruptly
ceased. The hunters returned to the little house,
where we heard a great fire crackling. They
marched along, their guns upon their shoul-
ders, laughing, and talking about their shots; and
the tired dogs came after, with tongues lolling
out. "They are going to breakfast," said my com-
panion; "let us also get something to eat." So
we went into a buckwheat-field close at hand,-a
great black-and-white field, all in bloom, smell-
ing like almonds. Beautiful pheasants with russet
plumage were already feeding there, stooping
their red crests for fear of being seen. They were
not so haughty as usual and asked us for news, in-
quiring whether we knew that one of their family
After a while the hunters became noisy over
their breakfast, and we heard corks popping and
glasses clinking. My old friend said that it was time
to seek shelter, and we made our way to the for-
est. At first you would have said that the wood
was fast asleep; the little pool where the deer
came to drink was stirred by no lapping tongues,
and in the thyme about the warren, there was no
trace of a rabbit; but, after a time, we could feel a
mysterious shudder everywhere, as if each leaf,
each blade of grass, was shielding a threatened
life. The denizens of the woods have so many
hiding-places,--burrows, tangled thickets, bram-
ble-heaps, piled faggots, and the little ditches
where water remains so long after rain. I confess
that I wished myself in one of these places, but
my companion said it was better to stay where he
could see what was coming and have the open air
all about him.
It was well that we left the buckwheat-field when
we did, for the hunters soon came to the forest.
Oh I shall never forget that first firing through
the wood, those shots that made holes in the leaves,
as hail does in April, and scarred the bark on the
trees. I shall never forget how a rabbit leaped over
the road, tearing up tufts of grass with his feet, and
how a squirrel scampered down a tree close by
us, knocking off the green chestnuts in showers.
Large pheasants rose up with heavy flight; and
the dry leaves, driven about by the gusts from the
gun-shots, made a tumult among all the lower
branches, arousing, putting to flight, and terrifying
every living creature in the woods. An owl came
out of a hollow in the tree near which we were
hiding, and rolled his great, stupid eyes about,
bewildered by fear. And then there were blue
dragon-flies, and bees, and butterflies,- poor
frightened things! -all fluttering about. A lit-
tle cricket with scarlet wings alighted close to my
beak, but I was too frightened, myself, to profit by
The old partridge kept perfectly calm. Listen-
ing attentively to the shots and the barking of the
dogs, when they came near he would make a
sign to me, and we would go a little faster, keep-
ing well under cover. Once in crossing a path
guarded at each end by a hunter, I thought we
were lost. There was one great, tall fellow with
black whiskers, who rattled his whole equipment,
cartridge-box, hunting-knife, and powder-horn,
whenever he moved, and his heavy, leather gaiters,
buckled up to his knees, made him look still more
formidable. At the farther end of the path, the
other hunter, a little old man, was leaning against
a tree, smoking a pipe and winking his eyes, as
if he were very drowsy. I was not afraid of him;
but-" Oh, you think that a terrible fellow, yon-
der, with the gaiters!-You are a simpleton,
Ruddy," said my companion, laughing, and he flew
up almost at the feet of the terrible sportsman.
And, truly, the poor man was so intent upon his
equipment, so busy admiring himself from top to
toe, that we took him by surprise, and by the time
he had brought his gun to his shoulder we were
far away, out of his reach !
Oh, if hunters, when they think themselves all
alone in the woods, only knew how many little
staring eyes are watching them from behind
bushes,-how many little pointed beaks are being
held tight shut to prevent laughing aloud at the
hunters' awkwardness !
On we went. Having nothing to do but to follow
my old companion, my wings kept time with his,
and I folded them whenever he rested. I can still
see, as in a dream, all the places we passed-the
warren, rosy with heather; the rabbit-holes at the
foot of the yellow beeches; the great oak wood,
where I knew that danger was stalking abroad; and
the little green path, where my mother-partridge
THE RED PARTRIDGE TELLS HIS STORY.
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"WHEN THE DOGS CAME NEAR, THE OLD PARTRIDGE WOULD
MAKE A SIGN TO ME AND WE WOULD GO A LITTLE
FASTER, KEEPING WELL UNDER COVER."
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rabbits lay side by side, their eyes dim as if
from weeping, and their small paws joined as
9 -4 2-
\ .. *~ *^ "* -
410I THE RED PARTRIDG
if in death they were asking for mercy. Beside
them were red and gray partridges; some with
the horse-shoe mark, like my comrade, and
others, with down under their feathers, like me.
Is there any sadder sight than a dead bird? Wings
are so full of life that it gives one a chill to see
them stiff and cold, folded forever. There, too, lay
a great, proud roebuck as if fast asleep, his rosy
tongue protruding a little from his mouth. The
hunters were smoking and stooping over all this
slaughter; counting, and pulling the animals
about before stowing them away in their game-
bags. The dogs, in leash for the road, pricked up
their ears and wrinkled their noses as if all ready
to dash again into the cover.
As the red sun set and the hunters walked away,
casting long shadows across the clods of earth and
l^J-_ b O-n
E TELLS HIS STORY.
along the paths glistening with evening dew, oh,-
how I hated them, men and dogs, the whole cruel,
murderous band Neither my companion nor I
had the heart to say our usual good-night to the
day that was ending. All along our way we saw
wretched animals fatally hurt by chance shots and
left to the tender mercies of the ants; field-mice
biting the dust; swallows which had been arrested
in their swift flight, and were now lying on their
backs and holding up their stiff little legs to the
night, which came down suddenly (as it does in
autumn)- starry, but cold and damp.
Most heart-rending of all it was to hear, in the
edges of the woods, over the meadows, and all
along the sedgy river-bank, among the reeds, sad,
far-away, anxious calls to which, though repeated
again and again, no answer came.
CHILD-SKETCHES FROM GEORGE
BY JULIA MAGRUDER.
SILAS MARNER was a queer-looking, short-
sighted, silent man, who lived all alone "in a
stone cottage that stood among the nutty hedge-
rows near the village of Raveloe, and not far from
the edge of a deserted stone-pit." He was a
weaver and worked hard at his loom, from morn-
ing till night, never going to any one's house and
never asking any one to his. No one knew where
he had come from or what his history had been
before his coming to Raveloe, for he never said
ELIOT. No. IV.
an unnecessary word, but went about silent and
gloomy, doing his work well, and being well paid
for it. His looks were so strange and his ways so
in keeping with them that the idle gossips of the
neighborhood told all sorts of foolish stories about
him, and believed there was something very dark
and mysterious about his past history.
This, indeed, was true; but it was nothing of a
startling or sensational nature- only that this man
had suffered a terrible injustice from people he had
CHILD-SKETCHES FROM GEORGE ELIOT.
loved and trusted, and had been cruelly injured
When Silas Marner turned his back upon those
people and the country in which they lived, he
cared no more for human companionship; but
lived on, unloving and unloved, until he had be-
come a dull, cold, selfish man. The one thing he
now cared for was the money he made by weav-
ing, which was generally paid to him in bright
gold guineas, and these he hoarded with greedy
care and concealed in a hiding-place made by
the removal of two loose bricks in the floor under
his loom. He would deny himself everything but
the bare necessaries of life, in order to increase
his store of shining coins; he loved to spread them
out before him when he sat down to his scanty
meal, after his day's work was done, and to build
them up in piles and rows, and gloat over them,
and handle them, as if the pieces of metal had
been something worthy of love.
As time passed, his hoard grew and his love
for it increased with its growth. At last, one even-
ing he went as usual to get out his precious gold,
in order that he might indulge in the only taste
of pleasure that was known to him now, and he
found the hiding-place empty Some one had
found out his secret and stolen his gold, to the
last shining guinea! It was in vain that he peered
into the darkness and felt all about with shaking
hands. It was gone! Almost beside himself, he
rushed down to the village and gave the alarm,
and search was promptly made; but no trace of
the money or the thief could be found. At last
the search was abandoned, and Silas returned to
his empty home, feeling, for the second time, that
he was desolate and deserted. The pretty, bright
coins that he loved so to handle and to look at
had given him a sense of companionship, and he
missed them as if they had been human beings.
He would sit at his loom all day, thinking about
them and moaning over his loneliness, and when
evening came there was nothing to do with his
time of rest but to grieve for them again.
He never thought now of locking his door when
he went out, and one evening he had been so
absent-minded as to leave it wide open; and when
he came in, after a short absence, turning to-
ward the hearth, where the two logs had fallen
apart, and sent forth only a red, uncertain glim-
mer, he seated himself on his fireside chair, and
was stooping to push his logs together, when, to
his blurred vision, it seemed to him as if there
were gold on the floor in front of his hearth.
Gold!-his own gold -brought back to him as
mysteriously as it had been taken away! He felt
his heart beat violently, and, for a few moments,
he was unable to stretch out his hand and grasp
the restored treasure. The heap of gold seemed
to glow and get larger beneath his agitated gaze.
He leaned forward at last, and stretched forth his
hand; but instead of the hard coin, with the fa-
miliar, resisting outline, his fingers encountered
soft, warm curls. In utter amazement, Silas fell
on his knees and bent his head low, to examine
the marvel: it was a sleeping child-a round, fair
thing, with soft, yellow rings all over its head.
Could this be his little sister come back to him in
a dream--his little sister whom he had carried
about in his arms for a year before she died, when
he was a small boy without shoes or stockings?
That was the first thought that darted across Silas's
blank wonderment. Was it a dream? He rose
to his feet again, pushed his logs together, and,
throwing on some dried leaves and sticks, raised a
flame; but the flame did not disperse the vision-
it only lit up more distinctly the little round form
of the child and its shabby clothing. It was very
much like his little sister." "He had a dreamy
feeling that this child was somehow a message
come to him from that far-off life; it stirred fibers
that had never been moved in Raveloe old
quiverings of tenderness-old impressions of awe
at the presentiment of some Power presiding over
his life; for his imagination had not yet extricated
itself from the sense of mystery in the child's sud-
den presence, and had formed no conjectures of
ordinary, natural means by which the event could
have been brought about.
"But there was a cry on the hearth; the child
had awaked, and Marner stooped to lift it on his
knee. It clung round his neck, and burst louder
and louder into that mingling of inarticulate cries
with 'mammy' by which little children express
the bewilderment of waking. Silas pressed it to
him, and almost unconsciously uttered sounds of
soothing tenderness, while he bethought himself
that some of his porridge, which had got cool by
the dying fire, would do to feed the child with if
it were only warmed up a little.
"He had plenty to do through the next hour.
The porridge, sweetened with some dry brown
sugar from an old store which he had refrained
from using for himself, stopped the cries of the little
one, and made her lift her blue eyes with a wide,
quiet gaze at Silas, as he put the spoon into her
mouth. Presently, she slipped from his knee and
began to toddle about, but with a pretty stagger
that made Silas jump up and follow her lest she
should fall against anything that would hurt her.
But she only fell in a sitting posture on the ground
and began to pull at her boots, looking up at him
with a crying face, as if the boots hurt her. He
took her on his knee again, but it was some time
before it occurred to Silas's dull, bachelor mind
CHILD-SKETCHES FROM GEORGE ELIOT.
that the wet boots were the grievance, pressing on
her warm ankles. He got them off without diffi-
culty, and baby was at once happily occupied
with the primary mystery of her own toes, inviting
Silas, with much chuckling, to consider the mystery
too. But the wet boots had at last suggested to
Silas that the child had been walking on the snow,
and this roused him from his entire oblivion of
any ordinary means by which it could have en-
tered or been brought into his house. Under the
prompting of this new idea and without waiting to
form conjectures, he raised the child in his arms
and went to the door. As soon as he had opened it
there was the cry of 'mammy' again, which Silas
had not heard since the child's first hungrywaking.
Bending forward, he could just discern the marks
made by the little feet on the virgin snow, and he
followed their track to the furze-bushes. Mammy,'
the little one cried again and again, stretching
itself forward so as almost to escape from Silas's
arms, before he himself was aware that there was
something more than the bush before him- that
there was a human body, with the head sunk low
in the furze and half-coveredwith the shaken snow."
This was the little child's mother, a poor creature
whom the falling snow and gathering darkness had
overtaken as she was walking with the child in
her arms; and she had sunk down unconscious by
the furze-bushes, near Silas Marner's house. The
little one, waking and finding herself in the dark
and cold, had seen the light through Silas's open
door and made her way to it, and under the influence
of the grateful warmth of the hearth had again
fallen asleep, to awake to care and tenderness and
love; but the unfortunate mother, lying outside in
the snow, had passed into the sleep that, in this
world, has no waking.
To the surprise of everyone, when the neighbors
spoke of sending the baby to the parish," Silas
refused to give her up. The little child clung to
him and seemed to know him, and he rebelled at
the thought of being made to part with her. So, as
there was nobody to dispute the privilege with
him, it was agreed he should keep her. Silas con-
sulted with a good woman who lived near by,
whose name was Mrs. Dolly Winthrop, as to "what
he should do about getting some clothes for the
'Eh, Master Marner,' said Dolly, 'there's no
call to buy no more nor a pair o' shoes; for I've
got the little petticoats as Aaron wore five years
ago, and it's ill spending the money on them baby-
clothes, for the child 'ull grow like grass i' May,
bless it -that it will.'
And the same day Dolly brought her bundle
and displayed to Marner, one by one, the tiny
garments, in their due order of succession, most
of them patched and darned, but clean and neat
as fresh-sprung herbs.
"This was the introduction to a great ceremony
with soap and water, from which Baby came out
in new beauty, and sat on Dolly's knee, handling
her toes and chuckling and patting her palms
together with an air of having made several dis-
coveries about herself, which she communicated by
alternate sounds of gug-gug-gug' and 'mammy.'
'Anybody 'ud think the angils in Heaven
could n't be prettier,' said Dolly, rubbing the
golden curls and kissing them. And to think
of its being covered wi' them dirty rags and the
poor mother froze to death ; but there 's Them
as took care of it and brought it to your door,
Master Marner. The door was open and it walked
in over the snow, like as if it had been a little
"'You '11 happen to be a bit moithered with it
while it's so little; but I 'll come and welcome and
see to it for you.'
"' Thank you kindly,' said Silas, hesitating a
little, I 'll be glad if you '11 tell me things. But,'
he added, uneasily, leaning forward to look at
Baby with some jealousy, as she was resting her
head backward against Dolly's arm, and eying
him contentedly from a distance,-' But I want to
do things for it myself, else it may get fond o'
somebody else and not fond o' me. I 've been
used to fending for myself in the house I can
learn, I can learn.'
"'Eh, to be sure,' said Dolly gently. 'I 've
see men as are wonderful handy wi' children.'"
"'You see this goes first, next the skin,' pro-
ceeded Dolly, taking up the little shirt and putting
Yes,' said Marner, docilely, bringing his eyes
very close," "whereupon Baby seized his head
with both her small arms and put her lips against
his face with purring noises.
See there,' said Dolly with a woman's tender
tact, 'she 's fondest o' you. She wants to go o'
your lap, I '11 be bound. Go, then: take her,
Master Marner; you can put the things on, and
then you can say as you 've done for her, from the
first of her coming to you.'
Marner took her on his lap, trembling with an
emotion mysterious to himself, at something un-
known dawning on his life. Thought and feeling
were so confused within him, that if he had tried
to give them utterance he could only have said
that the child was come instead of the gold- that
the gold had turned into the child. He took the
garments from Dolly, and put them on under her
teaching, interrupted, of course, by Baby's gym-
'There, then! Why, you take to it quite
1888.1 CHILD-SKETCHES FR
easy, Master Marner,' said Dolly; 'but what
shall you do when you 're forced to sit in your
loom ? For she '11 get busier and mischievouser
every day she will, bless her. It 's lucky you 've
got that high hearth, i'stead of a grate, for that
..... --- ~
OM GEORGE ELIOT. 413
at last 'tie her with a good long strip o' some-
Well, mayhap, that '11 do, as it's a little gell,
for they 're easier persuaded to sit i' one place nor
the lads. I know what the lads are; for I've had
+;'''' I j -.4
'y ~ '
Ii I'i' i'''' till' lii
I .' I,
,i 'I -
C~~~~~~ .-"- .. --<
- '<. " =-
tHERE SAT EPPIE, DISCOURSING CHEERFULLY TO IIER OWN SMALL BOOT.'" (SEE PAGE 415.)
keeps the fire more out of her reach; but if you've
got anything as can be split or broke, or as is fit to
cut her fingers off, she '11 be at it-and it is but
right you should know.'
Silas meditated a little while in some perplex-
ity. 'I '11 tie her to the leg o' the loom,' he said,
four,- four, I've had, God knows,- and if you was
to take and tie 'm up, they 'd make a fighting and
a crying as if you was ringing the pigs. But I'll
bring you my little chair and some bits o' red rag
and things for her to play wi'; an' she '11 sit and
chatter to 'em as if they was alive. Eh, if it was n't
CHILD-SKETCHES FROM GEORGE ELIOT.
a sin to the lads to wish 'em made different, bless
'em, I should ha' been glad for one of 'em to be a
little gell; and to think as I could ha' taught her
to scour, and mend, and the knitting, and every-
thing. But I can teach 'em this little un, Master
Marner, when she gets old enough.'
But she'll be my little un,' said Marner, rather
hastily. 'She '1 be nobody else's.'
'No, to be sure; you '11 have a right to her,
if you 're a father to her and bring her up, accord-
ing. But you must bring her up like christened
folks's children, and take her to church and let her
learn her catechise, as my little Aaron can say
off- the "I believe," and everything, and "hurt
nobody by word or deed "- as well as if he was
Marner's pale face flushed suddenly, under a
new anxiety." He had been accustomed to go to
church, in his early life, before that bitter trouble
had come upon him, but he had never been since.
Now, however, he felt that it would not do for this
little child to be kept apart from the things that
were right for other children, and that this good
Dolly Winthrop thought so important. So when
Dolly and the clergyman told him that he ought
to have the little creature christened, he agreed.
" On this occasion, Silas, making himself as clean
and tidy as he could, appeared for the first time
within the church, and shared in the observances
held sacred by his neighbors." He had chosen to
give the child the name of Hephzibah," because
both his mother and little sister had borne that
name, but as the little sister had been generally
called "Eppie," it was decided that his adopted
child who had brought her so vividly to memory
should be called "Eppie," too. "As the weeks
grew to months, the child created fresh and fresh
links between his life and the lives from which he
had hitherto shrunk continually into narrower iso-
lation. Unlike the gold, which needed nothing
and must be worshiped in close-locked solitude,-
which was hidden away from the daylight, was
deaf to the songs of birds, and started to no human
tones,- Eppie was a creature of endless claims and
ever-growing desires, seeking and loving sunshine
and living sounds and living movements; mak-
ing trial of everything, with trust in new joy, and
stirring the human kindness in all eyes that looked
on her. The gold had kept his thoughts in an ever-
repeated circle leading to nothing beyond itself;
but Eppie was an object compacted of changes and
hopes that forced his thoughts onward."
And when the. sunshine grew strong and last-
ing, so that the buttercups were thick in the mead-
ows, Silas might be seen, in the sunny midday or
in the late afternoon when the shadows were
lengthening under the hedge-rows, strolling out
with uncovered head to carry Eppie beyond the
stone-pits to where the flowers grew, till they
reached some favorite bank where he could sit
down, while Eppie toddled to pluck the flowers
and make remarks to the winged things that mur-
mured happily above the bright petals, calling
' Dad-dad's' attention continually by bringing him
the flowers." "As the child's mind was growing into
-knowledge, his mind was growing into memory;
as her life unfolded, his soul, long stupefied in a
cold, narrow prison, was unfolding, too, and trem-
bling gradually into full consciousness." "By the
time Eppie was three years old, she developed
a fine capacity for mischief, and for devising in-
genious ways of being troublesome, which found
much exercise, not only for Silas's patience, but
for his watchfulness and penetration. Sorely was
poor Silas puzzled on such occasions, by the incom-
patible demands of love. Dolly Winthrop told him
that punishment was good for Eppie, and that, as
for rearing a child without making it tingle a little,
in soft and safe places, now and then, it was not to
'To be sure there 's another thing you might
do, Master Marner,' added Dolly, meditatively:
' You might shut her up once i' the coal-hole. That
was what I did wi' Aaron.' 'Not as I could find
i' my heart to let him stay i' the coal-hole more
nor a minute, but it was enough to colly him all
over, so as he must be new washed and dressed,
and it was as good as a rod to him--that was.
But I put it upo' your conscience, Master Marner,
as there 's one of 'em you must choose ayther
smacking or the coal-hole- else she 'll get so
masterful, there '11 be no holding her.' "
Silas "had wisely chosen a broad strip of linen as
a means of fastening Eppie to his loom when he
was busy: it made a broad belt round her waist,
and was long enough to allow of her reaching the
truckle-bed and sitting down on it, but not long
enough for her to attempt any dangerous climb-
One day, when Silas was not looking, Eppie
got possession of the scissors and cut herself
loose. "In two moments she had run out at the
open door where the sunshine was inviting her,
while poor Silas believed her to be a better child
than usual." Terribly alarmed was Silas when he
looked around and saw what had happened. He
rushed out of the house, calling aloud for her,
"exploring the dry cavities into which she might
have fallen, and then gazing, with questioning
dread, at the smooth, red surface of the water.
The cold drops stood on his brow." The meadow
was searched in vain," and he turned "with dying
hope toward a small pond which was now reduced
to its summer shallowness, so as to leave a wide
CHILD-SKETCHES FROM GEORGE ELIOT.
margin of good adhesive mud. Here, however,
sat Eppie, discoursing cheerfully to her own small
boot, which she was using as a bucket to convey the
water into a deep hoof-mark, while her little naked
foot was planted comfortably on a cushion of olive-
green mud. A red-headed calf was observing her
with alarmed doubt through the opposite hedge."
Silas, overcome with convulsive joy at finding
his treasure again, could do nothing but snatch
her up and cover her with half-sobbing kisses. It
was not until he had carried her home, and had
begun to think of the necessary washing, that he
recollected the need that he should punish Eppie,
and 'make her remember.' The idea that she
might run away again and come to harm gave him
unusual resolution, and, for the first time, he de-
termined to try the coal-hole -a small closet near
"'Naughty, naughty Eppie,' he suddenly be-
gan, holding her on his knee, and pointing to her
muddy feet and clothes. 'Naughty to cut with
the scissors and run away. Eppie must go into
the coal-hole for being naughty. Daddy must
put her in the coal-hole.'
"He half expected that this would be shock
enough, and that Eppie would begin to cry. But
instead of that she began to shake herself on his
knee, as if the proposition opened a pleasing
novelty. Seeing that he must proceed to ex-
tremities, he put her into the coal-hole, and held
the door closed, with a trembling sense that he
was using a strong measure. For a moment
there was silence, but then came a little cry, 'Opy,
opy!' and Silas let her out again, saying, 'Now,
Eppie 'ull never be naughty again, else she must go
in the coal-hole a black, naughty place.'
The weaving must stand still a long while this
morning, for now Eppie must be washed, and
have clean clothes on; but it was to be hoped
that this punishment would have a lasting effect,
and save time in future--though perhaps it
would have been better if Eppie had cried
In half an hour she was clean again, and Silas,
having turned his back to see what he could do
with the linen band, threw it down again, with
the reflection that Eppie would be good without
fastening for the rest of the morning. He turned
round again, and was going to place her in her
little chair near the loom, when she peeped out at
him with black face and hands again, and said:
'Eppie in de toal-hole! '
This total failure of the coal-hole discipline
shook Silas's belief in the efficacy of punishment.
'She'd take it all for fun,' he observed to Dolly,
'if I did n't hurt her, and that I can't do, Mrs.
Winthrop. If she makes me a bit o' trouble, I
can bear it. And she 's got no tricks but what
she'll grow out of.' "
So Eppie was reared without punishment."
"The stone hut was made a soft nest for her,
lined with downy patience: and also in the world
that lay beyond the stone hut she knew nothing
of frowns and denials."
In old days there were angels who came and
took men by the hand and led them away from
the city of destruction. We see no white-winged
angels now. But yet men are led away from
threatening destruction: a hand is put into theirs,
which leads them forth gently toward a calm and
bright land, so that they look no more backward;
and the hand may be a little child's."
C~i~l lossoms w)ite!
sin ye littl cIldren,
$In ye in the morning 1gbt,
I j $M2 !
AN APRIL BILL OF FARE.
THE TABLES TURNED.
(A Wolf-Story Reversed.)
ID you ever hear of a
sheep chasing a wolf?
No, I don't mean a
Of course you have
heard of that; but
did you ever hear of
a sheep which really
and truly chased a
No, it is n't an al-
legory, nor a fairy
story, and it has n't any special moral. The only
moral is that it is true.
Well, I went one fall to stay with a friend in
Canada. My friend had a farm called Swampscot,
near Collingwood, a little town at the head of Lake
Superior, the station whence the steamers start
for their trip through the lake and to the far North-
There was quite a number of wolves in that
region when my friend first went there to live; but
he had a number of dogs on the farm, and some
of them were very. fierce and strong; so, after a
few years, during which the dogs and the wolves
often met, the wolves found it was hardly worth their
while to pay a visit to Mr. Noble who was the
owner of Swampscot Farm -because one of those
dogs would undoubtedly be disagreeable enough to
bark at them, and then in a moment the whole
pack would come tumbling out, and the boys
would run helter-skelter to see the fun, and away
would go Mr. Wolf, with such a shouting and hal-
looing and barking at his heels that he would
think the end of the world was at hand. And very
often indeed it was, so far as he was concerned, and
he might consider himself lucky if he could reach
the safe shelter of the big woods which came down
to the edge of Mr. Noble's clearing. For more
than once ithappened that old Jowler came saunter-
ing back to the house with a grim look, which said
just as plainly as if he could talk, There 's another
of those rascals out of the way." And soon the
boys would come running in, with the wolf's head
to nail up on the barn-door ; and that was the con-
clusion of his little visit to Swampscot.
So you see, it did n't pay the wolves to come and
see us on ordinary occasions. Only when the little
new-born lambs were out in the fields with their
mothers, would a wolf now and then find an oppor-
tunity to snap up one of the babies and carry it off
to his family in the forest.
Oh, you thought I was only in fun, did you, and
that I meant to tell you about a wolf chasing a
S TURNED. 419
Now, the year I was at Swampscot, it happened
that Mr. Noble's little daughter Annie, a dear
little girl with rosy cheeks and curly yellow locks,
"THE DOGS AND TltE LAMB W EEE ON EXCELLENT TEKMS.
took a great fancy to have one of the lambs for
a pet. So her father had one of the little, white,
fluffy baby-lambs brought into the house, and
Annie used to feed it and carry it about in her
arms as if it were a little toy-animal.
- '-. _
:. : .'- I 1 .. -- _:_ .,.'1 .. .. .. ---,-' In.i ,-
': '- -: I ,' IiI
':.... ,. , : ,. 4
AN UNWELCOME INTRUDER,
sheep, after all? Just wait a moment till I tell my However, the lamb soon grew too heavy to be
story. So far I have written only what the story- carried around by so small a girl, and before
book people call an introductory chapter. summer had well begun it was trotting about
THE TABLES TURNED.
everywhere after Annie, like Mary's little lamb in
that poem which some of you may have heard.
All the dogs were pets of Annie's, as indeed
were all the animals in the farm-yard; and at first,
when she took her baby-sheep out in the yard, the
dogs did not know what to make of it. They
wagged their tails and barked "how-do-you-do"
to Annie's new friend; but the poor little lambkin
did not understand the dog-language at all, and ran
frightened to Annie, and hid its little head in her
It was not long, however, before the dogs and
the lamb were on excellent terms. They seemed
all at once to become great friends, and when
the lamb was almost a full-grown sheep it often
forsook even Annie for the company of its new
companions, and ran about everywhere with the
dogs. Mr. Noble declared that he once heard
the sheep trying to bark, but I am inclined to
think he was'making fun of us. I can't believe
the lamb went so far as that, though no doubt it
admired Rover's great loud "bow-wow! and felt
that its own little "ba-a-a! was in comparison
The farmer often wished to take the sheep and
kill it, now that it was too big for Annie to play
with; but Mr. Noble declared that "Bob"-
for so Annie had named it when it was a tiny
baby-was one of the family, and that it should
stay in the yard with the dogs as long as it chose.
One day I was in the snug library writing. It
wolves are often driven by hunger to attempt a
raid on the farmers' poultry-yards. Suddenly I
heard a great commotion outside, and Tom and
Harold ran past the window, shouting, Rover,
Jowler,- here, dogs Wolf! a wolf! "
I was putting my papers together, and think-
ing whether I should venture out in the cold or
whether I should leave them to catch the wolf by
themselves, when Mr. Noble came in, saying,
"Quick, Glaucus; quick! On with your coat!
