Front Cover
 Summer changes
 Little Pyramus and Thisbe
 Marmaduke Mumm and his big...
 The Tinkham brothers' tide-mil...
 Punch and the serious little...
 The midget sheep
 A rhyme of bed-time
 The lollipops' vacation
 A big bite
 The brownies' good work
 Stories of art and artists - Thirteenth...
 The kitchen-garden school
 The largest pet in the world
 Ned's suggestions
 The wish-ring
 A bold hunter
 Swept away
 Work and play for young folk: X,...
 Brown little prince
 The letter-box
 The riddle-box
 Back Cover

Title: St. Nicholas
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065513/00134
 Material Information
Title: St. Nicholas
Uniform Title: St. Nicholas (New York, N.Y.)
Alternate Title: Saint Nicholas
Physical Description: 68 v. : ill. ; 25-30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dodge, Mary Mapes, 1830-1905
Publisher: Scribner
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: -c1943
Frequency: monthly
Subject: Children's literature -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: -v. 67, no. 4 (Feb. 1940) ; v. 70, no. 1 (Mar. 1943)-v. 70, no. 4 (June 1943).
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began with: Vol. 1, no. 1, Nov. 1873.
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended Mar. 1940-Feb. 1943; vols. 68-69 omitted.
Issuing Body: Published by: Century, Aug. 1881- ; by Educational Pub. Corp. -1940; by St. Nicholas Magazine, 1943.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 2, no. 12 (Oct. 1875); title from cover.
General Note: Conducted by Mary Mapes Dodge.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065513
Volume ID: VID00134
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01764817
lccn - 04012675
 Related Items
Preceded by: Our young folks
Preceded by: Children's hour (Philadelphia, Penn.)
Preceded by: Little corporal
Preceded by: Schoolday magazine
Preceded by: Wide awake

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 882
    Summer changes
        Page 883
        Page 884
    Little Pyramus and Thisbe
        Page 885
        Page 886
        Page 887
        Page 888
        Page 889
        Page 890
    Marmaduke Mumm and his big bass-drum
        Page 891
        Page 892
        Page 893
    The Tinkham brothers' tide-mill
        Page 894
        Page 895
        Page 896
        Page 897
        Page 898
        Page 899
        Page 900
    Punch and the serious little boy
        Page 901
        Page 902
    The midget sheep
        Page 903
        Page 904
    A rhyme of bed-time
        Page 905
    The lollipops' vacation
        Page 906
        Page 907
        Page 908
        Page 909
        Page 910
    A big bite
        Page 911 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 912
        Page 913
        Page 914
        Page 915
        Page 916
        Page 917
        Page 918
        Page 919
    The brownies' good work
        Page 920
        Page 921
        Page 922
    Stories of art and artists - Thirteenth paper
        Page 923
        Page 924
        Page 925
        Page 926
        Page 927
    The kitchen-garden school
        Page 928
        Page 929
        Page 930
        Page 931
        Page 932
    The largest pet in the world
        Page 933
        Page 934
        Page 935
        Page 936
    Ned's suggestions
        Page 937
    The wish-ring
        Page 938
        Page 939
    A bold hunter
        Page 940
    Swept away
        Page 941
        Page 942
        Page 943
        Page 944
    Work and play for young folk: X, the playthings and amusements of an old-fashioned boy (continued)
        Page 945
        Page 946
        Page 947
        Page 948
        Page 949
        Page 950
    Brown little prince
        Page 951
        Page 952
        Page 953
        Page 954
        Page 955
    The letter-box
        Page 956
        Page 957
        Page 958
    The riddle-box
        Page 959
        Page 960
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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VOL. X. OCTOBER, 1883. No. 12.

[Copyright, 1883, by THE CENTURY CO.]



SANG the lily, and sang the rose,
Out of the heart of my garden close,
"0 joy! 0 joy of the summer tide!"
Sang the wind, as it moved above them,
Roses were sent for the sun to love them,
Dear little buds in the leaves that hide!"

Sang the trees, as they rustled together,
Oh, the joy of the summer weather !
Roses and lilies, how do you fare ?"
Sang the red rose, and sang the white:
Glad we are of the sun's large light,
And the songs of birds that dart through the air."

Lily and rose, and tall green tree,
Swaying boughs where the bright birds nestle-
Thrilled by music and thrilled by wings,
How glad they were on that summer day !
Little they thought of cold skies and gray,
And the dreary dirge that a storm-wind sings.

Golden butterflies gleam in the sun,
Laugh at the flowers, and kiss each one,
And great bees come with their sleepy tune


To sip their honey and circle round,
'And the flowers are lulled by that drowsy sound,
And fall asleep in the heart of the noon.

A small white cloud in a sky of blue,
Roses and lilies, what will they do?
For a wind springs up and sings in the trees!
Down comes the rain-the garden's awake,
Roses and lilies begin to quake,
That were rocked to sleep by the gentle breeze.

Ah, roses and lilies each delicate petal
The wind and the rain with fear unsettle;
This way and that way the tall trees sway.
But the wind goes by, and the rain stops soon,
And smiles again the face of the noon,
And the flowers are glad in the sun's warm ray.

Sing, my lilies, and sing, my roses,
With never a dream that the summer closes;
But the trees are old, and I fancy they tell,
Each unto each, how the summer flies;
They remember the last year's wintry skies.
But that summer returns the trees know well.






AFTER that day a new life began for Johnny,
and he flourished like a poor little plant that has
struggled out of some dark corner into the sun-
shine. All sorts of delightful things happened,
and good times really seemed to have come. The
mysterious Papa made no objection to the liberties
taken with his wall, being busy with his own
affairs, and glad to have his little girl happy. Old
Nanna, being more careful, came to see the new
neighbors, and was disarmed at once by the afflic-
tion of the boy and the gentle manners of the
mother. She brought all the curtains of the house
for Mrs. Morris to do up, and in her pretty broken
English praised Johnny's gallery and library, prom-
ising to bring Fay to see him some day.
Meantime, the little people prattled daily to-
gether, and all manner of things came and went
between them. Flowers, fruit, books, and bon-
bons kept Johnny in a state of bliss, and inspired
him with such brilliant inventions that the princess
never knew what agreeable surprise would come
next. Astonishing kites flew over the wall, and
tissue balloons exploded in the flower-beds. All
the birds of the air seemed to live in that court,
for the boy whistled and piped till he was hoarse,
because she liked it. The last of the long-hoarded
cents came out of his tin bank to buy paper and
pictures for the gay little books he made for her.
His side of the wall was ravaged that hers might
be adorned, and, as the last offering his grateful
heart could give, he poked the toad through the
hole, to live among the lilies and eat the flies that
began to buzz about her highness when she came
to give her orders to her devoted subjects.
She always called the lad "Giovanni," because
she thought it a prettier name than John, and she
was never tired of telling stories, asking questions,
and making plans. The favorite one was what
they would do when Johnny came to see her, as
she had been promised he should when Papa was
not too busy to let them enjoy the charms of the
studio; for Fay was a true artist's child, and
thought nothing so lovely as pictures. Johnny
thought so too, and dreamed of the happy day
when he should go and see the wonders his little
friend described so well.
I think it will be to-morrow, for Papa has
a lazy fit coming on, and then he always plays
with me and lets me rummage where I like, while

he goes out or smokes in the garden. So be
ready, and if he says you can come, I will have the
flag up early and you can hurry."
These agreeable remarks were breathed into
Johnny's willing ear about a fortnight after the
acquaintance began, and he hastened to promise,
adding soberly, a minute after:
Mother says she 's afraid it will be too much
for me to go around and up steps, and see new
things, for I get tired so easy, and then the pain
comes on. But I don't care how I ache if I can
only see the pictures-and you."
Wont you ever be any better ? Nanna thinks
you might."
"So does Mother, if we had money to go away
in the country, and eat nice things, and have
doctors. But we can't, so it's no use worrying,"
and Johnny gave a great sigh.
I wish Papa was rich, then he would give you
money. He works hard to make enough to go
back to Italy, so I can not ask him; but perhaps I
can sell my pictures also, and get a little. Papa's
friends often offer me sweets for kisses; I will have
money instead, and that will help. Yes, I shall do
it," and Fay clapped her hands decidedly.
Don't you mind about it. I'm going to learn
to mend shoes. Mr. Pegget says he '11 teach me.
That does n't need legs, and he gets enough to
live on very well."
It is n't pretty work. Nanna can teach you to
braid straw as she did at home; that is easy and
nice, and the baskets sell very well, she says. I
shall speak to her about it, and you can try to-
morrow when you come."
"I will. Do you really think I can come, then?"
and Johnny stood up to try his legs, for he dreaded
the long walk as it seemed to him.
I will go at once and ask Papa."
Away flew Fay, and soon came back with a glad
"yes!" that sent Johnny hobbling in to tell his
mother, and beg her to mend the elbows of his
only jacket; for, suddenly, his old clothes looked so
shabby he feared to show himself to the neighbors
he so longed to see.
Hurrah I 'm really going to-morrow. And
you, too, Mammy dear," cried the boy, waving
his crutch so vigorously that he slipped and
"Never mind; I 'm used to it. Pull me up,
and I '11 rest while we talk about it," he said
cheerily, as his mother helped him to the bed,


where he forgot his pain in thinking of the de-
lights in store for him.
Next day, the flag was flying from the wall and
Fay early at the hole, but no Johnny came; and
when Nanna went to see what kept him, she re-
turned with the sad news that the poor boy was
suffering much, and would not be able to stir for
some days.
"Let me go and see him," begged Fay, im-
Cara mia, it is no place for you. So dark,
so damp, so poor, it is enough to break the heart,"
said Nanna, decidedly.
If Papa was here he would let me go. I shall
not play; I shall sit here and make some plans
for my poor boy."
Nanna left her indignant little mistress and
went to cook a nice bowl of soup for Johnny, while
Fay concocted a fine plan, and, what was more
remarkable, carried it out.
For a week it rained, for a week Johnny lay in
pain, and for a week Fay worked quietly at her
little easel in the corner of the studio, while her
father put the last touches to his fine picture, too
busy to take much notice of the child. On Satur-
day the sun shone, Johnny was better, and the great
picture was done. So were the small ones; for as
her father sat resting after his work, Fay went to
him with a tired but happy face, and, putting sev-
eral drawings into his hand, told her cherished plan.
Papa, you said you would pay me a dollar for
every good copy I made of the cast you gave me.
I tried very hard, and here are three. I want some
money very, very much. Could you pay for these ?"
They are excellent," said the artist, after care-
fully looking at them. You have tried, my good
child, and here are your well-earned dollars. What
do you want them for ? "
"To help my boy. I want him to come in here
and see the pictures, and let Nanna teach him to
plait baskets; and he can rest, and you will like
him, and he might get well if he had some money,
and I have three quarters the friends gave me in-
stead of bonbons. Would that be enough to send
poor Giovanni into the country and have doctors ?"
No wonder Fay's papa was bewildered by this
queer jumble, because, being absorbed in his work,
he had never heard half the child had told him,
and had forgotten all about Johnny. Now he list-
ened with half an ear, studying the effect of sun-
shine upon his picture meantime, while Fay told
him the little story, and begged to know how much
money it would take to make Johnny's back well.
Bless your sweet soul, my darling, it would
need more than I can spare or you earn in a year.
By and by, when I am at leisure, we will see what
can be done," answered Papa, smoking comfort-

ably, as he lay on the sofa in the large studio at the
top of the house.
You say that about a great many things, Papa.
'By and by' wont be long enough to do all you
promise then. I like now much better, and poor
Giovanni needs the country more than you need
cigars or I new frocks," said Fay, stroking her
father's tired forehead and looking at him with an
imploring face.
My dear, I can not give up my cigar, for in this
soothing smoke I find inspiration, and though you
are a little angel, you must be clothed; so wait a
bit, and we will attend to the boy-later." He
was going to say by and by" again, but paused
just in time, with a laugh.
"Then Ishall take him to the country all m)-
self. I can not wait for this hateful 'by and by.'
I know how I shall do it, and at once. Now,
now cried Fay, losing patience, and with an in-
dignant glance at the lazy Papa, who seemed going
to sleep, she dashed out of the room, down many
stairs, through the kitchen, startling Nanna and
scattering the salad as if a whirlwind had gone by,
and never paused for breath till she stood before
the garden wall with a little hatchet in her hand.
"This shall be the country for him till I get
enough money to send him away. I will show
what Ican do. He pulled out two bricks. I will
beat down the wall, and he shall come in at once,"
panted Fay, and she gave a great blow at the bricks,
bent on having her will without delay; for she was
an impetuous little creature, full of love and pity
for the poor boy pining for the fresh air and sun-
shine, of which she had so much.
Bang, bang went the little hatchet, and down
came one brick after another, till the hole was large
enough for Fay to thrust her head through, and,
being breathless by that time, she paused to rest
and take a look at Johnny's court.
Meanwhile, Nanna, having collected her lettuce
leaves and her wits, went to see what the child was
about, and finding her at work like a little fury, the
old woman hurried up to tell "the Signor," Fay's
papa, that his little daughter was about to destroy
the garden and bury herself under the ruins of the
wall. This report, deliverecTwith groans and wring-
ing of the hands, roused the artist and sent him to
the rescue, as he well knew that his angel was a very
energetic one, and capable of great destruction.
When he arrived, he beheld a cloud of dust, a
pile of bricks among the lilies, and the feet of his
child sticking out of a large hole in the wall, while
her head and shoulders were on the other side.
Much amused, yet fearful that the stone coping
might come down on her, he pulled her back with
the assurance that he would listen and help her
now, immediately, if there was such need of haste.




But he grew sober when he saw Fay's face, for it
was bathed in tears, her hands were bleeding, and
dust covered her from head to foot.
My darling, what afflicts you ? Tell Papa, and
he will do anything you wish."
No, you will forget; you will say 'Wait,' and
now that I have seen it all I can not stop till I get
him out of that dreadful place. Look, look, and
see if it is not sad to live there all in pain and
darkness, and so poor."
As she spoke, Fay urged her father toward the
hole, and to please her he looked, seeing the dull
court, the noisy street beyond, and close by the
low room, where Johnny's mother worked all day,
while the poor boy's pale face was dimly seen as
he lay on his bed waiting for deliverance.
"Well, well! it is a pitiful case! and easily
mended, since Fay is so eager about it. Hope
the lad is all she says, and nothing catching about
his illness. Nanna can tell me."
Then he drew back his head, and leading Fay
to the seat, took her on his knee, all flushed, dirty,
and tearful as she was,. soothing her by saying,
Now let me hear all about it; and be sure I'11
not forget. What shall I do to please you, dear,
before you pull down the house about my ears?"
Then Fay told her tale all over again, and be-
ing no longer busy, her father found it very touch-
ing, with the dear, grimy little face looking into
his, and the wounded hands clasped beseechingly
as she pleaded for poor Johnny.
God bless your tender heart, child; you shall
have him in here to-morrow, and we will see what
can be done for those pathetic legs of his. But
listen, Fay, I have an easier way to do it than
yours and a grand surprise for the boy. Time is
short, but it can be done; and to show you that I
am in earnest, I will go this instant and begin the
work. Come and wash your face while I get on
my boots, and then we will go together."
At these words, Fay threw her arms about Papa's
neck and gave him many grateful kisses, stopping
in the midst to ask, Truly, now ?"
See if it is not so," and, putting her down,
Papa went off with great strides, while she ran
laughing after him, all her doubts set at rest by
this agreeable energy on his part.
If Johnny had not been asleep in the back room,
he would have seen strange and pleasant sights
that afternoon and evening, for something went on
in the court that delighted his mother, amused the
artist, and made Fay the happiest child in Boston.
No one was to tell till next day, that Johnny's sur-
prise might be quite perfect, and Mrs. Morris sat
up till eleven to get his old clothes in order; for
Fay's papa had been to see her, and became inter-

ested in the boy, as no one could help being when
they saw his patient little face.
So hammers rang, trowels scraped, shovels dug,
and wonderful changes were made, while Fay
danced about in the moonlight, like Puck intent
upon some pretty prank, and Papa quoted Snout *
the tinker's parting words, as appropriate to the
"Thus have I, wall, my part discharged so;
And, being done, thus wall away doth go."

A LOVELY Sunday morning dawned without a
cloud, and even in the dingy court the May sun-
shine shone warmly, and the spring breezes blew
freshly from green fields far away. Johnny begged
to go out, and being much better, his mother con-
sented, helping him to dress with such a bright
face and eager hands that the boy said, inno-
How glad you are when I get over a bad turn!
I don't know what you'd do if I ever got well."
My poor dear, I begin to think you will pick
up, now the good weather has come and you have
got a little friend to play with. God bless her! "
Why his mother should suddenly hug him tight,
and then brush his hair so carefully, with tears in
her eyes, he did not understand, but was in such a
hurry to get out, he could only give her a good
kiss and hobble away to see how his gallery fared
after the rain, and to take a joyful peek" at the
enchanted garden.
Mrs. Morris kept close behind him, and it was
well she did, for he nearly tumbled down, so great
was his surprise when he beheld the old familiar
wall after the good fairies Love and Pity had
worked their pretty miracle in the moonlight.
The ragged hole had changed to a little arched
door, painted red. On either side stood a green
tub, with a tall oleander in full bloom; from the
arch.above hung a great bunch of gay flowers;
and before the threshold lay a letter directed to
" Signor Giovanni Morris," in a childish hand.
As soon as he recovered from the agreeable
shock of this splendid transformation scene, Johnny
sank into his chair, where a soft cushion had been
placed, and read his note, with little sighs of rapt-
ure at the charming prospect opening before him.
DEAR GIOVANNI: Papa has made this nice gate so you can come
in when you like and not be tired. We are to have two keys, and no
one else can open it. A little bell is to ring when we pull the cord,
and we can run and see what we want. The paint is wet. Papa
did it, and the men put up the door last night. I helped them, and
did not go in my bed till ten. It was very nice to do it so. I hope
you will like it. Come in as soon as you can; I am all ready.
"Your friend, FAY."
"Mother, she must be a real fairy to do all
that, must n't she ?" said Johnny, leaning back

tA character in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream."