There is the funniest sight outside you ever saw."
Of course I jumped up, hurried into my coat
and overshoes, and rushed out into the snow,
wondering what new feature there could be in the
not unusual visit of a wolf to the farm, and when
outside I saw the boys and dogs were running
across the open clearing in full chase after two
large wolves. But, certainly, there was the
strangest sight I ever saw in my life! There among
the pack of dogs ran "Bob," scampering along
with the best of them, and "ba-a-a-ing" with all
its might at the astonished wolves.
I don't know what the sheep had planned to
do if it caught them, but Bob's actions were so
threatening that we wondered whether it would
have eaten a wolf for supper if it had overtaken
one. Unluckily for our sport, however, the wolves
managed to escape for that time, and Master Bob
came home with the baffled pursuers, looking as
proud as though it had succeeded in securing
some wolf for supper and had enjoyed the taste.
"THERE RAN BOB,' SCAMPERING ALONG WITH THE BEST OF THEM, AND 'BA-A-A-ING' WITH ALL ITS MIGHT
AT THE ASTONISHED WOLVES."
was the beginning of the cold weather, and a few I don't know what became of Bob afterward, but
days before there had been a heavy fall of snow,- I am convinced that a sheep with ambition enough
the first of the season,--just the time when the to chase a.wolf may have aspired to anything.
B Y 10-UPOA AT-CO-7-7~
what is this curious
picture about? said
little Gertrude, or
"Trudel," as they
up from the red book
that lay on her knee,
one Sunday morn-
ing, when she and
the grandmother sat
sadly together in the
neat kitchen; for the
father was very ill,
and the poor mother
seldom left him.
The old woman put on her round spectacles,
which made her look as wise as an owl, and turned
to answer the child, who had been very quiet for
a long time, looking at the strange pictures in
the ancient book.
Ah, my dear, that tells about a very famous and
glorious thing that happened long ago at the siege
of Leyden. You can read it for yourself some
"Please tell me, now. Why are the houses half
under water, and ships sailing among them, and
people leaning over the walls of the city; and why
is that boy waving his hands on the tower, where
the men are running away in a great smoke? "
asked Trudel, too curious to wait till she could
read the long, hard words on the yellow pages.
"Well, dear, this is the story, and you shall
hear how brave were the men and women, and
children too, in those days. The cruel Spaniards
came and besieged the city for many months; but
the faithful people would not give up, though
nearly starved to death. When all the bread and
meat were gone and the gardens empty, they ate
grass and herbs, and horses, and even dogs and
cats, trying to hold out till help came to them."
Did little girls really eat their pussies ? Oh,
I 'd die before I would kill my dear Jan," cried
Trudel, hugging the pretty kitten that purred in
Yes, the children ate their pets; and so would
you if it would save your father or mother from
starving. We know what hunger is, but we won't
eat Jan yet."
The old woman sighed as she glanced from the
empty table to the hearth where no fire burned.
"Did help come in the ships ?" asked the child,
bending her face over the book to hide the tears
that filled her eyes, for she was very hungry, and
had had only a crust for breakfast.
Our good Prince of Orange was trying to bring
help, but the Spaniards were all around the city
and he had not men enough to fight them by land,
so he sent carrier-doves with letters to tell the
people that he was going to cut through the great
dykes that kept the sea out, and let the water flow
over the country so as to drive the enemy from his
camp, for the city stood upon high ground, and
would be safe. Then the ships, with food, could
sail over the drowned land and save the brave
Oh, I'm glad! I 'm glad! These are the bad
Spaniards, running away, and these are poor peo-
ple stretching out their hands for the bread. But
what is the boy doing, in this funny tower where
the wall has tumbled down? cried Trudel, much
The smoke of burning houses rose between
the city and the port so the people could not see
that the Spaniards had run away, and they were
afraid the ships could not get by safely. But a
boy who was scrambling about, as boys always are,
wherever there is danger, fire, and fighting, saw
the enemy go, and ran to the deserted tower to
shout and beckon to the ships to come on at once,-
for the wind had changed and soon the tide would
flow back and leave them stranded."
Nice boy I wish I had been there to see
him and to help the poor people," said Trudel,
patting the funny little figure sticking out of the
pepper-pot tower like a jack-in:the-box.
If children keep their wits about them and are
brave, they can always help in some way, my dear.
We don't have such dreadful wars now, but the
dear God knows we have troubles enough, and
need all our courage and faith to be patient in
times like these," and the grandmother folded her
thin hands with another sigh, as she thought of
her poor son, dying for want of a few comforts
after working long and faithfully for a hard master
who never came to offer any help, although he was
a very rich man.
Did they eat the carrier-doves?" asked Tru-
del, still intent on the story.
No, child; they fed and cared for them while
they lived, and when dead, they were stuffed and
set up in the Staat Haus, so grateful were these
brave burghers for the good news the dear birds
That is the best part of all. I like that story
very much! Then Trudel turned the pages to
find another, little dreaming what a carrier-dove
she herself was soon to become.
Poor Hans Dort and his family were nearly as
distressed as the besieged people of Leyden; for
poverty stood at the door, hunger and sickness
were within, and no ship was anywhere seen com-
ing to bring help. The father, who was a linen-
weaver, could no longer work in the great factory;
the mother, who was a lace-maker, had to leave
her work to nurse him; and the old woman could
earn only a trifle by her knitting, being slow and
feeble. Little Trudel did what she could; sold
the stockings to get bread and medicine, picked
up wood for the fire, gathered herbs for the poor
soup, and ran errands for the market-women who
paid her with unsalable fruit, withered vegetables,
or, now and then, a bit of meat.
But market-day came but once a week, and it
was very hard to find food for the hungry mouths
meantime. The Dorts were too proud to beg, so
they suffered in silence, praying that help would
come before it was too late to save the sick and
No other picture in the quaint book interested
Trudel so much as that of the siege of Leyden;
and she went back to it, thinking over the story
till hunger made her look about for something to
eat as eagerly as the poor starving burghers.
Here, child, is a good crust. It is too hard
for me. I kept it for you; it's the last except
that bit for your mother," said the old woman,
pulling a dry crust from her pocket, with a smile;
for, though starving herself, the brave old soul
thought only of her darling.
Trudel's little white teeth gnawed hungrily at
the hard bread, and Jan ate the crumbs as if he,
too, needed food. As she saw him purring about
her feet, there came into the child's head a clever
idea, born of the brave story and of the cares that
made her old before her time.
Poor Jan gets thinner and thinner every day.
If we are to eat him we must do it soon, or he will
not be worth cooking," she said, with a strange
look on the face that used to be so round and
rosy, and now was so white, thin, and anxious.
Bless the child we won't eat the poor beast!
- but it would be kind to give him away to some
one who could feed him well. Go now, dear, and
get a jug of fresh water. The father will need it,
and so will you, for that crust is a dry dinner for
As she spoke the old woman held the little
girl close for a minute, and Trudel clung to her
silently, finding the help .she needed for her sacri-
fice in the love and the example Grandma gave
Then she ran away, with the brown jug in one
hand, the pretty kitten on her arm, and courage
in her little heart. It was a poor neighborhood
where the weavers and lace-makers lived, but
nearly every one had a good dinner on Sunday,
and on her way to the fountain Trudel saw many
well-spread tables, smelled the good soup in many
kettles, and looked enviously at the plump children
sitting quietly on the door-steps, in round caps and
wooden shoes, waiting to be called in to eat of the
big loaves, the brown sausages, and the cabbage-
soup smoking on the hearth.
When she came to the baker's house her heart
began to throb, and she hugged Jan so close that
it was well he was thin, or he would have mewed
under the farewell squeezes his little mistress gave
him. With a timid hand Trudel knocked, and
then went in to find Vrouw Hertz and her five boys
and girls at table, with good roast meat, bread and
cheese and beer before them.
Oh, the dear cat! the pretty cat! Let me
pat him Hear him mew, and see his soft white
coat," cried the children, before Trudel could
speak, for they admired the snow-white kitten very
much, and had often begged for it.
Trudel had made up her mind to give them
her one treasure; but she wished to be paid for
it, and was half ashamed to tell them her plan.
Jan helped her; for, smelling the meat, he leaped
from her arms to the table and began to gnaw a
bone on Dirck's plate, which so amused the young
people that they did not hear Trudel, with red
cheeks and beseeching eyes, say to their mother in
a low voice:
"Dear Vrouw Hertz, the father is very ill, the
mother can not work at her lace in the dark room,
and Grandma earns but little by knitting,- though
I help all I can. We have no food; can you give
me a loaf of bread in exchange for Jan? I have
nothing else to sell, and the children want much
to have him."
Trudel's eyes.were full and her lips trembled as she
ended with a look that went straight to stout Mother
Hertz's kind heart, and told the whole, sad story.
Bless the dear child Indeed, yes; a loaf and
welcome; and, see here, a good sausage also.
Brenda, go fill the jug with milk. It is excellent
for the sick man. As for the cat, let it stay awhile
and get fat, then we will see. It is a pretty beast
and worth many loaves of bread; so come again,
Trudel, and do not suffer hunger while I have
As the kind woman spoke, she had bustled
about, and before Trudel could get her breath, a
big loaf, a long sausage, and a jug of fresh milk
were in her apron and hands; and a motherly kiss
made the gifts all the easier to take. Returning it
heartily, and telling the children to be kind to Jan,
she hastened home to burst into the quiet room,
See, Grandmother, here is food; all mine.
I bought it Come,- come and eat "
"Thou dear Heaven, what do I see Where
did the blessed bread come from? asked the old
woman, hugging the big loaf, and eying the
sausage with such hunger in her face that Trudel
ran for the knife and cup, and held a draught of
fresh milk to her grandmother's lips before she
would answer a single question.
Stay, child, let us give -thanks before we eat;
never was food more welcome or hearts more
grateful"; and, folding her hands, the pious old
woman blessed the meal that seemed to fall from
heaven on that bare table. Then Trudel cut the
crusty slice for herself, a large, soft one for Grand-
mother, with a good bit of sausage, and refilled
the cup. Another portion and cup went upstairs
to Mother, whom she found asleep, with the sick
man's hand in hers. So, leaving the surprise for
her waking, Trudel crept down to eat her own din-
ner, as hungry as a little wolf; amusing herself with
making the old woman guess where and how she
got this fine feast.
S SIEGE. 423
"This is our siege, Grandmother, and we are
eating Jan," she said, at last, with the merriest
laugh she had given for weeks.
"Eating Jan ? cried the old woman, staring at
the sausage, as if for a moment she feared the
kitten had'been changed into that welcome shape
by some miracle. Still laughing, Trudel told her
story, and was well rewarded for her childish sacri-
fice by the look in Grandmother's face as the old
woman said, with a tender kiss:
Thou art a carrier-dove, my darling, coming
home with good news and comfort under thy wing.
God bless thee, my brave little heart, and grant
that our siege be not a long one before help comes
Such a happy feast !-and, for dessert, more
kisses and praises for Trudel when the mother
came down to hear the story and to tell how
Father had eagerly taken the fresh milk and gone
to sleep again. Trudel was very well pleased with
her bargain; but at night she missed Jan's soft
purr for her lullaby, and cried herself to sleep,
grieving for her lost pet; being only a child, after
all, though trying to be a brave little woman for
the sake of those she loved.
The big loaf and sausage took them nicely
through the next day, but by Tuesday only crusts
remained; and sorrel soup, slightly flavored with
the last scrap of sausage, was all they had to
On Wednesday morning, Trudel plaited her
long yellow braids with care, smoothed down her
one blue skirt, and put on her little black silk cap,
making ready for the day's work. She was weak
and hungry, but showed a bright face as she took
her old basket and said:
"Now I am off to market, Grandmother, to sell
the hose and get medicine and milk for Father.
I shall try to pick up something for dinner. The
good neighbors often let me run errands for them,
and give me a kuchen, a bit of cheese, or a taste
of their nice coffee. I will bring you something,
and will return as soon as I can."
The old woman nodded and smiled, as she
scoured the empty kettle till it shone ; and watched
the little figure trudge away with the big, empty
basket, and, she knew, with a still emptier little
stomach. "Coffee !" sighed the grandmother,
one sip of the blessed drink would put life into
me. When shall I ever taste it again ? and the
poor soul sat down to her knitting with hands that
trembled from weakness.
The Platz was a busy and a noisy scene when
Trudel arrived, for the thrifty Dutch women were
early afoot, and stalls, carts, baskets and cans were
already arranged to make the most attractive dis-
play of fruit, vegetables, fish, cheese, butter, eggs,
milk, and poultry, and the small wares country
people came to buy.
Nodding and smiling, Trudel made her way
through the crowd to the booth where old Vrouw
Schmidt bought and sold the blue woolen hose
that adorned the stout legs of young anrd old.
"GRANDMOTHER, WHAT IS THIS CURIOUS PICTURE ABOUT?"
Good-morning, child! I am glad to see thee
and the well-knit stockings, for I have orders for
three pairs, and promised thy grandmother's work,
which is always so excellent," said the rosy-faced
woman as Trudel approached.
I have but one pair. We had no money to buy
more yarn. Father is so ill, mother can not work,
and medicines cost a deal," said the child, with
her large hungry eyes fixed on the breakfast the
poor child Here, take a sup of the coffee, and
a bite of bread and cheese. The morning air
makes one hungry."
Trudel eagerly accepted the "sup" and the
"bite," and felt new strength come into her as the
warm draught and good brown bread went down
So many thanks I had no breakfast. I
came to see if I could do any errands here to-day,
old woman was about to eat after having made
ready for the business of the day.
See, then, I shall give thee the yarn and wait
for the hose; I can trust thee, and shall ask a
good price for the good work. Thou, too, wilt
have the fever, I 'm afraid! So pale and thin,
for I want to earn a bit, if I can," she said, and,
with a sigh of satisfaction, Trudel slipped half the
generous slice and a good bit of cheese into her
basket, regretting that the coffee could not be
As if to answer her wish, a loud cry from fat
Mother Kinkle, the fish-wife, rose at that moment,
for a thieving cur had run off with a fish from the
stall, while she was gossiping with a neighbor.
Down went Trudel's basket, and away went
Trudel's wooden shoes clattering over the stones
while she raced after the dog, dodging in and out
among the stalls till she cornered the thief under
Gretchen Horn's milk-cart; for at sight of the big
dog who drew the four copper cans, the cur lost
heart, dropped the fish, and ran away.
Well done!" said buxom Gretchen, when
Trudel caught up the rescued treasure, much the
worse for the dog's teeth and the dust through
which it had been dragged.
All the market-women laughed as the little girl
came back proudly bearing the fish, for the race had
amused them. But Mother Kinkle, sighing when
she saw the damage done to her property, said:
"It is spoilt; no one will buy that torn, dirty
thing. Throw it on the waste-pile, child; your
trouble was in vain, though I thank you for it."
"Give it to me, please, if you don't want it.
We can eat it, and would be glad of it at home,"
cried Trudel, hugging the slippery fish with joy,
for she saw a dinner in it, and felt that her run
was well paid.
"Take it, then, and be off; I see Vrouw Von
Decken's cook coming, and you are in the way,"
answered the old woman, who was not a very amia-
ble person, as every one knew.
That 's a fine reward to make a child for run-
ning the breath out of her body for you," said Dame
Troost, the handsome farm-wife whose stall was
close by, and who had listened, sitting proudly
among her fruit and vegetables, as fresh as her
cabbages, and as rosy as her cherries.
Better it then, and give her a feast fit for a
burgomaster. You can afford it," growled Mother
Kinkle, turning her back on the other woman in
"That I will, for very shame at such mean-
ness! Here, child, take these for thy fish-stew,
and these for thy little self," said the kind soul,
throwing half a dozen potatoes and onions into the
basket, and handing Trudel a cabbage-leaf full of
A happy girl was our little house-wife on her
way home, when the milk, and medicine, and loaf
of bread were bought, and a comfortable dinner
was quickly cooked, and gratefully eaten in Dort's
poor house that day.
S SIEGE. 425
"Surely the saints must help you, child, and
open people's hearts to our need; for you come
back each day with food for us,-like the ravens
to the prophet in the wilderness," said the grand-
mother when they sat at table.
"If they do, it is because you pray to them so
heartily, Mother. But I think the sweet ways and
thin face of my Trudel do much to win kindness,
and the good God makes her our little house-
mother-while I must sit idle," answered Vrouw
Dort; and she filled the child's platter again that
she, at least, might have enough.
I like it! cried Trudel, munching an onion
with her bread while her eyes shone and a pretty
color came into her cheeks. "I feel so old and
brave now, so glad to help; and things happen,
and I keep thinking what I will do next, to get
food. It 's like the birds out yonder in the hedge,
trying to feed their little ones. I fly up and down,
pick and scratch, get a bit here and a bit there,
and then my dear old birds have food to eat."
It really was very much as Trudel said, for her
small wits were getting very sharp with these new
cares; she lay awake that night trying to plan
how she should provide the next day's food for her
"Where now, thou dear little mother-bird ?"
asked the Grossmutter next morning, when the
child had washed the last dish, and was setting
away the remains of the loaf.
"To Gretti Jansen's to see if she wants me to
water her linen, as I used to do for play. She is
lame, and it tires her to go to the spring so often.
She will like me to help her, I hope, and I shall
ask her for some food to pay me. Oh, I am very
bold now Soon will I beg, if no other way offers."
And Trudel shook her yellow head resolutely,
and went to settle the stool at Grandmother's feet,
and to draw the curtain so that it would shield the
old eyes from the summer sun.
"Heaven grant it never comes to that! It
would be very hard to bear, yet perhaps we must,
if no help arrives. The doctor's bill, the rent,
the good food thy father may soon need, will take
far more than we can earn; and what will become
of us, the good saints know! answered the old
woman, still knitting briskly in spite of her sad
"I will do it all! I don't know how, but I
shall try; and, as you often say, 'Have faith and
hold up thy hands, God will fill them.'"
Then Trudel went away to her work, with a
stout heart under her little blue bodice, and all
that summer day she trudged to and fro along the
webs of linen spread in the green meadow, water-
ing them as fast as they dried; knitting busily
under a tree during the intervals.
Old Gretti was glad to have her, and at noon
called her in to share the milk-soup, with cherries
and herrings in it, and a pot of coffee; as well as
Dutch cheese, and bread full of coriander-seed.
A feast, to Trudel, but one bowl of soup and a bit
of bread was all she ate; then, with a face that
was not half as bold" as she tried to make it,
she asked if she might run home and take the
coffee to Grandmother, who longed for and needed
it so much.
Yes, indeed; there,-let me fill that pewter
jug with a good hot mess for the old Vrouw, and
take this also. I have little to give, but I remem-
ber how good she was to me in the winter, when
my poor legs were so bad, and no one else thought
of me," said grateful Gretti, mixing more coffee,
and tucking a bit of fresh butter into half a loaf of
bread, with a crusty end to cover the hole.
Away ran Trudel, and when Grandmother saw
the "blessed coffee," as she called it, she could
only sip and sigh for comfort and content; so glad
was the poor old soul to taste her favorite drink
again. The mother smelled it, and came down
to take her share; while Trudel skipped away to
go on watering the linen till sunset, with a happy
heart, saying to herself, while she trotted and
"This day is well over, and I have kept my
word. Now, what can I do to-morrow? Gretti
does n't want me, there is no market, I must not
beg yet, and I can not finish the hose so soon. I
know I '11 get water-cresses, and sell them from
door to door. They are fresh now, and people
like them. Ah, thou dear duck, thank thee for
reminding me of them," she cried, as she watched
a mother-duck lead her brood along the brook's
edge, picking and dabbling among the weeds to
show them where to feed.
Early next morning, Trudel took her basket and
went away to the meadows that lay just out of the
town, where the rich folk had their summer-houses,
and fish-ponds, and gardens. These gardens were
now gay with tulips, the delight of Dutch people;
for they know best how to cultivate them, and often
make fortunes out of the splendid and costly
When Trudel had looked long and carefully for
cresses, and found very few, she sat down to rest,
weary and disappointed, on a green bank from
which she could overlook a fine garden all ablaze
with tulips. She admired them heartily, longed
to have a bed of them, and eagerly feasted her
eyes on the brilliant colors until her eyesight was
dazzled; for the long beds of purple and yellow,
red and white blossoms were splendid to see, and
in the midst of all a mound of dragon-tulips rose,
like a queen's throne; scarlet, green, and gold all
mingled on the ruffled leaves that waved in the
Suddenly, it seemed as if one of the great flowers
had blown over the wall and was hopping along
the path in a very curious way. In a minute,
however, she saw that it was a gay parrot that had
escaped, and would have flown away if its clipped
wings and a broken chain on one leg had not kept
Trudel laughed to see the bird scuttle along,
jabbering to itself, and looking very mischievous
and naughty as it ran away. She was just think-
ing she ought to stop it, when the garden-gate
opened and a pretty little boy came out, calling
"Prince! Prince! Come back, you bad bird!
I never will let you off your perch again, sly
"I will get him," and Trudel ran down the
bank after the runaway, for the lad was small and
leaned upon a little crutch.
"Be careful! He will bite! called the boy.
"I 'm not afraid," answered Trudel, and she
stepped on the chain, which brought the "Prince
of Orange" to a very sudden and undignified halt.
But when she tried to catch it up by the legs,
the sharp, black beak gave a nip and held tightly
to her arm. It hurt her much, but she did not
let go, and carried her captive back to its master,
who thanked her, and begged her to come in and
chain up the bad bird-for he was evidently rather
afraid of it.
Glad to see more of the splendid garden, Trudel
did what he asked, and with a good deal of flutter-
ing, scolding, and pecking the Prince was again
settled on his perch.
"Your arm is bleeding! Let me tie it up for
you; and here is my cake to pay you for helping
me. Mamma would have been very angry if Prince
had been lost," said the boy, and he wet his little
handkerchief in a tank of water near by and tied
up Trudel's arm.
The tank was surrounded by pots of tulips, and
on a rustic seat lay the lad's hat and. a delicious,
large /euczen, all over comfits and sugar. The hun-
gry girl accepted it gladly, but only nibbled at it,
remembering those at home. The boy thought
she did not like it; so, being a generous little fel-
low and very grateful for her help, he looked
about for something else to give her. Seeing her
eyes fixed admiringly on a pretty vessel that held
a dragon-tulip just ready to bloom, he said, pleas-
Would you like this also? All these are
mine, and I can do as I like with them. Will you
"Oh, yes, with thanks It is so beautiful! I
longed for one, but never thought to have it," cried
Trudel, receiving the pot with delight.
Then she hastened toward home to show her
prize, only stopping to sell her little bunches of
cresses for a few groschen, with which she bought a
loaf and three herrings to eat with it. The cake and
the flower gave quite the air of a feast to the poor
meal, but Trudel and the two women enjoyed it
all, for the doctor said that the father was better,
and now needed only good meat and wine to
grow well and strong again.
How to get these costly things no one knew, but
all trusted they would come, and fell to work with
lighter hearts. The mother sat again at her lace-
making, for now a ray of light could be allowed
to fall on her pillow and bobbins by the window of
the sick-room. The old woman's fingers flew as
she knit at one long gray stocking, and Trudel's
little hands tugged away at the other, while the
child cheered her dull task by looking fondly at
her dear tulip unfolding in the sun.
She began to knit next day as soon as the
breakfast of dry bread and water was over, but
she took her work to the door-step and thought
busily as the needles clicked, for where could she
get money enough for meat and wine? The
pretty pot stood beside her, and the tulip showed
its gay leaves now, just ready to bloom. She was
very proud of it, and smiled and nodded gayly
when a neighbor said, in passing, A fine flower
you have there."
Soon she forgot it, however, so hard was her lit-
tle brain at work; and for a long time she sat with
her eyes fixed on her busy hands, so intently that
she neither heard steps approaching, nor saw a
maid and a little girl looking over the low fence at
her. Suddenly, some words in a strange language
made her look up. The child was pointing at the
tulip and talking fast in English to the maid, who
shook her head and tried to lead her on.
She was a pretty little creature, all in white,
with a gay hat, curly locks, and a great doll on one
arm, while the other held a box of bonbons. Tru-
del smiled when she saw the doll, and, as if the
friendly look decided her, the little girl ran up to
the door, pointed to the flower, and asked a ques-
tion in the queer tongue which Trudel could not
understand. The maid followed, and said to
Trudel, "Miss Maud wishes the flower. Will you
give it to her, child? "
"Oh, no, no I love it. I will keep it; for,
now Jan is gone, it is all I have! answered Tru-
del, taking the pot in her lap to guard her one
The child frowned, chattered eagerly, and of-
fered the box of sweets, as if used to having her
wishes gratified at once. But Trudel shook her
S SIEGE. 427
head, for much as she loved sugar-drops," she
loved the splendid flower better, like a true little
Then Miss Maud offered the doll, bent on hav-
ing her own way. Trudel hesitated a moment, for
the fine, lady doll in pink silk, with a feather in
her hat, and tiny shoes on her feet, was very tempt-
ing to her childish soul. But she felt that so
dainty a plaything was not for her; and her old
wooden darling, with the staring eyes and broken
nose, was dearer to her than the delicate stranger
could ever be. So she smiled to soothe the disap-
pointed child, but shook her head again.
At that, the English lassie lost her temper,
stamped her foot, scolded, and began to cry, or-
dering the maid to take the flower and come away
She will have it, and she must not cry.
Here, child, will you sell it for this?" said the
maid, pulling a handful of groschen out of her
deep pocket, sure that Trudel would yield now.
But the little house-mother's quick eye saw that
the whole handful would not buy the meat and
wine, much as it looked, and for the third time
she shook her yellow head. There was a longing
look in her face, however, and the shrewd maid
saw it, guessed that money would win the day,
and, diving again into her apron-pocket, brought
out a silver gulden and held it up.
For this, then, little miser? It is more than
the silly flower is worth, but the young fraulein
must have all she wants, so take it and let us be
done with the crying."
A struggle went on in Trudel's mind, and for a
moment she did not speak. She longed to keep
her dear tulip,- her one joy, -and it seemed so
hard to let it go before she had seen it blossom
even once; but then the money would do much,
and her loving little heart yearned to give poor
Father all he needed. Just then her mother's
voice came down from the open window, softly
singing an old hymn to lull the sick man to sleep.
That settled the matter for the dutiful daughter;
tears rose to her eyes, and she found it very hard
to say, with a farewell caress of the blue and yel-
low pot as she gave it up:
You may have it, but it is worth more than a
gulden, for it is a dragon-tulip, the finest we have.
Could you give a little more? My father is very
sick, and we are very poor."
The stout maid had a kind heart under her white
muslin neck-kerchief, and while Miss Maud seized
the flower, good Marta put another gulden into
Trudel's hand before she hastened after her
charge, who made off with the booty, as if fearing
to lose it.
Trudel watched the child with the half-opened
tulip nodding over her shoulder as though it sadly
said "good-bye to its former mistress, till her
dim eyes could see no longer. Then she covered
her face with her apron and sobbed very quietly;
lest Grandmother should hear and be troubled.
But Trudel was a brave child, and soon the tears
stopped, the blue eyes looked gladly at the money
in her hand, and presently, when the fresh wind
had cooled her cheeks, she went in to show her
treasure and cheer up the anxious hearts with her
She made light of the sale of her flower, and,
still knitting, went briskly off to get the meat and
wine for Father, and, if the money held out, some
coffee for Grandmother, and some eggs and white
rolls for Mother, who was weak and worn with her
Surely, the good God does help me," thought
the pious little maid, while she trudged back with
her parcels, quite cheery again, though no pretty
kitten rai to meet her, and no gay tulip stood
full-blown in the noonday sun.
SStill more happy was she over her small sacri-
fices when she saw her father sip a little of the
good broth Grandmother made with such care,
and saw the color come into the pale cheeks of the
dear mother after she had taken the eggs and fine
bread, with a cup of coffee to strengthen and
"We have enough for to-day, and for Father
to-morrow; but on Sunday must we fast as well as
pray, unless the hose be done and paid for in
time," said the old woman next morning, survey-
ing their small store of food with an anxious eye.
I will work hard, and go to Vrouw Schmidt's
the minute we are done. But now I must run and
get wood, else the broth will not be ready," an-
swered Trudel, clattering on her wooden shoes in
a great hurry.
If all else fails, I, too, shall make my sacrifice,
my heart's darling. For I can not knit so fast as
once I did, and if we are not done, or Vrouw
Schmidt be away, I will sell my ring and so feed
the flock till Monday," said the grandmother, lift-
ing up one thin old hand, where shone the wed-
ding-ring she had worn so many years.