to look at the dear door behind which lay such
happiness for him.
"Yes, my sonny, she is the right sort of good
fairy, and I just wish I could do her washing for
love the rest of her blessed little life," answered
Mrs. Morris, in a burst of grateful ardor.
"You shall! you shall! Do come in! I can
not wait another minute cried an eager little
voice as the red door flew open, and there stood
Fay, looking very like a happy elf in her fresh
white frock, a wreath of spring flowers on her
pretty hair, and a tall green wand in her hand;
while the brilliant bird sat on her shoulder, and
the little white dog danced about her feet.
"So she bids you to come in
With a dimple in your chin,
Billy boy, Billy boy,"

sang the child, remembering how Johnny liked
that song, and, waving her wand, she went slowly
backward as the boy, with a shining face, passed
under the blooming arch into a new world, full of
sunshine, liberty, and sweet companionship.
Neither Johnny nor his mother ever forgot that
happy day, for it was the beginning of help and
hope to both just when life seemed hardest and
the future looked darkest.
Papa kept out of sight, but enjoyed peeps at the
little party as they sat under the chestnuts, Nanna
and Fay doing the honors of the garden to their
guests with Italian grace and skill, while the poor
mother folded her tired hands with unutterable
content, and the boy looked like a happy soul in
Sabbath silence, broken only by the chime of
bells and the feet of church-goers, brooded over
the city; sunshine made golden shadows on the
grass; the sweet wind brought spring odors from
the woods, and every flower seemed to nod and
beckon, as if welcoming the new playmate to their
lovely home.
While the women talked together, Fay led
Johnny up and down her little world, showing all
her favorite nooks, making him rest often on the
seats that stood all about, and amusing him im-
mensely by relating the various fanciful plays with
which she beguiled her loneliness.
"Now we can have much nicer ones, for you
will tell me yours, and we can do great things,"
she said, when she had displayed her big rocking-
horse, her grotto full of ferns, her mimic sea,
where a fleet of toy boats lay at anchor in the
basin of an old fountain, her fairy-land under the
lilacs, with paper elves sitting among the leaves,
her swing, that tossed one high up among the
green boughs, and the basket of white kittens,
where Topaz, the yellow-eyed cat, now purred with

maternal pride. Books were piled on the rustic
table, and all the pictures Fay thought worthy to
be seen.
Here also appeared a nice lunch, before the
visitors could remember it was noon and tear them-
selves away. Such enchanted grapes and oranges
Johnny never ate before ; such delightful little tarts
and Italian messes of various sorts; even the bread
and butter seemed glorified because served in a
plate trimmed with leaves and cut in dainty bits.
Coffee that perfumed the air put heart into poor
Mrs. Morris, who half-starved herself that the boy
might be fed; and he drank milk till Nanna said,
laughing, as she refilled the pitcher:
He takes more than both the blessed lambs
we used to feed for St. Agnes in the convent at
home. And he is truly welcome, the dear child,
to the best we have, for he is as innocent and help-
less as they."
"What does she mean?" whispered Johnny to
Fay, rather abashed at having forgotten his man-
ners in the satisfaction which three mugs full of
good milk had given him.
So, sitting in the big rustic chair beside him,
Fay told the pretty story of the lambs who are
dedicated to St. Agnes, with ribbons tied to their
snowy wool, and then raised with care till their
fleeces are shorn to make garments for the Pope.
A fit tale for the day, the child thought, and went
on to tell about the wonders of Rome till Johnny's
head was filled with a splendid confusion of new
ideas, in which St. Peters and apple tarts, holy
lambs and red doors, ancient images and dear little
girls, were delightfully mixed. It all seemed like a
fairy tale, and nothing was too wonderful or lovely
to happen on that memorable day.
So when Fay's papa at last appeared, finding it
impossible to keep away from the happy little
party any longer, Johnny decided at once that the
handsome man in the velvet coat was the king of
the enchanted land, and gazed at him with rever-
ence and awe. A most gracious king he proved
to be, for, after talking pleasantly to Mrs. Morris,
and joking Fay on storming the walls, he proposed
to carry Johnny off, and catching him up, strode
away with the astonished boy on his shoulder,
while the little girl danced before to open doors
and clear the way.
Johnny thought he could n't be surprised any
more, but when he had mounted many stairs and
found himself in a great room with a glass roof,
full of rich curtains, strange armor, pretty things
and pictures everywhere, he just sat in the big
chair where he was placed, and stared in silent
This is Papa's studio, and that the famous pict-
ure, and here is where I work; and is n't it pleas-





ant? and aren't you glad to see it?" said Fay, pretty children at play among the crumbling
skipping about to do the honors of the place. statues and fountains.
"I don't believe heaven is beautifuller," an- "I'm glad you like it, for we mean to have you

'I~ii 'II


i I


swered Johnny, in a low tone, as his eyes went from come here a great deal. I sit to Papa very often,
the green tree-tops peeping in at the windows to and get so tired; and you can talk to me, and then
the great sunny picture of a Roman garden, with you can see me draw and model in clay, and then

-L~ -~





we 'll go in the garden, and Nanna will show you
how to make baskets, and then we 'll play."
Johnny nodded and beamed at this charming
prospect, and for an hour explored the mysteries
of the studio, with Fay for a guide and Papa for
an amused spectator. He liked the boy more and
more, and was glad Fay had so harmless a play-
mate to expend her energies and compassion
upon. He assented to every plan proposed, and
really hoped to be able to help these poor neigh-
bors, for he had a kind heart and loved his little
daughter even more than his art.
When at last Mrs. Morris found courage to
call Johnny away, he went without a word, and lay
down in the dingy room, his face still shining with
the happy thoughts that filled his mind, hungry
for just such pleasures, and never fed before.
After that day everything went smoothly, and
both children blossomed like the flowers in that
pleasant garden, where the magic of love and pity,
fresh air and sunshine, soon worked miracles. Fay
learned patience and gentleness from Johnny; he
grew daily stronger on the better food Nanna gave
him and the exercise he was tempted to take, and
both spent very happy days working and playing,
sometimes under the trees, where the pretty baskets
were made, or in the studio, where both pairs of
small hands modeled graceful things in clay, or
daubed amazing pictures with the artist's old
brushes and discarded canvases.

Mrs. Morris washed everything washable in the
house, and did up Fay's frocks so daintily that she
looked more like an elf than ever when her head
shone out from the fluted frills, like the yellow
middle of a daisy with its white petals all spread.
As he watched the children playing together, the
artist, having no great work in hand, made several
pretty sketches of them, and then had a fine idea
of painting the garden scene where Fay first talked
to Johnny. It pleased his fancy, and the little
people sat for him nicely; so he made a charming
thing of it, putting in the cat, dog, bird, and toad
as the various characters in Shakespeare's lovely
play, while the flowers were the elves, peeping and
listening in all manner of merry, pretty ways.
He called it Little Pyramus and Thisbe," and
it so pleased a certain rich lady that she paid a
large price for it, and then, discovering that it told
a true story, she generously added enough to send
Johnny and his mother to the country when Fay
and her father were ready to go.
But it was to a lovelier land than the boy had
ever read of in his fairy books, and to a happier
life than mending shoes in the dingy court. In the
autumn they all sailed gayly away together to live
for years in sunny Italy, where Johnny grew tall
and strong, and learned to paint with a kind mas-
ter and a faithful young friend, who always rejoiced
that she found and delivered him, thanks to the
wonderful hole in the wall.






I. IV.

"I 'M going a-drumming said Marmaduke
So he strapped on his drum,
With a rat-tat-tat, and a rum-tum-tum,
And he marched down the street,
While his head and his feet
Kept time to the music his drumsticks beat;
And the folks who heard him cried: My!
how sweet!
How finely he plays on that big bass-drum!
Clever Marmaduke Mumm !"


He marched up the street, he marched down
the hill;
The miller ran out to the door of his mill;
The babies stopped crying, the cows stood still;
And all the cross dogs grew suddenly dumb,
When they heard the tum-turn
Of that wonderful drum,
And knew it was played by Marmaduke Mumm !


Gayly young Marmaduke marched along,
Drumming and singing, and this was his song:
Rumty, tumty, tur! "
But the hill was steep, and the hill was long,
And his legs were weak, though his voice was
He tripped and fell-he rolled like a lump,
Over and over, with many a bump,
And twist, and jolt, and terrible thump;
While the big bass-drum
Said tlm, TUM, TUM !"
And l'mpety-LUMPETY-LUMP !"

" I 'm bruised black and blue muttered Mar-
maduke Mumm,
As he crept from under his big bass-drum.
He rubbed his poor head-
'T was all that he said,
Though he certainly looked very glum.


He picked himself up, and went marching once
And he traveled so fast
That the village was passed,
When, oh! from the woods came a horrible roar,
And a growl like thunder at last!
Poor Marmaduke shook-never, never before
Had he heard such a sound!
He looked all around,
Up at the sky, and down on the ground;
When, behind a big tree,
What a sight did he see -
A bear who was just making ready to bound


" I must run, I must fly! "
Did Marmaduke cry,
" For if he should catch me, I'd certainly die !
Then, with terror half-dead,
He broke in the head
Of his drum, and jumped in. I 'm safe lnoz!/"
he said;
In this drum I will lie
Till the beast shall go by :
He can't eat my drum, and he 'll think I have





Well, the bear made a spring and his paws
struck the drum -
It said: Bum-bm-BUM "
The bear was astonished-he gave it a pat-
It answered: "Rat-tat!"
" Ho ho said the bear. "This is queer,
I declare;
If this is a trap, I would better
So he trotted away without further ,/.
And growled as he went:
"G-o-o-d day!
g-o-o-d day" .


Then out of his hiding-place
Marmaduke crept,
And most bitterly wept.
" Alas I have utterly ruined
my drum,

She stopped and said: "May I
You are weeping like that?
Is n't there something I can do
To comfort you?"
"N-no, nothing at all-boo-hoo!

ask you why

boo-hoo "


My big bass-drum,
With its marvelous, musical tum-tnm-tutm;
For, if I can't mend this hole in its head,
Its voice will grow dumb."
And bitter,-oh, bitter the tears he shed-
Poor Marmaduke Mumm!



/ "Miou! Miou said the cat. "There's
a hole in your drum!
Is that the cause of your grief? Now,
I '11 help you to mend it---see! just
so -
I'll sit on the drum, and the hole wont
show !
Is n't that a good way?"
Oh, thank you, thank you !" said Mar-
maduke Mumm,
Beginning to play;
" You're the nicest old cat-rum, tum-ty, turnm-
Fol-rol-de-rol-ray /"

Just at this moment a cat drew nigh-
A very obliging, friendly cat.

So this friendly cat on the drum-head sat,
While Marmaduke sounded his rat-tat-tat.
Her tail kept time to the drumsticks' rhyme,
With a gentle thump and a graceful pat;





And the folks would stare,
When they met the pair,
And ask, Is he beating the drum or the cat ?"
But Marmaduke Mumm
Answered only, Rum-tum !
Rum-de-dum; row-de-dow; rat-tat-tat!"


So they traveled on, till at last they met
A fierce old man, who chuckled, Ho ho !
This is the pair I wanted to get
For my 'Great Zoological Traveling Show !'
The boy and the cat,

The drum and all that,
Will make all the children laugh, I know
Come on, boy, come,
Bring your cat and your drum:
You belong to my circus you need n't say no "


So the cat and the drum,
And Marmaduke Mumm,
Went with the queer old man, you know.
You will find them to-day
(So people say)
In the Great Zoilogical Traveling Show "

- j' .
Y, c

- b"'

if'~ r-



s' r






THE Fourth was a great day on the lake; a
great day especially for Commodore Web Foote.
If he was n't the pivot on which the world turned,
until about twelve o'clock, I should like to know
who was !
It was a bright, breezy morning-indeed, al-
most too breezy for the rowing matches. But
what were they compared with the grand race in
which a dozen, sail-boats were to take part ? It
was a good wind for them a good wind particu-
larly for the Commodore's new yacht, which (not
to keep the reader in suspense) won easily not
only the prize-cup, but almost too much glory for
one little man.
After the drama, the farce. After the regattas,
the tub-race.
That was for small boys; and the Tinkhams
were interested in it, Rod having been induced
by some of his young Tammoset friends to join in
that rough sport. Three prizes had been offered
by the club, indiscriminately, to all competitors;
and if even the least of them could be won by a
Tinkham, would n't it (as Lute said) be j-j-jolly?
To get anything out of the Argonauts !
The youngsters were ranged along one side of
the float, each with his tub- Rod amongst them,
bare-legged and bare-armed, in shirt and tights,
with Rupe at his back, to assist in launching him
or in pulling him out of the water. His compan-
ions kept him in countenance; yet he could n't
help feeling a little abashed in that rig, before so
many people.
A gay-colored throng covered the shore. The
balcony, full of pretty girls in holiday dresses,
looked like a hanging-basket of flowers. Door-way
and windows were crowded; and the float was
half the time under water, borne down by its weight
of Argonauts. Outside of all was a circle of boats
full of spectators.
One of the boats belonged to the Tinkham
brothers, and in it were Mrs. Tinkham and Letty,
with Lute and Rush. Lute had his water-glass
with him, and, while waiting for the tub-race to
begin, amused himself by looking down into the
depths of the lake.
"She is laughing at you! whispered Rush,
who could not keep his eyes from glancing up at

the balcony, where a good many eyes were looking
down. The pair he alluded to belonged to a
certain young girl in a white straw hat, light-blue
scarf and pink dress, with a rosebud mouth which
did indeed blossom in a mirthful smile when she
saw Lute leaning over the side of the boat with
his "toy."
Lute held it up with a gesture of inquiry-
would she like to try it? She answered with a
laughing "I '11 see !" sort of nod, and gave
another, still more decided, when Letty motioned
her to come down and take a seat beside her in
the boat.
They 're going to start! said Mrs. Tinkham.
" I wish they would make haste, for Rod's sake;
he does n't like making a show of himself! "
Rush could have wished the tub-race in Jericho
until after they had got Miss Bartland into the
boat. He was longing to ask her a question or two
regarding the Argonauts' plot.
Commodore Foote, standing on a chair, to get
well above the crowd on the float and to keep his
feet out of the water, which occasionally washed
over it, swung his cap, tossed back his hair, and
gave the signal. The half-naked youngsters had
been ready and waiting some time, impatient to
start; but he had delayed, in order to let Tam-
moset and Dempford know that nothing could be
done without him.
Amidst hand-clapping and cheers, five boys in
five tubs started to paddle around a flag-buoy not
more than twenty yards off. It looked to be an
easy feat; and so it might have proved for some
of them in calm weather. One turned round and
round in a ludicrously helpless fashion. Another,
too big for his tub, capsized at the start, and was
greeted with roars of laughter as he scrambled
out of the water. The other three made progress;
but a little way from the float the wind struck them
and the waves tossed them, and over went a sandy-
haired lubber, who managed in his plunge to upset
the next tub, which was Rodman's.
"It's Dick Dushee He did it on purpose!"
exclaimed Rush.
Whether Dick did it purposely or not, Rod was
in the water, and there was nothing for him to do
but to get back to the float with his tub and try
.Before he made another start, the only tub that
had not upset was rounding the buoy; and it
looked as if the lucky navigator must win the first

Copyright, 1882, by J. T. Trowbridge. All rights reserved.





prize. But the wind, which had been in his favor
when outward bound, was against him on the re-
turn voyage. He sat with legs hanging over the
side of the tub, and bearing it down; so that, in
meeting the waves, it soon took in water enough to
founder, and he who had been first in the race
must now begin again as the last.
Rod knelt in his tub, balancing it well, and
paddling steadily with a pair of wooden scoops.
Some used little coal-shovels, attached by strings
to the handles of their tubs, so that they might not
lose them when they capsized and had to swim.
One lost his, nevertheless. That left only four
competitors. Of these, the two who next passed
the buoy were Rod and Dick Dushee.
The strife between these two became exciting.
The trick by which Rod was upset had been no-
ticed, and it won him the sympathy of the spec-
"Who is that fine-looking boy?" the mother
heard some one ask.
It's a Tinkham It's one of the Tinkhams! "
went from mouth to mouth in reply.
As the two neared the float almost abreast, they
were greeted by loud cries from some of the small
fry present. "Scratch water, Dick!" "Put in,
Tinkham pay him for that tip-over! "--fol-
lowed soon by a chorus of shouts from small and
great. Dick, in his hurry, had gone down within
two yards of the float.
Looking straight before him, heeding nobody,
paddling steadily, Rod quickly came within reach
of Rupe's outstretched hand, and a burst of ap-
plause told that the first prize, a handsome ham-
mock, had been won. Thereupon the little Com-
modore disappeared in the boat-house, frowning
with huge disgust; and a man on the shore, with
a vast, sandy desert of a face, uttered a dismal
But others took a more cheerful view of the
I declare said Mrs. Tinkham, wiping bright
tears from her eyes, I would n't have believed a
bit of foolishness could ever interest me so much! "
It's the honor of the T-t-tinkham's that's at
stake !" said Lute, radiant behind his spectacles.
" I wish Mart was here to enj-j-joy it But Mart
had staid at home to guard the premises.
Rush and Letty were in the gayest spirits; nor
was their happiness lessened when they looked up
at the balcony and saw Syl Bartland clapping
hands with delight at Rod's triumph.
They took little interest in the rest of the race,
except to see that Dick Dushee did not win a
"Now get her to come down into our boat,"
said Rush.

She 's coming," replied Letty.
There was a movement on the balcony. Sylvia
disappeared. The Tinkhams pushed in between
two yachts that lay beside the float.
Make room here make room for the ladies!"
cried a shrill, authoritative voice within the lower
The crowd there opened, and Sylvia's rosy face
was seen emerging. With her came Mollie Kent,
laughing as at some merry adventure. Rush
stepped out upon the float, and placed a board so
that they could reach the boat without wetting
their feet. But behold! three other young girls
were following; and now the same peremptory
voice called out again:
Haul the Commodore's yacht a little ahead "
It was the voice of the Commodore himself; and
if ever a boy's heart was stepped on and flattened
out by mighty disappointment, elephantine cha-
grin, that heart was Rush Tinkham's, when the
girls tripped past him, lightly holding their skirts,
and titteringly catching at each other as they
stepped aboard the yacht.
The owner followed and took the helm. The
yacht was shoved off, the sheet was hauled, the
flapping canvas filled, the Commodore's broad
pennant streamed in the wind, and away went Web
with his lovely cargo of girls, Sylvia and Mollie
smiling and fluttering their handkerchiefs (in
mockery, Rush angrily thought) at their friends in
the boat.
"I never saw anything so provoking," whispered
Letty, as Rush jumped aboard and pushed away.
"You could n't expect a Dempford girl to go
over openly and publicly to the enemy, could
you ? said Mrs. Tinkham, under the eyes of
all the Argonauts "
"I was a fool!" muttered Rush, imagining
everybody was laughing at him. "Let 's get out
of this! "
There was to be a swimming race after the tub-
race. But the Tinkhams took no interest in it;
and, leaving Rod with Rupe to dress and get the
hammock, they took a row up the lake.



RUSH was not in a happy mood. To see the
yacht go flying over the water under her broad
sail, with her stern conspicuously lettered, THE
COMMODORE," was irritating to aboy of good taste
and fine feelings. And the nervous, laughing
screams of the girls as she careened to the breeze
were not soothing sounds.




The Commodore carries too much c-c-canvas,"
said Lute.
It will do for racing," said Rush. "Fellows
can take risks when they 've only themselves
aboard. But look at that! "
0 dear! They will go over!" exclaimed
He 1-1-luffed just in time," said. Lute. "The
girls don't trim her as the fellows did he had with
him in the race."
"She took in water over the rail, even with
them aboard; I saw it," replied Rush.
"I declare," said Mrs..Tinkham, in,:lIgii -l ,
"it is criminal to trifle with the lives of young
girls in that way "
Only a conceited blockhead would do it," said
Rush. The Commodore thinks nobody can sail
a boat like him that an accident can't possibly
happen with him at the helm. His looks show
He is n't like me," remarked Lute. I should
be the biggest c-c-coward in the world in his place
He 's coming for us, to show how smart he
is," said Rush.
The yacht went rushing past, ripping the water
with a loud noise, and sped on her course, leaving
the prosaic little row-boat lying like a log in her
wake. Not a glance from the girls, who had
ceased to giggle, and appeared to be begging the
Commodore to take them back.
It was very provoking. Rush resolved not to
look at the yacht any more. He was rowing
steadily along, with Lute behind him in the bow,
and his mother and sister in the stern, when sud-
denly Mrs. Tinkham started forward with a
frightened scream, in which Letty joined.
The five girls had been seated on the yacht's
windward side, which ran high and higher with
every gust. Then all at once the wind, made fitful
by the high, wooded shores, veered about, the sail
jibed suddenly and violently, the boat gave an
unexpected roll, the enormous sail going over in
the buffet of the flaw.
Rush looked in time to see the gunwale dip,
carried down by the weight of girls. They threw
up their arms with wild gestures, starting to their
feet, and their screams came over the water.
In an instant all was confusion, the iron-ballasted
yacht filling and settling rapidly, and the wind still
playing with the upper part of the sail, while the
lower part was disappearing in the lake. Down,
down it went, until at last only the mast-head was
seen, like a slanting stake, with the pennant still
flying above the surface, where two or three vague
objects tossed.
Letty sobbed and laughed hysterically.

"They '11 all be drowned! said her mother,
with white lips.
Pull pull muttered Lute, snatching an oar
from Rush and striking it into one of the forward
rowlocks. "Wait a moment Now !"
Not another boat in sight said Mrs. Tink-
ham, casting a swift glance around. "Boys it all
depends on you "
Screams were heard again. That was encoura-
ging. Lute and Rush pulled as no champion oars-
men had pulled on the lake that day. They could
not take time to glance over their shoulders; their
mother told them how to row.
"Not quite so hard, Lute You 're too much
for Rocket. There there Now straight ahead! "
"Do you see them ? Lute asked.
"There 's somebody clinging to the mast," said
Letty, with a convulsive laugh. "And somebody
swimming. Row! row, boys! And a head above
water. No it 's a floating bonnet."
Only two? Rush breathed between strokes.
That's all I see," said Mrs. Tinkham. "Hold
your oar, Lute That's it, Rocket! Now straight
ahead again Then, as they drew nearer, "There
are two swimming "
One must be the Commodore," said Letty.
"Oh! he is saving somebody He is helping her
get hold of the mast. No, not the mast, but the
Bravely, boys cried the mother. You '11
soon be there Two girls now at the mast One
has hold of the pennant. Look where you 're
going, Lute !"
Oh said Letty, in wild despair, I saw two
hands come up and go down again If we had
only been a little sooner "
It was while he was saving the other," said
Mrs. Tinkham. "Now he is swimming where
we saw that one go down. Too late Careful!
careful, boys "
Hold, Rocket! cried Lute. "Take the
oar!" He sprang to the bow as the boat, with
slackening speed, neared the tragical scene, and
called out, "We '11 have you in a m-m-moment !"
Even at such a time, the poor fellow had to
Don't mind us!" said one of the gasping
creatures at the mast. "We can hold on. Look
for the others "
It was Mollie Kent, recognizable even with her
agonized face and dripping hair.
There are three more said her companion,
an older girl whom the Tinkhams had never seen
until that day. Three drowned -unless you can
save them "
"One went down right here!" cried the little
Commodore, paddling helplessly about, wild-eyed,



his black locks washed over his brows. Can you
dive? Oh Heaven! I can't! "
He had hitherto supposed he could, and had
taken from a platform many a plunge which he
thought the world ought to admire. But he
could no more go down fifteen or eighteen feet,
even to save a life he had so recklessly imperiled,
than he could fly in the air.
Neither were the Tinkham boys at all expert at
diving. In their limited swimming experience,
their endeavor had generally been to keep as near
the surface as possible.
Yet Rush had already kicked off his shoes and
thrown down his hat and coat. And now he stood

hand and drawing up something entangled in the
"Here! here!" cried Letty, reaching to help
him. I've got hold of her "
Up came a gasping and strangling face. Lute
and Letty pulled the drowning girl into the boat.
She was the youngest of the sailing party- a child
not more than thirteen years old.
"It's Isabel! It's your sister, Web !" cried
Mollie Kent. Is she alive ?"
She is alive," said Mrs. Tinkham, who at
once took the girl in charge. "Turn her on her
face Poor thing poor thing! She was going
down for the last time."

.4 r
~ "i ~ ~ 7 1,


ready to leap, while he kept the boat in place with
a single oar.
There there shrieked Letty.
Something like floating hair appeared on the
opposite side of the boat from the poor, paddling
Commodore. It was slowly settling down again,
when Rush saw it, and, using his one oar as a
lever, tried to force the boat over broadside toward
it. Failing in that, and seeing it about to disap-
pear, he gave a headlong jump, which nearly threw
Lute overboard.
Lute saved himself, however. He seized the oar
and brought the boat around just as Rush, after a
brief struggle in the water, emerged with blinded
eyes and dripping face, swimming with one free
VOL. X.-57.

Rush scrambled into the boat, to be ready for
any further discovery that might *be made. Lute
also pulled in the little Commodore, who by this
time was nearly exhausted with fatigue and fright.
There are two more missing," said the wretched
"Sylvia Bartland is one of them," said Mollie
Kent, in tones of wildest affliction. I have n't
seen her at all! She would n't have gone in the
yacht, if I had n't urged her."
The wind had lulled, and yet the boat was drift-
ing off. Rush took an oar to bring it back.
What are you doing ? he said to Lute.
Lute had bethought him of his water-glass.
He hauled up the big, bungling "toy" from



under the thwart, thrust the broad end into the
water, and, leaning low over the rail, looked down.
What he saw was quite beyond his stammering
astonishment to utter.
On the dark bottom of the lake lay the hand-
some new yacht, partly on one side. Bright, wav-
ing gleams danced over it, caused by the sunshine
passing through the waves. The deck, the tiller,
the sloping mast, the sail sweeping off over the
lower beam, were distinctly visible, with one object
most wonderful of all.
Down there, in the perfectly clear water, a
young girl. She was resting partly on the deck,
seemingly inclined to float; but two little hands in
black lace mitts grasped a rope, which prevented
her from rising. Dressed in pale pink, with a
light blue scarf clasped by a gold pin; loose
auburn hair, to which the white straw hat was still
tied; and a sweet, beautiful, almost smiling face,
with open eyes staring at vacancy-all played over
by the chasing ripples of sun and shade.
It did not look like death. It was more like a
scene of enchantment, a fairy realm in the deep.
L-l-look said Lute, giving the instrument
to Rush. "Keep the boat up, w-w-will you?" to
the little Commodore, who obeyed with the meek-
ness of utter despair and remorse.
Rush looked, and was overboard the next mo-
ment, in a headlong plunge.
Lute watched him through the glass, and saw
with dismay that he did not descend half-way to
the drowning girl, but soon began to swim off in
a lateral direction, coming up while he still be-
lieved he was going down.
I can't see in the water said Rush, blowing
at the surface. "If I could only keep my eyes
open! I '11 try again! "
It wont d-d-do! said Lute. "Put the boat
ahead, will you? to the little Commodore. This
is the rope she has hold of! "
It was one of the halyards to which Mollie and
her companion were clinging above. Sylvia, with
the blind desperation of a drowning person, had
caught hold and was clinging fast below. Thus
the very effort she was instinctively making to save
her life was destroying it.
May be I can shake off her hold," said Lute,
"or b-break the rope."
The two at the mast were taken aboard. He
then shook and pulled, but in vain. The uncon-
scious girl held fast, and the unstable skiff afforded
but a poor support when he tried to free the halyard
from its fastening at the deck.
Wait Rush exclaimed. I can get her."
He could n't dive far; but, laying hold of the
halyard, he could go down hand under hand to
the yacht.

This he did, sliding his fingers along till they
reached those of the drowning girl. He endeav-
ored to unclasp them with one hand, holding one
of her wrists with the other. To do so without
violence was not so easy a task as he had supposed.
His breath, which he was unable to retain, rose in
bubbles to the surface. But he was resolved not
to loose his hold of that wrist, and never to return
to the upper world alone.
He was struggling and groping, believing that
something still held her down, when there came a
rushing sound in his ears, and behold he was at
the surface with Sylvia Bartland in his arms.



THE place where the yacht went down was hid-
den from the boat-house by a curve of the shore.
But the news had reached there in the midst of
the excitement over the swimming race. The
crowd separated in a panic, and now boats were
coming to the rescue.
Mrs. Tinkham had never before had any experi-
ence in resuscitating the drowned. But she did
not need to be taught that less water and more air
was in such cases the immediate necessity, and she
knew something of the right theory of producing
that result.
The Commodore's young sister was already so
far restored as to be able to care for herself. She
went over to the other two rescued girls in the
bow, while Mrs. Tinkham and Letty took. Sylvia
in hand. Letty had quite got over her first hysteri-
cal emotion, and she now obeyed and helped her
mother in a manner worthy of a Tinkham.
They first turned Sylvia on her face, depressing
her head, and opening her mouth to let the water
run out. At the same time they compressed her
lungs gently, to expel the exhausted air, allowing
the chest to expand again and inhale fresh, by
its own elastic force. While they continued these
movements at intervals, trying to give her life
with artificial breath, the boys were searching
with the water-glass for the other missing girl.
They discovered her under the shadow of the sail
on the other side of the yacht. By this time the
first boats had arrived. They had swimmers and
even divers aboard. The Tinkhams, therefore, left
them, with Commodore Foote, to.recover the last
of his victims, and with the other four pulled for
How they pulled People in boats or running
wildly up the shore shouted at them; but they
gave no heed. What Mollie Kent answered, they
hardly heard or cared.



Suddenly a boat, rowing furiously, turned in
their wake, and the boys had a glimpse of a face
they knew-a sternly anxious face, white and ter-
rible in its excitement, sending after them looks of
entreaty, with wild words:
"Tell me, I say is she dead ? "
"No! no! I think not! I hope not! replied
Mollie Kent, excitedly. "It's Lew Bartland and
my brother !" she said, sobbing again.
The boat came alongside, and, after a few words
exchanged, darted off toward the shore. The
Tinkham boys all this time neither spoke word
nor missed stroke, but continued to row their
heavily freighted boat as if more than their own
lives were at stake.
Into the outlet they pulled, then down the river
with the tide, to the mill. There, fortunately, they
found Mart, who had remained to guard the prem-
ises and prepare still further for the Argonauts'
expected attack.
How quickly and utterly all thoughts of that
were put out of his mind by the arrival of the boat
with the shipwrecked girls Sylvia was by this
time recovering consciousness, in great bodily dis-
tress. He took her from his mother and sister,
and bore her in his arms to the house; Lute and
Rush and Letty following up the path over the
bank with Mrs. Tinkham, in her wheeled chair,
and the other drenched ones on their own feet.
They had hardly entered the house, when
Charley Kent and Lew Bartland arrived with a
doctor they had picked up on the lake shore.
Rupe and Rod came running after, carrying their
tub, with the hammock, between them, and be-
hind them flocked a crowd of people. Many of
the spectators of the races had gone up toward the
sunken yacht; others followed the rescued girls;
so that in a few minutes there was on- and about
the premises more people than had ever been
there before, except on the day when it seemed
as if half Dempford and Tammoset assembled to
see the dam destroyed.
Very different motives brought them now- not
curiosity merely and the love of sensation, but
anxious sympathy and eagerness to help.
Women offered their services. These were wel-
come, Mrs. Tinkham being well-nigh exhausted
as well as lame, and the servant being away. Hot
drinks were soon prepared, dry clothing was got
for the wet ones, and Sylvia was warmed in bed.
"The worst is over," the doctor had said, as
soon as he touched her wrist. And now only
good nursing was necessary to her complete res-
Assured of this, Bartland and Kent and the
two older Tinkhams embarked in Lew's boat and
rowed with speed up the lake.

They were too late to render any assistance to
the lost girl. This was Kate Medway, one of the
happiest of the five who were seen to set off so
gayly in the Commodore's yacht less than an hour
before. She had been taken from the water and
borne to the nearest house, followed by a throng
of horrified spectators, many of whom knew her
and loved her; among them the little Commo-
dore, capless, drenched, his wet hair not yet tossed
back from his brow-a stricken, despairing man.
A physician was on the spot. But either she
had remained too long in the water, or the right
thing had not been done for her the moment she
was taken out. Neither skill nor love nor pity
nor remorse could help her now. She was an only
child; her father and mother were yet to be sent
for. Who could bear to tell them the heart-rend-
ing news ?
The Tinkhams returned home with Bartland
and Kent, having a little talk by the way. It was
strange that not one of them spoke harshly of
the author of the catastrophe. Only Lew said, "I
always thought Web knew how to sail a boat!"
Nothing more.



WHEN all was over, and the four girls who were
saved had been taken home by their grateful
friends, and she who perished had also been
taken home; when the lake was deserted, and a
strange quiet reigned where there had been so
much movement and merriment in the morning;
then Mart, late that afternoon, said to his brothers,
as they sat together in the willow-tree:
"I was intending to put a lamp in the upper
mill-window, where it would shine all night across
the dam. I was going to be on hand myself, below,
with the door open and the wooden cannon in
position, and fire that charge of sand at the first
marauders that came within range. I meant tolet
Dempford and Tammoset know that we were
getting the least mite tired of being trifled with."
"It seemed to be about t-t-time," said Lute.
"But I've changed my mind," Mart continued.
"We '11 stop in the house to-night. I've a sort of
notion that we've tried war long enough. I be-
lieve there 's something better. You 've had a
chance to try that to-day, boys,-you and Mother,
-and you 've done well. Now, after what has hap-
pened, if there are Argonauts who want to meddle
with our dam to-night, I say let 'em "
And let the w-w-world know it said Lute.
"It's the best way." Rush declared. "We
have had fighting enough. I 'm sick of it! "



Even the younger boys were satisfied with this
decision. When it was announced to Mrs. Tink-
ham, she exclaimed, fervently:
I am thankful, boys I said to myself in the
presence of death to-day, when praying that we
might be able to save those precious lives, I said
then I would never repine at petty trials after this,
but accept the ways of Providence in all things, as
I had never done before. What if the dam is
destroyed? You can still rebuild it. Or you can
do something else. We will live in peace, and be
just to all men; and if we can not prosper, we will
at least deserve to."
"I know we shall prosper!" said Letty, over-
joyed. "I would n't have had the boys stop fight-
ing from cowardice. But if they stop from a better
motive, we shall never be sorry, I am sure "
Thus, the events of the day had softened and
deepened all their hearts.
The buys went down at dusk and fired off their
wooden gun, well satisfied to see the charge tear
the water and throw over a post they had set up
against the dam.
What if that had been an Argonaut?" said
Rod, with a chuckle of triumph.
I'm rather glad, on the whole, it wasn't,"
said Mart.
There 's a wire-alarm to sell or to let! laughed
Rush. But the boys did not regret the labor that
it had cost.
"If it hadn't been for that," said Lute, "I
should n't have made the w-w-water-glass. And
if it had n't been for that "
It was terrible to think what might have hap-
pened but for that toy !
The boys then shut the mill, and soon after
went to bed, leaving the dam to its fate.
In the morning it was still there, and there it
The Argonauts were coming to their senses.
The light of Buzrow's influence had been ex-
tinguished in ridicule, and Web Foote's brand-
new popularity, which carried so much sail of
self-conceit, had suddenly sunk deeper than ever
yacht went down. On the other hand, the true
characters of the Tinkhams were beginning to be
The yacht was raised; but it quietly disap-
peared, and was never seen again on Tammoset
waters. Web likewise tried to lift his lost reputa-
tion-a more difficult task. He did not have the
grace to resign his office; bit at the annual meet-
ing of the club, which took place in August, he

was quietly dropped, Lew Bartland being reflected
commodore by a unanimous vote.
Not long after, what new members do you sup-
pose were proposed by him, and admitted with
scarcely any opposition? The three older Tink-
ham boys!
I don't know that they will consent to join
us," Lew said, in advocating their election. "But
I hope they will; and if they do, it will be more an
honor to us than to them. At any rate, I want the
club to pay them this tribute."
The Tinkhams did consent, the more readily as
they were made aware that they had done the
Argonauts, in one particular, great injustice.
The mischief done that night when the mill-
wheel was broken was not, after all, the work of
any members of the club, but of vicious youngsters
outside, ambitious of getting into it. He who had
shown his zeal by creeping into the shop, stealing
the sledge-hammer, and using it to smash the
paddle-blades before throwing it into the river,
was- whom do you think?
Dick Dushee !
That fact having been discovered by Rupert in
his growing intimacy with Tammoset boys, and
the damage to the wheel having been paid by
Dick's utterly disgusted papa, the older Tinkhams
became Argonauts; and those whom a conflict of
interests had made enemies, found that they ought
all along to have been friends.
The dam was as much in the way as ever. But
the readiness of the Tinkhams to pull up their
flash-boards for passing boats, and a little patience
and forbearance on the part of the boatmen, made
the difficulty, which had once loomed so great,
dwindle to a very small matter-like so many
things in life over which hatred and selfishness
may fight, or reason and good-will clasp hands.
Not that all opposition to the dam was ended,
by any means. Curiously enough, it was at last
abolished by statute, a law having been enacted
placing all such waters as the Tammoset, as far as
the tides from a harbor rise and fall two feet, under
the authority of harbor commissioners, and declar-
ing them to be navigable streams. But this was
after the business of the Tinkham Brothers had
outgrown their old quarters, and they had bought
a large factory, with steam-power, nearer town.
Meanwhile, a delightful intimacy had grown up
between the Tinkhams in Tammoset and the
Bartlands and Kents in Dempford, the story of
which has not much to do with the Tide-Mill, and
so need not be related here.







i THERE was once a serious little boy,
Who never smiled, and who rarely spoke;
Arithmetic was his only joy,
And he could not be made to take a joke.

SIf ever any one chanced to read
Or tell him a joke, in accents chilly,
To an older person he said, "Indeed?"
To a younger person, "That is silly."

I. happened one day, when he went to school,
rhat his tender mother wrapped up his lunch-
though such was not her general rule-
In a leaf from a recent number of Punch.

When noontime came, and he spread it out,
The picture attracted his notice at once;
And he said, with scorn, "Beyond a doubt, .
There are people who like to play the dunce!"

Now, what this picture was, my dears,
I would gladly tell you, if I knew,
For I should not be troubled by any fears
That what happened to him might happen to you.

He read the joke-'t was a brand-new joke-
And then for a minute sat perfectly still.
Then he went as if he were going to choke,
And said, with an effort, "That is sill-"

A violent chuckle stopped him here;
He did not know what to make of it.
He said to himself, "This is very queer-
I wonder if it can be a fit?

SThe sensation is singular and new.
I can not be laughing; I 've too much sense."
Once more a chuckle shook him all through,
And he tumbled abruptly off the fence.

He had never laughed in his life before;
He was just eleven years old, and so
When he tried to stop, he laughed the more,
For he 'd all that time to make up, you know.

His mother chanced to be passing by;
She was sensible, as well as kind,
So she did not stop to scream and cry,
But showed at once her presence of mind.


- -.- __'- \ __

But his mother was fully convinced that day
That it 's safer to laugh as one goes along,
For if it accumulates in this way,
It acquires a force that is terribly strong.

So now she keeps telling him little jokes,
And he 's learned an almost agreeable smile.
He may some day laugh, as do other folks,
But she can not expect that yet awhile.

The moral is plain to be seen, of course-
We should all learn laughing while we are small;
If we don't, it may come with alarming force,
Or-more dreadful still-never come at all!


She leaned him up against the fence,-
For to stand alone he was quite unable,-
She put him through pounds, shillings, and pence,
And then the multiplication-table.

By the time he had got to ten times ten,
He had almost recovered his self-command;
He was only smiling a little then,
And by twelve times twelve he was able to stand.