"Ah no,--not that! It was so sad to have your
gold beads go, and Mother's ear-rings, and Father's
coat, and Jan, and my lovely flower! We will
not sell the dear old ring. I will find a way.
Something will happen, as before; so wait a little,
and trust to me," cried Trudel, with her arms
about the grandmother, and such a resolute nod
that the rusty little black cap fell over her nose
and extinguished her.
She laughed as she righted it, and went singing
away, as if not a care laid heavy on her young
heart. But when she came to the long dyke which
kept the waters of the lake from overflowing the
fields below, she walked slowly to rest her tired
legs, and to refresh her eyes with the blue sheet
of water on one side, and the still bluer flax-fields
on the other,-for they were in full bloom and
the delicate flowers danced like fairies in the wind.
It was a lonely place, but Trudel liked it, and
went on toward the wood, turning the heel of the
stocking while she walked, with a pause now and
then to look over at the sluice-gates which stood
here and there ready to let off the water when
autumn rains made the lake rise, or, in the spring,
when the flax-fields were overflowed before the
seed was sown. At the last of these she paused to
gather a bunch of yellow stone-crop growing from
a niche in the strong wall which, with earth and
beams, made the dyke. As she stooped, the sound
of voices in the sluice below came distinctly up
to her. Few people came that way, except little
girls, like herself, to gather fagots in the wood, or
truant lads to fish in the pond. Thinking the
hidden speakers must be some of these boys, she
knelt down behind the shrubs that grew along the
banks, and listened with a smile on her lips to hear
what mischief the naughty fellows were planning.
But the smile soon changed to a look of terror,
and she crouched low behind the bushes to catch
all that was said in the echoing hollow below.
"How did I think of the thing? Why, that
is the best part of the joke Herr Von Vost
put it into my head, himself," said a man's gruff
voice, in answer to some question. "This is the
way it was: I sat at the window of the beer-house,
and Von Vost met the Burgomaster close by, and
said, My friend, I hear that the lower sluice-gate
needs looking to. Please see to it speedily, for an
overflow now would ruin my flax-fields, and cause
many of my looms to stand still next winter.'
'So! It shall be looked to next week. Such a
misfortune shall not befall you, my good neighbor,'
said the Burgomaster, as they parted. 'Aha!'
thinks I to myself, 'here we have a fine way
to revenge ourselves on Master Von Vost, who
turned us off and leaves us to starve. We have
but to see that the old gate gives way between now
and Monday, and that hard man will suffer in the
only place where he can feel,- his pocket! '"
Here the gruff voice broke into a low laugh, and
another voice said, slowly:
A good plan; but is there no danger of being
found out, Peit Stensen ? "
"Not a chance of it! See here, Deitrich, a
quiet stroke or two, at night when none can hear it,
will break away these rotten boards and let the
water in. The rest it will do itself; and, by
morning, those great fields will be many feet under
water, and Von Vost's crop ruined. Yes, we will
stop his looms for him, and other men beside you,
and I, and Niklas Haas will stand idle with starving
families round them. Come, will you lend a hand ?
Niklas is away looking for work, and Hans Dort is
sick, or they might be glad to help us."
"Hans would never do it. He is sober, and so
good a weaver he will never want work when he is
well. I will be with you, Peit; but swear not to
S SIEGE. 429
There the voices stopped, and steps were heard
going farther along the sluice-way. Trudel, pale
with fear, rose to her feet, slipped off her sabots,
and ran away along the dyke like a startled rabbit,
never pausing until she was round the corner and
safely out of sight. Then she took breath, and
tried to think what to do first. It was of no use
to go home and tell the story there. Father was
too ill to hear it or to help, and if she told the
"TRUDEL, PALE WITH FEAR, ROSE TO HER FEET."
tell it, whatever happens, for you and I have bad
names now, and it would go hard with us."
"I'll swear anything; but have no fear. We
will not only be revenged on the master, but get
the job of repairing; since men are scarce and the
need will be great when the flood is discovered.
See, then! how fine a plan it is, and meet me here
at twelve to-night with a shovel and pick. Mine
are already hidden in the wood, yonder. Now,
come and see where we must strike, and then slip
home the other way; we must not be seen here by
neighbors, the secret would soon be known every-
where and might bring danger to them all.' No;
she must go at once to Herr Von Vost and
tell him alone, begging him to let no one know
what she had heard, but to prevent the mischief
the men threatened, as if by accident. Then all
would be safe, and the pretty flax-fields kept from
drowning. HerrVanVostwas called the "Master"
because he owned the linen factories, where all day
many looms jangled, and many men and women
worked busily to fill his warehouses and ships with
piles of the fine white cloth, famous all the world
over. It was a long way to his house; but, forget-
ting the wood, Father's broth, Granny's coffee,
and even the knitting which she still held, Trudel
went as fast as she could toward the country house,
where Herr Von Vost would probably be at his
She was faint now with hunger and heat, for the
day was hot, and the anxiety she felt made her
heart flutter while she hurried along the dusty
road till she came to the pretty house in its gay
poor, so unhappy now, we can not bear any more,"
and quite overcome with the troubles that filled
her little heart, and the fatigue and the hunger
that weakened her little body, Trudel dropped
down at Von Vost's feet as if she were dead.
When she came to herself she was lying on a
velvet sofa and the sweet-faced lady was holding
wine to her lips, while Herr Von Vost marched
up and down the room with a frown on his brow,
and his flowered dressing-gown waving behind
"TRUDEL RAN SOFTLY UP THE STEPS, AND IN AT THE OPEN WINDOW."
garden, where some children were playing. Anx-
ious not to be seen, Trudel ran softly up the steps,
and in at the open window of a room where she
saw the master and his wife sitting at table. Both
looked surprised to see a shabby, breathless little
girl enter in that curious fashion, but something
in her face told them that she came on an impor-
tant errand, and putting down his cup, the gentle-
man said quickly:
"Well, girl, what is it?"
In a few words Trudel told her story, adding,
with a beseeching gesture, Dear sir, please do
not tell that I told about bad Peit and Deitrich.
They know father, and may do him some harm if
they discover that I told you this. Ve are so
him. Trudel sat up and said she was quite well,
but the white little face and the hungry eyes that
wandered to the breakfast-table, told the truth,
and the good Vrouw had a plate of food and a
cup of warm milk before her in a moment.
Eat, my poor child, and rest a little, while the
Master considers what is best to be done, and how
to reward the brave little messenger who came so
far to save his property," said the motherly lady,
fanning Trudel, who ate heartily, hardly knowing
what she ate, except that it was very delicious
after so much bread and water.
In a few moments Herr Von Vost paused be-
fore the sofa and said kindly, though his eyes
were stern and his face looked severe :
See, then, thus shall I arrange the affair, and
all will be well. I myself will go to see the old
gate as if made anxious by the burgomaster's
delaying. I find it in a dangerous state, and at
once set my men at work. The rascals are dis-
appointed of both revenge and wages, and I can
soon take care of them in other ways, for they are
drunken fellows, and are easily clapped into
prison and kept safely there till ready to work
and to stop plotting mischief. No one shall know
your part in it, my girl, but I do not forget it.
Tell your father his loom waits for him. Mean-
while, here is something to help while he must be
Trudel's plate nearly fell from her hands, for
a great gold piece dropped into her lap, and she
could only stammer her thanks with tears of joy,
and a mouth full of bread and butter.
He is a kind man, but a busy one, and people
call him 'hard.' You will not find him so here-
after, for he never forgets a favor,-nor do I.
Eat well, dear child, and wait till you are rested.
I will get a basket of comforts for the sick man.
Who else needs help at home? "
So kindly did Vrouw Von Vost look and speak
that Trudel freely told all her sad tale, for the
Master had gone at once to see to the dyke, after
a nod and a pat on the child's head, which made
her quite sure that he was not as hard as people
When she had opened her heart to the friendly
lady, Trudel was left to rest a few moments, and
lay luxuriously on the yellow sofa staring at the
handsome things about her, and eating pretzels till
Vrouw Von Vost returned with the promised basket,
out of which peeped the neck of a wine-bottle, the
legs of a chicken, glimpses of grapes, and many
neat parcels of good things.
My servant goes to market and will carry this
for you till you are near home. Go, little Trudel,
and God bless you for saving us from a great mis-
fortune," said the lady, and she kissed the happy
child and led her to the back door, where stood
the little cart containing many baskets to be filled
in town, with a man to drive the fat horse.
Such a lovely drive our Trudel had that day. No
queen in a splendid chariot ever felt prouder, for all
her cares were gone, gold was in her pocket, food at
her feet, and friends secured to make times easier
for all. No need to tell how joyfully she was wel-
comed at home, nor what praises she received
when her secret was confided to Mother and
Grandmother; nor what a feast was spread in the
Dorts' happy home; for patience, courage, and
trust in God had won the battle, the enemy had
fled, and Trudel's hard siege was over.
'~ (I: I4) i lttcv
7' o tie e ,
Thefehere round fcr 6dievincftkt
t6s Ile tot
Has ben alt Ike cofee-mdI wflel
she- otuglt~ not.-
BY ROY MCTAVISH.
IN large coal mines, employing an army of men
and boys, the great variety of labor compels the
adoption of a most rigid system. Every one, man
or boy, has his special kind of work to do, and a
particular place and time in which to do it. The
slightest infraction of this system soon makes itself
evident in the irregularity of the output of coal.
The person responsible for such delays or infrac-
tions is at once discharged. There is no confusion.
Everything is as regular, both as to time and
movement, as the hands of a clock.
A few minutes before half-past twelve o'clock
the sound of a whistle gave warning that it was time
to prepare for work. A crowd of men and boys,
among whom was Teddy, stepped upon the car-
riage, a peculiar elevator, very strongly constructed,
used to hoist coal from the mine. In English and
Scotch pits it is called a "cage." *
The "surface-man" cried, "Slack off," and the
carriage dropped quickly and silently into the
shaft. It was a very deep shaft, indeed, one of
the deepest in that region; a great, wide, roomy
shaft containing two carriage-ways, a pump-way
filled with pipes and pump-rods, and a steep line
of steps called "ladders."
Teddy saw that the workmanship was of the
best. He knew the colliery to be one of the
largest and best-appointed in the vicinity, and felt
a secret pride that he had been able so readily to
secure work with a "big" company.
For a time the boys sought to play him tricks
such as putting out his lamp,-thus compelling
him to find his way back without a light,-or tak-
ing him to abandoned workings and leaving him
to find his way out again. Teddy took all these
jokes good-naturedly, laughing with the rest while
telling in how short a time he managed to get
out, or what fears he felt when a place looked un-
canny, and did not scruple to add a little out of
his imagination that his hearers might be better
His frank, manly ways won him friends on all
sides. His strong shoulders were ever ready to
help with an extra push, and in cases of "dumps"
(cars off the track), his ready and ingenious expe-
dients made him the leading spirit and director in
the work of "putting on." Some of the older
drivers sought to bully the younger ones, and at
such times those in the right ever found Teddy a
champion of dauntless courage. He was a quiet,
hard-working, careful lad, and soon won his way
to be boss-driver in his heading.
This mine, while one of the largest, was also one
of the most dangerous in the valley. In order to
keep the workings supplied with pure air, in quan-
titysufficient to render harmless the explosive gases
released by opening the coal-seams, an immense
fan had been constructed which, during every
minute that it was in action, drew forth from the
mine over two hundred thousand cubic feet of
impure air. Even with this great air-current,
there were still very dangerous parts of the mine,
requiring the utmost vigilance from the miners.
To hear of some miner or laborer firing the gas
in his chamber and being burned thereby, was a
matter of almost weekly occurrence. In pits of
this character, where there is a plentiful air-cur-
rent, it is often a custom with miners to "fire"
the gas in their working-places before a quantity
sufficient to render its combustion dangerous
accumulates. When this is done, the gas will take
fire with a noise not unlike that made in lighting a
common gas-jet. There is such an excess of air
that the. explosion of the gas is very weak and
harmless. The flame, often three or four feet
deep, will travel along the uneven roof, showing
beautiful colors varying from a deep, dark blue to
a brilliant crimson; and in it shine stars of dazzling
white light, showing that fine particles of coal-dust
suspended in the air are burning in the great heat
of the gas. Sometimes this flame will travel close
up against the roof, slowly to and fro, several times,
until all the gas has been burned away.
When the flame dies out, the burnt- gases (the
"black" or after-damp"), being heavier than
the air, fall to the floor. So the coal-miner is ever
exposed to two great dangers: the first, that of
being burned; the second, that of being suffocated
after he has escaped the fire. Teddy's energy and
intelligence soon won for him the entire confidence
of the mine-boss, who placed him in charge of the
most dangerous and "fire-y" heading in the
Before entering this heading, every man was
compelled to give up his "naked" lamp, and to
.receive a locked "Davy," or "Clanny," in its
* See Letter-box," page 476.
EDWARD ATHOY. 433
stead. Clanny" lamps were most used, because is put on above the glass cylinder. When any
they give more light than the "Davy." Of the many lamp went out, the owner could not again light it,
forms of "safety lamp," so called, used in mines for it was "locked," and could not be opened with-
giving off explosive gases, the "Davy" and
the" Clanny" are the more numerous. Sir
I ^ ,- -
...... ..- ..
M q~-~ : I n: g [, ., ,- L l l l i h l 'n
k;t o L ll t. t L t f I ," ,, n o +,-: :! r -
"COVERING HIS LAMP WITH A FLAP OF HIS COAT, THE BOY THREW HIMSELF FACE DOWNWARD BETWEEN THE RAILS,
AND ALONG THE MUDDY FLOOR OF THE GANGWAY."
fine, but little light is given out to enable the miner out a key. In order to get a light, he must go
to see. In the "Clanny "lamptheflame is surround- back in the dark to the lamp-station. This pre-
ed by a thick cylinder of glass; and the wire gauze caution was necessary, for otherwise a workman
might set fire to the large quantity of gas in these
workings, and not only lose his own life but might
cause the death of all his companions.
Teddy had now been in the mine for more than
a year, and his duties led him, in company with the
fire-boss," to traverse all parts of the workings
every morning before any miner was allowed to
work. If a chamber were so full of gas as to be
dangerous, he barred the road with a board or a
mine-rail, and chalked on the barrier, in large
This was done to prevent the driver-boys from
putting one of the empty cars into the chamber;
as, under the rules, the driver must furnish a car
to the miner's place each morning before the miner
arrives, in order that there may be no working-
time lost in waiting for cars.
One damp, sultry morning in August, the hard-
worked mine-boss came up out of the mine, after
enjoining unusual caution upon every workman.
As each man had landed at the foot of the shaft
he had found the boss waiting to speak a word of
caution. The mine did not "draw well," as he
termed it, because of.the warm, sultry day, and
the air-fan would be taxed to its utmost capacity to
- keep the inner workings free from danger. As he
stepped from the carriage into the misty morning
light, he stood for a moment doubting whether to
return at once to the mine, or to go to the office and
make out his morning report. The locomotive was
waiting on the tracks below, and already the con-
ductor was climbing the steep bank to the little
office -just as Teddy had done more than a year
before. The mine-boss went to the office, and,
with the clerk, made out the report. He then
seated himself at the table, and unrolled the col-
ored tracing. Running his finger over a patch
painted blue, he said:
Shannahan's heading is making a great deal
of gas this morning. If I find it has made any
more within an hour, I shall order the men out."
"It did not seem over bad to me," said one of
the night-shift" men. "I worked in it all last
night, and left it after the fire-boss came in this
That 's all well enough," returned the boss,
"but the coal is high,* and it is hard to dust out
the gas from the catches in the roof. Besides,
men will be careless and take risks rather than
put themselves to a little extra work or bother."
"That's Athoy's lift, and he's a careful lad,"
broke in another.
Yes," said the boss, "if it was anybody but
Teddy, I 'd have had 'em all out afore this. I 'm
uneasy about the place, and did not get much
sleep, worrying over it, when I found 't was like'
to be a muggy morning. It was all right there
at three, and all right at half-past six,--and Ted-
dy 's a careful lad," he said, musingly.
Ah, Sissy You are a good lassie to bring me
my breakfast just in time. I'll take this pasty,
and be off." This was said to a tiny little girl
carrying a dinner-pail and a tin bottle, her head
covered by a large, blue-checked sun-bonnet, which
was made by a stiff, starched ruffle to look even
larger. She seemed a walking sun-bonnet, so little
was the lassie, so big the bonnet.
The boss took the pasty in one hand, holding
his lamp in the other, went toward the door, and
was just stepping out, when he suddenly stopped,
with his every sense strained to almost agonized
attention. His color fled, his face paled, and his
thin lips tightened until they appeared white
against the teeth. Those in the room glanced at
him, and then all stood riveted to the floor, mo-
tionless. A strange sort of noise could now be
heard. The din of the breaker was easily dis-
tinguished, but there was lacking another sound,
that of the fan; or, rather, there was a something
peculiar in its movement--an indefinable differ-
ence in the vibrations its rapid motion imparted to
"Quick You, there -it has come said the
So, indeed, "it" had come! For with his last
words there was a dull, booming sound, and a
cloud of steam and splinters arose from the air-
shaft. The hum of the fan still continued, but
with a jerky, uneven cadence. There came an-
other dull sound, followed by another expulsion of
steam and broken wood-workfrom the air-shaft. Ex-
plosion followed explosion, wrecking the fan-house,
leaving the great fan-wheel* hanging in its iron
supports without a vestige of wood-work about it.
Though continuing to run, it was now absolutely
useless, because, being uninclosed, it could not
pump any air.
The deep-toned fire-gong on the breaker sent
forth its warning notes, and there soon gathered
at the shaft-head a crowd of half-dressed miners
and bareheaded women and children. Little was
said. The mine-boss gave directions with a cool
steadiness born of long experience and masterful
habit. He at once directed immediate repairs to
the fan-casing, and saw the necessary lumber and
boards hauled to the place, under the direction of
the "outside boss.
Then, selecting from among the assembled
miners a few tried men, he stepped upon the car-
riage and, with them, was soon carried to the bot-
tom of the shaft. As they disappeared from sight,
a woman set up a loud wail. No one can describe
* See note, in "Letter-box," p. 476.
this pitiful sound. It is the old Irish "keen," and
chills one's very heart. It is not so much a defi-
nite cry of grief as- the embodiment of direful ter-
rors, yet unknown, into one terrible cry. It is
horrible in its portentous significance.
"I 've often seen it much worse and the gas
much lower, sir; but whenever I feel like this I 'm
uneasy, sir. The Haggertys and them as was in
the old East Tunnel was killed when I last had it,
sir, and then it made me sick, so it did."
Ye maun na feel tha' uncanny, lad; 't will na
When the mine-boss had met Teddy early that do ye any guid," replied the boss, who always
same August morning, Teddy was returning to the broadened his speech when unusually impressed.
lamp-station, wearing a very troubled look. "I maun report, ye ken. I '11 be wi' ye again
I don't like the draw of the air, this morn- ere the hour goes." So saying, he left Teddy, to
ing, Mr. McDonald. The fire gets pretty low return to the surface for the purpose of making out
down in some places. I have stopped the Gal- his morning report.
laghers, Evan Williams, and Dick Richards. I They had returned to the lamp-station, so
went in with Jimmie Burns. His place is all right, Teddy refilled his own Davy and took with him
so I put them in doubles, and they are now work- several newly filled, low-trimmed lamps to replace
ing four-handed." such as had gone out, among the workmen. Under
"I '11 go in with ye, lad," said the boss. his energetic care, trips of loaded cars were already
Returning along the gangway road,* stopping gathering on the branches" above the long plane.
here and there to try the gas with their Davy- Fully an hour had passed and the mine was waken-
lamps,f they traversed a long plane where loaded ing from its strange sense of quiet. His old feel-
cars, descending, pulled up the lighter, empty ones ing of buoyancy had returned. He broke out into
by means of a wire rope. At the head of this the air of "Kathleen Mavourneen," and as his
plane stood a man whose duty it was to regulate boyish voice lingered over the lines:
the speed of the cars by applying a brake-band*
upon a big drum," around which the rope was And it may be forever-"
wound. Near this, stood a driver-boy who hauled
the cars over the angle at the top of the plane. he dropped on one knee to examine more closely
Two "Clanny" lamps were hung quite close to the a defective latch-pin in a switch. The song died in
ground, giving a dim light in which the eyes of his throat, as his look suddenly became fastened
men and mules gleamed like glowing fire-balls. upon the tiny flame in his lamp. It gave a spas-
The coal is coming slow, sir," said the man. modic jump, then quickly lengthened so as almost
"All right," said the boss. "It's because some to reach the top of the gauze. Teddy sprang to his
of the places have been stopped." feet, holding the lamp thrust out at arms-length,
Passing on, they entered chamber after chamber, his eyes intently watching the flame. For an in-
cautioning the men in each to use extreme care stant only it settled back to its usual size; but in
and to report at once any dangerous body of gas. that instant there came a sound he knew but too
They made the rounds of Shannahan's heading, well. He hastily thrust two lighted Clannys"
testing every place and measuring the current into the side-pockets of his canvas jacket, one upon
passing into the air-way at the end of the gang- each side.
way. There was current enough, but the air was Scarcely had he done so, when along the gang-
light, causing the gas to show in the air-current way came a blinding rush of air filled with dust and
much lower than usual. Everything was right in fine coal. Covering his lamp with a flap of his coat,
this, the worst part of the mine, and yet both the boy threw himself face downward between the
men were ill at ease. There was an unusual rails and along the muddy floor of the gangway,
stillness. The noise of dripping water seemed pulling his soft oilskin hat well back over his neck
more distinct, even the faint hum of the colorless, and ears. As he straightened himself in the narrow
red-eyed flies* became an annoyance, while the channel, there surged over him a whirlwind of fire.
flames within the wire gauzes of the lamps burned Down it came to within a foot of the rails. The
with greater brilliancy, and at times a faint red- intense heat of the burning gas caused the fine
blue halo encircled their elongated points, coal-dust to glow as in a furnace. The heavy,
The rats bes gone, sir. I have not seen one damp air of the mine increased the power and
since I came in. And the mules bes awful still, heat of the explosion. As soon as it had passed,
so they be," said Teddy, half musingly, half Teddy, scorched and bruised, leaped to his feet,
inquiringly. and raced up the road to the plane. To think,
It might be better. Do you think it bad, lad?" with him, was to act. He must use all his speed
*See note in Letter-box," p. 476.
tWhen an explosive gas enters a Davy-lamp, it is merely consumed without exploding, but shows its presence by making the lamp bum
more brightly and with a larger flame, having a luminous blue envelope or cap. It is the presence of this blue envelope that indicates danger.
to reach the inner works, where the greater num-
ber of workmen in this part of the mine were
stationed, before the gas had time to burn back
on its return -which is always much slower than
the first explosion.
When he reached the foot of the plane, his
heart stood still. Broken and twisted, entangled
in torn wire-rope, half buried in rent timbers and
fallen coal, lay a trip of cars; mules, cars, driver-
boy, and all, in a heap together. The whole trip "
had been blown to the bottom of the plane by the
rush of air preceding the burning gas.
Teddy stooped over the lad the poor little fel-
low was hardly more than a child. He was dead.
Climbing over the broken cars, Teddy hastened up
the plane, swinging the Clannys above the ever
thickening layer of falling black-damp. He felt its
heat with every in-drawn breath. His head ached
almost beyond the power of endurance, and soon
a tired, pained feeling seemed to seize upon his
limbs, contending with his will for mastery. Still
he struggled onward. Could he but reach the air-
way masonry, there would be some hope of un-
locking its narrow door and crawling through in
time to be of service to the men in the dip-works.
Many months before, when the miners in getting
coal first reached the top of the hill, the gangway
and its air-way were sufficient for letting in fresh air,
and conducting out impure air and the large quan-
tities of water exuding through the rocks. Now
the roads and passages made a perfect net-work
at the top of the hill, and these two ways were not
sufficient to serve all purposes.
Other hills and valleys, in the coal were found
on the higher level of the first hill. In making
new passages for air and water, the old air-way was
separated from the plane roads by thick walls of
cemented stone wherever an opening from one to
the other occurred. In one of these masonry walls
was placed a small but very strong door, the keys
to which were given to bosses only. To go through
this door was a "short cut" to a part of the new
works on the hill, which had run into a sort of long
incline or valley called a "dip." These works
were called the plane dip "; from them a narrow
opening had been driven through coal and rock to
connect with old works long since abandoned
and walled up, and partially converted into a great
underground drain. This channel was the old dip
water-way, and Teddy's mind turned to this rock-
walled ditch more than once, as he struggled
Here and there along the road he stumbled over
the fallen form of an unfortunate miner. The
countenance of one of these men arrested his at-
tention. It was the blackened face of Martin Gil-
foyle. A short pipe, firmly held between his teeth,
and an unlocked lamp were eloquent, though silent
witnesses to the cause of the disaster. Teddy
glanced at him a second time, with a feeling of
angry contempt. It was for this, that he had suf-
fered all the agonies of superstition and the dread
of coming danger; it was for this, that so many
men had lost their lives, that so many widows and
orphans were wailing at the pit's mouth for he
well knew what scenes were being enacted there;
for this,- that Gilfoyle might have a smoke It
was so terrible in its consequences, yet so ridiculous
in its foolhardiness, that the incongruous thought of
losing his life for a pipe of tobacco flashed through
the boy's mind, causing him to smile while tears
of pain yet coursed over his scorched cheeks.
At last the air-way was won. He stopped for a
moment in order to take one last, searching look up
the gangway road, where, in the faint light of a
"blower" (as burning jets of gas issuing from the
coal are called), he saw the "nipper," or door-
boy, Joe, leaning against the pillar. The little boy
seemed dazed and uncertain in his movements, but
made an effort to reach Teddy, stretching forth his
arms as though groping in the dark.
Joey was a quiet little fellow, so delicate and frail
that it seemed cruel that he should be compelled
to pass his days amid the labors and dangers of the
mines. Yet, with all the poverty and hard ways
of his life, he was not quite alone, like Teddy.
Living in a little house on the mountain, with his
mother, the child's earnings constituted the sole
source of income until Teddy came as a boarder.
To protect him from the impositions of other boys,
Teddy asked the mine-boss to give Joe a door in the
plane works. A warm attachment soon grew be-
tween them. They were inseparable companions
during the few hours of sunlight their labors al-
lowed them. Many a long Sunday afternoon they
rambled through spicy pine woods, gathering the
snowy laurel-blossoms and delicate fern-fronds.
Are you much hurt, Joey? "
"A little burned on the face and hands. The
wind blowed me into the ditch, so I did n't get
much o' the fire. But I 'm awful tired in the legs,
It is the black-damp, Joey. We must get out
o' this, quick," said Teddy, turning to the stone
wall before him. The strong oaken door, hardly
two feet square, had been able to resist the force
of the explosion. Fitting the key to the lock, he
pushed open the door, and both crawled through.
As he turned to close it, and to drop the heavy
oak bar against it, he saw that Shannahan's head-
ing was as bright as day. The gas was burning
back again, and would so continue to burn until
it had consumed all the air in the place. To his
dismay, he found that no air was stirring in the
air-way, which was to him plain proof either that
the fan had been injured, or that a heavy fall had
cut off the air, and, at the same time, shut them
in. Carrying his lamp low down to avoid the gas,
which was rapidly accumulating overhead, he hur-
ried forward till he reached the dip-works. Here
he found some twenty men huddled in a circle
about a lamp placed upon an empty powder-keg.
As he strode into the circle, they made way for
him as for a leader.
"There are two chances left," he said; "one
through the air-way door to the plane,-if we can
live through the damp,-the other through the
old dip water-way, if we can live long enough there
to work through."
The lads on the plane-works-shall we leave
them ?" asked a miner.
"They are all dead on the road. 'T was Gil-
foyle's pipe that lit it," responded Teddy.
The men knew without further question that
Gilfoyle was the cause of their danger and distress,
yet not one murmured a word of complaint. Fol-
lowing Teddy, they determined to abandon all hope
of reaching the shaft-foot by way of the plane, and
so plunged into the water-way and worked along
until stopped by a thick wall, under which water
flowed through an arched culvert, so made that the
water was backed up against the masonry and
formed a seal, or pool, rising above the top of the
Two powerful Scotchmen went to work with their
picks, turning out stone after stone from the face
of the wall, until at last an opening was made.
Through this they all passed into the narrow ditch,
only to meet another dam, and after that still
another. The impure air, the "white-damp," of
these long-abandoned workings was doing its fatal
work. White-damp differs from "black-damp"
inasmuch as it will support combustion but not
life. A very small proportion of carbonic oxide
gas is, in coal mines, the fatal element.