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SHEEP have been the friends of man for so
many ages that all trace of their wild ancestors is
lost, and we can only guess at their origin. There
has been a wonderful change in this creature's nat-
ure during the long ages since it first was tamed.
The domestic sheep is one of the most timid
and delicate of animals, while the wild sheep is
second to no animal in courage and hardiness.
One of the peculiarities of the sheep is the
manner in which it adapts itself to its surround-
ings, and no doubt it is this ability to suit itself
to the circumstances of its dwelling-place that has
given us so many varieties of domestic sheep.
There is the large merino sheep, so famous for
fine wool, and the small Welsh sheep, just as
famous for its delicate flavor when cooked. There
is the sheep of middle Asia, used for carrying bur-
dens, and even for riding upon, and the sheep of
southern and eastern Asia, with its enormous tail,
that must be provided with a little cart to keep it from
dragging in the dirt-a veritable Bo-peep sheep

that carries its tail behind it. There is the Per-
sian sheep, with its black head and white body,
and the Shetland sheep, so good for the wool which
ladies like for crochet work; and then there are a
great many more sheep that are good for nothing
particularly--not very good to eat, and very poor
wool producers.
Last of all, because it is the very smallest, is
the tiny Breton sheep. It is too small to be very
profitable to raise ; for, of course, it can not have
much wool, and as for eating, why, a hungry man
could almost eat a whole one at a meal. It is so small
when full-grown that it can hide behind a good-
sized bucket. It takes its name from the particu-
lar part of France where it is most raised.
But if not a profitable sheep, it is a dear little
creature for a pet, for it is very gentle and loving,
and, because it is so small, is not such a nuisance
about the house as was the celebrated lamb which
belonged to a little girl named Mary. It would need
to be a very large little girl-a giant girl, indeed


I Fp1 '



-who could take an ordinary sheep in her lap
and cuddle it there; but any little girl could find
room in her lap for a Breton sheep quite as easily
as for one of those very ugly little dogs called by
the ugly name of pug.
One of this little creature's peculiarities is its
extreme sympathy with the feelings of its human
friends, when it has been brought up as a pet in
the house, and has learned to distinguish between
happiness and unhappiness. If any person whom
it likes a great deal is very much pleased about
anything, and shows it by laughing, the little sheep
will frisk about with every sign of joy; but if, on
the contrary, the person sheds tears, the sympa-
thetic friend will evince its sorrow in an equally
unmistakable way. A kind word and a loving
caress will also fill it with happiness, while a cross
word or harsh gesture will cause it such evident
distress that only a cruel person could be other-
wise than gentle with such a pet.
This strange delicacy of feeling once led to a
very happy result, and helped a little girl named
Jessie out of a difficulty which was at the same
time dangerous and ludicrous.
Away off in one corner of the large garden,
Jessie had what she called her house. James,
the gardener, had nailed some boards to the
fence to make a roof, and there Jessie used to go
on summer afternoons with her dolls and her fav-
orite pet, the little Midget sheep. One afternoon,
Jessie was tired of staying in her house, and con-
cluded to try the roof. By putting her chair on
the starch-box that served for Ethel Araminta's
bed, Jessie contrived to mount upon the roof.
Once there, she lay down upon the roof, and,
after a deal of reaching, caught the back of the
chair and pulled it up. Then she placed it against
the fence, stood upon it, and looked over. There
was nothing specially interesting there to look at,
and Jessie concluded to do something else. The
first thing that suggested itself was to sit upon the
fence. It was not easy to do, but she finally ac-
complished it, and when she had recovered her
breath, she found her perch very pleasant, until
by and by she heard a dog bark. Looking over
the fence, she exclaimed:
Oh it 's that dreadful big bull-dog that be-
longs to Mr. Wainright. And here he comes. I
guess I'll get down. No I wont, either. He can't
catch me; it 's too high for him. Boo I 'm not
afraid of you."
The bull-dog by this time was right under
Jessie, barking furiously, for he looked upon her
as an intruder. She was too high for him to reach
her, but he was a faithful dog, and determined to
do the best he could. He jumped hard. He
could not reach. her, but her frock hung over the

fence, and into that he fastened his teeth just as
Jessie, in a fright, slipped from her seat to reach
the roof.
She did not reach it, however, for, unfortunately,
her frock was new and strong, and would not tear;
so she hung on one side of the fence, and the dog
on the other; She screamed and wept, but it was
too far from the house for her voice to be heard,
and she might have hung there until her frock
tore (for the dog would not loose his hold), if little
Midget had not come to the rescue.
She did not know what was the matter, prob-
ably; but she did know that Jessie was in great
trouble, and the dear little creature was driven
almost frantic with sympathy. She trembled all
over, then ran madly about, then stopped and
shook again. Finally, she ran like a crazy sheep
toward the house, and, in fact, acted so strangely
that Ann saw her from the kitchen window, and,
thinking her mad, called Jessie's mother. She
knew in a moment that something was wrong
with her little girl, and, fortunately, a particularly
loud scream from Jessie just then caught her ear.
She did not stop to explain, but ran as quickly as
she could toward where Jessie was.
Ann, like a faithful servant, -never stopped to
ask why, but followed her mistress, calling at the
same time for James, who was just entering the
gate. James obeyed the summons, and, being the
swiftest, reached the spot first. There hung Jessie,
still sobbing and screaming. This so excited James
that he forgot how frail the little house was, and
sprang upon it at one effort. Crash it went
under him, and he fell with it all in a heap to the
What a hubbub there was then! But James
was soon up again, and had brought a ladder. Ann
was so eager to help that she started to run up just
as James did, and the consequence was that a col-
lision took place, and Ann sat down on the grass.
James flew up, looked over, comprehended the
situation, and, knowing he could not make the
dog let go, whipped out his knife and cut Jessie's
It took some time for the story to be told, and
for everybody to recover composure; but when it
was all understood, it was declared that Midget
was a heroine, and that nothing was too good for
her. They all believed that Midget had pur-
posely run to the house to let them know there
that Jessie was in trouble ; but very likely Midget
was so excited by Jessie's cries that she did not
know what she was doing; for long after every-
body else was composed, and even able to laugh
at the picture of Jessie on one side of the fence
and the dog on the other, Midget continued to
tremble as if with ague.



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"I WANT to go where they let you break in
colts, and the circus comes 'round every week,"
said the second Master Lollipop, named Granbury,
but commonly called Cranberry by his friends, who
thought Cranberry Lollipop sounded particularly
I think it is time that I entered fashionable
society," said the eldest Miss Lollipop, who was
past sixteen.
"I always think first of my children," said the
fourth Miss Lollipop, who was called Cherry, and
who was the mother of ten dolls, -just as many
as she had brothers and sisters, and Christabel
Marie is suffering for sea-bathing."
"I want to go where there are sunsets and no
cows," said Jujube Lollipop, who was fifteen, and
painted in water-colors.
I'm not going where a fellow has to wear his
best clothes and there must be cherry pudding
every day."
This was the third Master Lollipop, who had
been christened Adonijam, but seldom had the
benefit of anything but the last syllable of that
dignified appellation, Jam Lollipop being thought
a very appropriate name for him. Indeed, all the
Lollipops' names were capable of being shortened
into such very appropriate ones that most people
believed they had been christened with this nick-
naming in view. The eldest Miss Lollipop was
named Araminta, and her name was usually
shortened to Minty, or Mint, and people who
wanted to tease her even went so far as to call her
Peppermint Lollipop; but she did not like that,
and was cultivating a dignified manner in the hope
of preventing it. Julia Lollipop was always called
Jujube, and Tryphena was Taffy, both at home
and abroad. Carrie Amelia was called Caramel,
by common consent, and Margaret Nutter (named
after her grandmother, who had always been
called plain Margaret) was called Nutmeg oftener
than anything else. Charity was always Cherry,
and Molly, Molasses. And the boys did not
fare much better. Sherburne was nicknamed
Sherbet,. and Erastus was never called anything
but Raspberry. They did not mind it very much,
though Sherbet was sometimes heard td say that
he wished they did n't all make people think of
something good to eat. Papa Lollipop had been
a confectioner, and people would say that he had
become confused, and thought he was naming his
candy when he named his children.

All these stories would probably be very soon
forgotten, now, for Papa Lollipop had retired from
business, with a fortune; they had moved from
the rooms over the shop, where they had always
lived, into a fine, large house, on a fashionable
street, and if any of the younger children made
any reference to the shop, and the times when
Papa was a confectioner, all the others said, "'Sh!
'sh "
And it was because they were rich people now,
and were trying to live as rich people did, that they
were going to take a vacation trip. They had never
taken one before, except out to Aunt Jane's in
Popleyville. Aunt Jane kept a candy-shop in one
corner of a big dilapidated old house, on the
main street. Papa Lollipop had kept her supplied
with candy. The upper shelf of her shop had
eight large glass jars, filled with sugar-plums artis-
tically arranged in lines of contrasting color, and
intended merely for ornament. Those jars had
stood there for twenty years, and all the babies in
Popleyville had cried lustily for them; but Aunt
Jane, whose heart was torn by a baby's cry for
anything else, had never relented so far as to take
one sugar-plum out of them. Babies of sense and
discretion soon learned to look at them with the
silent and hopeless longing with which they looked
at the moon. On the next shelf were the sticks of
candy, of every color and flavor known to the con-
fectioner's art, and always fresh and crisp. Then
came, on a lower shelf, jars- of mint-drops and
lozenges, sugared almonds and pea-nuts, cream-
dates and walnuts, and caramels of every flavor;
and on the lowest shelf of all were trays of molasses
candy, pea-nut taffy, and corn-balls. The contents
of that lowest shelf were always made by Aunt
Jane's own hands, and her pride in them was only
a trifle less than in the ornamental jars.
And though Aunt Jane's wares were so supe-
rior, it was universally acknowledged that there was
"more for a cent" to be got there than anywhere
else in town. Moreover, Aunt Jane had a most
unbusiness-like way of slipping a square of pea-nut
taffy or a corn-ball into a penniless little pocket;
and when she saw a sad and longing little face
glued to the outside of her window-pane, she mys-
teriously beckoned it in, and it went away a jolly
little face that you would n't have known for the
same one. Of course, the natural result of this un-
usual fashion of shop-keeping was that the penni-
less pockets and the mournful little faces came





often, and Papa Lollipop shook his head gravely,
and declared that Jane would be ruined.
But Aunt Jane was n't ruined. She proved her-
self to be possessed of a Yankee bump for trading,
with all her generosity. Everybody in the town was
her customer, from sixty-years-old Deacon Judkins,
down to the newest baby, who was never thought
to have properly made its entrance into Popleyville
society until it had been taken to Aunt Jane's
shop; and the summer visitors who came to Os-
prey, the sea-shore resort, only five miles away, were
always driving over to Popleyville for the express
purpose of buying some of Aunt Jane's candy.
She did not make a fortune, but she made enough
money to enable her to support herself, and care for
several household pets, including two dogs, three
cats, and four or five canary-birds, and also to have
a very stiff and rustling black silk dress to wear
to church and to neighborhood tea-drinkings. If
greater happiness than that was to be found in the
world, Aunt Jane never sighed for it. But when
the eleven Lollipops came out to spend the sum-
mer vacation, her cup of joy overflowed. Some
people might have thought that there were too
many of them, but if Aunt Jane had a regret, it
was that they were only eleven. As for the little
Lollipops, they thought there was nothing in this
world so much like Paradise as Aunt Jane's.
But now that they had become rich and fashion-
able, of course going to Aunt Jane's was not to be
thought of. It would have been such a dreadful
thing if any of their fashionable friends had discov-
ered that they had an aunt who kept a little candy-
shop in a queer old dilapidated' house, that was
running over with birds, and cats, and dogs, and
who kept no servant except a little lame pauper
girl whom she had taken out of pity, and whom
she waited upon as tenderly as she did upon the
birds. No, indeed fashionable society could not
be expected to recognize people with such an Aunt
Jane as that, so, although it was a great pity, they
never could visit Aunt Jane any more.
In the family council that they were holding to
decide where they should go for the summer, no-
body mentioned Aunt Jane's.
It never will do to have.it said that the Lolli-
pop family went anywhere but to Newport or
Saratoga," said Mamma Lollipop, who had been a
plump and jolly little woman, but had grown
wrinkled and anxious-looking since they became
"I don't want to go to Saratoga," said Taffy
Lollipop, with deep feeling, "because the Krauts
go there, and they say they wont associate with
us! "
"Well, I sha'n't allow my children to associate
with them! said Mamma Lollipop, with decision.

"If the Krauts go to Saratoga, we '11 go to New-
port! "
There are several confectioners in Newport
who bought all their supplies from me, and I 'd
rather not go there, anyhow," said Papa Lollipop.
We might go to Europe," said Taffy Lollipop.
'"The ship might go down," said Sherbet.
Mamma Lollipop turned pale. She was very
timid; and Europe's fate was sealed.
They looked at each other in dismay. There
did n't seem to be anywhere to go. They had
never felt any inconvenience from want of space
before; but now the world was not large enough
for the Lollipops.
Papa Lollipop, who was a nervous little man,
walked up and down the room, and mopped his
bald head with his handkerchief, as if he were very
warm indeed. But suddenly such a bright idea
seemed to strike him, that he cut a little caper to
relieve his excited feelings.
"I have an idea! We '11 all go everywhere,
and we wont any of us go anywhere he cried,
with the delight of one who has made a great dis-
All the other Lollipops were delighted, too. It
was a rather mysterious idea, but it sounded as if
it solved all their difficulties, and the way things
sound makes a great difference in this world.
My idea," he went on, addressing Mamma
Lollipop, "is to let 'em all go just where they
please, each by himself or herself, if they like.
We 've got servants enough, so that each one of
the children can take one as a companion. That
will make the servants of some use, and keep me
from being all worn out trying to find something
for 'em to do You and I will take the same
privilege. I '11 go where I please, and you can go
where you please And as I am in something of a
hurry, I '11 leave you to lock up the house "
Out of the room hurried Papa Lollipop, and in
less than ten minutes they heard the hall door
shut with a bang, and, looking out of the window,
they saw Papa Lollipop rushing down the street,
with a huge traveling bag, in too great a hurry to
remember that he now kept a carriage.
Mamma Lollipop looked after him, admiringly.
My dears," she said, your father has a great
mind. I thought so when his marsh-mallow cara-
mels took the first prize -"
"'Sh 'sh !" cried Minty. But Mamma Lolli-
pop went on, firmly:
I thought so then, but I know it now. We will
do just as he said."
"I do wonder where he has gone, in such a
hurry," said Taffy, who was the inquisitive one of
the family.
Mamma Lollipop, who was a very shrewd woman,



looked at the newspaper which Papa Lollipop had
just been reading, and saw a notice of a Confec-
tioners' Convention in Chicago. It was almost a
thousand miles away; but what were miles to a
mind like Papa Lollipop's ?
The door opened, and there stood Master Cran-
berry Lollipop, with a bundle of clothes slung
over his shoulder upon a stout walking-stick; be-
hind him stood Coffee, the colored boy who
cleaned the knives and did the cook's errands, and
he was similarly equipped for traveling.
"We 're goin'-good-bye! said Cranberry.
" Mebbe we shall come back some time, but if
you hear of orfle piruts on the high seas, it 's us."
Mamma Lollipop thought of screaming and
fainting at this dreadful announcement, but she
remembered what a mind Papa Lollipop had, and
decided to have perfect faith in his plan.
And Cranberry and Coffee marched off, with
fierce determination in their looks.
The next to go was Miss Minty, who first had
her hair dressed so it would last all summer, if she
did n't sleep in it, bought seventeen new brace-
lets for each arm, and a pair of eye-glasses, though
she was not in the least near-sighted, had seven
Saratoga trunks packed, ordered the carriage, and
took her own maid with her.
Jam and Taffy were the only ones who told each
other where they were going, and they happened
to be going to the very same place. Jam and Taffy
were twins, and thought just alike about every-
thing. They seemed very happy in their plans,
Jam occasionally giving expression to his feelings
by uttering whoops and turning somersaults; but
they evidently felt at the same time that they were
going to do something rash and dreadful, and it
was generally suspected that they meant to dis-
tinguish themselves by doing something even more
terrible than turning pirates; and it severely tested
Mamma Lollipop's faith in Papa Lollipop's plan to
let them go. But they took Betty, who had been
their maid-of-all-work in the old days, when they
lived over the shop, and Betty had brains; she
could make jujube paste and pipe-stem candy that
rivaled everybody's except Aunt Jane's; even if
Jam should decide to be a wild man of Borneo,
like one he had read of and was always longing
to imitate, Mamma Lollipop felt that Betty would
be equal to the occasion.
Sherbet took his drum with him, and hinted,
darkly, that he might be heard from on the field
of battle; so it was generally supposed that he had
gone to be a soldier, though where and whom he
was to fight remained a mystery. Mamma Lolli-
pop looked anxious, but did not attempt to in-
fluence him; she merely reminded him that for
soldiers and pirates, as well as for less warlike

members of society, school began on the twenty-
ninth of September.
Raspberry was seen negotiating with the pro-
prietor of a hand-organ; it was evident that he in-
tended to attain to the great ambition of his life,
and enter the organ-grinding profession.
Jujube, who had just begun to paint in water-
colors, bought artist's materials of all kinds, enough
to last her a year, if she painted every day from
morning till night, and went off with Pictur-
esque America under one arm and the Tour-
ist's Guide under the other, and entirely forgot
her trunk.
Caramel wanted to go where there was a Sun-
day-school picnic every day in the week, and she
was supposed to have gone in search of such a
place, as she had all her cambric dresses freshly
done up, and bought two new umbrellas.
Nutmeg had taken her nurse with her and gone,
it was thought from her remarks, in search of a
fairy who would tap her with her wand three times
lightly and make diamonds and pearls fall from
her mouth. Nutmeg was the youngest of the
Lollipops, and believed firmly in fairies.
Cherry went off with her ten dolls and their
wardrobes. It was thought probable that she had
gone where there was sea-bathing to be had, and
also where it was cool-as her wax children were
seriously affected by heat.
Molly wanted to find a kitten with double claws,
to be a gypsy, to go up in a balloon, to dig clams,
and to see Queen Victoria. It was evident that
she was much perplexed by these varied desires,
and her destinatioil was shrouded in deep mystery,
as the only baggage she took was a book, almost
as big as herself, from the top shelf in the library,
entitled, "The Guide to True Happiness."
Last of all, Mamma Lollipop, having dismissed
the coachman and her own maid, the only serv-
ants who were left, locked the doors of the house,
and sauntered off down a little side street.

Aunt Jane was in trouble. Everybody in Pop-
leyville seemed to have developed a sweet tooth,
since her supplies from Papa Lollipop's manufac-
tory had been cut off. Osprey and even Popley-
ville itself were full of summer visitors, who
thronged her shop and complained that the acid
drops were sweet, and the barley-sugar sour, that
the chocolate creams tasted like flour-paste, and
the caramels were burnt. It was just because they
had been accustomed to Papa Lollipop's candy
that they thought so; of course, there was no candy
to be found like that. There was nothing that
tasted as it used to, they said, but the corn-balls
and the pea-nut taffy, and Aunt Jane had to make
corn-balls and pea-nut taffy into the small hours




every night. And the circus was coming, to say
nothing of a menagerie, and two small shows,
and a military celebration and excursion parties
and picnics almost every day. The demand for
candy would be stupendous, and already a rival
establishment was set up in the town, prepared to
seize Aunt Jane's trade.
If she had n't been a Lollipop, she should have
gone crazy. She knew she should, Aunt Jane
said. Nobody to help her the least bit! Her
little maid-of-all-work was willing, but she had no
talent for confectionery; it was not to be expected;
she did n't come from a talented family; her plain
molasses candy was streaked and lumpy. Now, the
little Lollipops, down to the youngest, had talent
to their fingers' ends. Jam, at the age of three,
had made taffy that was fit to set before the king,
Aunt Jane proudly told her neighbors; and
Cherry's cayenne lozenges would draw tears from
a stone, so they would.
But alas just when she wanted them most, the
Lollipops had all written to say they were not
Aunt Jane was standing in front of her door,
with a tame squirrel perched on one shoulder and
a kitten on the other. She was tasting the wares
of a wholesale dealer in confectionery, who drove
a pair of prancing steeds, and a huge wagon as
gayly painted as if it belonged to a circus. As
soon as she had tasted the candy herself, she gave
a bit to the squirrel and offered a bit to the kitten,
who declined, but rubbed his head against it as a
token of gratitude for the attention.
But Aunt Jane did not find the candies satis-
factory, and the candy dealer was so angry at her
disparagement of his wares that he drove off and
left Aunt Jane standing there, candy-less, with
several of her empty jars staring at her from the
Aunt Jane would have tried to call him back; but,
at that moment, her attention was arrested by the
driving up of the stage, and the appearance of
three unexpected visitors-Jam and Taffy and
Betty !
She was so overjoyed that she ran forward eagerly
and hugged them all, even Betty, till they were al-
most purple in the face.
For with Jam and Taffy and Betty to help her,
there was no more fear of the rival shop !
But you must n't let- Mamma or Papa or any
of them know that we are here said Taffy,
earnestly, "because you know Popleyville is n't
fashionable She did not want to say that it
was n't fashionable to have an aunt who kept a
candy-shop, for fear of wounding Aunt Jane's feel-
ings, and Aunt Jane did n't suspect anything of
the kind, for she thought her little shop was some-

thing to be proud of, and would n't have changed
places with a queen on her throne.
They all made candy for three days, and great
fun it was; they might not have enjoyed it so
much once, but now it was new. And Aunt
Jane's empty jars were filled, and people were
quick to find out that they were filled with real
Lollipop candy. The shop-bell was kept jingling
nearly all the morning, and very few persons lifted
the latch of the rival shop-door.
On the next afternoon, Jam and Taffy thought
they would like a little variety, so they hired a
donkey and cart ofthe man next door, took six
tin pails and three baskets of luncheon and the
little servant, and started to go a-berrying.
Before they had gone half a mile out of the vil-
lage, on the road to the nearest railroad station,
they met two very ragged and forlorn-looking boys.
Both looked bruised and torn, as if they had been
fighting, and one was limping painfully. The other
one was a colored boy, and Taffy remarked that
from a distance he did not look unlike their Cof-
fee, only that Coffee was always so spick and span.
When they came nearer, they saw that it was Cof-
fee, and his companion, the poor limping lad with
a blackened face, was Cranberry.
Hello, pirates called Jam, cheerfully. "'A
short cruise and a merry one, was n't it ? Jam
was always provoking.
We carried off a boat from a wharf, and the
owners did n't understand the first principles of
piracy; they took us for thieves said Cranber-
ry, in an aggrieved tone. "And Coffee was sea-
sick, and I had to pay all my money for the boat,
and it was n't like a book, anyway. There's more
fun in Popleyville any day "
Jam helped them into the donkey-cart, and
drove them to Aunt Jane's, where they received
such a welcome as is not often accorded to pirates
returned from the high seas.
Jam and Taffy had scarcely started again upon
their berrying excursion, when they met a fine
carriage driving through the main street. A head
was thrust out of the carriage window: the coun-
tenance was a very singular one, though strangely
familiar; it looked very hot and flurried, and was
surrounded by a mass of disheveled auburn hair,
ringlets, braids, and puffs-all fluttering in the
I had to come home," said the piteous voice
of Minty. There were many more stylish dresses
than mine, and a girl said my bracelets were brass,
and I got entangled in the points of my parasol
and had to be taken to pieces. And I '11 never be
fashionable again And off whirled the carriage
bearing Minty to Aunt Jane's comforting arms.
Before they had gone half a mile farther they



met the stage, and there sat Jujube on the top,
making a sketch.
There are no sunsets anywhere but in Popley-
ville, so I had to come," she explained, calmly
working away at her sketch. Inside the stage sat
Caramel lunching off a hard-boiled egg and a
"Could n't you find enough picnics ?" asked Jam
and Taffy both together.
I am sure that there are more picnics in
Popleyville than anywhere in the known world "
replied Caramel, between her mouthfuls.
Before Jam and Taffy reached the railroad sta-
tion, they met Raspberry, with a monkey perched
on his shoulder and a tambourine in his hand.
I had an organ, but it was too heavy," he an-
nounced as soon as they came within hearing.
"Monkeys draw better in Popleyville than they
do anywhere else. You '11 just see fun, I can tell
you I suppose you have n't a quarter that you
could lend a fellow? The hand-organ business is
very expensive."
Of course, they had to carry Raspberry to Aunt
Jane's, if they.never got any berries, but it did seem
very queer that before they had gone a mile on their
way again, they should meet Sherbet, with his
drum on his back, and his arm in a sling.
Had a good time? demanded Jam.
Splendid only off on a furlough now, till my
country needs me again," said Sherbet, and that
was all he would say. Sherbet was n't one to say
much, but he looked as if serving his country had
been hard work.
The berrying party went on; they had promised
Aunt Jane some berries, and they must be had,
however' attractive the family reunion at Aunt
Jane's might seem. When they got as far as the
railroad station, whom should they see alighting
from the cars but Nutmeg and her nurse.
Nobody seems to know anything about fairies
except Aunt Jane, and I don't believe they live
anywhere but in Popleyville. And ignorant peo-
ple laugh at one, so I came here," said Nutmeg,
with dignity.
At the other end of the platform they espied
Cherry, who had evidently come in the same train.
She was negotiating with a man for a baby carriage
to transport her ten children in. They were in a
truly pitiable condition, some with saw-dust oozing
from every pore, some with broken limbs, and
noses, and some, alas! who had evidently been
where it was very warm, had quite lost the shape
of humanity and were nothing but lumps of wax.
Traveling did n't agree with the poor dears,"
explained Cherry. "People with large families

never ought to travel. Popleyville is just the place
to bring up children in. I don't think I shall ever
go anywhere else."
The donkey-cart with its load went on, after
taking Cherry's ten dolls upon the back seat, and
making them as comfortable as circumstances
would allow.
Just at sunset, the donkey-cart started for home,
with the six tin pails full to the very top and the
luncheon baskets empty to the very bottom. As
they drew near the house Jam and Taffy saw, walk-
ing ahead of them, a very familiar figure. It was
a lady with a 'richly embroidered shawl over her
Yes, it was Mamma Lollipop and the drab par-
rot, and a jubilee the Lollipops had, you may be
quite sure, when they got together in Aunt Jane's
"I went back to the old rooms over the shop
where we were so happy before we got rich," said
Mamma Lollipop; but I was lonely without any
of you, so I thought I would come to see Aunt
Jane. But I should n't care to have your father
know- "
Just then the door of Aunt Jane's kitchen,
whence came a delicious odor of cooking candy,
was opened, and there stood Papa Lollipop, look-
ing happier than they had ever seen him look
since he retired from business !
It seemed that he had come early that morning,
and Aunt Jane had kept him hidden.
It was a miserable affair-that convention,"
said he; "they openly favored using terra alba
and poisonous coloring stuff. The American peo-
ple will be poisoned if I don't return to the busi-
ness It is my duty, and I will! At which an-
nouncement all the children clapped their hands
with delight.
But where is poor little Molasses? She is the
only one missing said Mamma Lollipop.
At that very moment a knocking was heard at
the door, and, when it was opened, there stood
Molly, panting for breath, and with her cheeks
all stained with dust and tears. She had a few
torn leaves of the big Guide to Happiness still
clutched in her hand, but she tossed them away
as Aunt Jane caught her in her arms.
"It's a silly old book," sobbed Molly, "all
full of big words that don't say anything about
good times. Aunt Jane knows ten times as much
about'em, so I came here! "
Popleyville never was so pleasant in the world
as it was that summer, and I only wish I had
space to tell you of all the fun that the Lollipops
got out of their vacation, after all!








MAMMA gave our Nelly an apple,
"So round, and big, and red;
It seemed, beside dainty wee Nelly,
To almost eclipse her head.

Beside her, young Neddie was standing-
And Neddie loves apples, too.
Ah, Nelly," said Neddie, "give Brother
A bite of your apple--ah, do!"

Dear Nelly held out the big apple;
Ned opened his mouth very wide-
So wide that the startled red apple
Could, almost, have gone inside!

And oh what a bite he gave it!
The apple looked small, I declare,
When Ned gave it back to his sister,
Leaving that big bite there.

Poor Nelly looked frightened a moment,
1b Then a thought made her face grow
S "Here, Ned, you can take the apple -
I 'd rather have thze bite "





IF, from any cause whatsoever, any one happened
to have lost his command, or to have strayed away
from or been left behind by his regiment, he could
usually tell with tolerable certainty, as he trudged
along the road among the men of another com-
mand, what part of the army he was with, and
whether any of his own corps or division were
anywhere near by. And he could tell this at a
glance, moreover, and without so much as stop-
ping to ask a question. Do you ask how? I
answer, by the badges the men wore on their caps.

An admirable and significant system of badges
was adopted for the entire Union Army. The
different corps were distinguished by the shapes,
the different divisions by the colors, of their several
badges. Thus, the First Corps wore a round
badge, the Second a clover leaf, the Third a
diamond, the Fifth a Maltese cross, the Sixth a
Roman cross, the Ninth a shield, the Eleventh a
crescent, the Twentieth a star, and so on. As each
corps included three divisions, and as it was neces-
sary to distinguish each of these from the other
two, the three good old colors of the flag were
chosen for the purpose-red, white, and blue: red
for the first division of each corps, white for the
second, and blue for the third. Thus, a round

*Copyright, 1881, by Harry M. Kieffer. All rights reserved.



red badge meant First Division, First Corps; a
round white, Second Division, First Corps; a round
blue, Third Division, First Corps; and so on of the
other corps. Division and corps head-quarters

16 Ces s1 5^

6n, 9th 9.o0Ih L


could always be known by their flags bearing the
badges of their respective commands. As the
men were all obliged to wear their proper badges,
cut out of flannel or colored leather, on the top of
their caps, one could always tell at a glance what
part of the Army of the Potomac he was in. In
addition to this, some regiments were distinguished
by some peculiarity of uniform. Our own brigade
was everywhere known as "The Buck-tails," for we
all wore buck-tails on the sides of our caps.
It was in this way that I was able to tell that
none of my own brigade, division, or even corps,
were anywhere near me as, one evening along in
the middle of May, 1864, I wearily trudged along
the road in the neighborhood of Spottsylvania
Court-house, in search of my regiment. I had lost
the regiment early in the day; for I was so sick
and weak when we started in the morning that it
was scarcely possible for me to drag one foot after
the other, much less to keep up at the lively pace
the men were marching. Thus it had happened
that I had been left far behind. However, after
having trudged along all day as best I could, when
night-fall came on I threw myself down under a
pine tree beside the road, faint from exhaustion,
stiff and sore in limb, and half-bewildered by a
burning fever. All around me the woods were full
of men making ready their bivouac for the night.
Some were cooking coffee and frying pork, some
were pitching their shelters, and some were already
sound asleep; but they all, alas! wore the red
Roman cross. Could I only have espied a Maltese
cross somewhere I should have felt at home, for
then I would have known that the good old Fifth
Corps was near at hand. But no blue Maltese
cross (the badge of my own division) was anywhere
to be seen. As I lay there, with half-closed eyes,

feverishly wondering where in the world I was, and
heartily wishing for the sight of some one wearing
a buck-tail on his cap, I heard a well-known voice
talking with some one out in the road, and leaning
upon my elbow, called out:
"Harter! Hello, Harter !"
Hello Who are you? replied the sergeant.
peering in amongst the trees. "Why, Harry!
Where's the regiment?"
That's just what I'd like to know," answered
I. "I could n't keep up, and was left behind, and
have been lost all day. But where have you been? "
"Well," said he, as he brought his gun down to
a rest and leaned his two hands on the muzzle,
"you see the Johnnies spoiled my good looks a
little back there in the wilderness, and I was sent
to the hospital. But I could n't stand it there, and
concluded I would start out and try to find the
boys. Look here," continued he, taking off a
bandage from the side of his face, and displaying
an ugly looking bullet-hole in his right cheek;
"see that hole ? It goes clean through, and I can
blow through it. But it does n't hurt very much,
and will heal up before the next fight, I guess.
Anyhow, I have the chunk of lead that made that
hole here in my jacket pocket. See that ? said he,
taking out a flattened ball from his vest pocket and
rolling it around in his palm. Lodged in my
mouth right between my teeth. But I 'm tired
nearly to death. Let 's put up for the night.
Shall we strike up a tent, or bunk down here
under the pines ?"
We concluded to put up a shelter-or rather, I
should say, Harter did so, for I was too sick and
weak to think of anything but rest and sleep, and
lay there at full length on a bed of pine branches,
dreamily watching the sergeant's preparations for
the night. Throwing off his knapsack, haversack,
and accouterments, he got out his light hatchet,
trimmed away the lower branches of two pine sap-
lings some six feet apart, cut a straight pole and
laid it across from one to the other of these sap-
lings, buttoned together two shelters and threw
them across the ridge-pole, staked them down
firmly at the corners, and, throwing in his traps,
There you are, 'snug as a bug in a rug.' And
now for fire and a supper."
A' fire was soon and easily built, for dry wood
was plenty, and soon the flames were crackling and
lighting up the dusky woods. Taking our two
canteens, Harter started off in search of water,
leaving me to stretch myself out in the tent-and
heartily wish myself at home.
"I tell you, Harry," said the sergeant, as he
flung down the canteens on his return, "there
is n't anything like military discipline. I went




down the road here about a quarter of a mile, and
came out near General Grant's head-quarters in
a clearing. Down at the foot of a hill in front of
his head-quarters is a spring; but it seems the
surgeon of some hospital near by had got there
before the General, and put a guard on the spring
to keep the water for the wounded. As I came up

The darky, saying that he 'd see about dat,'
went up the hill to head-quarters, and returned
in a few moments, declaring that 'Gen'l Grant
said dat you got to gib me water.'
You go back and tell General Grant,' said
the corporal of the guard, coming up at the
moment, 'that neither he nor any other general

I heard the guard say to a darky who had come can get water at this spring until my orders are
to the spring for water with a bucket: changed.'
Get out of that, you black rascal! You can't Now you see, Harry," continued Harter, as

have any, water here.'
'Guess I kin,' said the darky. 'I want dis
yer water fer Gen'l Grant; an' aint he command-
in' dis yer army?'
You touch that water and I '11 run my bayonet
through you !' said the guard. 'General Grant
can't have any water from this spring till my orders
are changed.'
VOL. X.-58.

he gave me a tin cup on a stick to hold over the
fire for coffee, while he cut down a slice of pork,
"that's what I call discipline."
Supper was soon disposed of, and without further
.delay, while the shadows deepened into night in
the forest, we rolled ourselves up in our blankets
and stretched ourselves out with our feet to the
fire. Dreamily watching the blazing light of our



little camp-fire, and thinking each his own thoughts
of things which had been, and things which might
'be, we soon fell sound asleep.



ANDY, what is a shade-tail? "
We were encamped in an oak forest on the
eastern bank of the Rappahannock, late in the fall
of 1863. We had built no winter quarters yet,
although the nights were growing rather frosty,
and had to content ourselves with our little dog-
tents," as we called our shelters, some dozen or so
of which now constituted our company row. I had
just come in from a trip through the woods, in
quest of water at a spring near an old, deserted log-
house about a half-mile to the south of our camp,
when, throwing down my heavy canteens, I made
the above interrogatory of my chum.
Andy was lazily lying at full length on his back
in the tent, reclining on a soft bed of pine branches,
or "Virginia feathers" as we called them, with
his hands clasped behind his head, lustily singing:

"Tramp, tramp, tramp, the boys are marching,
Cheer up, comrades, they will come;
And beneath the starry flag
We shall breathe the air again"--

"What's that ?" asked he, ceasing his song before
finishing the stanza and raising himself on his
"I asked," said I, "whether you could tell me
what a shade-tail is ? "
"A shade-tail! Never heard of it before. I
know what a buck-tail is, though. There's one,"
said he, pulling a fine specimen out from under
his knapsack. That just came in the mail while
you were gone. The old buck that chased the
flies with that brush for many a year was shot up
among the Buffalo mountains last winter, and my
father bought his tail of the man who killed him,
and has just sent it to me. It cost him just one
Buck-tails were in great demand with us in those
days, and happy was the man who could secure so
fine a specimen as Andy held in his hand.
"But is n't it rather large? asked I. "And
it's nearly all white, and would make a mighty
fine mark for some Johnny to shoot at. Eh? "
"Never you fear for that. 'Old Trusty' up
there," said he, pointing to his gun hanging along
underneath the ridge-pole of the tent,-" 'Old
Trusty' and I will take care of Johnny Reb."

"But,. Andy," continued I, "you have n't an-
swered my question yet. What is a shade-tail? "
"A shade-tail," said he, meditatively. "How
should I know ? I know what a detail is, though,
and I 'm on one for to-morrow. 'We go across the
river to throw up breastworks."
"I forgot," said I, "that you have not studied
Greek yet. If you live to get home and go back
to school again at the old Academy and begin to
dig Greek roots, you will find that a shade-tail is a
-squirrel. For that's what the old Greeks called
the bonny bush-tail. Because, don't you see, when
a squirrel sits up on a tree with his tail turned
up over his back, he makes a shade for himself
with his tail, and sits, as it were, under the shadow
of his own vine and fig-tree."
"Well," said Andy, "and what if he does?
What's to hinder him?"
"Nothing," answered I, entering the tent and
lying down beside him on the pile of "Virginia
feathers "--"only I saw one out here in the woods
as I came along, and I think I know where his
nest is, and if you and I can catch him, or, what
would be better still, if we can capture one of his
young ones (if he has any), why we might tame
him and keep him for a pet. I've often thought
it would be a fine thing for us to have a pet of
some kind or other. Over in the Second Division
there is one regiment that has a pet crow, and
another has a kitten. They go with the men on all
their marches, and I am told that the kitten has
actually been wounded in battle, and no doubt
will some day be taken or sent up North, and be a
great curiosity. Now, why could n't we catch and
tame a shade-tail? "
"Yes," said Andy, getting a little interested.
"He could be taught to perch on Pointer's buck-
horns in camp, and could ride on your drum on
the march "
Pointer, you must know, was the tallest man in
the company, and therefore stood at the head of
the line when the company was formed. When we
enlisted, he brought with him a pair of deer antlers
as an appropriate symbol for a buck-tail company.
Now, the idea of having a live, tame squirrel to
perch on Pointer's buck-horns was a capital one
But as the first thing to be done in cooking a
rabbit is to catch the rabbit, so we concluded that
the first thing to be done in taming a squirrel was
to catch the squirrel. This gave us a world of
thought. It would not do to shoot him. We
could not trap him. After discussing the merits
of smoking him out of his hole, we determined at
last to risk cutting down the tree in which he had
his home, and trying to catch him in a bag.
That afternoon, when we thought he would




probably be at home taking a nap, having provided
ourselves with an ax, an old oat-bag, and a lot of
tent-rope, we cautiously proceeded to the old beech-
tree on the outskirts of the camp where our intended
pet had his home.
"Now you see, Andy," said I, pointing up to a
crotch in the tree, up there is his front door.
There he goes out and comes in. My plan is this:
One of us must climb the tree and tie the mouth
of the bag over that hole somehow, and come
down. Then we will cut the tree down, and when
it falls, if old shade-tail is at home, like as not
he '11 run into the bag; and then, if we can be
quick enough, we can tie a string around the bag,
and there he is "
Andy climbed the tree and tied the bag. After he
had descended, we set vigorously to work at cutting
down the beech. It took us about half an hour to
make any serious inroad upon the tough trunk; but
by and by we had the satisfaction of seeing the tree
apparently shiver under our blows, and, at last, down
it came with a great crash. We both ran toward
the bag as fast as we could, ready to secure our
prize; but we found, alas that squirrels sometimes
have two holes to their houses, and that while we
had hoped to bag our bush-tail at the front door,
he had merrily skipped away out of his back door.
For, as soon as the tree touched the ground, we
both beheld our pet leaping out of the branches,
and running up a neighboring tree as fast as his
legs could carry him.
"Plague take it! said Andy, wiping the per-
spiration from his face. What '11 we do now?
I guess you 'd better run to camp and get a little
salt to throw on his tail! "
"Never mind," said I. "We '11 get him yet,
somehow. I see him up there behind that old dry
limb peeping out at us. There he goes !"
Sure enough, there he did go, from tree-top to
tree-top, "lickitty-splitt," as Andy expressed it,
and we after him, quite losing our heads, and
shouting like Indians.
As ill luck would have it, our shade-tail was
making straight for the camp, on the outskirts of
which he was discovered by one of the men, who
at once gave the alarm--" A squirrel! a squir-
rel !" It seemed hardly an instant before all the
boys in camp not on duty came running pell-mell,
Sergeant Kensill's black-and-tan terrier "Little
Jim" leading the way. I suppose there must
have been about a hundred men in all, and all
yelling and shouting, so that the poor squirrel
checked his headlong course high up on the dead
limb of a great oak-tree. Then, forming a circle
around the tree, with Little Jim in the midst,
the boys began to shout as when on the charge-
Yi- yi -yi! Yi-- yi-yi whereat the poor

squirrel was so terrified that, leaping straight up and
out in sheer affright and despair, down he came,
tumbling tail-over-head, into the midst of the circle,
which rapidly closed about him as he neared the
ground. With yells and cheers that made the woods
ring, a hundred hands were stretched out as if to
catch him as he came down ; but Little Jim beat
them all. True to his terrier blood and training,
he suddenly leaped up like a shot, seized the squir-
rel by the nape of the neck, gave him a few angry
shakes which ended his agony, and carried him off
triumphantly in his mouth to the tent of his owner,
Sergeant Kensill, of Company F.
That evening, as we sat in our tent eating our
fried hard-tack, Andy remarked, while sipping his
coffee from his black tin cup, that "if buck-tails
were as hard to catch as shade-tails, they were
well worth a dollar apiece any day, and that he
believed a crow or something of that sort would
make a better pet than a squirrel, anyhow."
"Never mind, Andy," said I, "we'll make a
pet out of something or other yet."
It was some months later, and not until we were
safely established in winter quarters, that we finally
succeeded in our purpose of having something to
pet. I was over at brigade head-quarters one day,
visiting a friend who had charge of several supply
wagons. Being present while he was engaged in
overhauling his stores, I found in the bottom of a
large box, in which blankets had been packed, a
whole family of mice. The father of the family
promptly made his escape, the mother was killed
in the capture, and one little fellow was so injured
that he soon died; but the remainder, three in
number, I took out unhurt. As I laid them in the
palm of my hand, they at once struck me as per-
fect little beauties. They were very young, and
very small, being no larger than the end of my
finger, with scarcely any fur, and their eyes were
shut. Putting them into my pocket, and covering
them with some cotton which my friend gave me,
I started home with my prize. Stopping at the
surgeon's tent on the way, I begged a large empty
bottle (which I afterward found had been lately
filled with pulverized gum arabic), and somewhere
secured an old tin can of the same diameter as the
bottle. Then I got a strong twine, went down to
my tent, and asked Andy to help me make a cage
for my pets, as I took them out of my pockets,
with pride, and set them to crawling and nosing
about on a warm blanket.
What are you going to do with that bottle ?"
inquired Andy.
"Going to cut it in two with this string," said
I, holding up my piece of twine.
Can't be done asserted he.
"Wait and see," answered I.