The lamps burned like beacon stars in this terri-
ble darkness, and by the light of their steady, mo-
tionless flames, one by one the little party were
laying down their tools and, with them, their lives
in that fatal ditch. Many a good man had given
up his life before on that very spot. There was
the long double row of props, now overgrown with
heavy, white festoons of damp, clammy fungus.
These old works had been walled up since that
eventful day which Teddy remembered so well
when the Haggertys were killed there. In pairs,
the miners attacked the next wall. But every
moment their blows grew fainter, and they took
longer rests. There were few standing now to
renew the work; the others were asleep on the wet,
oozy, ragged rocks. Without a word, they looked
into each other's faces, then plied their picks. Sud-
denly they stopped. A faint clinking sound was
heard. It became steady; a dull clinking sound in
the pillar; where, they could not exactly tell, yet
somewhere in front of them, either on the right or
the left. They sprang to their picks with renewed
energy. There was a rescuing party at work!
Ah! There were now so few in need of rescue !
When the mine-boss reached the foot of the
shaft, all was darkness there. The men, at the
first sense of danger, had extinguished their lamps.
Summoning aid from the hatless, coatless throng,
he strode forward in advance of the party directly
on the road to Shannahan's heading. Door after
door was passed, the greater number proving
the presence of mind of the door-boys, even in
their danger and hurried flight; for, wherever
there was a latch-door (some doors have a heavy
wooden latch, while others are so hung as to swing
shut), the latch was down; thus securing the door
against opening unless opened by hand, and by
this means maintaining wherever possible the flow
of the air-current. As they passed onward, the
signs of violence increased. In one place a great
mass of coal had sprung from the pillar, and lay
in huge blocks on the road. In another, a pair
of "collars" had given way, leaving the roof hang-
ing ready to fall. As they neared the lamp-station
the wildest confusion prevailed. Doors and frames
were blown from their fastenings; bent and broken
cars were scattered over the road. In the dim,
uncertain light of a few "blowers" burning high
up near the roof, the confused mass at the foot
of the plane could be distinguished.
The mine-boss knew that no man in the plane-
workings could have had one chance in a hundred
of escaping the effects of such an explosion.
It was of the most destructive type-an ex-
plosion in which the burning gas traverses place
after place with the rapidity of a cannon-shot, and,
when its first force is spent, slowly returns, and re-
traces, and re-traverses the same ground, until it
has burned itself out; leaving burning "blowers"
streaming out here and there wherever enough air
yet remains to support combustion.
But what of the dip-men? Could they have
They could not have made use of the air-way
opening, on account of the gas on the plane; nor
could they escape by the gangway, because that
was choked full by the fall. There was but one
course open to them, in the judgment of the mine-
boss,-which was the course they had taken,-
These thoughts chased each other through Mc-
Donald's mind as he threaded the old works to
the nearest point of attack on the masonry of the
water-way. It was slow work at best. As fast
as pick and drill could be driven, as quickly as
dynamite could shatter, did wall and pillar fall
before this rescuing party. At last, they, too,
heard answering blows, the pick-strokes of the im-
prisoned men. The sounds became louder and
louder, until at last they were working on opposite
sides of the same pillar. A shattering shot so
loosened the coal that a part of it was barred down,
making a small opening. Crawling through, the
rescuer saw two men, chest-deep in water, leaning
against the stone-piled sides of the ditch, covering
their faces with their hands and arms. Quickly,
he thrust the nearer man into the opening, through
which he was pulled by eager hands. Soon the
other was also carried into pure air.
Near by the rescuers found Teddy, with little Joe
lying across his knees. Both seemed as though
Carried to the surface, they were gently laid
upon the floor of the engine-room, and over them
bent the physicians, searching carefully for the
least sign of life. After-long and patient efforts,
a slight tremor of the dark-fringed eyelids showed
that for Teddy there was hope. For little Joe, it
proved to be the last deep sleep the final rest.
There were no more!
When the air-current could at last be directed
through the workings, one by one the men were
found. As they were brought out of the shaft
and carried to the little office, there was father,
mother, wife, or sweetheart to raise the cry of
In a pretty spot, high up the mountain-side,
overlooking a beautiful river, and the broad sweep
of the spruce-clad West Mountain, there are many
humble monuments erected to the memory of the
dead. Under the gaunt arms of a Norway pine
is a stone standing at the head of one lone mound,
ever covered, in summer, with dark, purple pansies.
Oftentimes come two toil-worn men, one of whom
we should recognize as Teddy. They look down
into the deep-hued, velvety flowers, then into each
other's eyes, and say, softly: "A brave, bonnie
The lettering upon the stone is:
PICTURES FOR LITTLE FRENCH READERS. No. iiI.
FROM MY WINDOW.
BY EMILIE POULSSON.
Shine and azure
World, so gray and olden,
Thou art new and golden!
Of all bloom and bliss
For thine adorning,
Nothing dost thou miss
This spring-time morning!
THE WRECK OF THE "LIZZIE J. CLARK."
BY LOUIE LYNDON.
SMALL coasting schooners that bring lime, and
lumber, and other light cargoes from the East,
very often come to grief within sight of our light-
house. The channels leading from the coasts and
bay to the port beyond are narrow and danger-
ous; and in daylight, as well as at night, vessels
run aground, strike on the rocks, or drag adrift
from the anchoring-grounds. One of these little
vessels struck on our island in a winter's gale, and,
with her crew, claimed our interest for many days
It was late in February, just as we were think-
ing the winter would slip by without locking us in
with ice, when there came a cold storm that formed
an ice-barrier round our island. The wharf became
an inland structure, a palace of frosted pillars;
and, beyond the ice-fields; the sea was dark and
cruel, tossed into furious waves by the terrible
north wind. The second night darkened without
a sign of relenting, either in the wind or in the
biting cold. After midnight, we were startled by
hearing stamping, and knocking, and the tramp
of heavy, weary feet outside the door. Three poor
sailors, exhausted and benumbed, staggered into
the warm room. We thought at first that they
were frost-bitten, and not for a long time were they
able to tell their story. We could not stop to
question them, for there was need of all quick and
practicAl measures which would secure their rest
and comfort. The exposure and exertion of the
past twenty-four hours began to tell upon them
when relief and warmth had reached their chilled
bodies; the drowsiness that comes of excessive
fatigue fell upon them, and a sentence often would
end in a nod. One of the sailors, the captain's
son, was a mere boy -a poor, shy little fellow,
half frozen and perishing, and almost dumb with
terror. The captain's own story of his adventure
will give the true tone better than my version at
second-hand. He was led, during our acquaint-
ance, to the recital of so many other adventures,
that I could not doubt that this tale would take
its place among the other "yarns." His calm
pride in the many wrecks he had figured in
was not unlike that of the Indian warrior when
recounting the story of the scalps at his girdle,
But under his careless tone there was an apprecia-
tion of the danger and hardships experienced,
which a sailor's pride forbade his bringing
to the surface. He was just such a weather-
beaten ship-captain as one would picture,
with bushy eyebrows and a tawny, shaggy
beard; his clothes, covered all over with
irregular patches of cloths of different
colors. He wore heavy, stiff, rusty leather
boots, blue woolen mittens, and, drawn
over his ears, a long-caped sou'wester.
We went together to look at the wreck,
-- scrambling over ice-blocks on the uneven
S beaches, and at last we stood beside the
old, battered boat, blown ashore from the
__ schooner's davits before she struck. This
was the captain's story:
S "We was layin' to an anchor, jest off
Spettical Island, marm, when we got adrift.
We 'd been as fur as the lower light, but
we see bad weather ahead, and we come
S about and laid to an anchor. That was
Thursday; and Friday night, it. blowed
a gale. We thought she 'd drag, so we put
out the other anchor. It come on cold, and colder;
and that schooner, marm, she went head under
every time. Wal, I never see it colder; water
did n't hev no run to it; when that salt water hit
THE WRECK OF THE "LIZZIE J. CLARK."
anything it froze right on where it was; it froze
right in the air; and every time she went under,
she fetched up a layer of ice. The water it broke
over beyond the mainmast and up ter the mast-
head; and when she came up, instead of a-shakin'
of it off, it was a-freezin' to everything. We kep'
a-poundin' ice all day Saturday, but't war n't no
good; and, into the night, I war n't sorry when
she sot adrift. If she had n't, I believe we 'd
'a' gone down jest whar we was; she could n't
'a' took on much more such cargo as that 'ere ice
.and kep' afloat. Wet? I was wet all the time,
inside my clothes, and froze, outside, a-poundin'
that ice and the water a-comin' over me every time
she went head under. We was getting' about tuck-
ered out when I see her a-driftin', come midnight.
Boat had blowed clean off the davits long before
she struck, and we was put to it by how to get
ashore. She laid easy, but we did n't dare stay
aboard; and the cabin was full o' water, and the
rigging all froze up so as we could n't git up it.
could loose the imprisoned ship. I went alone
to her, one calm, cold morning, venturing to
board her as she lay. The space between the beach
and the schooner was bridged by huge tables of
ice, moving uneasily with a dull, grinding sound
as the tide rose beneath them, showing channels
-.. -. .. of cold, dark sea-water between. I ventured upon
one block, and when that closed up the space, I
could jump to another; and, working my way
cautiously, I reached the side of the schooner.
There I stood on a narrow block of ice around
which the deep water threatened me. Chains and
wire ropes at the bows were thickly heaped with
ice, which the little vessel had gathered in her wild
plunges at her anchorage. I could scarcely wedge
myself between them. Clinging with feet and
hands to the martingale, backstays and bobstays,
We guessed we was n't fur offshore, so we dropped
over the side and got ashore through the ice when
the tide fell off. We see the light-house, but 't
was more 'n a mile away and we did n't know
as we 'd live to git thar, we was so beat out a-
workin' that ship, and 'most frozen; and 't was
pitch-dark, and we did n't know the road, and gale
was clean in our teeth, a-beatin' of us back every
step of the way. Mighty lucky we was to git off
so as we did, good many of 'em 's went down whar
they laid to an anchor, and we 'd 'a' gone before
morning' ef we had n't broke adrift."
The morning after the wrecking of the schooner,
the wind, lulling a little, gave the still cold a
chance to weld the ice around the vessel, so that
when I first saw her she lay quite near the beach,
beyond which extended a smooth white plain of
ice. Another day, and still another, added to the
ice, before a change came; only the warm sun
and twining my arm round a small rope, which,
with its ice covering, made an armful, I looked
over the rail, and saw the ice-coated deck-load,
THE WRECK OF THE "LIZZIE J. CLARK."
the spars, the deck-houses, and the canvas as firm
as a board. It was hard to believe that this ice-
clad ship had very recently been at sea, the only
foot-hold of our sailors; it seemed, rather, to have
been there accumulating ice all the winter. The
night hours, when the men were tossing in this
ship, helplessly drifting in the cold and darkness
must have been horrible.
When the tide had fallen, the rugged ice-field
was safe from the beach nearly to the edge of the
ice,-far beyond the place where the vessel lay.
The flukes of two anchors pierced the ice near the
wreck,- the schooner still holding the anchors
after they had refused to hold her,
The hot sunshine pouring down in the still,
warm days that followed, softened the sharp out-
line of the ice-masses; and the sailors worked
busily, knocking off the icy armor from the deck
and rigging. Once they rigged a line to help
me to clamber on deck, from the water-side, but it
was a slippery, exhausting journey. There was
literally no foot-hold on the icy slope of the deck,
and more than once I sank in a clumsy heap
among the ice-bound hogsheads on deck, before
I reached the door of the cabin. A cold, gloomy,
watery cavern it seemed, though not long before the
men had lived there cosily and in comfort.
Some of the island fishermen worked on the
disabled ship, when it was found she could be
saved, and a little hum and stir about the winter-
stricken island gave it the look of having thawed
out and become alive. The captain's story was
never threadbare, even after its many repetitions,
for the islanders listened with the keen sympathy
that comes of similar experiences. Our more firmly
anchored island-ship,- the light-house,- had felt
the power of storm and cold, and from our cabin-
windows we had so often looked at the struggling
vessel at anchor, that it grew into our closer sym-
At length the bonds weakened, the ice-field
broke up, and the battered vessel was really afloat,
at first hauled off by a tug; and once free, they
gave the poor, tipsy thing a jib, and let her feel]
that one wing, after her long imprisonment, before
they laid her beside the wharf. Another schooner
lay beside her, to which her deck-load of oil and
molasses was shifted. When at last the two
schooners moved off, one on each side of the tug-
boat, the relief schooner stood stanch and trim,
while her weather-worn sister leaned heavily on
the left arm of the tug. The little world that had
touched our lonely one so nearly, floated quite
away, the hum and stir were at an end, and we
settled back into our usual, quiet lives. The
fishermen, no doubt, would long remember the
wreck with satisfaction, rejoicing over their spoils
of damaged corn, flour, and sugar, bought for a
song, from the schooner.
The magic March sunshine gradually changed
our winter scene into summer-like, open blue sea;
and then we remembered, with a shudder and
shiver, the bleak, black night when the sailors
cxn camateur Oariculturatist
Cried. an Or xnemr1at Farncr,"why haveo you
Stolen all my precious strawberriess otut two?
Re~ptiod his man, "accuseS not me.,
-I was VhaL
ehe. t re., -&
SBu~t I wt'll
to get tlze Berry bacK
DRILL: A STORY OF SCHOOL-BOY LIFE.
BY JOHN PRESTON TRUE.
T was on the black-
board next to a
the fifteenth propo-
sition of the third
book of Geometry
that Harry Wylie
made the following
note, on the Mon-
day after his return
*HLt from vacation, while
the class were in
Dr. McCarty's recitation-room:
Chorus of Second Class, on entering the Doc-
Ave, Medtice / nos norituri te salutamtus '"
And few of the boys there present soon forgot
the hearty bui-st of laughter with which the short
and excitable Doctor greeted this audacious ex-
pression of discontent at having to flounder through
the detested Chauvenet."
The Doctor was a stout, little man, with curly
hair and a handsome face.
Later in the day, Harry, with much satisfaction,
for the first time buckled on his sword and stepped
out in front of the Company while his acting-com-
mission was read to the command. It seemed odd
to glance down the line and, instead of seeing the
sunlight glinting from a row of polished barrels,
to see only the white radiance of northern pine.
He was not at all sure that he liked the change,
after all; in fact he felt somewhat as though
he, by some magic incantation, had invoked a
genie which it was beyond his power to send below
again, and concluded that Dane was right in
cautioning him against betraying his share in the
equipment of the Wild Lake Witches."
But the drill went on as usual, except that the
manual of arms was somewhat abridged by omit-
ting what was unsuitable to the new weapons ; and
by a few well-timed words in an undertone, now
and then, relative to the difference between carry-
ing ounces and carrying pounds for two hours
daily, he soon managed to instilla degree of content-
ment in the boys under his command which, for
the time being, quite resigned them to the change;
justifying the General's foresight in selecting
Wylie to take charge of the most refractory com-
pany. Indeed, when the insubordinate students
were released from arrest and rejoined the Com-
pany, they were astonished at the lack of sympathy
which was exhibited by their brothers-in-arms.
* "Hail, Doctor! We, who are about to die, salute thee! A parody upon the salutation of the Roman Gladiators -
"Ave, Cesar," etc. when they entered the arena.
They had been under the impression that they
were regarded as martyrs; and to be informed that
they had only made dunces of themselves !" was
not a little exasperating. Harry himself was sur-
prised to find that he possessed so much influ-
ence; but his comments had been made in a
matter-of-fact, common-sense way, and from a
point of view so devoid of sentiment, as to take
the wind out of the sails of the more eloquent
orators during a time when they were unable to
say anything to counteract his influence; and the
hours of drill gave the boys time to think the mat-
ter over in this new light, and undisturbed.
Dane was in his company also, and seconded
his friend's efforts to the best of his ability. When
the next drill was over, however, and the half-hour
for recreation came, the malcontents began to
make trouble for Harry, in whom they saw per-
sonified the spirit of law and order, since he was
reigning in place of their fallen leader. One of
them, the son of a mill-owner, Mitchell by name,
did not hesitate to accuse him of time-serving.
It 's all very well for you to talk, now that
you are made second 'luff' by it, Harry Wylie," he
retorted, in reply to some remark. You stepped
into the place of a better fellow than you ever were,
or will be, by joining in with the strong side, in-
stead of being brave enough to stand up against
it. We should have our muskets back by now if
you and the ones like you had had the spirit of one
man among you all "
Harry endeavored to keep his temper as he re-
marked, with no evidence of irritation:
I think that the powers that be' did just right
about the muskets, Mitchell. I said so before they
made the change, and I think so now."
"You are a coward!" And Mitchell laughed
contemptuously as he offered this, the deepest of
insults to a boy; and an expectant silence fell upon
the throng, while the students drew closer around
Harry's eyes blazed, and his fingers twitched
nervously. He longed oh, how he longed to
take that fellow by the throat and give one squeeze.
Only one / It would not be necessary to give two.
And it would teach him a lesson that he would not
But there came into his mind an admonition of
old Tom," his brother : Never mind what the
fellows say; don't begin a fight either by muscle
or by word. If your opponent is insulting, just
remember that you are a gentleman, not a dentist,
and don't extract his teeth for it"; and the thought
made him smile even now, when he was least in
"You can say that, if you choose, Mitchell,"
he said, when he was sure of himself. "I shall not
contradict you. But you will have to bring up
better proof than any you now have if you expect
to make the men of this Company believe any such
"Well, then, perhaps they will believe this !"
And stepping suddenly nearer, with a quick move-
ment he attempted to slap Harry's face; but
Wylie was too quick for him, and catching the
coming arm with a quick grasp of his left hand,
he pushed him back to his former place, saying
in an authoritative tone:
"Don't be a fool, Mitchell,-unless you are
anxious to return to the guard-house This
action caused a decided sensation in the group
around them. The spot where they were was
sheltered against observation from the Institute, be-
ing in the lee of a high bluff on the margin of the
But Mitchell was determined to fight. He was
something of abully; and, as the second lieutenant
was slighter in build than he, it seemed a safe
thing to attack him; and a black eye would be
likely to put an end to the new commission. Ac-
cordingly, the moment that the grasp upon his
arm relaxed, he sprang forward again, and deliv-
ered a straight right-hand blow with a vim that
might have injured Harry's face considerably-
if he had been there at the instant 1 As it was,
the fist simply made a hole in the air; the owner
of it was nearly overbalanced, and, before any one
knew exactly how it was done, Mitchell found him-
self flat upon his face, the boys around shouting
with laughter, while the second lieutenant was
coolly tying his hands behind him with a bit of
"There, Mitchell! said Harry, rising, when
he had finished his work in spite of the struggles
of his captive; "if you had struck at any other
boy in school I should walk you straight to the
principal. As it is, since you might think that
it was done from personal feeling, I shall not take
any action at present. But I want you distinctly to
understand that I shall not fight you, either now
or at any time. If I catch you bullying I shall
put you under arrest, but I shall not give you
a thrashing. There is law enough to deal with
you without my taking it into my own hands."
"I know that you do not think as I do," he
added, turning to the others, "and you have a
right to your own opinions. But you must con-
cede me the same right; and if you see fit to
call me a coward because I follow my own ideas
- I 'm sorry, but I shall go ahead just the same."
Humph I'll tell you what it is, Wylie," said
Rankin, the ex-lieutenant. "It took more pluck
to say that before this crowd than any fellow here
has,- myself included. We may not think alike;
but go ahead, and I, for one, shall not call you a
coward, and there's my hand on it," and he held
out his hand as he spoke.
Mitchell, struggling to get upon his feet, looked
utterly dismayed at finding himself so entirely
unsupported. He had thought that Rankin, at
least, would back him up in his quarrel, whereas
the ex-lieutenant was the first to go over to the
enemy; then, too, he was cowed by the threat of
taking him before the principal,-a threat which,
however contrary it might be to the canons of
school-boy honor, he knew Wylie was fully capable
of carrying out, if he thought it right. Conse-
quently he muttered something to the effect that
he was only in fun; and then, in a subdued man-
ner, asked that his hands might be untied. Harry
looked at the would-be pugilist for a moment,
and, seeing that all the "fight" had completely
oozed out of him, took his knife and cut the string,
without a word,- and a few minutes afterward
Mitchell slipped away.
"I don't exactly believe in that, Wylie !" said
one of the other boys, speaking for the first time.
"What's the good of bringing such things before
the principal? You could have thrashed Mitchell
easily, as I happen to know, and I don't see why
you didn't do it. If a fellow can't take care of
himself, let him go to law; but so long as he can,
why not do it ? "
That is to say, Young, if some one takes a shot
at you from behind a fence, and you know who he
is, instead of having him arrested and retired from
active life for a while, you would load your blun-
derbuss and shoot him on sight," said Harry, with
a laugh, in which the others joined. This is n't
Africa, you know !" and Harry began to try the
strength of the ice in the cove, to ascertain when
skating was probable, for this was the errand
which had brought them to the shore.
Two nights after this, something happened of
which the reader shall be told later on and which
forever settled any question there might have been
in the minds of the boys as to whether Lieutenant
Harry Wylie was a coward or not.
THE little Englishman arrived. Then the four-
horse team from the factory came, heavily laden
with another lot of the principal's pikes, save that
whereas the first were of pine, and cut square at
one end, the new ones were of hickory and oak, and
the ends were nicely rounded off alike. The old
pikes were quickly piled upon the wagon, and
were carted away to do duty, according to their
original destiny, as broom-handles.
A number of men were soon set to work within
the drill-hall, although what they were doing was
a puzzle to themselves as well as to the on-lookers.
They had received their orders to do certain things
without being informed of the purpose of their
work, and knew no more than the boys what that
might be; but every one agreed that "there was
Then all the officers, from the major down to
the corporals, were ordered to report at the drill-
hall, while the rest of the students were excused for
that day from attendance there; and many were
the conjectures as to what this might portend.
It's some new manual that they are learning,"
suggested Nat Young, with some degree of sa-
gacity. And gradually the rest came to the same
When the officers returned they looked flushed,
as though they had been exerting themselves, and
there were certain signs of weariness, a brightness
of the eyes, and much suppressed laughter, all of
which was highly exasperating to the rank-and-file,
being evidence that, whatever the officers had been
about, it was something pleasant to look back upon;
but oysters could n't be closer-mouthed than those
same officers on occasion.
So there was nothing to do but to await develop-
When the next hour for drill arrived, and the
companies stood at attention," resting on their
polished pikes, they found themselves arranged in
a hollow square; and the officers withdrew to an
adjacent room. In about five minutes they all
returned; but their own mothers would not have
known them, for every man of them wore a big
leather helmet, well padded, a fencing-mask across
the face, and heavy rolls of leather upon each
"Why, it's not broadsword-drill, is it?" asked
Nat Young of his neighbor.
Evidently it was not broadsword-drill, for the line-
officers had laid aside their swords, and carried
pikes instead. Marching into. the square, they
formed in lines at a considerable distance apart,
while the little Englishman, whose name was
Percival, took his stand upon the high platform
from which he could superintend them.
Then began what was to the excited boys one of
the strangest exercises that they had ever seen.
Each officer held his pike over his head at arm's
length for a moment, motionless, with one hand
holding one end, and the other lightly grasping
the pike at about the third quarter of its length.
Then at the word, and with a rush, each staff was
whirled in the air, and then it struck against another
with a rattle like that made by a stick drawn along
the palings of a fence. Right, left, fell the blows;
parried dexterously by the practiced fencers, whose
experience in the sword-drill now came in play most
handily; and now and then a thump told of some
unforeseen blow. Round and round in circles
edged the fencers, with a thrust here and a blow
there, as judgment directed,- springing backward,
leaping forward, and parrying as heedfully as though
they were in mortal fray, until the boys in line, los-
ing all consciousness of discipline, cheered till the
echoes rang through the far-off corridors, and the
stout walls of the building seemed to tremble.
For nearly twenty minutes the drill continued.
As fast as a fencer received a hit he fell out of line,
and his antagonist turned to some other whose ad-
though they had not been racking their brains for
the last hour.
"I thought so. Well, what you have just wit-
nessed is a fair example of quarter-staff play, such
as your Saxon ancestors were so well versed in, and
about which most of you have read in Ivanhoe,' I
have no doubt. In this drill I expect you all to
perfect yourselves, and Mr. Percival is here to
superintend your instruction."
For a moment there was such a sensation in the
ranks that it was quite useless for the principal to
continue. Decidedly, there was fun ahead.
"Your officers have received a careful training
'I t~d '*~ -
44 L' v~ k _; ~,~-i 1
~/L ---~--- L~-~~= _;li~-~0
N6 k'' /
"THE SECOND LIEUTENANT WAS COOLLY TYING MITCHELL'S HANDS BEHIND HIM.'
versary had been similarly overcome. One by
one they fell away until at last but two were left,
most equally matched but unknown alike to the
rest and to one another, since even their hands
were concealed by the thick gloves. Minute after
minute passed in rapid thrust and parry; but
wherever the pike fell it found the other ready to
receive it, while the boys clapped their hands and
cheered and cheered again.
At last the principal stepped forward, saying:
"Thatwilldo, boys; you have donewell," andthe
fencers ceased andwithdrewto the sidesof thesquare.
"I suppose you would be glad of an explana-
tion," the principal continued with a smile, ad-
dressing the battalion; and a general laugh
followed his remark. "Would be glad-! As
in swordsmanship, and, as you have seen, found
little difficulty in mastering the new weapon. For
you, it will be somewhat harder, and I must cau-
tion you against too vigorous exertions at first.
But I anticipate no great loss of time in acquiring
the necessary skill: and Company A will at once
retire to the store-room, where they will find a hel-
met and shoulder-straps for each member. The
rest must be content to use their eyes and ears in
gathering knowledge until their turn shall come."
"What did I tell you, fellows said Sergeant
Dane to the boys nearest him, rubbing his arm,
which ached a little from the unusual exertion to
which it had been subjected. "I said 'Dicky'
knew what he was about when he brought down
the broomsticks. Who says 'Witches' now ? "
"We '11 see fun, though, at all events; and I 'm
glad the old irons are gone, after all," answered
Mitchell, who happened to be nearest, his eyes
sparkling with anticipation. "You can fence,
though, like a house a-fire, Sergeant Dane, is n't
it ? looking at the helmeted head, which presented
no outward symbol of individuality, but which he
knew to belong to one of the two fencers who were
the last to yield.
I suppose that you will forgive Wylie, now,
won't you, Mitchell?" he said, good-naturedly
No, I won't! was the surly answer. I only
hope that they '11 set him to teaching me to handle
a staff; he '11 find I can teach him to dance at the
same time! "
Dane laughed silently to himself at the absurd
You remember the fellow with whom I was
fencing, don't you?" he said presently; "and
you will doubtless also remember that he was the
best in the crowd."
"'That was plain enough," remarked Nat Young,
with a sigh of envy. "You two could whip the
whole battalion, if they came on two at a time.
Who was he, anyhow ?"
I don't believe it. How do you know ?" said
I did n't, for a while; or, rather, I thought it
was one of the other lieutenants; but I've seen
him handle the foils before now, and when he
came to use the staff there were some motions that
gave me a clew which I followed up. I see you
mean to keep up a feud with him, Mitchell. But,
if you '11 take my advice, you will drop it right
here. It won't do any good, won't hurt him half
as much as it will you; and he can take care of
himself every time, besides. But here's Com-
Odd enough they looked. A number of deep-
sea divers in full armor is what they most re-
sembled; and, as they tramped solemnly forward,
two by two, with their quarter-staves at right-
shoulder-shift, some irrepressible second-class boy
in the. rear of the company piped out, in a high-
keyed, falsetto voice, to the chant of "Three
little kittens sat in a basket of sawdust," that iden-
tical chorus with the parody of which they had so
successfully stirred up the doctor:
"Ave, Ccesar! Nos morituri te salutamuzs!"
And teachers' and pupils' voices joined in a
hearty burst of laughter. Really, they did bear
some resemblance to a company of gladiators
filing in, prepared to fight perhaps their dearest
friend, quite unawares, as Dane and Wylie had just
now tested each other's metal. If they had car-
ried shields as well as helmets, it would have been
quite thrilling. But that falsetto voice spoiled it
all, and swept away every atom of sentiment, and
they filed into position filled with a spirit of ready
good-nature that made the task of the youthful in-
structors extremely easy, especially as Mr. Percival
would step in and assume control of any partic-
ularly clumsy craft until he had piloted him over
the shoals and into deeper water.