Procuring a mess-pan full of cold water, and
placing it on the floor of the tent near the bunk on
which we were sitting, I wound the twine once
around the bottle, a few inches from the bottom, in
such fashion that Andy could hold one end of the
bottle and pull one end of the twine one way,
while I held the other end of the bottle and pulled
the other end of the twine the other way, thus
causing the string, by means of its rapid friction, to
heat the bottle in a narrow straight line all around.
After sawing away in this style for several minutes,
I suddenly plunged the bottle into the pan of cold
water, when it at once snapped in two along the
line where the twine had passed around it, and as
clean and clear as if it had been cut by a diamond.
Then, melting off the top of the old tin can by
placing it in the fire, I fastened the body of the
can to the top part of the bottle. When finished,
the whole arrangement looked like a large bottle,
the upper part of which was glass and the lower
tin. Thus I accomplished the double purpose of
providing my pets with a dark chamber and a
well-lighted apartment, at the same time prevent-
ing them from running away. Placing some cotton
on the inside of both can and bottle for a bed, and
thrusting a small sponge moistened with sweetened
water into the neck of the bottle, I then put my
pets into their new home. Of course, they could
not see, for their eyes were not yet open, neither
did they know how to eat; but as necessity is the
mother of invention with mice as well as with men,
they soon learned to toddle forward to the neck of
the bottle and suck their sweet sponge. In a short
time they learned to nibble also at a bit of apple,
and by and by could crunch their hard-tack like
veritable veterans. Gradually they grew larger
and very lively and became quite tame, so that
we could take them out of their house into our
hands, and let them hunt about in our pockets
for apple-seeds or pieces of hard-tack. We called
them Jack, Jill, and Jenny, and they seemed to
know their names. When let out of their cage oc-
casionally, for a romp on the blankets, they would
climb over everything, running along the eave-
boards and ridge-pole, but never succeeded in
getting away from us. It was a comical sight
to see Little Jim," the black-and-tan terrier
of Company F, inspect our pets. A mouse was
almost the highest possible excitement to Jim,
for a mouse was second cousin to a rat, no doubt,
as Jim looked at matters; and just say "Rats!"
Sto Jim, if you wanted to see him jump! He
would come in and look at the mice, turn his
head from one side to the other, and wrinkle his,
brow and whine and bark; but we were deter-
mined he should not kill our mousies as he had
killed our shade-tail a few months before.

What to do with our pets when spring came on
and winter quarters were nearly at an end, we
knew not. We did not like to leave them behind
in the deserted and dismantled camp to go back to
the barbarous habits of their ancestors. On con-
sideration, therefore, we determined to take them
back to the wagon-train and leave them with the
wagoner, who, though he at first demurred to our
proposal, at last consented to let us turn them
loose among his oat-bags, where I doubt not they
had a merry time indeed.



IT must not be supposed that the pet-making
disposition which had led Andy and myself to take
so much trouble with our mice was confined to our-
selves alone. The disposition was quite natural,
and therefore very general among the men of all
commands. Pets of any and all kinds, whether
chosen from the wild or the domestic animals,
were everywhere in great esteem, and happy was
the regiment which possessed a tame crow, squir-
rel, coon, or even a kitten.
Although not pertaining to the writer's own per-
sonal recollections, there yet may appropriately be
introduced here some brief mention of another
pet, who, from being the "pride of his regiment,"
gradually arose to the dignity of national fame.
I mean Old Abe," the war eagle of the Eighth
Wisconsin Volunteers.
Whoever it may have been that first conceived
the idea, it was certainly a happy thought to make
a pet of an eagle. For the eagle is our national
bird, and to carry an eagle along with the colors
of a regiment, on the march and in battle, was
surely very appropriate indeed.
Old Abe's" perch was on a shield which was
carried by a soldier, to whom, and to whom alone,
he looked as to a master. He would not allow
any one to handle or to carry him except this sol-
dier, nor would he ever receive his food from any
other person's hands. He seemed to have sense
enough to know that he was sometimes a burden
to his master on the march, and, as if to relieve
him, would occasionally spread his wings and soar
aloft to a great height, the men of all the regiments
along the line cheering him as he went up. He
regularly received his rations from the commissary,
the same as any enlisted man. Whenever fresh
meat was scarce and none could be found for him
by foraging parties, he would take things into his
own claws, as it were, and go out on a foraging
expedition himself. Sometimes he would be gone




two or three days at a time; but he would invaria-
bly return, and seldom came back without a young
lamb or a chicken in his talons. His long absences
occasioned his regiment no concern, for the men
knew that, though he might fly many miles away,
he would be quite sure to find them again.
In what way he distinguished the two hostile
armies, so that he never was known to mistake the
gray for the blue, no one can tell; but it is said to
be a fact that he never alighted save in his own
camp and among his own men.
At Jackson, Mississippi, during the hottest of
the battle before that city, "Old Abe soared up
into the air and remained there from morning till
the fight closed at night, having greatly enjoyed,
no doubt, his rare bird's-eye view of the battle.
He did the same at Mission Ridge. He was, I
believe, struck by the enemy's bullets two or three
times, but his feathers were so thick that his body
was not much hurt. The shield on which he was
carried, however, showed so many marks of the
enemy's balls, that it looked on top as if a groove-
plane had been run over it.
At the Centennial Exposition, held in Philadel-
phia in 1876, "Old Abe" occupied a prominent
place, on his perch, on the west side of the nave
in the Agricultural building. He was still alive,
though growing old, and was the observed of all
observers. Thousands of visitors, from all sections
of the country, paid their respects to the grand old
bird, who, apparently conscious of the honors con-
ferred upon him, overlooked, with entire satisfac-
tion, the sale of his photographs and biography go-
ing on beneath his perch. As was but justand right,
the soldier who had carried him during the war
continued to have charge of him after the war was
over, until the day of his death, which occurred at
the capital of Michigan two or three years ago.
Our own regiment had a pet of great value
and high regard in "Little Jim," of whom some
incidental mention has already been made. As
Little Jim enlisted with the regiment, and was
honorably mustered out with it at the close of the
war, after three years of as faithful service as so
little a creature as he could render to the flag of
his country, some brief account of him here may
not be amiss.
Little Jim," then, was a small rat-terrier of
fine blooded stock, his immediate maternal an-
cestor having won a silver collar in a celebrated
rat-pit in Philadelphia. Late in 1859, while yet a
pup, he was given by a friend to John C. Kensill,
with whom he was mustered into the United States
service "for three years, or during the war," on
Market street, Philadelphia, Pa., August, 1862.
Around his neck was a silver collar with the in-
scription, Jim Kensill, Co. F, 50oth Regt. P. V."

He soon came to be a great favorite with the
boys, not only of his own company, but of the en-
tire regiment as well, the men of the different
companies thinking quite as much of him as if he

-_ .-

belonged to each of them individually, and not to
Sergeant Kensill alone. On the march he would
oftemi be caught up from the roadside where he
was trotting along, and given a ride on the arms of
the men, who would pet and talk to him as if he
were a child and not a dog. In winter quarters,
however, he would not sleep anywhere except on
Kensill's arm and underneath the blankets; nor
was he ever known to spend a night away from
home. On first taking the field, rations were
scarce with us, and for several days fresh meat
could not be had for poor Jim, and he nearly
starved. Gradually, however, his master taught
him to take a hard-tack between his fore paws and,
holding it there, to munch and crunch at it till he
had consumed it. He soon learned to like hard-
tack, and grew fat on it, too. On the march to
Chancellorsville he was lost for two whole days, to
the great grief of the men. When his master
learned that he had been seen with a neighboring
regiment, he started off in search of him at once.
As soon as Jim heard his owner's sharp whistle,
he came bounding and barking to his side, over-
joyed to be at home again, albeit he had lost his

belonged to each of them individually, and not to
Sergeant Kensill alone. On the march he would
ofteri be caught up from the roadside where he
was trotting along, and given a ride on the arms of
the men, who would pet and talk to him as if he
were a child and not a dog. In winter quarters,
however, he would not sleep anywhere except on
Kensill's arm and underneath the blankets; nor
was he ever known to spend a night away from
home. On first taking the field, rations were
scarce with us, and for several days fresh meat
could not be had for poor Jim, and he nearly
starved. Gradually, however, his master taught
him to take a hard-tackbetween his fore paws and,
holding it there, to munch and crunch at it till he
had consumed it. He soon learned to like hard-
tack, and grew fat on it, too. On the march to
Chancellorsville he was lost for two whole days, to
the great grief of the men. When his master
learned that he had been seen with a neighboring
regiment, he started off in search of him at once.
As soon as Jim heard his owner's sharp whistle,
he came bounding and barking to his side, over-
joyed to be at home again, albeit he had lost his

*See ST. NICHOLAS for October, 1876, page 799.



collar, which his thievish captors had cut from his
neck in order the better to lay claim to him.
SHe was a good soldier, too, being no coward and
caring not a wag of his tail for the biggest shells
the Johnnies could toss over at us. He was with
us under our first shell fire at Clarke's Mills," a
few miles below Fredericksburg, in May, 1863, and
ran after the very first shell that came screaming
over our heads. When the shell had buried itself
in the ground, Jim went up close to it, crouching
down on all fours, while the boys cried, Rats !
Rats Shake him, Jim Shake him, Jim "
Fortunately that first shell did not explode, and
when others came that did explode, Jim, with true
military instinct, soon learned to run after them
and bark, but to keep a respectful distance from
On the march to Gettysburg he was with us all
the way; but when we came near the enemy his
master sent him back to William Wiggins, the
wagoner, as he thought too much of Jim to run
the risk of losing him in battle. It was a pity Jim
was n't with us out in front of the Seminary the
morning of the first day, when the fight opened;
for as soon as the cannon began to boom the rab-
bits began to run in all directions, as if scared out
of their poor little wits; and there would have
been fine sport for Jim, had he been there.
In the first day's fight, Jim's owner, Sergeant
John C. Kensill,while bravely leading the charge for
the recapture of the 149th Pennsylvania Regiment's
battle-flags (of which an account has elsewhere
been given), was wounded and left for dead on the
field, with a bullet through his head. He, how-
ever, so far recovered from his wound that in Oc-
tober following he rejoined the regiment, which
was then lying down along the Rappahannock. In
looking for the regiment, on his return from a
northern hospital, Sergeant Kensill chanced to
pass the wagon train, and saw Jim busy at a bone
under a wagon. Hearing a familiar whistle, Jim
at once looked up, saw his master, left his bone,
and came leaping and barking in greatest delight
to his owner's arm.
On the march he was sometimes sent back to
the wagon. Once he came near being killed. To
keep him from following the regiment, or from
straying away in search of it, the wagoner had
tied him to the rear axle of his wagon with a
strong cord. In crossing a stream, in his anxiety
to get his team over safely, the wagoner forgot all
about poor little Jim, who was dragged and slashed
through the waters in a most unmerciful way.
After getting over, the teamster, looking back,
found poor Jim under the rear of the wagon,
being dragged along by the neck, and more dead
than alive. He was then put on the sick list for a

few days, but with this single exception never had
a mishap of any kind.
His master having been honorably discharged
before the close of the war because of wounds,
Jim was left with the regiment in care of Wiggins,
the wagoner. When the regiment was mustered
out of service at the end of the war, Little Jim"
was mustered out too. He stood up in rank with
the boys, and wagged his tail for joy that peace
had come and that we were all going home. I
understand that his discharge papers were regu-
larly made out, the same as those of the men, and
that they read thus:

To all whom it may concern. Know ye, that Jinm enasill, Pri-
vate, Co. F, 5oth Regiment, Penna. Vols., who was enrolled on the
22d day of August, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, to
serve three years or during the war, is hereby DISCHARGED from the
service of the United States, this twenty-third day of June, 1865, at
Elmira, New York, by direction of the Secretary of War.
"(No objection to his being reinlisted is known to exist) Said
Jim Kcnsill was born in Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsyl-
vania, is six years of age, six inches high, dark complexion, black
eyes, black-and-tan hair, and by occupation when enrolled a rat-
"Given at Elmira, New York, this twenty-third day of June,
"Capt. Roth U. S. Infy, A. C. M."

Before parting with him, the boys bought him a
silver collar, which they had suitably inscribed,
and which, having honorably earned in the service
of his country in war, he proudly wore in peace to
the day of his death.
But the Twelfth Indiana Regiment possessed a
pet of whom it may be said that he enjoyed a re-
nown scarcely second to that of the wide-famed
Wisconsin eagle. This was Little Tommy," as he
was familiarly called in those days-the youngest
drummer-boy and, so far as the writer's knowledge
goes, the youngest enlisted man in the Union
Army. The writer well remembers having seen
him on several occasions. His diminutive size and
child-like appearance, as well as his remarkable
skill and grace in handling the drum-sticks, never
failed to make an impression not soon to fade from
the memory. Some brief and honorable mention
of "Little Tommy," the pride of the Twelfth In-
diana Regiment, should not be omitted in these
"Recollections of a Drummer-boy."
Thomas Hubler was born in Fort Wayne, Alien
Co., Indiana, October 9, 1851. When two years
of age, the family removed to Warsaw, Indiana.
On the outbreak of the war, his father, who had
been a German soldier of the truest type, raised a
company of men in response to President Lincoln's
first call for 75,000 troops. Little Tommy" was
among the first to enlist in his father's company,
the date of enrollment being April 19, 1861. He
was then nine years and six months old.
The regiment to which the company was as-




signed was with the Army of the Potomac through-
out all its campaigns in Maryland and Virginia.
At the expiration of its term of service, in August,
1862, "Little Tommy" reenlisted and served to
the end of the war, having been present in some
twenty-six battles. He was greatly beloved by all
the men of his regiment, with whom he was a con-
stant favorite. It is thought that he beat the first
" long roll" of the great civil war. He is still liv-
ing in Warsaw, Indiana, and bids fair to be the

latest survivor of the great army of which he was
the youngest member. With the swift advancing
years, the ranks of the soldiers of the late war are
rapidly being thinned out, and those who yet re-
main are fast showing signs of age. "The boys
in blue are thus, as the years go by, almost im-
perceptibly turning into the boys in gray ; and
as "Little Tommy," the youngest of them all,
sounded their first reveille, so may he yet live to
beat their last tattoo.






X883.1 ]




ONE time, while Brownies passed around Now overripe his harve
An honest farmer's piece of ground, In waiting for the rea
They paused to view the garden fair The piece of wheat we
And fields of grain that needed care. Is shelling out at ever

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:st stands
per's hands;
lately passed
y blast;

Those pumpkins in that corner plot
Begin to show the signs of rot;
The mold has fastened on their skin,
The ripest ones are caving in,
-'nd soon the pig in yonder sty
.'Vith scornful grunt would pass them by.
iiis Early Rose potatoes there

" My friends," said one who often spoke
About the ways of human folk,
" Now here's a case in point, I claim,
Where neighbors scarce deserve the name:
This farmer on his back is laid
With broken ribs and shoulder blade,
Received, I hear, some weeks ago,
While at the village here below-
He checked a running team, to save
Some children from an early grave.

The turnip withers where it lies,
The beet and carrot want to rise.
' Oh, pull us up they seem to cry
To every one that passes by;
The frost will finish our repose,
The grubs are working at our toes;
Without you come and save us soon,
We'll not be worth a picayune !'
The corn is breaking from the stalk,
The hens around the hill can walk,




And with their ever ready bill
May pick the kernels at their will.
SHis neighbors are a sordid crowd,
Who 've such a shameful waste allowed;
So wrapped in self some men can be,
Beyond their purse they seldom see;
'T is left for us to play the friend
And here a helping hand extend.

Prepared to give this farmer aid
With basket, barrow, hook, and spade.
But, ere we part, one caution more:
Let some one reach a druggist's store,
And bring along a coated pill;
We'll dose the dog to keep him still;
For barking dogs, however kind,
Can oft disturb a person's mind."

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SBut as the wakeful chanticleer
Is crowing in the stable near,
Too little of the present night
Is left to set the matter right.
To-morrow eve, at that dark hour
When birds grow still in leafy bower
And bats forsake the ruined pile
To exercise their wings awhile,
In yonder shady grove we '11 meet,
With all our active force complete,

When next the bat of evening flew,
And drowsy things of day withdrew,
When beetles droned across the lea,
And turkeys sought the safest tree
To form aloft a social row
And criticise the fox below,-
Then cunning Brownies might be seen
Advancing from the forest green.
Now jumping fences, as they ran,
Now crawling through (a safer plan);

___~I~ s


Now keeping to the roads awhile,
Now cutting corners, country style;
Some bearing hoes, and baskets more,
Some pushing barrows on before,
While others, swinging sickles bright,
Seemed eager for the grain in sight.
But in advance of all the throng
A daring couple moved along,
Whose duty was to venture close
And give the barking dog his dose.

For garden ground or larger field
Alike a busy crowd revealed:
Some pulling carrots from their bed,
Some bearing burdens on their head,
Or working at a fever heat
While prying out a monster beet.
Now here two heavy loads have met,
And there a barrow has upset,
While workers every effort strain
The rolling pumpkins to regain;

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Now soon the work was under way,
Each chose the part he was to play:
While some who handled hoes the best
Brought Early Roses from their nest,
To turnip tops some laid their hands,
More plied the hook, or twisted bands.
And soon the sheaves lay piled around,
Like heroes on disputed ground.
Now let the eye turn where it might,
A pleasing prospect was in sight;

And long before the stars withdrew
The crop was safe, the work was through.
In shocks the corn, secure and good,
Now like a Sioux encampment stood;
The wheat was safely stowed away,
In bins the Early Roses lay,
While carrots, turnips, beets, and all
Received attention, great and small.
When morning dawned, no sight or sound
Of friendly Brownies could be found;



~--- ~


And when at last old Towser broke
The spell, and from his slumber woke,
He rushed around, believing still
Some mischief lay behind the pill;
But though the fields looked bare and strange,
His mind could hardly grasp the change.
And when the farmer learned at morn
That safe from harm was wheat and corn,
That all his barley, oats, and rye
Were in the barn, secure and dry,
That carrots, beets, and turnips round
Were safely taken from the ground,
The honest farmer thought, of course,
His neighbors had turned out in force

While helpless on the bed he lay,
And kindly stowed his crop away.
But when he thanked them for their aid,
And hoped they yet might be repaid
For acting such a friendly part,
His words appeared to pierce each heart;
For well they knew that other hands
Than theirs had laid his grain in bands,
That other backs had bent in toil
To save the products of the soil.
And then they felt as people will
Who fail to nobly act, until
Some other person, stepping in,
Doth all the praise and honor win.