They found it, however, to be a tiring exercise,
and although they were not allowed to practice
too long at a time, yet, unused to such effort, they
were glad of a chance to rest and to watch the
other companies in their turn. It was hardest for
the officers, who were obliged to keep right on
during the whole of the two hours that were de-
voted to the drill. But there was an exhilaration
about it, a zest which even base-ball did not
possess, and which soon proved to be a most
efficient restorative to tired brains, while the drill
itself was in effect equivalent to a whole gymnasium,
for it trained eye and hand alike, and brought
every muscle into play.
During the drill, however, the workmen at the
end of the hall continued their steady hammering,
pausing only for an occasional curious glance at
the rattling quarter-staves below them. Evidently
their work had nothing whatever to do with the
present occupation of the boys. They had drawn
a number of old sails--which had formerly be-
longed to the lumber schooner "Mary Ann," as the
patches sufficiently indicated-into the form of a
curtain across one end of the hall, from floor to
rafter, and the heavy duck hung in awkward folds.
I have it! said Dane, suddenly, while a knot
of the boys were vainly speculating concerning the
use of the curtain.
The principal is going to have a set of cock-
shys here, and the curtain is to stop the sticks! "
But although the suggestion provoked a laugh,
it was not accepted as a sufficient explanation, for
the General himself was superintending the ar-
rangement of the sails, and the idea of his looking
after the preliminaries of a game of cockshys (a
common diversion at country-fairs, where tea-cups
are hung from strings and short sticks hurled at
them by the bumpkins, who pay five cents for
each throw, and win ten if they happen to smash
a cup) -was amusing enough to bring tears to the
eyes of the boys, who laughed till they cried at
the mere thought. It needed a personal acquaint-
ance with the dignified veteran to fully appreciate
But the bell clanged from the clock-tower, and
announced the beginning of study-hours, and the
boys returned to their dormitories with curiosity
(To be continued.)
BY M. M. D.
FROM the low, wide, sheltering watt
Baby drops his pretty ball;-
Baby wants it, that is all.
Why should mother hinder so,
Why not let the baby go?
Baby's wish is law, you know.
'T will not always be the way;
Baby '11 go alone some day.
Mother can not always stay,-
VOL. XV.-29. 4 9
BY WILLIAM O. STODDARD.
BEN was a remarkable pig, from the very begin-
ning of his life.
There was a great deal of him, and everybody
said so; but Ben cared very little for praise. He
cared much more for the care and good feeding
which came to him together with all the flattery.
That, too, had its influence upon his career, and
at one time his very greatness nearly led him into
trouble, and he escaped it only by chance.
One bright November morning, Mr. Muggins put
him into a cart, and took him to the County Fair.
All the rest of the day, Ben's ears were full of
praises. He was stirred up, and poked, and patted,
and was continually made to stand up, when all
he wished was to lie down. It was a hard day
for Ben, and the only reward he received was the
bright, blue "prize-ribbon" that was tied about
his neck before he went home. He would have
much preferred a baked apple to all this honor;
but Mr. Muggins was exceedingly proud of that
blue ribbon, and so were Mrs. Muggins and all
the little Mugginses. On the way home, Bob and
Jemima called out to every one they knew:
Our pig took the prize !"
He had won a victory over all the other fat pigs
at the Fair, and now was returning with his friends
to the spot where he had passed the happiest days
of his life.
Ben's home was not an ordinary "pen," such as
is good enough for common pigs, who do not go
to fairs and win prizes. His pen stood next to Mr.
Muggins's great barn and originally had been
built for a horse-stall. So it was dry, roomy, airy,
and clean; and any one who knew Ben, would
have thought he might well be glad to return to
it again for a well-merited repose. And perhaps
he might have been, if the gate to the clover-
field had not been wide open, when the family so
proudly escorted him up the lane toward the barn.
There was trouble in getting Ben out of the cart,
but not half so much difficulty as there had
been in getting him into it that morning. To
slip him down two wide planks to the ground was,
naturally, easier than it had been to push him up
those same planks, when starting to the competi-
tion for the blue ribbon.
When Ben reached the open gate to the clover-
field, he stood still and looked in; first with one
eye,--a little sidewise,--then with both eyes.
It was an attractive field; for it was larger,
airier, cleaner, greener, and in every way nicer,
than even his pleasant apartment next to the
No crowd of County Fair people would be there
to praise him and to poke him and to tie blue
ribbons around his neck.
Mr. Muggins felt that a prize-pig was entitled to
gaze at the scenery surrounding his home, and
willingly'halted for a moment to gratify Ben's taste
Jemima," remarked Bob Muggins, "is n't he
Just then, Ben gave a sudden lurch toward the
gate, and pulled the leading-rope from the hand
of Mr. Muggins. He was now free, as well as
great, and he walked straight on into the clover,
and lazily lay down. They all saw him go into
the field, but, as he had chosen a little hollow in
which to lie down, when he settled himself they
could not see him at all.
I declare! said Mr. Muggins.
What will you do?" inquired Mrs. Muggins,
"Do? With Ben? Why, he is a wise pig;
that 's the best place for him. Let him stay there."
"Won't somebody carry him off? "
Carry Ben ? I think not. He would be a heavy
load, even for that man who carried the cannon at
the Fair! Ben would kick and squeal, too,-and
that 's more than the cannon could do."
At that very moment there were two -visitors
walking up the lane from the gate. Mr. Muggins
and his family had seen both at the Fair, and Bob
Oh, Father here 's the man with the dancing
My !" said Jemima.
"Dear, dear!" said Mrs. Muggins.
Oh, oh, oh cried all the smaller Mugginses,
hurrying to get behind their mother.
"Please, Mister, could you keep me and my
bear, over night? "
Of course we could keep you; but I 'm not
so willing to board a bear," said Mr. Muggins.
Mother Mother! said Jemima, don't let
him come into the house "
"He's good-natured, quiet-mannered, and as
polite as a human bein', Mister. All I want's some
sort of pen, or some place, to lock him up."
"Father," said Bob, if Ben chooses to sleep
in the clover, the bear might have his place."
"That's just the thing!" said Mr. Muggins. He
was a kind-hearted man, and he saw that the bear
looked tired, and as if he had been overworked
at the County Fair. He added: "Put him in my
prize-pig's own pen. Just what you want !"
"Tony," said the bear's master, do you hear
that? I judge you're more used up than the
pig is Mister, he 's been on his feet dancin' and
walking' the whole day long. He's a willing good-
tempered, and industrious sort of a bear, the best
I ever had to do with in all my days."
So it was settled. Tony was led to Ben's bed-
room, out by the barn; while Ben was left in the
clover, entirely ignorant of the arrangement.
Tony's master told many stories about the bear
at the supper-table, and promised that he should
dance for the children in the morning. For
every accomplishment that was claimed for the
bear, Mr. Muggins had something just as clever
to relate in praise of Ben.
But Ben had even more admirers than Mr. Mug-
gins and his family supposed; and there were
three of them who had plotted and planned a very
wicked thing. They had made up their minds to
carry out their plan that very night. Not only had
they admired Ben, at the Fair, and calculated how
much good pork he would make; but they knew
he had gone home again, and they knew where he
usually slept, in the pen out by the barn.
Mr. Muggins never locked Ben in at night; for
the door-latch was high up, out of even a prize-
pig's reach. There was a hasp on the door, however,
a foot above the latch, and, after Tony's master
had fed the bear, he took a padlock out of his
pocket and fastened the door quite securely.
Tony can open any latch there is," he said,
and I don't approve of having him running' around
That would be dreadful!" said Jemima, with
a shudder. She had come out with her mother
and the children to see Tony fed, and Bob at once
"I should n't be afraid of him if I should meet
him not if I had father's gun with me, and if it
He 's a very knowing bear," said Tony's mas-
ter. He would halt you and make you tell him
whether your gun was loaded; and, if it was n't,
you might have to look out for yourself! "
Bob gazed curiously into the man's face, uncer-
tain whether this talk was not in fun; but still,
when he returned to the house, he went and found
the gun, and carried it to his own room.
I'm glad to have it," he said, as he stood it
carefully in one corner. Father 's going to buy
powder and shot for it some day. He means to
have the lock mended, too, and perhaps the gun
will shoot, then! "
When Tony was left alone there in Ben's bed-
room, he did not say a word to show that he was
lonely. In fact, he seemed to be particularly com-
fortable and satisfied. Tired as he was, he walked
all around his room, sniffing, and poking his long
claws into the cracks between the boards. When
he came to the door, he smelled at it carefully, and
then shook it. He understood what doors were
for, and knew he was locked in ; for his next visit
was to the great, square opening opposite the door,
high up from the floor, which served for a window
and to let in fresh air. It was large, but too high
to be reached easily. Tony tried in vain to look
at the surrounding country through it. But he
could not. He should have to postpone enjoyment
of the view until the morning. So he wisely re-
signed himself to his captivity, curled up in a cor-
ner, with his nose between his paws, and fell into
a peaceful sleep.
Tired bears, like tired people, are apt to sleep
soundly, and Tony had not.eaten any rich food, to
disagree with him and to cause disquieting dreams.
He slept heavily for several hours, but was then
awakened by a slight noise. Somebody was trying
to get in at the door, and he heard a voice saying:
Dick, it 's padlocked."
Then another voice answered:
"Never mind, Bill. The window will do just
Then a third voice said, very softly :
"We must look out not to let him squeal.
We '11 lose all our pork if he squeals i "
These were the three men who had so much
admired Ben,- but Tony knew nothing about that.
Neither did the men know that Ben was fast
asleep in the clover-field, with plenty of air and
room all around him, and with no padlocked door
to guard him. Next, Tony heard some noise at the
Keep still now, Dick, till I get in. You two
fellows come right along after me,--I won't let
him give a single squeal! "
Then Tony knew they were coming in at the
window, one after another, and he stood up on his
hind feet, in the corner, against the wall.
He's here, Dick. I can hear him breathe."
He's lying 'round, somewhere."
Careful, now No noise! "
Tony himself was not making any noise, but as
he was a fine boxer, he was actively brandishing
his fore-paws before him in a very skillful way.
"It's awful dark, Ned."
Look where you're going, Bill!"
The man named Dick was a little ahead of Ben's
two other admirers, and just at that moment, in the
darkness, he stepped within reach of Tony's paws.
ment, and Ned was forced to cry out, O-o-o-o-h !
Help 1 "
This was said loudly enough for all the people in
the house to hear it. They were in bed and asleep
when the noise was first heard from Ben's quarters
out by the barn. They all were dressing them-
selves now, just as fast as they could.
a;,.:l : ,,0. tl,: 6 ir -." : rli,: ,.tri:iri; b .Yl i
1!.',,: ti n 'i ., i ',' !i i : t! i. .l,1 : ,,,l t ; tl, f.,it. : :
t t t l,. L,,-, l1 n .id li.. 1; :pin ro:i r l .:l r..ii im i.
t !!r L c ;:i'. H i t -. I i I .: tH :-. r I i t JI., .
N .: '.r ,: -i, ,,.: L ill .: (,r r .i n, : l l-,.: ,i.'l !...l ..'. .- i .-l,,-
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. '., .... ....; .
It ic3 hc vivrolig tEane for makwig nuisc,
but, nevertheless, they could not help ex-
claiming with much emphasis: "Oh, o-o-h "
"What's the matter, boys?" asked the ma
called Ned; but before Dick or Bill had time t
explain the cause of their exclamations, he found
himself grasped in a pair of wonderfully strong
"O-o-h! Boys This is no pig! It's a bear/-
and he 's a-huggin' me 1 "
Ned may have been a dishonest man at othe
times, but now he was telling the exact truth. If h
had been Tony's best friend, in the whole world
and if Tony had been sitting up all night waiting
to give him a hearty welcome, he could not hav
been hugged much harder than he was at this me
"THERE STOOD TONY IN THE CORNER WITH NED IN HIS ARMS."
n Tony's master and Mr. Muggins led the race to
o the pen and were the first to reach its door.
d Mrs. Muggins came next, with a candle in
, each hand, and, actually, one of the candles was
Bob, with the trusty gun, followed her.
"Father," he exclaimed, "it's some one'trying
r to run away with Ben "
e They won't run any great distance with the
I, prize-pig they 've captured this time," remarked
g Tony's master, confidently, as he listened to the
e loud exclamations of the man called Ned. "We
- must be quick, too, or Tony will hug the man to
.-r- ; i
' .r---' :
?: _.:.:: .- -
~88ss. BEN'S P
pieces. He's the strongest bear I ever had any-
thing to do with."
They unlocked the door in a moment.
There stood Tony in the corner with Ned in his
arms, and there, on the floor, sat Dick and Bill,
each of them holding one hand against the side of
"I declare !" exclaimed Mr. Muggins.
Well, well i said his wife.
"Father," shouted Bob, "it's Ned Jones, and
Dick Brown, and Bill Robinson. They came after
Ben I know they did "
"Drop him, Tony! Drop him!" said his
master. He 's had enough--he won't steal
Tony dropped his armful and began to dance,
while Mr. Muggins said to the three men, very
"You can go home now, boys. I 'll settle this
business with you some other time. I 'm ashamed
of you !"
Mrs. Muggins added:
So am I ashamed of you. Such a pet as our
Ben is, and he had just taken the prize too "
Dick and Bill had to hold Ned's arms and to help
him walk, but they all went away. Not a word
was spoken by any of them until they were half-
way down the lane. Just there they all heard a
deep, contented, self-satisfied grunt, that came
from somewhere out in the clover.
Boys," said Bill, "if there is n't Muggins's prize-
pig, now. We might have had him, just as easy! "
That was likely, and it was as well for Ben that
they had gone to his pen and found Tony there.
At that moment the latter's master was saying
to Bob Muggins:
My young friend, a bear like that is a far better
protection to a house than any gun."
"HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
BY GEORGE P. WHITTLESEY.
A STAMPING on the steps, followed by a draught
of cold air and a slam of the door, announced to his
father and mother the entrance of Hamilton Esta-
brook, the son and heir of the family; an ordinary-
looking boy of seventeen, neither very tall nor very
short, having a pleasant face and a good figure.
He was now in the junior class of the High School,
and stood well in his studies. He possessed, in no
small degree, his father's gift of shrewd common
sense, and he had made up his mind to go to
college, if possible. The High School fitted boys
for the college, which was located on the outskirts
of the village, and nearly all of Ham's classmates
were preparing to enter very soon.
The junior class were now nearing the end of
the school year, and Ham was looking forward
eagerly to the next year's work, which would com-
plete his preparation.
To-night, however, his face as he entered the
room wore a thoughtful expression. Again and
again the question had occurred to him, "How
can I pay for my college course?" and on his way
home he had been considering this oft-recurring
Father," he began, abruptly, rubbing his cold
fingers together over the warm stove, I think
I 'd better leave school before the end of the term,
and get some work for the summer. I must earn
all the money I can, between now and a year from
next fall, 'cause after that I sha'n't have much spare
time, and I'm bound I won't ask you for a cent for
my college expenses. I went to see the president
this afternoon, and he told me that a year's ex-
pense would be at least two hundred and fifty
dollars. My tuition will be seventy-five; books,
about eight, second hand, you know; clothes, say
thirty-five; board and washing-whatever you
and mother think right; I don't think it will come
to more than two hundred dollars."
"I heard to-day," said Mr. Estabrook, after
the family were seated at the supper-table, "that a
man over at Bath has made an invention of some-
thin' or other, and sold it for quite a sum of money.
He sent down to Washington, got a patent for it,
and then sold it to one of the Bath ship-chandlers
for a snug little price. You are an ingenious sort
of a chap, Ham," he continued, perhaps you
could get up a patent, and sell it for enough to put
you through college."
Ham's eyes sparkled at the idea. He had more
or less inventive faculty, and the possibility of
making it of practical use was highly attractive to
Everything soon wore a new aspect to the eyes
454 "HAM" ESTABROC
of this would-be genius. He found himself ob-
serving the shape and construction of all things
with which his daily duties brought him into con-
One night his father complained that the pump-
ing-engine, at the paper-mill, of which he was in
charge, was not so reliable as it should be. Act-
ing upon this hint, Ham had, in a few days,
worked out what he thought was a perfect pump-
ing-engine. He made a careful drawing embody-
ing his idea, and, with a great show of secrecy,
exhibited it to the foreman of the paper-mill.
"Here," explained Ham, "is just what you
want. I know all about the defects of those old
pumping-machines of yours, and I 've got up one
of my own, which is perfect"; and he rattled on
enthusiastically, talking glibly about the "im-
proved result," "new idea," "perfect machine,"
and so on.
The foreman listened quietly, but with a queer
smile playing about the corners of his mouth.
When Ham ceased, for want of breath and ideas,
he simply said: Come along with me; I '11 show
you something "
Ham followed him, having an uneasy feeling of
impending disaster.' The foreman led the way
to a gloomy corner of the basement, and there
pointed to the remains of some old machine
heaped confusedly together. Ham, by the light
of a gas-jet, which the foreman lighted, hastily
examined it. To his amazement and dismay, it
proved to be nearly an exact embodiment of the
ideas shown in his drawing. He turned almost
fiercely upon the foreman, who, in answer to his
look of inquiry, said:
We tried it four years ago, but it would n't
work. I 'm sorry for you, Ham," he added,
kindly, as he noticed the boy's disappointment,
"but you '11 have to try something else, I 'm
afraid, if you want to get a patent."
A few days later, Ham entered the room of the
agent at the railroad station. Remembering his
former disappointment, his air was less confident
than upon the visit to the mill, but he argued and
sketched until his new device, a car-coupler, was
explained to his interested listener.
The reason a man gets injured," declared
Ham, in conclusion, is because he gets between
As there was no denying this, the station-agent
preserved a wise silence.
"But," continued Ham, "at present he must
go between the cars to hold up the link, unless he
uses something to reach in to the link. Now, aman
don't want to lug a stick about with him all the time,
So I provide a means for holding up the link on each
car. Across the end of the car I place a round
rod of iron, turning in bearings, and bent down at
the ends to form a handle at each side of the car.
At the middle of this rod, and consequently right
above the draw-bar, I weld an arm, an iron rod,
sticking out about two feet, more or less. From
the end of this I hang a loop of small chain, reach-
ing down and catching over the end of the link.
The brakeman, standing at the side of the car, can
take hold of the handle, and, by turning the bar,
he moves the arm up or down, and can thus adjust
the link to the right height to enter the draw-
head of the car which is to be coupled."
S" That is very nice, indeed," said the station-
agent; but what are you going to do with it?"
"Why, get it patented, --" said Ham.
Hold on, Ham," interrupted the station-agent,
"you can't get a patent for anything that has
been patented before, or that has been described
in any printed publication before your invention
"Well- what of it ?" faltered Ham, a chilling
fear beginning to steal over him.
Only this," rejoined the station-agent. I
remember seeing something like that a good while
ago, in a scientific paper. Let me see," and he
began searching among some bound volumes on
the lower shelves of the office book-case. Those
few moments of suspense seemed very long to poor
Ham, but presently the agent said, Ah here it
is," and showed to the half-eager, half-reluctant
boy a wood-cut and description of a device sub-
stantially the same as that he had been so eagerly
Ham's next invention was simpler. He had
somewhere read that the largest fortunes are
usually made from the little improvements, not
from the great inventions.
Accordingly, he was soon in consultation with
his teacher over a new mode of teaching Geogra-
phy by means of sectional maps. Each State in a
map of the United States, for example, was to be
drawn to scale, pasted on a thin piece of wood,
and then carefully trimmed to remove all the sur-
rounding wood and paper up to the boundary
lines. When the sections were properly joined a
complete map would be made; while, when sep-
arated, the pieces were valuable because they
would give correct ideas of the comparative sizes
of any given number of States, when those which
are widely separated on the map were brought to-
gether. "In this way," argued Ham, the danger
of acquiring false or confused ideas respecting the
true relative size and importance of various parts
of the world would be removed, while now, from
the use of many maps drawn on as many different
scales, mistakes and errors are naturally common."
But our inventor's hopes were again doomed to
" HAM ESTABROC
disappointment. The schoolmaster said that he
himself had made such a set of maps for use in
a school which he had taught in a neighboring
town, and that he had used them for several terms
with great success.
Ham was now thoroughly discouraged. He
began to realize that the world was much larger
than it had formerly seemed. He had hastily
jumped to the conclusion that because he had
never seen or heard of a certain device, there-
fore it must be unlike anything ever invented.
But now he found that many busy minds are intent
upon problems just such as he had so easily solved;
that trained and logical intellects are everywhere
ready to seize even the smallest chance for an
improvement upon the contrivances now in use;
or, sometimes, to open a new field for research and
The day after his interview with the High School
principal, Ham announced at the supper-table
that'he should give up trying to patent .,, thi. ii,
and should try to get a place in a store or on a
farm for the summer. In that way he was sure to
earn a little, and of this he could be certain;
which was preferable to the uncertainties of in-
Well, I am glad to hear you say so," exclaimed
Mrs. Estabrook, briskly stirring her tea. "Now
you can quiet down to your studies again, and keep
your eyes open for a place to work."
And Ham kept his eyes open to good purpose;
for, before long, he learned that Mr. Naylor, the
hardware merchant, wished a boy for the summer.
Ham applied, and was accepted at once, since he
was well known to the business-men of the village
as an honest, energetic young fellow, who would
be faithful and obliging, both to employer and to
By careful and strict economy, Ham hoped to
save about fifty dollars during the summer. He
intended to deposit this in the Savings-bank, and
to leave it there at interest till the following sum-
mer, when he hoped to add enough to give him a
good sum for his college course. He quite recon-
ciled himself to this prosaic plan, and congratulated
himself upon having had the good sense to give up
inventing as a means of making money.
One pleasant day in June, a young girl entered
the store and approached the counter. Looking
up, Ham found that it was one of his High School
friends, Miss Bessie McAllister.
Oh, Ham !" she said, I do hope you have what
I want. I 've been to two other places, and can't
get it. We 're going to Harpswell next Saturday
for a picnic, and I must have something of the
kind,- it will be so convenient; and just as handy
as can be, you know, and will save carrying about
)K'S CAN-OPENER. 455
so many things, and--have you one, do you
suppose? Now, don't tell me you have n't! "
"Have I what?" asked I-am, rather dazed by
this flow of words.
Why, a canr-opener and a corkscrew, all in
one," answered Bessie, with an expectant air.
But, although Ham searched the whole store,
he could not find such an implement.
What's the use of it, anyway? he finally
asked, brushing the dust from his hands and
"Why, it would be so handy," repeated Bessie.
Instead of two things to look after, you would
have only one, and you always need a can-opener
and a corkscrew at a picnic, and somebody is sure
to forget one of them, or to lose one, if both are
brought. I am very much surprised that you
have n't it in the store. I should think it would
have been invented long ago."
,A sudden idea occurred to Ham.
When do you need it ? he asked, abruptly.
"Next week, Saturday," answered Bessie.
"I think I can have one for you before then,"
Oh, thank you, ever so much," exclaimed
Bessie, smiling gratefully. "Tom said I could n't
buy such a thing in the town, but I told him I
knew you could find it for me. Good-bye," and
she tripped away.
That night, Ham's dreams were a queer mixture
of can-openers, corkscrews, curls, drawings, pat-
ents, and picnics. The next day, his mother ob-
served with dismay that he had again fallen into
the absorbed, absent-minded way which he had
while studying intently. At supper, she startled
the unsuspecting boy by the shrewd remark:
So you've begun your invention' again, have
you, Ham ?"
Yes," said Ham, rather shortly.
I thought you were through with that sort of
thing," continued his mother.
Well, Ithought so, too," returned Ham; "but
you see, Mother, the inventive faculty is like that
old chap's ghost in Macbeth -it will not 'down.'
I 've got an idea, and I think it's about worked
out, now, into practicable shape," and Ham
told of the request which Bessie McAllister had
made, and explained his suddenly formed resolution
to invent what she had asked for.
After supper, Ham procured some hickory, and
proceeded to fashion a model of the invention
which he had thought out during the past twenty-
four hours. It was very simple, and yet bore an
air of completeness, of adaptability to the work ex-
pected of it, which was quite cheering to the young
mechanic, as he put aside his tools and surveyed
the completed model.
" HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
"There," he exclaimed, in a satisfied tone, I
call that pretty good, for one evening's work,
if I did do it. Father, did I hear you say you had
to go over to Bath
/ asked, as Mr.
-HA. I iwas
prepar- Ior ..
ing to lock
up for the night. \ .
"Yes," answered ...\ i
his father. "Why?"
Because, if it won't
be too much trouble, I wish
you 'd take this model to the
foundry and have some of these handles made
for me. They should be cast in soft gray iron."
How many do you want? "
Not very many- say ten, or a dozen."
Very well," said Mr. Estabrook, taking the
bit of wood. I'll attend to it."
Three days later, Ham received word that his
castings were ready, and a friend, who was a brake-
man on the noon freight-train, consented to bring
them over for him. For two or three days he spent
all his spare time at his work-bench, filing and
drilling and fitting. At length, one tool was done;
and Ham marched proudly up the walk to the
McAllisters' house. Just then, Bessie came from
the garden, with a young. gentleman, a stranger
Oh, Ham! she cried, is that you? What
have you brought my 'patent can-opener ?"
and she held out her hand for the bundle.
Why, how nice this is! she exclaimed, exam-
ining it critically. I knew there must be one to
be bought, somewhere. Where did you find it? "
Ham modestly explained that it was his own
idea, and that he had made the one which she now
Did you really make this? queried Bessie,
again inspecting the tool, with increased interest.
"How neatly it is done See, Cousin Joe, isn't
that well made?" and she turned to the young
gentleman, who stood quietly by. Thus appealed
to, he carefully examined the shining combination
of iron and steel; then, looking up with an
S interested air, he asked :
Did you say this invention was an orig-
inal one with you ? "
Yes, sir," answered Ham.
Why don't you secure a patent
for it?" continued Cousin Joe.
/ Before Ham could answer, Bessie
Sy suddenly remembered that she had
forgotten to introduce the two young
men, and at once proceeded to do so.
"\] "Cousin Joe," she broke in, "this
is Mr. Estabrook, a classmate of mine,
at the High School. Mr. Estabrook,
this is my cousin, Mr. Stanwood.
IAPs My cousin," she explained to Ham,
S "is a lawyer, and knows all about
patents. He can tell you exactly what
you should do to get one."
"Do you think that this can-opener
'is patentable?" asked Ham, anx-
Siously, of the young lawyer.
"Yes," said the latter, now sur-
veying the implement critically. "I
don't think there is anything exactly
like this in the Patent Office. Why
don't you apply for a patent? he added.
Just here they were interrupted by the ringing
of the dinner-bell, and Ham took his leave.
But the lawyer's question kept repeating itself
in Ham's mind as he hurried back to the store.
All the afternoon and evening it was the upper-
most thought in his busy brain; and the next day
he concluded that it could do no harm merely to
apply for a patent,- if he should be successful, so
much the better. He at once set to work to finish
another model, and when this had been accom-
plished to his satisfaction, he sent it to Washing-
ton with the following letter:
BRUNSWICK, ME., June Io, 188o.
DEAR SIR: I send you to-day a model of an invention which
I have made. It is a can-opener and a corkscrew all in one tool.
I want a patent for it, if you can give me one. Please send the
patent as soon as possible.
Yours truly, HAMILTON ESTABROOK.
TO THE COMMISSIONER OF THE PATENT OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
The Chief Clerk of the Patent Office paused a
moment in his rapid inspection of the morning
" HAM" ESTABROO
mail, and as he read the boy's letter smiled to him-
self at its honest ingenuousness.
He must think we keep patents all signed,
sealed, and stacked up like fire-wood, ready to be
given out to the first person who applies for one,"
he muttered, carefully laying the letter aside for his
personal attention later in the day.
About this time Ham suddenly developed a fond-
ness for the village post-
office. He knew the ex-
act minute when every
Southern mail was due,
and was always on hand
for the ensuing deliveries
at the office.
Mail's open," called
the postmaster, one day,
pushing up the shutter
of the little window.
" Anything for you ?
Yes,-let me see-yes,
here you are official
documents, too," and two
envelopes were passed
through the window.
Ham could hardly wait
to reach a secluded place
before opening the let-
ters; but he succeeded
in restraining his im-
patience until he was
safe in his workshop, an
unfinished room above
the woodshed. He first
opened the smaller en-
velope, and drew out the
Room No. 29. All communica-
tions should be addressed to
"The Commissioner of Pat-
ents," "Washington, D. C.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., June 15, 188o.
HAMILTON ESTABROOK, BRUNSWICK, MAINE.
In reply to your letter of the roth inst., you are informed that in
order to obtain a patent for your invention, it will be necessary to
file an application therefore in due legal form, complying with the
rules of practice before this office.
A copy of the rules is mailed herewith, giving full instructions for
drawing up applications. F. A. SEELY, Chief Clerk.
Disappointed, and half vexed at the cold, formal
tone of the letter, Ham tore open the other envel-
ope and found a pamphlet in slate-colored paper
covers, entitled, "Rules of Practice in the United
States Patent Office. Revised December I, 1879."
It contained some fifty pages of "Rules," duly
numbered and arranged under different headings;
about fifty forms, of petitions, specifications, and
ened by the multitude of formalities which this
somber pamphlet had arrayed between him and
his desired goal, Ham put the book carefully away,
and went down to supper with a solemn face.
Ham received a call that evening from Miss
Bessie's brother Tom, and her cousin Mr. Stan-
wood. Tom had been an old playmate of Ham's
before going to Boston to enter his uncle's banking-
house, some three years before.
After greetings had been exchanged, Mr. Stan-
"Well, how is your Great American Can-Opener
progressing ? Applied for a patent yet ? "
Why, yes," answered Ham; I sent one of the
openers down to Washington, and wrote them that
I wanted a patent for it, and they sent me back a
"'DID YOU REALLY MAKE THIS ?' QUERIED BESSIE."
K'S CAN-OPENER. 457
other papers; and a specimen drawing, ingeniously
folded between the pages, showing the size and
style of drawing which the Patent Office requires.
Ham eyed this with mingled admiration and de-
spair, for he knew he could not make so clear and
beautiful a drawing as the one before him, and
how to succeed in complying with this require-
ment he did not know. Confused and disheart-
"HAM ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
lot of Rules of Practice,' which I can't make much
out of, yet."
"Have you been inventing something?" in-
quired Tom, with interest.
"Yes," said Mr. Stanwood, "he's got a good
thing, too, I think."
Mr. Stanwood soon made plain to Ham the
formalities necessary to properly present his inven-
tion before the Patent Office, and marked such
parts of the pamphlet as were applicable. These
amounted to about twenty pages. Mr. Stanwood
then went over these portions rapidly, explaining
to the young men the meaning of certain phrases,
and finally summed up by saying:
So you see that a legal application is made up
of five parts : the petition, which is the technical
term for the application proper; the specification,
or description; the oath; the drawing; and the fee.
They used to require a model, also, but now that
is dispensed with, unless specially called for by the
"Who is the 'examiner ?" asked Tom.
The examiner is the officer who examines your
invention, to see whether 'it is novel and useful,
which it must be to entitle you to a patent."
"The Patent Office," continued the lawyer, "is
in charge of the Commissioner of Patents. To help
him, he has an assistant-commissioner and a law-
clerk. Matters of ordinary routine are in charge
of a chief-clerk. The examination of applications
is intrusted to twenty-five principal examiners,
each of whom has a first, a second, and a third
assistant.*' There is also a Board of Appeals,
composed of three examiners-in-chief; an examiner
of interference, and several chiefs of divisions,
who superintend the copying, assignment, and
issuing of patents, the publication of the Oficial
Gazette, the making and photo-lithographing of
drawings, the care of models, the receipt of fees
and other moneys, and so forth. The whole office
contains some five or six hundred clerks. The
examiners are the representatives of the Commis-
sioner, to whom he delegates the work of deter-
mining the merits of the various applications
for patents. The law requires the Commissioner
to issue a patent for every invention which shall
be found to be 'new and useful.' Of course,
the Commissioner can not personally inspect
and decide upon the twenty-five thousand appli-
cations for patents which are made every year.
This is the work of the examiners, each of whom
has charge of all inventions of a certain kind. In-
ventions are classified into about one hundred and
sixty-seven classes. Each examiner has assigned
to him six or eight classes, which he subdivides to
suit his,own convenience. All applications are
distributed among the examiners, according to the
nature of the inventions. The examiner sees to it
that each application is properly examined in its
turn, and finally, when satisfied that a case covers
nothing that is not patentable, he sends it to the
Issue Division, where a patent is drawn up and duly
But how about your application, Ham ?" con-
tinued Mr. Stanwood. Don't you want to have
me show you how to draw up the papers, and push
the thing ahead ? "
I should be ever so much obliged," replied
Ham; "but, you see, I think I won't go any
further with it. I- it takes,- well, the fees are
pretty heavy, and you know I have n't got very
much cash to throw away on uncertainties. You
say it costs,- how much? fifteen dollars to
make the application? and if you don't get your
patent, you lose your fifteen dollars. And then,
too, I 'm a minor, and father says that that would
keep me from getting a patent."
"Oh, no," said Mr. Stanwood; "a minor can
take out a patent just as well as anybody."
As for the money," put in Tom, I '11 advance
the money you need, if you '11 agree to go shares in
the profits when you sell your patent."
Ham's face brightened at this kind offer, and
after some further consultation the party separa-
ted, agreeing to meet the next evening to draw up
At the hour appointed, Ham was in attendance,
and soon found himself seated at a table in the
library, in company with Tom and Mr. Stanwood.
A student-lamp shed a soft light upon the books
and papers upon the table, and through the open
windows came the whispering wind, bringing the
odor of the tall, prim pines, and the distant roar
of the river rushing down the rapids and over the
"I've been drawing up some parts of the
papers," said Mr. Stanwood; the formal parts, I
mean. Did you bring me one of your can-open-
ers? Oh, yes; -wait a minute," and he rapidly
sketched the tool in one or two positions. "Now,
if you will tell me what you intend to call the
invention, I will fill in the title, and we can
"I thought I would call it the 'Picnicker's
Pride,' or the 'Housekeeper's Helper,' or some-
thing of that sort," said Ham, in answer to Mr.
Stanwood's suggestive question.
"That will hardly do," he replied. Such a
title as that is called a trade-mark, and is not
allowed by the Patent Office in an application for
a patent; for the title of a patent must correctly
indicate its nature and design,' according to the
Revised Statutes of the United States."
Well, what would you call it, then ?"
*Another grade- that of fourth assistant-was established in 1882, and there are now twenty-nine examining divisions.
"Why, call it just what it is- a combined can-
opener and corkscrew."
"All right," said Ham. But what are those
letters for, on your drawing ? "
To aid in clearly describing the tool," an-
swered Mr. Stanwood. "You'll see, when we
come to write out the specification," and he scrib-
bled hastily upon a scratch-block.
"What claims do you intend to make?" he
"Claims?" repeated Ham. "What do you
mean? and then, without waiting for an answer,
he went on, "Why, I claim that it is the handiest
little tool ever invented; that there is nothing like
it in the market, and that it will do equally good
work as a can-opener or as a corkscrew."
Mr. Stanwood laughed. Those would be ex-
cellent claims for an advertisement, but hardly
suitable for a patent. They relate to the advan-
tages of the whole tool, while the law requires the
applicant for a patent to 'particularly point out
and distinctly claim the part, improvement, or
combination which he claims as his invention or
Well," said Ham, you can write out such a
claim better than I can, and I '11 be obliged if you
will do it for me; I don't think I am equal to it."
His invention was assuming increased importance
in the new light thus thrown upon it.
The young men consulted and scribbled all the
evening, and the result of their labors was an
official-looking set of papers, neatly written upon
legal-cap, on one side of the sheet, numbered, and
secured together by paper-fasteners to prevent
First came the petition, as follows:
To the Commissioner of Patenis:
Your petitioner, Hamilton Estabrook, a citizen of the United
States, residing at Brunswick, in the County of Cumberland, and
State of Maine, prays that letters patent may be granted to him for
the improvements in combined Can-Openers and Corkscrews, set
forth in the annexed specification; and he hereby appoints Joseph
Stanwood, of the town of Brunswick, State of Maine, his attorney,
with full power of substitution and revocation, to prosecute this ap-
plication, to make alterations and amendments therein; to receive
the patent, and to transact all business in the Patent Office con-
nected therewith. HAMILTON ESTABREOOK.
Then followed the specification:
To all whom it may concert :
Be it known that I, Hamilton Estabrook, a citizen of the United
States, residing at Brunswick, in the County of Cumberland, and
State of Maine, have invented a new and useful combined Can-
Opener and Corkscrew, of which the following is a specification,
reference being had to the accompanying drawing, in which
Fig. i is a perspective view, showing the corkscrew open and
ready for use;
Fig. s is a similar view, showing the corkscrew closed and the
tool in condition for use as a can-opener;
K'S CAN-OPENER. 459
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section on the line x-- x Fig. 4, and
Fig. 4 is a cross-section on the line y- y, Fig. 3.
Similar letters refer to similar parts throughout the several views.
The handle, A, nose, B, and blade, C, are of the usual shape and
construction, except that the handle is nearly semicircular in cross
section, as is clearly shown in Fig. 4.
Near the center of the handle, A, and in the hollow, D, are two
ears, E, one on each side, cast in one piece with the handle; or
riveted or soldered in place.
Between the ears or lugs, E, is fitted the shank, F, of a corkscrew,
F. A pin,f, passes through the handle, A, cars, E, and shank, F',
and is headed down at each end to secure it. Shank F' turns
easily on this pin.
A flat steel spring, is attached to the handle, A, by a rivet, g,
passing through one end thereof. The free end of the spring
passes between the ears, E, and bears upon the shank, F'. When
the corkscrew, F, is open, the spring presses upon the end of the
shank, and holds the corkscrew in position relatively to the handle.
When the corkscrew is closed, the spring rests upon the inner side
of the shank and resists any tendency of the corkscrew to open, until
some little force is applied. As shown in Fig. 4, there is sufficient
space left between the inner side of the shank, F', and the handle,
A, to permit the corkscrew to be opened without striking the corners
of the shank against the handle.
I also provide an additional means of fastening the corkscrew, F.
As shown, a block, H, is seated in the hollow, D, either by soldering
or riveting, or by casting in one piece with the handle. Formed in
one piece with it, or secured to it, is the plate, k, which extends be-
yond the face of H, and forms a shoulder. Plate hI is cut away at
ik, to permit the end of the corkscrew to be sprung up over the
shoulder, where it rests securely, after the manner of some styles of
The operation of this improved tool is obvious. When it is to be
used as a can-opener, the corkscrew is shut up out of the way with-
in the handle. When it is desired to make use of the corkscrew, it
is opened out, as in Fig. i, in which position the handle, A, serves as
a handle for the corkscrew, by which to turn it and to lift it. I thus
provide in one tool two separate implements, either of which can be
used at will without interfering with the other.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to
secure by Letters Patent, is
r. A combined can-opener and? corkscrew, substantially as, and
for the purposes set forth.
2. A can-opener having a corkscrew pivoted thereto, substantially
as, and for the purposes, set forth.
3. A can-opener having a corkscrew pivoted thereto, and pro-
vided with a single means for holding it both in an open and in a
closed position, substantially as, and for the purposes, set forth.
4. A can-opener, having the handle, A, the ears, E E, the cork-
screw, F, having its shank, F', pivoted between the ears, E E, and
the spring, G, secured to the handle, and bearing upon the inside
of the shank, substantially as, and for the purposes, set forth.
5. A can-opener, having the handle, A, the corkscrew pivoted
thereto, means for holding the corkscrew both in an open and in
a closed position, and additional means for securing the point of the
corkscrew when closed, substantially as, and for the purposes, set
6. A can-opener, having the handle, A, the ears, E E, and block,
H, provided with cut-away plate, it, the corkscrew, F, pivoted be-
tween the ears, E E, and the spring, G, secured to the handle, and
bearing with its free end upon the inner edge of the shank of the
corkscrew, substantially as, and for the purposes, set forth.
HAMILTON ESTABROOK, Inventor.
Yitnee THOMAS E. McALLISTER,
Sthte of Maine, .
County of Cumberland, s.
Hamilton Estabrook, the above-named petitioner, being duly
sworn, deposes and says that he verily believes himself to be the
original, first, and sole inventor of the improvement in combined
Can-Openers and Corkscrews set forth in the accompanying specifi-
cation; that the same has not been patented to himself, or to others
"HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
with his knowledge or consent in any foreign country; that the
same has not, to his knowledge, been in public use or on sale in the
United States for more than two years prior to this application, and
that he does not know and does not believe that the same was ever
before known or used. HAMILTON ESTABROOK.
Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 21st day of June, 1880.
SEAL. EPHRAIM FORSYTH, Notary Public.
The seal and signature of the notary were ob-
tained the following day, when Ham appeared
before this official, and, with uplifted hand, took
-the oath, acknowledged the signature as his own,
and paid the fee of fifty cents charged by the
notary for his services.
Mr. Stanwood engaged a mechanical draughts-
man, with whom he was acquainted, to make.the
drawing. It was carefully made on good Bristol-
board, and measured ten by fifteen inches. A
marginal line, one inch from the edges, confined
the "sight," or part drawn upon, to a space eight
inches by thirteen. A space was left at one end
for the title, and, at the bottom, Ham signed his
name in the right-hand corner, while in the other
corner appeared the signatures of two witnesses.
The figures and their lettering corresponded with
the description in the specification.
The drawing and other papers were then mailed
Commissioner of Patents,
Washington, D. C.,
with a letter of transmittal, which read as follows:
BRUNSWICK, Me., June 26, z88o.
HON. COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS, SIR: I enclose herewith the
Application of Hamilton Estabrook for Letters Patent for an im-
proved Can-Opener and Corkscrew, comprising the petition, oath,
specification, drawing, and fee,- a post-office orderfor fifteen dollars.
A model was sent June io, i88o.
Very respectfully, Jos. STANWOOD, Att'y.
These papers, being received at the Patent
Office, were stamped in blue ink with the date of
their receipt. The drawing was examined by the
Chief Draughtsman, to see that it conformed with
the office rules, was stamped on the back in red
ink, O. K., Draughtsman," and returned to the
Application Division. Here the petition, oath, and
specification were placed in a stout blue file-
wrapper, or "jacket," upon the face of which was
entered the serial number of the application, name
of applicant, his address, date of receipt of the
different parts of the application, and the name and
address of the attorney.
Meanwhile, the following receipt was sent to Mr.
Room No. 37. All communications should
be addressed to The Commissioner
of Patents, Washington, D. C.'!
Series of r88o. No. 23,133.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., June 30, 1880.
SIR: I have to acknowledge the receipt of the petition, specifica-
tion, and drawing of your alleged Improvement in combined Can-
Opener and Corkscrew, with fifteen dollars as the first fee payable
The papers are duly filed, and your application for a patent will
be taken up for examination in its order.
You will be duly advised of the examination.
Very respectfully, E. M. MARBLE,
Commissioner of Patents.
H. Estabrook, care Jos. Stanwood, Brunswick, Me.
NOTE.- In order to constitute an application for a patent, the
inventor is by law required to furnish his petition, specification, oath,
and drawings (where the nature of the case admits of drawings),
and to pay the required fee.
No application is considered as complete, nor can any official
action be had thereon, until all its parts, as here specified, are fur-
nishedin due form by the inventor or applicant.
The next day the blue file-wrapper, with its
contents and the drawing, were received in "Divi-
.I I .- < ,
S -_ ._ -
Mj, ETa NY EN10)l
sion 12," of the Patent Office, and, after the clerk
had properly written in the "Journal" the several
items necessary to be entered upon the receipt of
an application, the case was assigned to one of the
assistant-examiners. In the course of a week he
reached it, and after careful reading and inspection,
proceeded to make a search among the drawings
of patents in the class of "Household Articles;
corkscrews." Not feeling that this search was suffi-
cient, he also examined the compound tools," and
"can-openers." An inspection of the English,
French, and German patents then followed. The
results of his investigation were presently reported
to the Primary Examiner in charge of the division,
..- : 1
J-ii T~---~~l~- _- _
" HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
and the claims of Estabrook were carefully consid-
ered in the light of the patents which the assistant
had found. A few days later, Mr. Stanwood
showed Ham the following letter:
Room No. o10. All communications should
be addressed to "The Commissioner of
Patents, Washington, D. C."
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., July 9, 188o.
H. ESTAsBOOK, care Joseph Stanwood, Brunswick, Me.
Please find below a communication from the Examiner in charge
of your application, No. 13,133, for a Patent for Improvement in
combined Can-opener and Corkscrew filed June 30, 188o.
E. M. MARBLE,
Commissioner of Patents.
Claim i is met by each of the following:
Harrigan, July 25, 1871, No. 117,278, Compound Tools, showing
a handle having a can-opening blade at one end, and a corkscrew
riveted into this handle at right-angles thereto : and Jenness, Mar.
23, -875, No. x61,124, Corkscrews, showing a knife, with a cork-
screw pivoted to the handle, and folding down against the back
Claim 2 is met by Jenness, cited, in which either of the knife-
blades is capable of use as a can-opener.
"What does that mean?" asked Ham. "Are
they going to give me a patent? "
Oh, yes," replied Mr. Stanwood, in whose care
the letter had been addressed, as the attorney for
Estabrook. It only means that the first and
second claims are said to have been anticipated by
"But what are the dates and numbers for, and
what does 'Compound Tools' and 'Corkscrews'
mean?" continued Ham.
"'The dates and numbers are those of the patents
of these inventors reported as anticipating your
invention; and the words following the numbers
are merely references to the sub-class of inventions
in which these patents may be found at the Patent
Office. I will send for printed copies of them -
which will cost us twenty-five cents each -and
then we can see about amending."
Amending? repeated Ham.
"Yes; making such changes in the claims as to
relieve them from the objection of claiming matter
shown or claimed by these prior patentees. -You
see that only two claims are rejected. The rest
are allowed,' as they say, and you can get a patent
for them, at least."
A careful inspection of the patents cited in the
examiner's letter convinced Mr. Stanwood and
Ham that it would be wisest to erase the rejected
claims, and to secure a patent for the others.
The following paper was accordingly drawn up by
HBRUNswlcK, Me., July 18, i880.
I-Ho.V COMMIISSIONER OF PATENTS,
SIn: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the official
letter of July 9th, rejecting certain claims in the application of Ham-
ilton Estabrook, serial number 13,133, filed June 30, i88o, for con-
bined Can-opener and Corkscrew.
Please amend as follows: Cancel the first and second claim, and
change numerals of remaining claims accordingly.
Jos. STANWOOD, Att'y.
Don't you want me to sign that?" asked
Ham, as he saw the lawyer fold up the paper, and
prepare to address the envelope.
"It isn't necessary," was the answer. "The
correspondence is carried on by the office with an
applicant, or with his attorney, but not with both
at once. You remember that by a power of attor-
ney' inserted in the petition of your application,
you gave me full authority to make all necessary
All right," said Ham. But suppose they
reject some more of the claims; what will you do
I can amend as often as they cite new refer-
ences. If I refuse to cancel a claim which they
have rejected, and they reject it a second time on
the same references, then, if I still think the rejec-
tion was an error, I can appeal to the Board of
Examiners-in-chief, by paying a fee of ten dollars.
If the Board sustains the examiner, I can pay
another fee and appeal to the Commissioner of
Patents. If he agrees with the examiner and the
Board of Appeals, then I can appeal from his de-
cision to the Supreme Court of the District of
Columbia; and finally, if necessary, I can bring a
suit in equity to compel the Commissioner to issue
"Then the decision of the examiner is not
final," suggested Ham, rather mystified by this
"No; an applicant has plenty of opportunities
to test his claims and prove his right to them,
Another contingency occurred to the anxious
young inventor. Suppose some other fellow has
invented a combined corkscrew and can-opener,
and has applied for a patent. How do they decide
to whom to issue the patent,--or do they give one
to each of us ?"
"No; the law says that the patent shall be
granted to the first inventor- not the first to pre-
sent his application, but the first to really complete
the invention; or, as it is called, to 'reduce the
invention to practice.'"
"But how can they tell ?" persisted Ham.
"They institute what is known as an 'inter-
ference,' which means that each of the parties is
notified that his application has been found to inter-
fere with another. Then each party must, within a
certain time, file a concise statement, under oath,
showing the date of his original conception of the
invention, of its illustration.by drawing or model,
of its disclosure to others, of its completion, and of
"HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
the extent of its use. Each party has then to take
the testimony of witnesses as to the points I have
just mentioned. This evidence is carefully con-
sidered by the examiner of interference, and he
decides which party is the prior inventor. If the
other applicant is not satisfied, he can appeal from
this decision to the Board of Examiners-in-chief,
and from them to the Commissioner, if necessary."
"Oh, what a bother," was Ham's comment.
" I hope we sha'n't have to go through any such
rigmarole as that."
So do I," replied Mr. Stanwood.
The amendment, upon its receipt at the Patent
Office, was sent to Division 12, and entered by
the clerk in case number 13,133." The assist-
ant who had examined the application now looked
carefully through the papers to see that all errors
of spelling, etc., were corrected, made the proper
indorsements on the file-wrapper and drawing to
prepare the case for "issue," and wrote out for the
use of the Government printer a brief," indicat-
ing the matter to be inserted in the Official Gazette.
The file was signed by the Primary Examiner in
charge of Division 12, and,'after another entry by
the clerk in her journal, the papers were forwarded
to the Issue and Gazette Division ; the model
being sent to the Model Halls for safe keeping
until the patent should be.issued.
The next communication from the office to Ham
was in the following form:
Issue Division. All communications should be
addressed to "The Commissioner of Patents,
Washington, D. C."
Serial No. 13,133.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
U. S. PATENT OFFICE,
WASHINGTON, D. C., July 21, i880.
H. EsTABROOK, care of Joseph Stanwood, Brunswick, Maine.
SIR: Your application for a Patent for an Improvement in com-
bined Can-Opener and Corkscrew, filed June 30, i88o, has been ex-
amined and allowed.
The final fee, Twenty Dollars, must be paid, and the Letters Pa-
tent bear date as of a day, not later than six months from the time
of this present notice of allowance.
Ifthe final fee is not paid within that period, the patent will be
withheld, and your only relief will be by a renewal of the applica-
tion, with additional fees, under the provisions of Section 4897, Re-
vised Statutes. The office aims to deliver patents upon the day of
their date, and on which their term begins to run; but to do this
properly, applicants will be expected to pay their final fees at least
twenty days prior to the conclusion of the six months allowed them
by law. The printing, photo-lithographing, and engrossing of the
several patent parts, preparatory to final signing and sealing, will
consume the intervening time, and such work will not be done until
after payment of the necessary fees.
When you send the final fee, you will also send, distinctly and
plainly written, the name of the inventor and title of invention as
above given, date of allowance (which is the date of this cir-
cular), date of filing, and, if assigned, the names of the assignees.
If you desire to have the patent issue to assignees, an assignment
containing a request to that effect, together with the fee for record-
ing the same, must be filed in this Office on or before the date of
payment of final fee.
Additional copies of specifications and drawings will be charged
for at the following rates: Single copies, uncertified, 25 cents;
twenty copies or more, io cents each. The money should accom-
pany the order.
The within title is that given by the Examiner in charge, as
most appropriate to your invention. Should you desire a change
in the same, satisfactory reasons must be given therefore on or be-
fore the payment of the final fee.
L In remitting the final fee, give the serial number at the head
of this notice. Very respectfully,
E. M. MARBLE,
Commissioner of Patents.
A letter from Mr. Stanwood to Tom McAllister,
reminding him of his promise to furnish all the
money necessary in the prosecution of the appli-
cation, was quickly responded to, and about four
weeks later, a heavy document, resplendent with
blue ribbons and red seals, was placed in the
hands of the delighted young patentee. The pa-
tent was a steel-engraved form printed on parch-
ment, and filled in by an expert penman. It bore
at the top a view of the Patent Office, and was
in the following language:
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
TO ALL TO WHOM THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME:
WHEREAS, Hamilton Estabrook, of Brunswick, Maine, has pre-
sented to the Commissioner of Patents a petition praying for the
grant of Letters Patent for an alleged new and useful improvement
in combined Can-Opener and Corkscrew, a description of which in-
vention is contained in the Specification, of which a copy is here-
unto annexed and made a part hereof, and has complied with the
various requirements of law in such cases made and provided, and
WHEREAS, upon due examination made, the said Claimant is
adjudged to be justly entitled to a patent under the law,
Now, therefore, these LETTERS PATENT are to grant unto the
said Hamilton Estabrook, his heirs and assigns, for the term of
seventeen years, from the seventeenth day of August, one thousand
eight hundred and eighty, the exclusive right to make, use, and
vend the said invention throughout the United States and the Ter-
IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF I have hereunto set my hand and caused
the seal of the PATENT OFFICE to be affixed at the City of Wash-
ington, this seventeenth day of August, in the year of our Lord one
thousand eight hundred and eighty, and of the Independence of the
United States of America the one hundred and fifth.
Acting Secretary of the Interior.
E. M. MARBLE,
Commissioner of Patents.
This was accompanied by a photo-lithograph
of the drawing, and a printed copy of the specifi-
Ham turned the crisp leaves back and forth with
What will mother say now ? he proudly ex-
claimed. I rather think she will have to confess
that she's mistaken about inventions not being
good for anything."
Have you any plans as to selling the patent
or manufacturing your invention ? asked Mr.
"Why, no," replied Ham, slowly. "I had n't
gone so far as to lay any plans. What would you
do about it, if you were in my place ? "
1s8.] "~ HAM" ESTABROO
The lawyer smiled good-naturedly. "Of course
you are aware, my boy, that advice is a costly lux-
ury when given by one of my profession," he
said. "But you are quite welcome to any stray
.grains of wisdom which I may be able to offer. It
seems to me that Tom McAllister is in a better
position to dispose of it than you are; besides,
Tom is personally interested in the matter, and
will naturally be on the look-out for some way to
dispose of it, and get his money back. Shall I
write to him ? "
Yes, if you please," replied Ham; and he hur-
ried off to display to the admiring home-circle the
magic document which was to make the family's
The days lengthened into weeks, and the short,
warm summer days gave place to the cold weather
of fall. Expectation deepened into anxiety, and the
flush of success gave way to the seriousness of uneasy
misgiving. Tom's letters were not encouraging.
" So many patents in the market," he wrote, that
there seems to be no chance for a good sale."
"Manufacturers say there is no demand for such an
article." Season is over now, and there is no par-
ticular reason for making arrangements for next year
just at present," and so on. Ham's face grew longer
and longer as he read these discouraging epistles,
and he found little consolation in his studies. The
thought of the possibility that he might fail to carry
out his cherished plan of going to college seemed
to take away the old zest in his work and the
greatest incentive to duty.
It never rains but it pours," says the homely
adage, and Ham was grimly reminded of this one
day when he came home and found his strong, cheery
father lying white and faint upon the bed, while
the doctor and Mrs. Estabrook worked quietly and
busily to relieve his sufferings. An accident at
the mill," they said; and Ham had little more
time for meditation until the cool night-breezes
brought the needed sleep to the patient, and a
respite to the tired attendants.
It's all up with me now," soliloquized the boy,
as he tumbled into bed. "I 've got to give up
college. Poor old father! I 'd give up twenty
colleges, rather than have him laid up in this
way. Well-let's see-- and he thought
over his new-formed plans until he fell asleep.
The result was, that he left school, and by a deter-
mined effort succeeded in impressing upon the
mill owners the straits into which the accident had
thrown his father's family, and the justice of Ham's
request to be given a situation in which he could
earn something; enough at least to keep from
their door the distress for which the mill owners
were responsible by their neglect in not taking
sufficient precaution against the accident.
K'S CAN-OPENER. 463
We have a little something to give thanks for,
next Thursday," said Ham to his mother, after a
satisfactory interview with the mill superintendent,
and the promise of fifty dollars a month for his
"Oh, yes," responded his mother, cheerfully.
"I 've never seen a Thanksgiving-day yet, but what
there was some blessing to be remembered in the
past year. The only thing I feel badly about is
the money you got Tom McAllister to spend on
that invention of yours. I shall always feel as if
that was a debt."
"But it was Tom's own offer," broke in Ham;
"he went into it with his eyes open."
No matter," replied his mother; I can't help
feeling under an obligation to him so long as he
has n't got his money back."
"We '11 see, Mother," cried Ham, with an
attempt at bravery. Perhaps that can-opener
will open a pot of gold for us some day, yet; who
I don't, for one," was Mrs. Estabrook's answer,
with a deprecatory shake of her head.
As Ham passed the post-office the next morning,
the postmaster came out, locking the door behind
"By the way," he exclaimed, seems to me I
remember seeing something of yours guess I '11
have to get it for you," he added, laughingly, as
he fumbled for his keys.
Ham lingered at the door while the man good-
naturedly ran over the letters in the dim light
of the shuttered room. "Here it is," he said,
presently, and handed the boy a letter upon
which appeared the familiar handwriting of Tom
"Another wail, I suppose," muttered Ham,
thrusting the letter into his pocket. I'll wait
till I get home before I open it. It 's too cold to
stand here and read unwelcome news."