IT is not possible to give a clear account of the
earliest painters of Holland, or of the Dutch school,
as it is called. It is certain that they executed wall-
paintings and other works, which have been de-
stroyed, and we know that, in the beginning, the
Dutch masters painted devotional subjects almost
without exception. About I580 the famous school
of Dutch portrait-painters had its origin, and soon
after, scenes from common life, or genre subjects,
became the favorite works of Dutch artists and their
patrons. As time passed on, there were added to
these the pictures of luxurious interiors, still-life,
fruit, flowers, and game, both living and dead. In
all these subjects the Dutch masters reached great
excellence, for their habit was to reproduce exactly
what they saw, and to lavish that infinite care and
labor upon the execution of details which makes
the perfection of pictures of still-life and kindred
Thus it results that no painters have excelled the
Dutch in the painting of drapery, furniture, glass,
metals, satin, and other objects which are made
beautiful by strong effects of light and shade.
Some of the night, or candle-light, scenes of this
school are unequaled by any others in the world.
There were, of course, landscape and marine paint-
ers, as well as painters of animals, in Holland, who
attained high rank in their way; but the por-
traits and still-life subjects are especially charac-
teristic of the Dutch school. The latter subjects
are of two sorts: the smaller number represent

scenes from elegant life, which require fine apart-
ments for a background- such as a music-lesson,
a ceremonious call, a doctor's visit, or some occa-
sion which permits the artist to show his skill in
painting marbles, woods, china, stuffs, and all sorts
of beautiful things. The larger number are scenes
from peasant life- fairs and fftes. dancing villagers,
and rude, ungainly boys -or interiors of inns, with
coarse boors drinking, smoking, playing cards, or
perpetrating rude practical jokes.
There are many famous Dutch masters, but we
can study but one -


the greatest painter of his school, and one who
may be called preeminent in art by reason of his
remarkable excellence in many departments of
painting and engraving. He was the son of Her-
mann Gerritszoon van Ryn, and was born at Ley-
den, in I607. He was sent to school when a boy,
but he had so little liking for his books that he was
soon allowed to follow his natural taste, and study
art under J. J. van Swanenburg; and when he was
about sixteen years old he entered the studio of
Pieter Lastman at Amsterdam, where he remained
but six months. He then returned to Leyden,
where he spent seven years. During this time he
studied Nature in all her forms-the splendid and
varied scenery about him dividing his attention
with the infinite variety of human faces which
could be seen in the rare old city of Leyden, with
its university, its free markets, and its ever brilliant


festivals. He also profited by the exhibitions of
foreign pictures which were admitted to Leyden
only, and by the collections of paintings, jewels,


books, choice stuffs, and other beautiful objects
frequently to be seen in the city hall.
Meantime he worked industriously, and by his
earliest paintings and etchings gained a name
which brought him a student (the afterward famous
Gerard Dow) and obtained for him various com-
missions from the Hague and Amsterdam.
In 1630, when twenty-three years old, Rem-
brandt established himself in Amsterdam, where
he spent the remainder of his life. He soon be-
came famous, and many students flocked to him,
making his life a busy one. Here he executed
his first large picture, The Presentation in the
Temple," now in the Gallery at the Hague.
Within two years of his settlement at Amsterdam
he also painted many smaller pictures, and made at
least forty engravings. From this time his career
as an artist was but one success after another, and
in 1634 he married Saskia von Ulmburg, a very
beautiful girl, to whom he was devotedly attached.
She was of an aristocratic family, an orphan, and
had a large fortune in her own name. She is

represented in so many portraits by her husband
that her face is familiar to all who know his works.
Three pictures of her, painted during the year of
their betrothal, show her in all
the loveliness of youth, with daz-
zling complexion, rosy lips, great,
expressive eyes, and auburn hair;
and though later portraits are of
a more serious cast, and have a
.l more matronly bearing, yet they
represent ajoyous, happy woman,
and may all be called young,
since she died before she was
Thirty years old.
S The years of his life that were
passed with Saskia were the hap-
piest that ever came to Rem-
brandt. He was beloved, hon-
S ored, and rich. His house was
Fine and furnished with exquisite
taste. On the first floor were the
ante-chamber and salons, with
pac beautiful mirrors, upholstery and
drapery, oaken chests and press-
Ses, marble wine-coolers and many
other rare objects, while the walls
were covered with pictures and
I'-'.~4. engravings of foreign artists as
well as his own works. On the
floor above were his studios and
a great art-chamber, or museum,
4 in which was a splendid collec-
tion, of which I will speak later.
EMBRANDT.) In this beautiful home the artist
and his wife lived a happy, simple
life, devoted to each other and to their children,
one of whom alone outlived his mother-a son,
called Titus.
At her death Saskia left her fortune to her hus-
band, with one request--that he should educate
their child and give him a marriage portion. But
in spite of this, and of his success as an artist and
as a teacher,--for he had many scholars who paid
him well,- Rembrandt became poor, and at length,
in 1657, his household goods and his fine collection
were sold at auction to satisfy his creditors.
There is always a temptation to say that an
unusual thing which we see in a picture is not
natural; but when we think about it, and observe
Nature for that purpose, we find. that scarcely any-
thing could be too strange to be true; and this is
all the more noticeable when, as in the pictures of
Rembrandt, the great effects are those of light and
shade. If you want to prove to yourself how won-
derful these effects are, choose some landscape
which has a variety of objects in it, and study its
aspects on a dull, cloudy day. With no sun and no



shadow, how little interest it has. Go to the same Now, Rembrandt had a quick eye for all these
spot on a bright day, and see how the sun will marvelous effects of light, and he painted just
make the clump of trees stand out and look as if such things as he had seen, and nothing else. In
each separate twig was joyous with life; see the every picture there are particular points upon which
brook shimmer like rippling silver where the sun- to fix the eye, and, though the whole was painted
light falls on it, and note how dark and cold it with exquisite skill, and the smaller details would
looks in the shade; see how black the rock is bear examination just as the blades of grass and


lv'r ri ./
4 4,L-t. i


B'i~%~ r~J:--="Sis. T .

I, i 4

.rj, i t I I -:


Iii I


under the wide-spreading tree, and how the grass, the smallest flowers in a landscape would do, we
that is like an emerald in the light places, grows do not care to examine them; the one great interest
dull and brown where the sunshine does not reach holds our attention, and we are satisfied with that.
it. Could there be stronger contrasts than those The. execution of the pictures of Rembrandt is
you see, side by side, when you give your thought marvelous. He painted some very ugly, and even
to it? And perhaps you wonder that you have not vulgar, pictures; he disregarded all rules of cos-
remarked all this before. tume and of the fitness of things in many ways;

I' A
i L i


, \ .


he parodied many ideal subjects, and he painted
scenes from Scripture history in which he put the
exact portraits of the coarse and common people
about him. But, in spite of all these faults, his
simplicity, truthfulness, and earnestness make his
pictures masterpieces, and we can not turn away


from them carelessly; they attract us and hold us
with a powerful spell.
Rembrandt's style was not always the same.
Before 1633 he preferred the open daylight, in
which everything was distinctly seen, and his flesh
tones were warm and clear; after that time, he
preferred the light which breaks over certain ob-
jects and leaves the rest in shade, while his touch
became very spirited, and his flesh tones were so
golden that they were less natural than before.
Rqmbrandt's engraving is very famous. He is
called the "Prince of Etchers." He really estab-
lished a new school of engraving; by his own genius
invented a process, the charm of which can not be
expressed in words. His wonderful use of the effects
of light and shade is seen in his engravings as well
as in his paintings. His etchings are now of great

value. The one which represents Christ Healing
the Sick" is called the "Hundred Guilder Print,"
because that is the price the master set upon it.
But eight of the first proofs of this engraving exist
in the world, and five of these are in Great Britain.
In 1847, one of them was sold in London for $600;
the same copy was again sold in 1867,
and brought $5000. The proofs from
his portraits, as well as from the por-
traits of himself, are also very valuable.
The works of Rembrandt are so nu-
merdus and so important that one can
Snot speak justly of them in our present
space. His pictures number about 600,
and his engravings 400, and these em-
brace not only many subjects, but many
variations of these subjects. The chief
picture of his earliest manner is the "An-
atomical Lecture," now in the Gallery
of the Hague.
In 1642 he painted his largest picture,
which is also considered as his chief work.
It is called the Night Watch," and is
in the Amsterdam Museum. It repre-
sents a company of guardsmen, and oth
ers, issuing from a public building into
a space where there are many officers,
soldiers, musicians, young girls, and oth-
er figures, the great standard of the city
being in the foreground. One feels that
the portraits of all the principal persons
must be good. The color is splendid,
and the blending of lights and shades is
marvelous in its beauty. He painted
other pictures, in which there were num-
bers of portraits of burghers, or men who
were connected with important institu-
tions and undertakings.
ETCHING Rembrandt painted but few pictures
from profane history, and his landscapes
are rare, but the few that exist are worthy of so great
a master, and one who so loved everything that God
has spread out before us in Nature. His scenes from
common life are beyond criticism, but sometimes his
picturing of repulsive things makes us turn away,
though we must admire the power with which they
are painted. His portraits were of the highest or-
der, and very numerous; no other artist ever made
so many portraits of himself, and in them he is seen
from the days of youthful hope to ripened age.
At a sale in Paris, in 1876, "A Portrait of a Man"
by Rembrandt brought $34,000; at the San
Donato sale, in 1880, "Lucretia" sold for $29,200,
A Portrait of a Young Woman for $27,500, and
others for equally large prices.
After the breaking up of his beautiful home,
where he had lived so happily with Saskia, Rem-




brandt hired another house, where he remained
until his death. His last home was comfortable;
he had many friends; the younger artists re-
spected and admired him, and we have no reason
to believe that he was unhappy here-and cer-
tainly his pictures indicate no failure of his pow-
ers or any discouragement of feeling. We see
rather, that, with rare exceptions, he worked with
unceasing energy and vigor. He died in 1669,

when sixty-two years old, and was buried in the
Westerkerk. The registered fees of his burial are
but fifteen florins. When we consider the enor-
mous amount of his artistic work, and remember
that it was all done in about forty working years,
we are filled with wonder and admiration of
the determination and genius which could ac-
complish such herculean labors in so masterly a




A CERTAIN little girl in New York City, who
on account of weak eyes had been deprived of
many of the advantages of schooling, has been
enjoying very pleasant times during the present
year in Miss Huntington's Kitchen-Garden";
and she has described this new kind of school and
the lessons learned there in the following letter,
which she wrote to her aunt, the wife of an army
officer stationed in New Mexico.
The Kitchen-Garden system has been fully de-
scribed in a previous number of ST. NICHOLAS.* It
was first designed to help the children of the poor,
who have sad need of wise home training; but it
comprises so many lessons which every little girl
should know, whether rich or poor, and is taught
in such a fascinating way, that already in several
cities its benefits and pleasures have been secured
to the more fortunate class of children to which
little May belongs. Her letter here given was
taken down by a faithful hand just as the little
girl dictated it. But instead of the pictures she
mentions (made "on the corners of the letters"),

the drawings here presented are by a ST. NICHOLAS
artist, who visited the Kitchen-Garden for the ex-
press purpose of making these illustrations.

MY DEAR AUNT KATIE: I guess you will think
it real queer to get a letter from me, because I
suppose you think I can't write well enough; but
Mamma says she will write down every word I say,
though I must not say so very much, because your
eyes are so bad that maybe you can't read it.
My eyes are bad, too, and that's the reason I do
not go to school; at least, to regular school, for I
do go to school; but if you should guess all day-
and all night, I don't believe you could guess what
kind of a school it is, Aunt Katie ; because it 's
a new kind, that Mamma says you never heard
about, she thinks-unless you saw the pictures
and read about it in ST. NICHOLAS more than four
years ago. I was very small then, but I remember.
Well, I'll just tell you, Aunt Katie. Mamma
and some more ladies made up the school.
I am in it, and little Cousin Nellie, and Sallie

* See article entitled "Little Housemaids," ST. NICHOLAS for April, 1879.






White and the Stonezes and the Mitchelzes, and
--and I can't think of any more; only when you
count them there are twenty-four. And every
Tuesday and Thursday, at two o'clock, we go to
Sallie's mother's house. Nellie has to go right
away after school, and so do Sallie and the Mit-
chelzes and the Stonezes; but I don't, because I
don't go to regular school.
When we get to Sallie's house, we all take off
our hats and mittens and coats, and go into the
dining-room. It 's ever so pretty there. There
are five gold fishes in a jar in the window, swim-
ming round and round, and there are two kinder-
garten tables, with little red-and-blue chairs set
close around them. When the piano sounds, we
all march in. We have to keep our hands down
close to our sides, the teacher tells us, and I do;
but Sallie White, she does n't. I guess she thinks
because she 's at her own house she can do'just as
she pleases. I don't think it's very polite not to
mind the rules just because she 's home. Mamma
says that girls who mind the rules best at home,
mind them best when they're not at home. This is
about manners, and I was just going to tell about
Kitchen-Garden: but there 's manners in that,
too, because one of the verses says:
"And learn to step more lightly,
And quietly to speak."

That 's being gentle, and Mamma says that to
be gentle is to be polite, and that 's being good-
mannered-is n't it, Aunt Katie?

before her full of little toy dishes, and knives and
forks and napkins, and towels and table-cloths,
and every single thing to set on a table-only not
things to eat. We play we had things to eat. Then
Miss Robinson-she 's the teacher-she 's oh, so
kind-she lets us put on the table-cloths all at
the same time. We have to put them on just
straight, and not slanting a bit. Then we lay on
the knives and forks-they must be straight, too
-"the knife at the right side, with the sharp
edge to the plate, and the fork at the left side ";
then we put on "the plates, which must be
warm," by Papa's place, and the cups and saucers
and cream and sugar and coffee by Mamma's
place. There's much more in the breakfast lesson,
and it 's just the same in the dinner lesson, only
there 's more things in it, because there are three
courses. First the soup, then the meat, and then
the dessert. I think the dessert is the best part;
don't you, Aunt Katie ? Then Miss Robinson
tells us how to wait on the table. She says the
rules all out when she tells us. After this, we
play we were in the kitchen washing the dishes.
Oh, it 's real fun, Aunt Katie. There 's a very
fine noise when we all wash our dishes together.
Then the piano teacher plays some music softly.
I '11 send you a picture of a little girl washing
dishes-that 's me.
I've got some more pictures, too. Mamma gets
them in the corners of her letters, and she lets me
cut them out, and I am going to paste some of
them on my letter so you can see how I look when

Ahi VI
1i" 5

Now, Mamma says I must come back to Kitchen- I sweep and dust. See me dusting Mamma's vase!
Garden, else you 'll never know what it is. I have to stand high, because I am so little, you
I guess you would be astonished if you should know. And oh, Aunt Katie, I just wish you could
see twenty-four little girls like us sitting by the see us when we wash our clothes; it 's just lovely.
tables, and every one of us has little boxes set We roll up our sleeves, and we wash our clothes
VOL. X.-59.




all at once. It's just as natural as anything, for
we all feel as if we had tubs full of nice warm
soap-suds. When the piano strikes, we sing-

In the tub so merrily
Our little hands must go,"
"Splish, splash, splish ";

and when we wring out the clothes, we sing

"Tra la la, tra la la, tra a a."

Then we hang out the clothes and play

By comes a blackbird and nipped off our nose."

We all laugh then, because it 's so funny; and
Miss Robinson, she laughs, too.
We have a splendid time when we come to our
molding lesson, because we have clay, and that's
most as good as the soft, clean mud that we
children have in the country in the summer-time.
We make real turkeys, Aunt Katie, with legs and
wings. I can't make wings right, yet, but I can
make good legs; and I make real fat turkeys, Aunt
Katie; and we make pies and biscuit and every-
thing like that, and
you just ought to see us.
tL__ Mamma has just had
to go down-stairs to see
a lady who sometimes
calls on her, but now
she is back again.
Aunt Katie, are n't
you afraid of the In-
dians? Oh, Aunt Katie,
don't let them get you;
if they chase you, just


run like lightning. When Grandpa's calf chased
me, I ran like lightning; and then I tumbled
down, and I could n't get up quick, so I just sat
up a little and screamed right into his face, and

he was so surprised, he stopped chasing me. Mam-
ma says it is n't right to scream; but if great, awful
big calves chase you, it is n't bad, is it, Aunt Katie ?
It is better to scream than for big calves to eat you
up, is n't it, Aunt Katie ? Dear Aunt Katie, if you
have to run away from the Indians, please take
Baby Grace, too.
Now, Mamma says this is n't telling you about
the Kitchen-Garden. '
Well, the lady who came to-see her is Miss
Huntington. She is the lady who first thought of
the Kitchen-Garden. She came one day to our
class. She 's very
good, Aunt Katie.
She told us about
how sorry she was
for people who had
to work and did n't
know how; so she
tried to show little
girls how to grow
up so they will know
how to keep house
well. Mamma says
I can be her little
housekeeper when I
grow up. I know
how to do lots of
things already,Aunt
Katie. I know how
.-- to wait on the table,
r .and how to kindle
D-FIRE." the wood-fire in the



fire-place, and the fire in the stove that burns coal,
How to draw a cup of tea-
The cup that never tires."

We sing that last. We have ever so many things
that we sing in Kitchen-Garden. That 's the
reason we remember the rules so well, because we
can sing them.
My dear Aunt Katie, I 've saved the best part
to the very last. It's about games. We just have
an elegant time when we do games. We have one
after every lesson in Kitchen-Garden. We have a
skipping game, when we skip all round the room


with a rope that has pretty ribbons tied to it, and
we keep time when we skip to a nice tune that the
teacher plays on the piano. And we have a broom
game that is just splendid! We all have nice
brooms, with pretty ribbons on them, and we do
ever so many things with them, and sing songs all
the time we 're doing it. And then some of us
make an arch with our brooms and the rest of us
skip under the brooms all the way through the
arch. And we hang up clothes-lines. You 'd laugh
if you saw all the funny little dolls' clothes hanging
on the lines. But it looks real pretty, too, I think.
And we play waiting on the door. We have a big
round circle of girls, and we skip around and we sing:
Here comes a crowd of merry little girls
Who 've lately come to school."

Then we ring a little bell, --
and we ask, "Is Mrs.
Brown at home ?" and we
say, Yes; will you please --
to 'low me to show you to
the parlor, and I will speak .
to her." Then we go across :
the ring (we play that 's ;:
the hall), and the girls lift .,
up their hands and we go t ... ,I .
under (we play that 's the -__ -a --
door), and then we are in .--- =--.' .
the parlor,youknow. Then -. "' \
we play we have a card ". '
with our name on it and '
we put it on a tray, and .
the girl that opens the
door, she brings it to the lady, or else we tell our
Sometimes, Mrs. Brown is not at hornt," or
else She 's engaged." Then we say, "Will you
please to leave a message ? "
Then the other girl,- the lady, you know,- she
could leave quite a long message if she could
think of one, but she does n't, very often.
It 's a splendid game, Aunt Katie, and so is/
"Little waiting-girls." We all stand in a ring
with trays, and we march and sing:

We are little waiting-girls,
Just little waiting-girls.
We wait on the table
As well as we are able
For little waiting-girls."

We pass the tray like this, we pass the tray like that,
Try to hold it, always hold it, very, very flat."

It's a real funny game. You just ought to see
it, Aunt Katie. And "Jack and Jill," we play
that, too, and it's

Jack and Jill went up the hill
To get a pail of water,
Jack fell down and broke his crown
And Jill came tumbling after."

And the chorus is :
Two should step at the same time-
One should not go faster,
Else they '11 surely, surely meet
With Jack and Jill's disaster."

Well, Aunt Katie, you ought to see just every-
thing we do I know you 'd think it was lovely,
and you'd be just as glad as we are that Miss
Huntington' thought about it. It don't seem

/ /


like going to school at all. It seems like play.
But we all learn ever so much there. Mamma
says I 've learned a good deal about housekeeping
Dear Aunt Katie : Mamma says I need not write
any more, because your eyes are so bad. I give my
love to you, Aunt Katie; and I give my love to
Cousin Baby Grace, and to Uncle Howard, too.
This letter is from your dear little niece,

* Miss Huntington's address is 125 St. Mark's Place, New York City.