It was not until the little family were gathered
round the table, with Mr. Estabrook comfortably
bolstered up on the lounge near the stove, that
Ham remembered his letter.
"Had a note from Tom to-day," he remarked,
as he opened it, and entirely forgot to read it.
Wonder what the matter is now. Hullo! Great
Scott Sold! Hurrah "- the boy fairly shouted,
staring at the letter with wide-open eyes.
"My son!" cautioned Mrs. Estabrook, "you
"Yes, I know," interrupted Ham; "but just
"'DEAR HAMA: I can sell the patent to a Worcester man who
has a little spare capital and wants some novelty to work up for the
hardware trade. He gives you a choice of twenty per cent, royalty
on actual sales for three years, or two thousand dollars cash. I
"HAM" ESTABROOK'S CAN-OPENER.
advise you to accept the latter. It is not very much, but I think
you would do well to take him up; otherwise there will probably be
little chance of disposing of the patent until Spring. Answer at
once. Yours, TOMn MCALLISTER.'
There i Have n't I a right to shout at such a
letter as that ? "
"You have, indeed," answered his mother,
heartily. Ham, I 'm sorry for all I said about
patents and inventions. That money will be a
godsend to us this winter. I was worrying dread-
fully to think how we should ever manage through
the next six months i "
And I won't have to give up college, after all,"
exclaimed Ham, joyfully. "Two thousand dol-
lars! Why, even after I have given Tom Mc-
Allister his share, I shall have enough left to keep
us until father gets well again, and then to go
through college "
This is truly a Thanksgiving-day," said Mrs.
Estabrook. I shall always remember this when-
ever I feel discouraged hereafter. And Ham," she
continued, if I ever again make any more ob-
jections to one of your inventions, you just say
THE BALLAD OF THE RUBBER-PLANT AND THE PALM.
BY ALICE WELLINGTON ROLLINS.
A RUBBER-PLANT and a small Palm stood
Upon a parlor floor.
From either side the fire-place
They scanned each other o'er.
.1 J ll
I- .. ,
' What do you rub ?" the small Palm asked
His statelier neighbor tall.
" Alas !" the Rubber-plant replied,
" I can not rub at all.
" If I had hands, like yours," he said,
As wistfully he eyed
His smaller neighbor's pretty palms
With fingers opened wide,
" Then I could rub "-" And yet," replied
The little Palm, you see,
Though I have hands, I can not rub,
And that's the rub, with me.
" I wonder why it's always so:
That something we have got
Seems never quite complete to be,
Without what we have not.
" I've often longed to rub my hands
With glee, here in my tub;
And you, no doubt, have often wished
You had some hands to rub.
" Now, if you were I, or I were you,-
No, that 's not right, I see,-
But if you and I, were you or I,
What a fine plant we should be! "
Still, they did as all good plants should-
Kept green all winter long;
So no one ever knew.or guessed
That anything was wrong.
THE BROWNIES IN THE ACADEMY.
BY PALMER COX.
S HE Brownies once with
To an Academy drew nigh,
Which, founded by a gener-
Spread light and learning
through the land.
The students, by ambition fired,
And men of science had retired;
So Brownies, through their mystic power,
Soon took advantage of the hour.
Ere long a door was open swung,
To show some skeletons that hung
From hook and peg, which caused a shout
Of fear to rise from those about.
Said one: "Thus Science works its way
Through old remains from day to day;
And those who during life could find
No time, perhaps, to aid
May, after all, in some
l, such place
0 For years assist the hu-
By giving students, as
Some knowledge of An-
SA battery was next dis-
SAnd soon experiments
I Electric currents were
To meadow-frogs they found inside,
Which sage professors, nights and days,
Had gathered up, in various ways,
And thought the captives safe to keep
For operations dark and deep.
Now on the table to and fro
Tripped frogs on light fantastic toe,
While ranged around with fingers spread,
And eyes protruding from each head,
In wild amazement and delight
The Brownies viewed the novel sight.
To making pills some turned the mind,
While some to Dentistry inclined,
And aching teeth, both small and large,
Were there extracted free of charge.
More gazed where Phrenologic charts
Showed heads partitioned off in parts.
Said one: Let others knowledge gain
Through which to conquer ache and pain,
But by these charts I '11 do my best
To learn where Fancy makes her nest,
And hatches notions, day and night,
To fill the millions with delight."
Another cried, as he surveyed
The bumps that were so well arrayed:
These heads exhibit, full and clear,
) Which one to love and whom to fear;
Who is with noble thoughts inspired,
And who with hate or envy fired;
S The man as timid as the hare,
The man destructive as the bear.
While choosing partners, one may find
It well to keep these charts in mind."
A microscope at length they found;
And next, the Brownies gathered round
VOL. XV.- 30.
THE BROWNIES IN THE ACADEMY.
A stereopticon ma-
That cast its rays
upon a screen.
r Till, stretching out
on every side,
An object large and
And filled the gaz-
ing group with
The locust, beetle, and the bee
Soon gained proportions strange to see,
And seemed like monsters close at hand
To put an end to
all the band.
At other times,
stooped stro\ 'u.
To separate, with
greatest skill, _
The grains which
cure from those
While burning acids, blazes blue,
And odors strong confused the crew.
Cried one: Through trials hard to bear,
The student must himself prepare.
Though mixing paint, or mixing pill-
Or mixing phrases, if you will -
No careless study satisfies
If one would to distinction rise;
The minds that shed from pole to pole
The light of years, as round we roll,
Are first enriched through patient toil,
And kindled by the midnight oil."
Thus spicing logic with a joke,
They chatted on till morning broke;
And then with wild and rapid race
The Brownie band forsook the place.
s88s]. THE BROWNIES IN THE ACADEMY. 467
A BOTTLE THAT SURPRISES TWO BROWNIES.
THE BROWNIES AND THE RETORT.
HOUSEKEEPING SONGS. No. II.
WORDS BY MARY J. JACQUES.
Music BY T. C. H.
HOUSEKEEPING SONGS. NO. II.
In the scalding tub! In the rinsing tub!
Paddle and poke with the lifting stick, Grandmothers rinsed in the running brook,
Poke and paddle and stir them quick; Dipped and squeezed them, and wrung and shook;
Rub-a-dub-dub, we gleefully sing, Rub-a-dub-dub, we gleefully sing,
With a rub-a-dub-dub, and a wring-a-wring-wring. With a rub-a-dub-dub, and a wring-a-wring-wring.
WHAT THE BUTCHER BOY SAID.
BY JULIAN RALPH.
THE question concerning the butcher boy, the
dead pigeon, and the gardener, which was put to the
readers of the ST. NICHOLAS for January, has not
been exactly solved by any of the guesses at what
the boy said, although we have received answers
from many young friends, two or three of whom
have made guesses which differ only in detail from
what was really said. A list of the names of those
who have sent replies may be found in the Letter-
box" of this number of the magazine.
It will be remembered that the pigeons were
seen sunning themselves on the barn in a wealthy
man's house-yard, which was presided over by a
gardener of ferocious aspect and terrible reputa-
tion among the boys of that neighborhood. The
butcher boy was seen to approach on a neighboring
sidewalk; to discover the pretty birds; to drop his
basket; to draw his bean-shooter, and to kill one of
the birds. After that, he walked across the street
and rattled the garden-gate. The ferocious gar-
dener came, and, after listening to what the boy
said, went away and, bringing the dead pigeon,
presented it to the boy, who walked off whistling
Subsequent inquiry has shown that the boy was
in one important respect better than boys usually
are who delight in frightening, maiming, or killing
helpless creatures, and that the case was other-
"Mister," said the boy to the gardener, "I
have hurt one of your pigeons. I did not mean
to. I fired my bean-shooter, and thought it would
only scare them; but one pigeon fell, and I am
afraid it is killed. I have six dollars saved up,
and I will pay for it gladly, if you will take the
"Bless me exclaimed the gardener; "you
are the first boy I ever saw who did not take to his
heels when he had done wrong. The pigeons,
though they belong to us, are great nuisances;
and if you had killed them all, it would have
pleased my boss. But, my boy, killing and hurt-
ing helpless things, because they are smaller and
weaker than you are, is bad business; and if you
had not been so honest, I would have thought you
had a wicked heart. Let me give you the pigeon
to take home." He went and got the pigeon.
" There, now; take it, and show it to your mother,
and see what she'll say. See if she does not tell
you to throw away that bean-shooter. It is not a
fit plaything for an honest lad."
One moral that may be drawn from this tale is,
that the fierceness of a gardener seems to depend
upon the consciences, rather than the eyes, of the
boys who look upon him.
Perhaps other morals may be found in it.
BY ALICE P. CARTER.
STEALING out. alone, demure and secret,
Feeling rather naughty, I 'm afraid,-
Yes, I 'm pretty sure she knows 't is naughty,-
Forth she goes, the cunning little maid. '
Closely hugged beneath her tiny elbow,
Peeps a sketching-block of Sister Lou's;
Nanny thinks she, too, will be a artistst" J
So she's toddling out to draw the "moos."
Pretty moo-cows Nanny 'll draw their leggies
And their tailies, and their hornies too,
Make a booful picture, all herselfie,
Sitting in tlhe fields like Sister Lou.
Down she sits, and, all absorbed, is working, \'
Drawing booful pictures on the block,
0.. -a When a rumbling
I beside her
.7.i -- Makes her turn
her head with
Right behind her stands a mon-
Gazing at her with big, kindly
As if so small a midget busy sketch-
Filled her honest "cowship" with
FOR MIDDLE-AGED LITTLE FOLK.
Maybe "moo" admires her sisters'
But Nanny does not fancy that at
Off she runs, and never stops her
screaming ." ,
Till she is safe behind the
,,' I- ,! ,
Crying with affright,
ing moo-cows /
"' *" -" .
/ .., aSister Lou had not the heart
S t to scold her,
I ,. ^ '.,:::::= When Nannie came back
\" .... / .*-crying, with affright,
" y' ^ But the heads and eyes of low-
.......... -" Haunted little sister's dreams
r .,. ; -. that night.
.... \' -]/ i! '- ,
-*'. ? 1 ^
ETCHED FOM LIFE.
SKETCHED FROM LIFE.
you two extracts from American and two from
English poets (Mrs. Browning and William Cow-
per), so that you may note for yourselves the pro-
nunciation of the disputed word.
" Whisper on, glad girls and boys;
Sealed the fragrant rosy wells;
You and spring are safe alike -
Never the arbutus tells."
I ."I "
c -EUL iT.
APRIL is here !
There's a song in the maple, thrilling and new;
There's a flash of wings of the heavens' own hue;
There 's a veil of green on the nearer hills;
There 's a burst of rapture in woodland rills;
There are stars in the meadow dropped here and
There's a breath of arbutus in the air;
There 's a dash of rain, as if flung in jest;
There's an arch of color spanning the west;
April is here !
Very true, April is here,-that is to say, she is
due whenever the April ST. NICHOLAS is ready to
appear; and she is apt to follow out the general
plan described so pleasantly by Emma C. Dowd,
in the verse I have now given you.
HOW SHALL WE SAY "ARBUTUS"P
AND, by the way, speaking of the breath of
arbutus," your friend Maria L. Owen, of Springfield,
requests me to mention here, that you 'Il oblige her
very much if, when speaking of that beautiful, ear-
liest, spring wildflower, the trailing arbutus, you
will put the accent on the first syllable of the word,
where it belongs, and not on the second, where
it does not belong. She says this may sound
strange to you at first, because you probably have
become used to hearing the word pronounced arbu-
tus, just as you may have heard clematis pronounced
clematis. But as soon as your ear becomes accus-
tomed to the right accent, she is sure you will
think arbutus and clematis quite as pretty sounds
as arbutus and clematis. She admits, however, that
you will find this practice rather perplexing when
you meet with the word in the rhymes of Ameri-
can writers, though all over England in prose and
verse arbutus holds its own. Further, she sends
The wild arbutus, flushed with haste,
Trails close, to make appeal."
-- '" Over which you saw
The irregular line of elms by the deep lane,
Which stopped the grounds and dammed the
Of arbutus and laurel." [E. B. BROWNING.
Beneath, the various foliage wildly spreads,
The arbutus, and rears his scarlet fruit."
Miss Owen repeats that arbutus is wrong, though
a thousand American tongues soon will make the
air resound with it. In proof, she quotes Virgil as
classical authority, and for the present day the late
Dr. Asa Gray, and Dr. Goodale of Cambridge.
Webster's Unabridged, the lady says in effect,
used to give the pronunciation arbutus, but it re-
formed in 1873, and has insisted ever since upon
throwing the accent on the first syllable. The
Imperial Dictionary gives only arbutus, though
Worcester's Dictionary ventures to stand up for the
There! my chicks, I have delivered the mes-
sage- and I never could have done it but for the
help of the dear Little School-ma'am. Settle the
matter among yourselves and your elders. Mean-
time, safe under the snow, the beautiful flower is
tinting its new buds among its stiff old leaves of
last year, caring little what folk may call it, so that
they only welcome and enjoy its fragrant loveli-
THOSE BIRD-MOTHERS AGAIN.
DEAR JACK: I have long been a reader of ST. NICHOLAS, and
so I am very much interested in its communications. Our daily
Evening Journal denies the possibility of such instances as your
correspondents recently gave you. Its explanation of mother-birds
killing their imprisoned young is as follows:
Old birds have a spite against young ones,--even the sires of
some families will kill their offspring; and those captive birds known
to be killed by grown-up birds of their kind were not killed by their
mothers at all, but by any that chanced to come upon them, and
agreeably to a practice that is not confined to birds, even. These
sami birds would have killed them in their nests, if their guardians
had been away."
Now, my mamma thinks the assertion is too sweeping, and she-
thinks the writer of the letter in ST. NICHOLAS is correct, as, during
her own girlhood, and while living in Schuylkill County, Pa., a
similar circumstance came under her own observation.
One summer afternoon, after a violent thunderstorm, she found
two young robins that had been blown out of their nest, and the
parent birds were flying about, crying mournfully. She took the
young ones, put them in a cage, and left it within reach of the parents.
She went away, but watched them from a window. When the old
birds discovered their young were prisoners, they flew away, but,
returning in a short time, fed them, continuing to do so until
J& IJ. J'ttSk
nightfall. The next morning they renewed their care, but before
evening both birds lay dead in the cage. Her mother (my grand-
mother) said the parents gave their young something to poison them.
A devoted friend of ST. NICHOLAS, CAROL R. S--.
NATURAL BRIDGE, VIRGINIA, Dec. 30, 1887.
DEAR J ACK-IN-THE-PULPIT: I have just read a letter in your last,
entitled "Cat-bird Parents." I must tell you that my experience
in raising the young birds has been very different from Miss Torbert's.
I have had a number of them, invariably too young to fly, and only
once (in the case of a bird whose leg had been broken, and which I
finally chloroformed) did I fail to see them reach their full develop-
ment, and fly from the open cage-door. The first bird I raised, I lodged
comfortably in a large wire cage, and placed it in a small room open-
ing from a large one. Several people were sitting in the large room,
when two grown cat-birds flewin, and straight through to my found-
ling. We were quiet and awaited further developments. Presently
the male flew back, and out, but soon returned with a limp worm,
which it fed to the captive through the cage-bars. The mother-
bird went out foraging. Thus did they relieve each other for days,
until the young bird could pick up its food, one of the parents
remaining at the cage all day. They would let me sit close to them
while they tended their baby, sometimes even alighting in my lap.
Dear, brave little birds! Who shall say what resolution and
courage it took for them first to enter that room After that I always
left the little birds out on a shaded porch. I also put a saucer of
potato and yolk of egg mixed (both hard-boiled, near the cage, and the
birds would feed the captive with this. They would even carry
some of the food away, for the benefit of the rest of their family, I
have no doubt. It has been my experience that cat-birds show
more intelligence, and are more easily tamed, than red-birds or mock-
ing-birds. Their song is very sweet. So you see, dear Jack, that
the cat-birds of Virginia must not fall under the ban which pro-
nounces their Northern cousins so cruel, or so wise, which is it? I
hardly can claim for my birds that they knew I intended letting the
little ones loose. I fear I have written at too great length, but I
wished to vindicate our cat-birds.
Yours sincerely, K. S. P- .
LET us thank both of these correspondents, my
people, and hope, until observation enables us to
be sure of it, that the birds of our friend K. S. P.
have a right to be considered fair average examples
of bird morality, intelligence, and kindness.
THE SUN AS A FIRE-EXTINGUISHER.
THE dear Little School-ma'am tells me that as
soon as the wintry cold begins to wane and the sun-
light grows warmer, house-fires are apt to get low
and dull, and for this reason persons say "the
sun puts the fire out." Sometimes the children
ask her to explain this queer conduct on the part
of the sun, and then she tells them something
During the sunniest part of the day we are apt
to neglect our fires and to cease supplying fresh
fuel. Meantime the sun's rays warm the air and
rarefy it until it is as warm and thin as the air in
the chimney that has been heated by the fire.
Then the draught ceases and the fire gets lower
and lower. But the Little School-ma'am opens
a door, or a window, and the fresh, cool air sends
the warm air of the room up the chimney in a
hurry, and the fire brightens.
And the little lady reminds them of another
fact: If the sunshine falls directly upon the fire,
it is at least a rival light, and not so well calculated
to show the glow of the coals as a flattering shadow
THE JACK-SCREW AND OTHER JACKS.
L. P. WARREN, Florence Henry, E. R. H. and
several others have sent letters placing that loose
screw we talked about in January. They say:
"The jack-screw is a portable machine for raising
heavy weights short distances."
These correspondents also suggest more Jacks,
such as Jack-block, Jack-boots, Jackdaw, Jack-
plane, Jack-saw, Jack-pudding, Jackanapes; and
Florence quotes the Mother-Goose rhyme:
SHandy, spandy, Jack-a-dandy,
Loves plum-cake and sugar-candy."
"WHY HARTSHORN?" ANSWERED.
OF the many replies that have come to the Lit-
tle School-ma'am's query, which I gave you in
January last, Edward C. D.'s is the best and
Ans.: Because it originally was made by distil-
lation from deer's (or harts') horn."
Every hundred pounds of deer's or any horn is,
I am told, capable of producing sixteen pounds of
ammonia, that pungent gas with which you all
are familiar and which gives smelling-salts, or
hartshorn, its peculiar odor.
HOW IS THAT?
DEAR JACK: I am a school teacher, and one of my little puz-
zlers puzzled me recently with this question: Is that as that is a
preposition the same as as that as that is a conjunction ?" I an-
swered indignantly : Is that that that is a conjunction that same
that that that is that is a pronoun ? Thinking that perhaps you
or the Little School-ma'am might help out me and the babies, I
refer the matter to you.
ANGUs E. ORR.
I showed this letter to the dear Little School-
ma'am this morning and she said: Say to Mr.
Orr that that that that that that is that he men-
tions is as confusing as as as a preposition and
as as as a conjunction (though to my mind as is
as useful as a conjunction as as is as a preposi-
tion) and that I beg to be excused solely on that
Who can correctly and with the right emphasis
read aloud the Little School-ma'am's reply ?
=- L - --- i:. .....--- ,' -
HANDIWORK FOR GIRLS.
BY ELLA S. WELCH.
WE hope many girls will be glad of these suggestions for simple
pieces of fancy work. Whi'e all of the articles described may not be
entirely new, yet it is believed that each reader can find some novel
trifle which will repay the slight trouble of making it. The directions
are plain and easy to follow; and although both materials and colors
are specified, individual taste may of course be freely exercised in
choosing other suitable fabrics, or in varying the colors and designs
A SMALL broom may be so trimmed as to be an ornament when
standing by the fire-
place in readiness to
keep the hearth or floor
tidy. Cover the upper
half of the broom part
with dark-brown cloth ;
first embroidering this
cover in outline,- a
cob-web makes a very
appropriate design. If
you wish to make two,
the other may be of
peacock-blue felt, the
embroidery being a
few long stitches of
crewels of various
The handles should
be bronzed or gilded;
or, they may be covered
by a strip of cloth
wound in a tight
spiral around the wood
and fastened at the top
by some sort of orna-
Tuhs is for the dressing-table, and is convenient as a temporary
receptacle for jewelry, or similar small articles. Any small baskets
maybe used; those shown in the picture cost four cents each at a
"Japanese store." They may be gilded, bronzed, painted, or left
as bought. according to taste. A pad should be tacked in the
bottom of thebaskets, and i* thus made: Cut a piece of cotton-bat-
ting to fit, and sprinkle it freely with sachet 'powder. Cover the
cotton with plush or velvet cut a little larger, fastening the edges
beneath the cotton by stitching them either to the cotton or to each
other. Fasten the pads in the bottom of the baskets by means of a
stitch or two.
Sew the three baskets together, as indicated in the picture, taking
care to make them stand evenly. Cover the joining with a bow
consisting of seven loops and ends.
Shrimp-pink and Nile-green form a pretty combination for the
bow, which will require about half a yard of each color, if ribbon
an inch and a half in width is used.
THE illustration represents something new: a Home-made Bean-
bag Game," so named because all the materials needed for it can be
found in almost any home.
The ring can be made of a piece of a barrel-hoop; or an old iron
hoop can be used. It should be about sixteen inches in diameter,
but a difference of an inch one way or the other is not important.
Wind this with a strip of turkey-red, or some bright-colored ma-
trial; suspend a sleigh-bell, or small table-bell, on a piece of ribbon
in the center; use a loop of the same ribbon, slipped through a small
metal ring, by which the hoop is suspended in a doorway; the ends
forming a bow on the large ring, as seen in the picture.
The bags should be four inches square; and only about three-
quarters filled with small, white beans.
Almost any kind of material can be used for the bags; cretonne,
awning-material, or ticking will answer the purpose. It is an im-
provement to cover the bags with soft silks of various colors.
The object of the game is to see who, in pitching the bags through
the hoop, can strike the bell the greatest number of times in twelve
trials. Variations of the game may readily be devised. The distance
from the ring at which players should stand, and the height at which
the ring is hung, will depend on the average size of the players.
The ring should be suspended from a hook screwed into the top of
HANDIWORK FOR GIRLS.
the door-casing. Tacks in each side of the doorway, with fine
cords running from them to each side of the ring, are often found
useful to keep the ring from turning and to hold it in place.
Sometimes the game is made more interesting by a pretty little
prize given to the most successful player, and a "booby-prize"-
some funny article, such as a fool's cap or a toy donkey-may be
awarded to the one making the lowest count.
BEAD curtains are easily made by little girls to hang in the door-
ways of their baby-houses.
Directions.: First, mark off on a piece of strong tape, of any re-
quired color, the exact width of your doorway. For convenience,
tack this tape along the edge of a pine table or chair-back or shelf.
Next, within this marked-off space, and side by side, hang very
strong linen threads, all of the same length, and each strung with
beads. The length of the threads must, of course, depend upon the
desired length of the curtain. String each thread with beads before
you fasten it to the tape, and be sure that the first bead, which should
.be a large one, is securely fastened, as it will come at the bottom when
your curtain is hung. When all the beaded threads are strongly
fastened upon the tape, you have only to hem the ends of the tape at
the two marked places and hang it up in the little doorway.
In threading the beads, do not put so many upon the string that it
will be too stiff to swing freely; and, above all, exercise your best
taste in assorting the colors and sizes of the beads. It is not difficult
so to arrange them that very pretty patterns will appear upon the
The writer knows a bright little girl who, during a slight but rather
long illness, made her mother beautiful bead curtain for a grown-
up" doorway, as she called it. Her mother had bought the beads
Other articles may he used with or instead of beads; such as
muskmelon, watermelon, or other seeds, or bits of bamboo from worn-
out or broken Japanese bead-curtains. The wooden beads that were
lately used in trimming dresses and bonnets-but that are now out
of fashion, and probably to be bought very cheaply would be
effective. Even pop-corn first dipped in gum shellac dissolved in
alcohol, and when dry strung instead of beads, makes a very pretty
curtain, if one is willing to wash off the dust occasionally.
THIS cloth is intended to spread onthe floor for baby to play upon
and for his amusement. It can be of gray linen, felt, or heavy flan-
bury fl~~ UaAaM ewnhmn~a~bssla~* esef#*S~Wf
nel. The outline of the animals may be copied from books or papers
by the aid of transfer paper, and worked in outline-stitch with red
and blue working cotton. If the blanket be made of linen, bind
it around the edge with red braid; if made of flannel, it will be
prettier to pink the edges; then stitch a band of contrasting flannel
underneath the gray, so that the pinked edge will show against it.
THIs style of fancy-work apron, or art" apron, as it is sometimes
termed, will be found particularly useful on account of the capacious
-'- -ii .
- o -- f-
r,-^ '-'^ .b'v
pocket. It may be made in cream-colored grenadine or pongee silk.
The design on the pocket is worked in colored wash-silks; the
cob-web part, in dark gray; the letters, in cardinal; and the figure,
in harmonious shades of olive and light blue. All hems are feather-
stitched with cardinal. Satin bows of the same
I color as that used in the feather-stitching are
fastened at each side of the pocket; and a
piece of cardinal satin ribbon is run through
the hem at the waist, and the apron is shirred
over this, to give fullness. The ribbon must
be long enough to tie in a pretty bow at one
S With a few necessary modifications, this apron
is well adapted for wearing with a tennis-cos-
tume, and then the tennis-balls can be kept in
The designs should be changed accordingly.
A racket might be embroidered in outline upon
If found best, either for tennis or for fancy-
work, divisions in the pocket can be made by
stitching perpendicular seams at either regular
or unequal distances, as the purpose may require.
HANDLES FOR PACKAGES.
THESE are made of the common wooden
handles sometimes given away to purchasers
S by the large stores. The metal ends or hooks
Must be painted with several coats of bronze, or
gilding-liquid. The handle is neatly covered
with plush or velvet, which is glued on very
smoothly, the edges meeting but not overlap-
ping. One of these handles may be completed in twenty minutes,
and no one will regret the moments so spent.
*, 1 -
THE answers to the question, "What did the butcher boy say? "
have been ingenious and amusing, but can be arranged into a few
general classes: i. That the butcherboymade up a story to account
for the dead bird, without blaming himself. 2. That he frankly con-
fessed and was forgiven. 3. That he shot the bird as a dainty for a
sick mother or sister. 4. That the gardener was threatened or bribed.
5. That he asked for the body to have it stuffed, or buried, or to buy
a bird like it, to replace the dead one.
The best answer received is from L. R. Gillam, and we are happy
to record the names of the young friends who have also sent letters:
Frank C. R., Bessie Gardner, Willie M. Vermilye, Amy A. C., John
A. Milligan, Mildred Foote, Herbert D. Murray, Louisa E. Em-
burg, Clara P. Curtiss, Frank H. Hamilton, C. Marion Bush, Marie
Buchanan, Clarence and Annis, May, Maggie Schenck, Daisy
Thorne, M. R. Chase, E. Runcie, Janet Williams, B. de L., Frank
D. W., R. R. Kendall, Cyrus H. Adams, Jr., Francis Beardmore,
Ethelinda B. Judson, Grace Patterson, Bottie, and Rowland D.
EXPLANATORY NOTES ON "EDWARD ATHOY."
NOTE 4. "Gangway road."
In mines, all narrow passages through which men travel or air
is directed, are called "headings." When two headings are driven
one at the side of the other, the one used as a road for haul-
ing coal is called the gangway"; the other, used for directing the
air-current, is called the "air-way." The words "heading road" and
" gangway road mean the same thing.
NOTE 5. "Brake-band."
Coal lies imbedded in the rocks forming hills, and hollows, and
flat places,-just like hills, dales, and meadows on the surface.
Where a gangway road runs up one of these underground hills
and the loaded cars, running down, drag the empty cars up by
means of a wire rope, this part of the gangway road is called a
"plane." The machinery is very simple, consisting of a big wooden-
cylinder or drum, about which a long wire rope takes a few turns.
The loaded cars, to which one end of the rope is fastened, are on the
top of the hill,the empty cars are at the bottom, also fastened to
the rope. The speed of the cars, as they rush over the plane, is
regulated by a flat band of iron clasping the drum, called a "brake-
The tighter this band is squeezed about the drum, the slower
will the drum turn, until it finally stops. The top of the hill is
called the "head," and the bottom, the "foot," of the plane.
NOTE 6. Clorlessfies'."
These flies are strange-looking insects. It may be
that they are an open-air species changed in appearance
Sby having in the dark,-as a blade of grass whitens when
growing beneath a board. They have very large heads,
and their enormous compound-eyes have a brilliant, red,
opalescent glow. The bodies are almost colorless, and
perfectly transparent. They are to be found in places
S^ I ,' where the current of fresh air is sluggish.
S/ i i NOTE 7. The rats 6es gone, sir."
S' h" The old saying, "Rats desert a sinking ship," applies
to the mines also. These rodents are very large, and be-
I I.. come very tame often sitting opposite a miner at lunch-
timeand noisily scampering after the bit of meat or cheese
.- .I he throws to them. When an accident, such as an ex-
4 plosionn or a flooding, is about to happen, these animals
.,' seem to be aware of the coming danger. Threatened
S' 'sections of the workings they desert-even going to the
Si surface to secure safety, when necessary.
CHERRY GROVE, PA.
DEAE ST. NICHOLAS: I live in the oil regions of West-
ern Pennsylvania. Oil was found in Cherry Grove town-
S ship in the spring of 1881. The first well drilled was called
the "Mystery," because very few people knew whether
they had found petroleum oil or not. At last the secret
NOTE I. SKETCHES, SHOWING CARRIAGES," OR MINE ELEVATORS, IN A SHAFT. was out. Oil was found, and people began to crowd in.
They pump the well now.
Nearly everyone uses natural gas here. A great deal
NOTE 2. Tie coal isl iglk" of excitement was caused, in the summer of 1881, by the burning
Seams of coal vary greatly in thickness. In a seam having an of a flowing well, which flamed nearly a week. B. L. F-- .
average thickness ot between six and seven feet, there will oc-
cur many portions where it may increase in thickness to eleven or
twelve feet. At such places it is called "high coal," and as explo-
sive gases found in coal-mines are lighter than air, these high places,
when the coal is removed, become filled with gas, which the air-
current-without some assistance-can not dislodge. Men go
into such high places," and make a great commotion in the air
by whirling their coats rapidly above their heads. The eddies of air
extend into the high places and push the gas down into the main
NOTE 3. "The great fan-wheel."
A ventilating fan, such as is used in coal-mines, is an enormous
wheel, containing paddles, somewhat like the'paddle-wheels of a
river steamer, and placed over a shaft leading to the mine. The
air enters at the center of the fan (at the axle), and is whirled out-
ward by the rapid motion of the many paddles. If a fan is not
inclosed, by a wood or an iron covering, it will simply whirl about a
great quantity of air. By inclosing it, and having in the inclosure an
opening like a chimney, the air is drawn out of the mine, and is
forced through the chimney, thus creating an "air-current."
WASHINGTON, D. C.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: The public-school authorities of this city,
having decided to establish cooking-schools, have employed teachers,
and furnished two kitchens in different parts of the city, where the
girl pupils may learn the art of cooking. Attendance is not com-
pulsory, only those going who so desire. There are three classes
of fifteen each, daily, the lesson lasting two hours. The kitchen
where I attend is a moderately large room. A table covered with
oil-cloth-around which are arranged sixteen chairs--is in the
center of the room. The shelves of a large dresser are filled with
breakfast and dinner plates, knives, forks, and spoons. Cups are
hung on little hooks. In the lower part are kept the sugar and flour.
Pots and pans are near by. An ice-chest holds the butter, eggs, and
milk. A small table, with dish-pan and tray, wash-stand, and cook-
ing-range, where the kettle sings merrily, make this a complete
The first duty of the young cooks is to wash their hands and put
on their aprons. Then all gather round the table to copy the recipes
as given by the teacher. Each pupil has a different portion of the
work to do,- some mixing, some kneading, some baking, and all
under the teacher's direction. The old adage, too many cooks
spoil the broth," is here disproved; for although many have a finger
in it, the result is delicious bread, biscuits, soup, and cookies, up
to this date; with other good things to follow from future lessons.
And then we have ajolly time eating what we have cooked.
ONE OF THE COOKS.
SAN DIEGO, CAL.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: Seeing so many nice letters in your Letter-
box," I write my letter also.
The only thing that I can remember that is of any interest is
Old San Diego, which I lately visited. I saw the two old mission-
bell: ,'- I : .-. i. Don Juan," and, I believe the other was named,
"] .- i. L' cracked, and, when I slapped it with my hand,
sounded hoarse and low, but "Don Juan" sounded ringing and
sharp. Each has "Ave Maria" in letters, almost erased, on the
side. I'msure, all of the boys who have read Two Years Before the
Mast," would like to see Old San Diego; but instead of galloping
across on a broncho, as Mr. Dana did, they might ride over on the
I have visited Lower California, too, and may pleasantly surprise
some of you Eastern people by saying that it is a very pretty country,
with fine mountains and bays and valleys. Before I saw it I thought
(from the maps I had seen) that it was a desert.
I like Mr. E. W. Ke.mble's pictures, and the expression he puts in
his characters is so amusing. Mr. Birch's pictures are beautiful.
The winter out here is most pleasantly devoid of all cold; and a
rain, a few days ago, made the grass very green (what grass there
was), and in some gardens to-day I saw oranges and flowers grow-
ing nicely. Looking from the window, I see the bright sunshine,
and there's a perfect mass of green trees, of all descriptions, outside.
The bay sparkles away off, too, and it is as pleasant here in Jan-
uary as it is elsewhere in June. And one of the mo- pTlT-int fse-r
ures of to-day was the arrival of ST. NICHOLAs. I -
Nicholas and, indeed, "so say we all of us."
Good-bye. A. B- .
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: For many years you have been a source
of the greatest delight to me, and now I write to thank you and tell
of the sunshine you have shed upon many, many hours of my life
that would otherwise have been spent in loneliness and gloom.
Good, kind Saint that you are, do you ever try to realize what a
blessing you are to not only the hearty girls and boys, but also to
those who, like myself, spend many days in being taught patience
by the angel of pain ?
And there are great numbers who owe you heartfelt thanks with-
out knowing it. These are the guests of the Children's Christmas
Club of our city; for you must know, dear Saint, that your sug-
gestion to the children of putting some pleasure into the lives of the
poor little unfortunates has not been made in vain. One of our
wealthiest merchants undertook to help and guide the children, and
under his assistance and direction they were enabled on Holy Inno-
cents' Day to give to the little ones a dinner and Christmas-tree
such as they had never seen before.
For several days before the feast, clothing and fuel were given to
those in want of it; and after dinner a paper sack was given each
child, and they were told to fill it with whatever they liked. That
it was greatly enjoyed was fully attested by the zeal with which the
"three.cheers for the president" of the club were given; and that
its object was attained was satisfactorily proved by the accounts of
numerous cases of relief, not only of the poor children, but also of
their parents, in many cases.
I hope my letter is not too long, but on such a subject it is im-
possible to be brief And now I must say good-bye, hoping that we
shall shortly hear from all parts of the world of the success of the
Children's Christmas Club. NELL N-.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I think that "A Girls' Military Company,"
in the January number, was splendid, and I should have felt proud
to have been one of those girls. I suppose the reason why I feel so
ri.. ._i.. :1. is because I have been drilled in nearly the same way,
,-r.I ..i11. i with tin pails and milking-stools instead of guns.
There were thirty-two girls in the drill. It went under the name
of "Dairy Maids' Drill." We had an excellent drill-master. Our
costumes were not like those the girls wore from the design of
Lieutenant Hamilton. Ours consisted of blue, buff, pink, and red
skirts, which came to within seven inches from the floor, and white
waists and black bodices. We gave an entertainment which occu-
pied three evenings ; the net proceeds were over three hundred
dollars. I must close now, hoping my letter will not be too long
and uninteresting for you to print.
Your devoted reader, CASSA.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: The university mentioned by Lieutenant
W. R. Hamilton, U. S. A., in his article in the January number,
concerning A Girls' Military Company," is De Pauw University.
The Ladies' Drill Corps has now one hundred and seven members
enrolled. There is one special" company of twenty-two uniformed
young women, which gave an exhibition at the Military Fair given
by the cadets.
Lieutenant Wm. T. May, U. S. A., is the present instructor of
Military Science and Tactics in the university.
Yours truly, A "CADET."
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS : We have taken you ever since you began,
and could not live a month without you. I have one sister twenty-
two, one fourteen, and I am eleven.
I made the Babes in the Wood" game that was in the January
number. We all enjoy playing the game very much. It is very hard
to aim the arrows, and we get a great many minuses." I made
it to amuse my sister, who was getting well. Of course my favorite
story is Little Lord Fauntleroy," and I think Sara Crewe" is very
interesting. Your constant reader, I. B. W- .
NEAR WALKER, MO.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I am a little girl nine years old. An aunt
of mine, in California, has sent you to my older sister for ten years.
That was a year before I was born. She was six years old then, and
we lived in Tennessee.
My brother Ernest's favorite story was His One Fault." One
day while the story was being printed he came in with a new num-
ber of ST. NICHOLAS, just as supper was ready, and wanted Mamma
to read to him. When she said "wait," he just danced up and down
in the dining-room door and said, O Mamma, I am aching all over
to hear it; I can't wait "; and he is a boy who thinks a great deal
of'- -; i-r 1: Now, when a number comes with Brownies" in it,
we :.I i. ., we are so glad. I am so glad that "Juan and Juan-
ita" got home all right.
Srom your delighted little friend and reader, INA E. D- .
NEW ORLEANS, LA.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: We have welcomed you in our home for
many past years, and I hope we will continue to welcome you for
many years to come. I like your stories ever so much, and particu-
larly liked "Little Lord Fauntleroy" and "Juan and Juanita." 1
am very much interested in Sara Crewe," and every time Papa
brings a ST. NICHOLAS home the little children crowd around me
and beg me to read Sara Crewe aloud to them.
I have three sisters and three brothers. We have a pet pigeon,
and its name is Midget. Whenever it is offended it struts like a
young lord, and makes us all laugh very much: I read the Letter-
box" every month, and it affords me much pleasure.
To-morrow is my birthday, and I will be thirteen years of age.
I like Miss L. M. Alcott's stories very much, and I hope she will
contribute some more to the ST. NICHOLAS. I liked the article on
"A Girls' Military Company" very much, and I hope that when I
am larger I will have a chance to belong to that Company," or one
like it. My letter is too long, so I will stop.
Ever remaining your interested reader, C. E- .
OIL CITY, PA.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I have taken you for two years, in Novem-
ber, and I think that "Juan and Juanita" is just a lovely story.
I have a pet dog, and every time I tell her to say her prayers she
will jump up on a chair, put her paws upon the back of the chair,
then put her head between her paws, and will not get up until I say
"Amen." She is a water-spaniel.
I go to school every day, and am getting along very nicely.
I am a little girl twelve years old, and on my birthday I got a
lovely bisque doll. Your loving little reader, LILLY L-- .
MY DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: Among your stories, 1 like "Three
Miles High in a Balloon very much; I suppose for the reason that
I saw a man, last summer, jump from a balloon,- with the aid of a
parachute. He made two jumps in this city; the first distance was
4500 feet, the second 7000 feet. Th a e name of the aeronaut is T. S.
Baldwin. We young people are verymuch interested in him, and
are proud of him, for this place is his home.
I dearly love your magazine, and hope to have it to read for many
years. Your admirer and well-wisher, ELSA C-- .
MY DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I am a little French girl, living in
America. I have been studying the English language for a very
long time. Crossing the ocean, we had a terrible time; the waves
were higher than the ship, and I was very much frightened.
I have taken you ever since I have been in America. Hoping
that I have not made any mistakes in spelling, I remain your little
French reader, CLAIRE.
P. S.--I got the medal for English.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I want to tell you of another Christmas
Club that to-day has given its first dinner. About four weeks
ago, upon a rainy Sunday, a lady was reading over some back num-
bers of the ST. NICHOLAS to her little girls, and happened upon the
account of the first dinner in Portland. Soon she found the older
children and their father all listening, and many tears fell before
the touching story was told. They all felt they must have a Club
here, and the children with one accord said; We will do with-
out Christmas, if you will put it all into such a dinner." Then
a few friends were spoken to, and soon a Club of not more than
twenty children was organized, and such effectual work was done,
that to-day one hundred and sixty children were fed and sent
home with many nice presents. Forty more tickets were issued,
but it was too bitter a day for those at a distance to come. A
kind gentleman gave us the use of the hall, and all responded
worthily to the call upon them. After the dinner, paper bags
were given them, in which to put their surplus cake, oranges,
etc., and the plates were soon bare. Then eleven of the children
gave very prettily the little play in the ST. NICHOLAS for Novem-
ber, 1882, interspersed with songs. It was received most rap-
turously by the audience. Then Santa Claus came with his
pack, and they were dismissed happier than they came. An-
other year will find us thoroughly organized, ready to care for many
more, if it is needed. Truly yours, M. B. H- .
DEAR ST. NICHuOLAS: Mamma subscribed for you as a birth-
day gift when I was twelve years old, but I had taken you when
I was only six years old. I think "Donald and Dorothy was a
splendid story; but at present I am much interested with Sara
Crewe," and her queer "supposing" and "pretending" manners
We have a pet water-spaniel called Leo. He is very young, but
we have taught him to sit up, to ask for food, to jump over things,
and to carry papers for us.
Papa wished to send him to the dog-trainer, but we objected, wish-
ing to train him ourselves, and not expose him to the cruelty of dog-
trainers; and we were well rewarded, for his gentleness and sagacity
I am afraid my letter is too long to be printed, but as it is my first,
I should feel very much honored if I found it in the Letter-boxj"
of your pleasant, instructive magazine.
Your admiring reader, BERTHA J. R- .
WE thank the young friends whose names follow, for pleasant
letters received from them: Alice B., Edith N. A., May, Emily
P., Fannie Mason, Ethel M. Smith, A. Parker, Mabel Hughes,
Gilbert H., F. A. C., Freddie E. Hobart, Lloyd McC., Ella D.,
Edith M. C., Josie, Gwyneth and Winnie, Bertrand F. Bell, A. H.,
Jeanette C. V., Edith S. Wade, Constance Ruth, E. H. W., Edna,
Fanny B. Johnson, Susie K. Zettie, A. H., Percy McDowell, Mar-
garet J. W. and Ethel B. D., Grace Riley, Eleanore P. C., Inez E.
Holt, Helena J., May E. R., Elsie S., Ethel Holbrook, Pansy and
Daisy, Ethel Doan, H. D. P., Minnie Orcutt, Marie Griswold,
Helen Sears, Mary and Alice, Daisy J., Emma H., Mary A. Meigs,
Luie Buchanan, Daisy Vivian, Edith Parks, Nancy W., Sophie M.
Lee, Guy M., Bessie G. Pomeroy, M. D. and L. F. Libbie, B.
Griffin, C. Burt, Laura Howell, Harry A. Austin, C. A., Anita F.,
R. Wiley, Roy Taylor, Gussie Norcross, M. T., Lida S. Danforth,
Florence Addle N., Flossie Russell, Evangeline Y., Lillian A.
Thorpe, Minnie V., F. Adela C., M. E., Sarah and Kate L., Susie
J. M., Lena A. C., John J. D., Bessie, A. McK. G, Nellie F. D.,
Mabel S., Oswald L., Nellie S. C., M. W., Mabel and Elsie, M.
Dennison, Daisy Holroyd, Walton L. Oakley, Meta B. Macfarlane,
Potter R., W. B. Benjamin, Ethel Fish, and Mary Meigs.
ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN THE MARCH NUMBER.
WORD-DWINDLE. Effaced, deface, faded, deaf, fed,
PI. With rushing winds and gloomy skies
The dark and stubborn winter dies;
Far-off, L. .... ... ... cries,
Bidding : .. -. .
March," by Bayard Taylor.
HOUR-GLASS. Centrals, abominate. Cross-words: z. Impeached.
2. Verbena. 3. Stove. 4. Amy. 5. I. 6. Ant. 7. Smart. 8. Plat-
ter. 9. Longevity.
BEHEADINGs. Saint Patrick. i. S-mall. 2. A-long. 3. I-rate.
4. N-opal. 5. T-race. 6. P-lace. 7. A-muse. 8. T-rain. 9.
R-emit. 10. I-rate. it. C-live. 12. K-edge.
CUBE. From i to 2, copious; 2 to 4, stanmer; i to 3, cements;
3 to 4, stagger; 5 to 6, beseech; 6 to 8, hungers; 5 to 7, breaker;
7 to 8, Rameses; i to 5, crab; 2 to 6, sash; 4 to 8, runs; 3 to
MYTHOLOGICAL DIAMOND. I. P. 2. Pan. 3. Circe. 4. Car-
neus. 5. Parnassus. 6. Perseus. 7. Jason. 8. Eos. 9. S.
A CRAB PUZZLE. a. Lady crab. 2. Glass crab. 3. Soldier crab.
4. Fiddler crab. 5. Hermit crab. 6. Land crab. 7. Palm crab.
8. King crab. 9. Porcelain crab. zo. Oyster crab. t1. Horse-shoe
crab. 12. Spider crab.
ST. ANDREW'S CROSS or DIAMONns. I. I. S. 2. Ate. 3. Stake.
4. Eke, 5. E. II. i. E. 2. Era. 3. Erase. 4. Asp. 5. E.
III. i. E. 2. Era. 3. Erase. 4. Asp. 5. E. IV. r. E., Ira.
3. Erode. 4. Ada. 5. E. V. i. E. 2. Pay. 3. Eater. 4. Yes.
DOUBLE CENTRAL ACROSTIC. Fifth row, Chesterfield; sixth
row, H. W. Longfellow. Cross-words: i. churCHyard, 2. catcH-
Words. 3. propELlers. 4. glosSOlogy. 5. lighTNings. 6. col-
lEGiate. 7. poweRFully. 8. chafFEring. 9. concILiate.
19. dispELling. i. discLOsing. 12. blinDWorms.
OCTAGONS. I. i. Bed. 2. Tunes. 3. 1...:l. Engrave.
5. Delayed. 6. Sever. 7. Red. II. Did : .. .1 3. Dan-
gler. 4. Ingrate. 5. Delayed. 6. Deter. 7. Red. III. I. Cab,
z. Cabos. 3. Cabinet. 4. Ability. 5. Bonitos. 6. Seton. 7. Tys
(sty).-- CHARADE. Spar-row-hawk.
QUINCUNX. Across: 1. Clip. 2. Oar. 3. Task. 4. Ass. 5. Unto.
To ouR PUZZLERS: Answers, to be I .. I. 1_.: I in the ...:. :: ....t be received not later than the i5th of each month, and
should be addressed to ST. NICHOLAS il are of .: I Co., 33 East Seventeenth St., New York City.
ANSWERS TO ALL THE PUZZLES IN THE JANUARY NUMBER were received, before Januar, 1., from Grace H. Kupfer-" Socrates"
-Maude E. Palmer- K. G. S.-" A. Fiske and Co."-" Orange and II -Francis W. Islip.
ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN THE JANUARY NUJMBtER were received, before January x5th, from Arthur Lozier, 3 -Marie D. Grier, i -Joe
W. Burton, 2 P. W. S., i Paul Reese, x2 Wayne E. Smith, I Louise McClellan, 14- Bessie Gardner, a J. W. Gardner, Jr., 4 -
"I. Van Hoe," x Maie H. Munroe, i Lillian A. Thorpe, 5-"Alpha Alpha B. C.," 8-Tom and Clara, 1-Ruby Preston, 3-
Sophie Lee, r Est. and Min," 2- Ednor Smith, Grace M. H., i Donna D., 2- Pug," i -Twinkle Craig, Alexander
C. Johnston, i Cecilia McCorkell, I- Katie G. S., I Rena, I Sidney, i- Dorothy Dumps," I V. P. C., 2- "Dot Perry-
bingie," i- Eva Stewart, i- Margaret and Minnie, 2- C. W. N., I- Lulu Hill, 2- Ellie and Susie, 6- I. Poskowitz, Lulu
Day, I Elsie Davenport, 6 Lila and Edith, Paris, i Russell Davis, 13 "Two Bs," i Two Little Owls," i Aunt Kate,
Mamma, and Jamie, 13 Sally Lunn," 6 "Patty Pan and Kettledrum," 5 R. T. Lincoln and A. I-. Tyler, Two Bs," 3-
" Rose Maylie and Oliver Twist," 3 "Skipper," 4-- B. C. and M. C., 9 L. Rettop and others," o0-- H W. and H. G. Bill, i-
Effie K. Talboys, 8- Little Mother," i-- Twin Elephants," 5--Helen M. Clarke, 2 Clara Mabel Green, 4- Duchess and
Brownie," 2-Louisa E. Ermburg, i Burton R. Corbus, 2-" Three Graces," 2-' i., I i--" Infantry," ;3-Jenrie S. Lieb-
mann, ro-" May and 79," 8-" Good Timers." Waltham, 5-"Late Comer," i- weetbrier," x-Nellie L. Howes, 8-
*Alb'rt S. Gould, 13 -Kafran Emrawit, 8 Millie P- -- Juan and Juanita," 3 -Annie Floyd, 9-"Hyme," 4- Jo and I, 13 -
Etta R., --Jo and Mlim, a-Helen Fisher, x i. .- ..... ." 6-H. D., 5-C. A. W., 2-Roxalene Howell, i-F'red and Harry
Hooper, 4 -" Lehte," 7-Jay Laret, Jr., x Edward S. Hine, 2-" May and Warren," a Nellie and Reggie, 12 -"Jenny Wren," 8-
Robert and Randolph, 9-Grace and Clara, r.
THE central letters, reading downward, spell a word meaning to
CROSS-WORDS: i. To penetrate. 2. Supercilious. 3. A unit.
4. In hour-glass. 5. Recent. 6, A law. 7. Satisfaction.
FROM i to 2, a braggart; from I to 3, makes happy; from 2 to 3,
argues rationally; from 4 to 5, the principal gold coins of ancient
Greece; from 4 to 6, to satisfy; from 5 to 6, the shortening of a
INCLOSED DIAMOND: In state. 2. Enraged. 3. Weeds.
4. A cave. 5. In state.
EAsy SQUARE (contained in the diamond): i. Distracted. 2.
A verb. 3 A haunt.
EASY SQUARE READ BACKWARD: I. An obstruction. 2. A
time. 3. A masculine nickname.
F. s. F.
MY primals name a famous artist who was born on April 6th, and
my finals name a great artist who died on April 6th.
CROSS-WORDS : i. A popular report. 2. Fragrance. 3. An
aquatic animal of the radiate type. 4. Austere. 5. The great
artery proceeding from the left ventricle of the heart. 6. A common
French word meaning a choice or select body. 7. Horizontal.
"AUGUSTUS G. HOPKINS."
1. I. In portions. 2. An animal. 3. Summons to appear. 4.
One who loves his country. 5. To contaminate. 6. Fortune. 7.
II. i. In portions. 2. A cover. 3. Fruit similar to lemons.
4. Precisely alike. 5. To put off. 6. To utter in words. 7. In
EXAMPLE: Drop a syllable from an event, and leave to mark.
i. Drop a syllable from a kind of needlework, and leave a mineral.
2. Drop a syllable from threatening, and leave the cry of an animal.
3. Drop a syllable from an absconder, and leave an animal. 4. Drop
a syllable from a place of refuge, and leave a salt. 5. Drop a sylla-
ble from a meeting, and leave to come in.'
HE needs my first who fain would journey far;
My second, he who toils on dusty ways,
And, to whatever clime his journeyings are,
The traveler makes my whole before my first he pays.
Still each new day my.first he must espy,
Or else my second he can never feel,
While he. resigned, perchance my -whole must cry,
If from his purse some thief my firs should steal.
THE letters composing each of the eight following groups of words
may be transposed so as to form a new word.
i. Pie crust. 2. Tart illusion. 3. Great hotel. 4. Real thugs.
5. Partisans. 6. A recent pen. 7. Shoe tags. 8. Ten priests.
: zz-' ----- .-;\
S NUMERICAL ENIGHIA.
I AM composed of fifty-seven
: letters, and form two lines of an
. English poem. The lines are not
S' consecutive. The first line con-
-tains twenty-six letters.
\ ,y 22-- 4. .- rl ; ..,.l
lines referred to are taken. My 54-
S:-. -: is the biographer
B'. 30-17-38-49-4-23-11-40 is a figure of
speech used in each line. My 4-
Si 15-6-9- is what the biographer is
called in the first line, and is the
name of something that lives both
i- n and on the water. My 35-2-27-
51-48 is what his hero is called;
this lives in the water. My 4-46-
29-14-41 is the name of a Corsican
patriot, and is the person referred
to in the second line. My 17-55-43-
6-3 is what he is called in the second
line, and which flies in the air. My
S 3-443o- 37-5-16 is what the biogra-
Spher is called in the second line,
I and which also flies in the air. My
32-53-8-23-30-12-53 is what the bi-
Sographer once compared himselfto,
.". as being an interpreter between
these two heroes, "joining them, as
two great 56-7-45-34-36-47-52-42-28-53." His biography will ever
keep xo-20-55-50-13-19-42-38 the name of his hero of the first line,
and he will 18-24-47-57 as Prince of Biographers byallwho have
an 26-21-39 to the force of minute detail. J. P. B.
Stirf eth lube dan tehn eth rowshe;
Stingrub dub, dan slingmi lerwof;
Skorob tes efre hwit kinglint rign;
Drisb oto lufl fo gons ot gins;
Scrip dol several tiras hiwt dripe,
Weerh eht dimit stoveli heid,-
Lal hingst darey hwit a ilwl,-
Palir's mognic pu eht lihl!
I. Bestows. 2. To reiterate. 3. A rhetorical figure. 4. The
essential oil obtained from the flowers of the bitter orange. 5. A
maker of men's garments. 6. Steps. "EUREKA."
7 .. 13
I, In pledge; 2, 8, a preposition; 3 to 9, a small quadruped; 4 to
to, a feminine name; 5 to IT, a simpleton; 6 to 12, part of a com-
pass: 7 to 13, musical instruments.
From I to 7, acquiring by labor; from I to 13, possessions.
BEHEADINGS. I. Change salty into foreigners. 2. Change wrinkled into a
bird. 3. Change a filament into scarcity 4. Change pieces of meat
i. Behead a tree, and leave roguish. 2. Behead on high, and leave into a vessel for holding coal. 5. Change a kind of plunger into
a gallery in a church. 3. Behead thrown violently, and leave an sharp ends. 6. Change a kind of plum into wanderers; again,
organ of the body. 4. Behead a preposition, and leave a contest. into atoms. F. S. F.
THE DE VINNE PRESS, PRINTERS, NEW YORK.
;- -- ~I
--- _-~-~ ,L3i
;- i:- -
5. Behead a pronoun, and leave belonging to us. 6. Behead to efface,
and leave to destroy. 7. Behead to reproach, and leave a relative.
8. Behead to annoy, and leave comfort. 9. Behead an occurrence,
and leave to give utterance to.
The beheaded letters will spell the name of a famous general,
beloved by all Americans. "BUFF."
3 -. 3 -
6 6 .
7 17 -
8 i8 .
.- 9 9
CROSS-WORDS: I. Granting. 2. Counterfeit. 3. Obstructions.
4.Opposed. 5. Gentleness. 6. Contrivance too late. 7. Sound
in doctrine. 8. A cipher composed of one or more letters inter-
woven. 9. To operate against. Io. In truth.
ZIGZAGS: From I to 5, one of the months; from 6 to 0o, dunces;
from I to so, dupes; from IT to 15, terms; from 26 to 2o, value;
from ii to 20, the name of a famous English poet who was born
on April 7th. FRANK SELLING.
I. ACROSS: I. A long beam. 2. To spring. 3. Food. 4. A
reptile. 5. A festival. DIAGONALS (beginning at the lower left-hand
corner): I. In fray. 2. Recompense. 3. An arrow. 4. The
Turkish government. 5. To imitate. 6. In fray.
II. AcRoss: I. A salver. 2. To increase. 3. Penalty.' 4. A
colored fluid. 5. The Greek god of war. DIAGONALS: I. In
fray. 2. A tree valued for its timber. 3. To twist together. 4.
Grades. 5. Asharp instrument used for hewing timber. 6. In fray.
AN ANAGRAMMATICAL PUZZLE.
FROM one word of thirteen letters every word in the following
paragraph may be formed. No letter is used twice in any word un-
less it occurs as many or more times in the original word, which
contains the five vowels of the English alphabet, and which means
"the act of reviving."
"Arise, O saint! To Etna run Rest not in cot nor court, on
seat or stone. Instruct! Insist! Use reasons stern! Rouse,
scare; scorn sun, star or rain! Souse curate, tenor, crone Suasion
resist, nor count on seniors' snores. Trounce strict censors; strut on
in coarse attire; retain no cat; incur not Orient ire.
CHARLIE S. B *
EXAMPLE : Change comrades into vapor. Answer, MATES,