ALMOST the first voyagers who sailed into the
then unknown seas surrounding the south pole
took back to Europe stories about a gigantic seal,
much larger than the elephant, and, like that
animal, furnished with a trunk. But the people
had begun to doubt the stories of travelers, and
consequently not much reliance was placed on
these various accounts.
When the real Robinson Crusoe, whose name
was Alexander Selkirk, was found on his island
of Juan Fernandez and taken home to England,
he also told about the giant seal, and gave such
minute particulars concerning it that its existence
was no longer doubted. Still, it was not until a
century later, when the report of Captain Cook's
voyages was published, that any real interest was
roused in the sea-elephant, or elephant seal. This
report said that the oil and skin furnished by the
animal were valuable, and that statement was hint
enough for one or two enterprising merchants.
Without more ado, they fitted out a few whaling
ships, and sent them to the southern seas tc pro-
cure the oil and skins of the hapless creatures.
Among these ships the trimmest and swiftest was
the Mary Ann," and, though a modern clipper
captain would have called her a "wind-jammer, "
she did manage in some way to drive that square
hull of hers through the water with marvelous
speed. She was just the sort of craft to keep a
crew good-tempered, and that is what she almost
did. It would have been quite, instead of almost,
but for Bill Hawkins.
He was the surliest, most discontented fellow
that ever spoiled enjoyment on ship-board. He
"did n't believe they wuz no sea-elephants." He
did not believe they were on the right course for
Georgia Island. There was nothing apparently
that he did believe, unless it was that easy-going,
good-natured Tom Barrow was the safest man in
the forecastle for him to badger and brow-beat.
At any rate, he acted as if he believed so, for
from the first he had done his best to make Tom
miserable. Any other than Tom would have set-
tled the matter by a set-to, but that was not Tom's
way. He disliked fighting. The other sailors,
who liked him for his joviality, and because he
was such a prime hand at a song, urged him to
have it out with Bill; but he refused, and they put
him down for a coward. So did Bill, and he bul-
lied Tom almost past endurance thereafter.
However, the good ship bowled along on her

way quite i.:- l : of Bill Hawkins and his growl-
ing, and, one fine morning in the latter part of
September, dropped her anchor in a pretty little
bay which looked as if it might be a safe harbor in
bad weather.
"Well," drawled Bill, as he came on deck and
joined a group of sailors lounging against the
rail, "is this Georgy Island?" Then he added,
with positive pleasure, after he had scanned the
beach for a few moments, "Wot's become o' all
the sea-elephants we was to see here ?"
Nobody gave him the satisfaction of a reply, for
the truth was, the same question had been asked
with considerable anxiety by everybody on deck,
from the captain down; for it was a matter of no
little consequence to know if the voyage was to be
a failure or a success. Certainly, there were no
seals of any kind to be seen either in the water or
on shore, and an investigating party which had
gone to the island came back reporting no signs
o' anything, let alone a elephant."
This was disheartening, but the captain knew
there was no mistake in the island, and he there-
fore determined to wait at least until the other
vessels came in, though they might not arrive for
two weeks, or even a month. Two or three days
passed in weary waiting, when, one morning, some
one suddenly yelled in wild excitement: "Look!
Oh! But would you look! Was ever seen the
like o' that?"
Of a truth, no one there had ever seen, or imagined
even, such a sight as fell then upon their astonished
eyes. Slowly through the shallow water, leading
to the beach, rolled and floundered a huge black
mass a very mountain of flesh. Painfully it gained
the beach, and rested a few moments. Then it
raised its head, looked toward the ship, and gave
utterance to a roar so unearthly as to make the
superstitious sailors shudder.
"Look at the water shouted a terrified voice.
It was fairly alive with gigantic black forms,
which, as though by magic, seemed to have
appeared in answer to the weird cry of the monster
on the island. Soon the beach was black with
them, and yet the water still teemed with them.
They came and came, crowding, roaring, struggling,
and still they did not cease to come. The white
beach had become a writhing black mass of life.
Hoarse roars from thousands of throats smote the
sky. Crowding, crowding, crowding still, until
night fell and shut out all but the din of voices,




which gained in intensity and horror from the
When morning dawned, the waters of the bay
were placid again. The beach, from one end to
the other, and from high-water line far back, was
literally covered with the giants of the sea. Here
was a fine crop; the only difficulty was how to
harvest it. In fact, it was a serious question with
the men how they were to get ashore even. None
of them felt like making his way among those
monstrous creatures. Consequently, there was no
little grumbling when the captain gave orders to
let down the boats, load up with spears and clubs,
boiling-down apparatus, and tools for erecting tem-
porary shelters, and go ashore ready for work at
However, they obeyed orders, and, when all was
ready, set out for the beach, with the captain him-
self in the first boat. He knew the men objected
to going among the animals, and he intended to
lead the way. He was fortified by the assurances
given in all accounts of the animal, that it was per-
fectly harmless, notwithstanding its seeming feroc-
ity; and perhaps he was not averse to giving his
sailors a good opinion of his courage by doing
what they did not dare to do.
When the boats were near enough to enable the
inmates to see distinctly, it was noticed that the
animals were of two sorts--some very large, and
others much smaller. The smaller ones were by
far the most numerous, and it was discovered
that they were formed into groups at intervals
along the beach, with a guard of the larger ani-
mals ranged in a circle around each group. It was
soon perceived, also, that the nose of the sea-ele-
phant was far more like the nose of a tapir than the
trunk of an elephant, and that it had the pecul-
iarity of scarcely showing, except when the animal
was roused.
When the boats drew up at the usual landing-
place, the bulls in that vicinity raised their im-
mense bodies with indolent effort, and, glancing at
the intruders, broke out into a prolonged roar,
which, added to gaping jaws armed with murder-
ous looking yellow teeth, and the elongated, quiv-
ering nose, was sufficiently frightful to fix every
man there in his determination not to provoke the
I '11 not go nigh 'em," growled Bill Hawkins,
loud enough for the captain to hear.
"I don't ask any coward to follow me," said the
captain, scornfully, though his heart was beating
somewhat rapidly, too, at the thought of threading
his way among the strange creatures, so closely
packed that any one of them had only to turn its
head, open its mouth, and make one bite to cut
him quite in twain. I only ask that if I go up

and back without trouble, then all the men of the
party will go too."
With these words, the captain took a spear in
his hand and stepped ashore. He expected to see
the animals make some show of resentment at his
approach, but they did not. After the first move-
ment they all subsided and, like the lions in the
fairy tale, seemed subdued by the courage of the
man. However brave he appeared outwardly, he
inwardly quaked when he found himself within
reach of the jaws of the nearest bull, the gigantic
size of which he had not before properly appre-
Although a tall man, not much less than six feet
in height, he could not see over the back of the
animal near which he stood. In length, it was not
less than thirty feet, and the captain could now,
for the first time, realize the story of the travelers,
that the sea-elephant was as great in bulk as two
land elephants.
Considerably re-assured by the peaceable de-
meanor of the animals, the captain chose a path
that seemed to promise the most room, and walked
into the midst of the strange congregation, with a
tremor of fear of which he need not have been
ashamed. The men in the boat watched him
nervously for a few moments, when, seeing how
securely he walked among the great beasts, one of
the older men sprang up and declared he was
going to follow, and, suiting his actions to his
words, grasped an armful of the tools and started
off. This was all that was needed to move the
others, and in a moment each man had taken a
load and started after the captain, Bill Hawkins,
with commendable caution, bringing up the rear,
determined to give the animals every opportunity
to show their savagery before trusting his precious
person among them.
There was not the least reason for fear, however,
for the indolent creatures did no more than glance
mildly at the strange looking new-comers, without
making the least movement of the body. Com-
pletely re-assured now, the men went back and
forth, carrying the materials from the boats, until
everything had been taken to the spot selected
for the camp. The boiling-down apparatus, which
was the same as used by whalers, was set up, and
the boats, which had in the meantime returned to
the ship, came back laden with barrels for the oil.
The captain had learned from his instructions
that the easiest way of killing the animals was by
a sharp, hard blow with a club over the nose, or
by thrusting a lance through the breast into the
heart. He had accordingly brought both kinds of
weapons with him, and when all was ready he took
both club and spear, and, selecting one of the
smallest bulls, approached it cautiously, and dealt



it a terrific blow on the nose. In an instant as it
seemed, the huge beast was dead.
The men, seeing how easily and safely the deed
was done, seized their clubs, and the slaughter was
begun. The strangest feature of it all was that
the poor creatures made no effort to escape, which
would, however, have been useless for those at-
tacked, because, having only flippers to help them
move their enormous bodies, they could make but
slow progress; but those not attacked seemed to
feel no alarm, and so they remained to take their
The strange apathy of the great creatures was
due, no doubt, to the fact that they had never before
known such a thing as an enemy on land; for in
all the Antarctic region there is no ferocious animal
larger than our cat, so that never before, probably,
excepting an occasional one killed by preceding
voyagers, had any danger come to them on land.
At any rate, not one of the sea-elephants sought
safety in the water.
Killing and skinning the animals, and cutting up
the blubber and boiling it down, soon fell into a
matter of routine. The quantity and quality of
the oil was greatly in excess of what anybody had
anticipated. Sometimes one large bull would have
a coating of fat, or blubber, a foot deep, complete-
ly enveloping the body under the skin, and this
would yield nearly a ton of oil of a quality supe-
rior to any whale oil, and with the peculiarity of
not becoming rancid. The skins, too, were valu-
able, and were carefully dried and stowed away.
At first, Tom Barrow had been put at the boiling-
down, but after a week or more he was transferred
to the killing party, to appease Bill Hawkins, who,
though at first pleased with the excitement, had
begun to grow tired of it, and had done nothing
but grumble for two or three days. Tom, who,
though not over twenty years old, was a large-
boned, powerful fellow, chose a heavy club, and
set boldly out to kill.
He selected a plump young bull, and going up
to it, lifted his club to strike it, when the animal
raised itself on its flippers and looked at him, as
he thought, beseechingly. This unnerved Tom,
who was a tender-hearted lad, and who had never
even struck any living creature before. However,
the others were killing away in a most matter-of-
fact fashion, so he set his teeth and struck at the
There was no heart in the blow, and, besides, as
Tom turned his head when he struck, it was no
wonder that it failed to kill the creature. But
what was Tom's dismay, when he looked at his
victim again, to see it shedding genuine tears with
every symptom of distress. If he had felt uncom-
fortable before, he was filled with remorse now.

He could no more have killed that seal than if it
had been a human being.
"What's the matter, Tom ? Can't ye kill 'im ?"
asked one of the sailors, as he passed where Tom
stood. Here, let me show ye." With which
words he raised his club, and was about to bring it
down on the nose of the animal, when Tom caught
his arm, and exclaimed:
"No, no, Jack; I can't let ye. It goes agin me
so, it does. See the tears in his eyes."
"Ho, ho !" shouted Jack; "they all does it.
Ye 'll soon get used to it. Here let me."
"No, no; now don't ye! I think, Jack," he
added, shamefacedly, I '11 just tell the captain
I 'm not up to this work, and mayhap he'll let me
go back to the boilin'."
Jack laughed long and loud at what he called
Tom's soft-heartedness; but as he liked him, he
promised not to kill the creature whose tears had
so mastered Tom's feelings, and Tom went to the
captain and confessed, sheepishly, how he felt.
The captain was not the sort of man to sympa-
thize with Tom's feelings; but, fortunately, he
liked him for his good temper and readiness to do
his full share of work, and consequently, with an
astonished stare, followed by a shout of laughter,
he told Tom he might go back to the boiling-
down, and even acceded to his strange request
that the seal he had spared might be spared by
all the men. The word was passed around, and
though they all laughed at Tom, they felt so
kindly toward him that they allowed the seal to
remain unmolested.
Tom bore, as well as he could, the good-natured
laughter of his friends and the ill-natured jeers of
Bill Hawkins, who, now that he was near Tom,
scarcely ceased to sneer at and taunt him with
womanishness and cowardice. It was not long,
however, before the friendly laughter was hushed in
astonished interest. Tom was making a fet of the
gigantic seal! Every morning and night he car-
ried fish, as much as could be spared (and there
was always plenty) to his Goliath, as he called the
seal; and probably no better plan could have been
adopted for winning its affection. For, as was aft-
erward discovered, the seals did not return to the
water, and consequently had no food for as long a
time as ten weeks.
It seems that they drew upon their store of fat for
sustenance during this long while; for as the time
goes by they become exceedingly thin. The reason
for not going into the water is because the young
ones, which are born soon after the seals go ashore,
are not able to take care of themselves at first.
Goliath was not at all averse to remaining fat,
however, even if it were contrary to sea-elephant
custom, and his greeting of Tom, whom he soon



learned to know, showed plainly enough that he
was profoundly grateful. On his side, Tom lav-
ished a vast deal of affection on his pet, and little
by little ventured upon various familiarities, until
at length he would climb upon the huge body,
walk upon it, sit upon it, and lie down upon it. He

to whatever it caught in its mouth. Occasionally,
when injured, but not killed, a bull would, in its
fury, take great stones in its jaws and crush them
to powder as if they had been but chalk.
The sailors manifested so much interest in Tom
and his pet, and talked so much about them, that


would thrust his hand fearlessly into the terrible
mouth, and, in short, take such liberties as no
other man would dare to do.
For it must be understood that, though so help-
less and peaceable as to be easily killed, the seal
was nevertheless possessed of fearful strength,
which, if exerted, would have quickly put an end

Bill Hawkins's little soul was stirred to anger and
envy, and he endeavored to make light of the
taming of Goliath. He said so much, that one of
the sailors called out one morning: "Well, easy
as it is, Bill, you don't dare climb up on Goliath's
back, much less put your hand in the old fellow's



1883.] NED S SUC

Bill declared he could and would then and there
mount upon Goliath's back. Tom remonstrated,
but the sailors, in a spirit of fun, hushed him,. and
they all went to see Bill accomplish the feat. He
went boldly at the animal (which had roused itself
with evident pleasure at sight of Tom). He endeav-
ored to climb upon its back; but Goliath, unac-
customed to such roughness as Bill used, shifted
his body uneasily, in such a way as sent Bill rolling
on the sand, amidst the laughter and jeers of the
spectators, who were well enough pleased to see
the growler discomfited.
Bill, however, was furious, and, picking up a
piece of wood, rushed at Goliath and struck him
a severe blow; fortunately, not on the nose. As-
saulted in this unwonted fashion, Goliath looked pit-
eously and tearfully, first at Bill and then at Tom,
while the former prepared to repeat the blow.
"Don't strike him again, Bill," said Tom, quickly
stepping forward.
"Ay, but I will, and you too, an' ye don't have
a care," shouted Bill, in a paroxysm of anger, as he
once more let his weapon fall upon the helpless
The blow had scarcely fallen, when the cowardly
fellow found himself lifted bodily in the air and
dashed almost senseless on the sand. When he had
recovered his wits, he saw Tom standing over him,
his honest face as full of passion as it could well be.
No one was more astonished than Tom himself at
this outburst, and the sailors were delighted.
Give it him well, now ye 've got yer hand in! "
shouted one.
Don't spare him," said another.
"Nay, nay," exclaimed Tom, slowly, 1 '11 not
strike him. But I '11 say this to ye, Bill: Have
your say at me an' welcome; but don't ye be that
foolish as to lay your hand on Goliath again. Now,
get up."
Bill rose to his feet and went off, scowling and
vowing vengeance, while the men dispersed to
their work, saying to each other that Tom was
coming forward finely.



The next morning Goliath was dead !
Who did the dastardly deed everybody knew well
enough, but Tom was too full of grief to attempt to
punish him, and, therefore, Bill escaped with only
the openly-expressed contempt of the whole crew.
Tom was urged to choose another seal for a pet,
but he refused to do so, and there is no record that
anybody else ever did, and, therefore, to him
belongs the credit of having had the largest pet in
the world; for, excepting the whale, there is no
animal as large as the elephant-seal, and the whale
has never been tamed.
How many elephant-seals were slaughtered by
the crew of the Mary Ann" is not known; but
it is recorded that, within twenty-five years of the
time of her visit to Georgia Island, there were
killed on that island alone over one million two
hundred thousand animals, or about one thousand
every day during the season. How many millions
were killed altogether can never be known, but
it is certain that the killing did not cease until the
elephant-seal was almost exterminated. It will
interest you to know that two young elephant-seals
are now to be seen in the Zodlogical Gardens at
The young sea-elephant is as big as a small
man when it is born, and in eight days it will grow
four feet longer and one hundred pounds heavier.
That is pretty quick growth; but, to reach a circum-
ference of eighteen feet and a length of thirty feet
in three years, it has need to grow quickly.
Penrose, in his account of the elephant-seal, says
that his sailors used to mount upon the backs of
the animals as they were in the water, and race
with each other, making the animals swim by
spurring them with their knives. This story is
not precisely doubted, but it is not believed, either.
The elephant-seal always comes ashore, if possible,
when about to die, which seems somewhat odd,
when the water is the element in which it is most
at home. There it is surprisingly swift and agile,
and, indeed, it is so comfortable there that it sleeps
on the rocking waves as quietly as on shore.



"WHERE did you buy her, Mamma?"
Asked three-year-old Ned of me,
As he leaned o'er the dainty cradle
His "new little sister" to see.

"An angel brought her, darling,"
I answered, and he smiled,

Then softly bent his curly head,
And kissed the sleeping child.

But a sudden change came over him
And he said, "If I'd been you,
While I was about it, Mamma,
I 'd have caught the angel, too!"




A YOUNG farmer who was very unlucky sat on
his plow a moment to rest, and just then an old
woman crept past and cried: "Why do you go
on drudging day and night without reward ? Walk
two days till you come to a great fir tree that
stands all alone in the forest and overtops all other
trees. If you can hew it down, you will make
your fortune."
Not waiting to have the advice repeated, the
farmer shouldered his ax and started on his jour-
ney. Sure enough, after tramping two days, he
came to the fir tree, which he instantly prepared to
cut down. Just as the tree swayed, and before it fell
with a crash, there dropped out of its branches a
nest containing two eggs. The eggs rolled to the
ground and broke, and there darted out of one a
young eagle and out of the other rolled a gold
ring. The eagle grew larger, as if by enchantment,
and when it reached the size of a man, it spread
its wings as if to try their strength, then, soaring
upward, it cried: "You have rescued me; take
as a reward the ring that lay in the other egg : it is
a wish-ring. Turn it on your finger twice, and
whatever your wish is, it shall be fulfilled. But re-
member there is but a single wish in the ring. No
sooner is that granted than it loses its power and
is only an ordinary ring. Therefore, consider well
what you desire, so that you may never have reason
to repent your choice." So speaking, the eagle
soared high in the air, circled over the farmer's
head a few times, then darted, like an arrow, to-
ward the east.
The farmer took the ring, placed it on his finger,
and turned on his way homeward. Toward even-
ing; he reached a town where a jeweler sat in his
shop behind a counter, on which lay many costly
rings for sale. The farmer showed his own, and
asked the merchant its value.
It is n't worth a straw," the jeweler answered.
Upon that, the farmer laughed very heartily, and
told the man that it was a wish-ring, and of greater
value than all the rings in the shop together.
The jeweler was a wicked, designing man, and
so he invited the farmer to remain as his guest
over night. "For," he explained, "only to shelter
a man who owns a wish-ring must bring luck."
So he treated his guest to wine and fair words;
and that night, as the farmer lay sound asleep, the
wicked man stole the magic ring from his finger
and slipped on, in its place, a common one which
he had made to resemble the wish-ring.
The next morning, the jeweler was all impatience

to have the farmer begone. He awakened him at
cock-crow, and said : You had better go, for you
have still a long journey before you."
As soon as the farmer had departed, the jeweler
closed his shop, put up the shutters, so that no one
could peep in, bolted the door behind him, and,
standing in the middle of the room, he turned the
ring and cried: I wish instantly to possess a
million gold pieces "
No sooner said than the great, shining gold
pieces came pouring down upon him in a golden
torrent over his head, shoulders, and arms. Piti-
fully he cried for mercy, and tried to reach and
unbar the door; but before he succeeded, he stum-
bled and fell bleeding to the ground. As for the
golden rain, it never stopped till the weight of the
metal crushed the floor, and the jeweler and his
money sank through to the cellar. The gold still
poured down till the million was complete, and
the jeweler lay dead in the cellar beneath his
The noise, however, alarmed the neighbors, who
came rushing over to see what the matter was;
when they saw the man dead under his gold, they
exclaimed: "Doubly unfortunate he whom bless-
ings kill." Afterward, the heirs came and di-
vided the property.
In the meantime, the farmer reached home in
high spirits and showed the ring to his wife.
"Henceforth we shall never more be in want,
dear wife," he said. Our fortune is made. Only
we must be very careful to consider well just what
we ought to wish."
The farmer's wife, of course, proffered advice.
"Suppose," said she, "that we wish for that bit
of land that lies between our two fields?"
That is n't worth while," her husband replied.
"If we work hard for a year, we '11 earn enough
money to buy it."
So the two worked very hard, and at harvest time
they had never raised such a crop before. They
had earned money enough to buy the coveted strip
of land and still have a bit to spare. See," said
the man, "we have the land and the wish as
The farmer's wife then suggested that they had
better wish for a cow and a horse. But the man
replied: "Wife, why waste our wish on such trifles ?
The horse and cow we'll get anyway." *
Sure enough, in a year's time the money for the
horse and cow had been earned. Joyfully the
man rubbed his hands. "The wish is saved again




this year, and yet we have what we desire. How th
lucky we are as
But now his wife seriously adjured him to wish re;
for something at last. "Now that you have a wish tir
to be granted," she said, you slave and toil, and
are content with everything. You might be king,

... ....... ~ ~ ~~... .. . . .

rl'. '


I *1


! :


I. ..
:.- -

emperor, baron, even a gentleman farmer, with
chests overflowing with gold; but you don't know
what you want."
We are young and life is long," he answered.
" There is only one wish in the ring, and that is
easily said. Who knows but sometime we may
sorely need this wish ? Are we in want of any-

ing? Have we not prospered, to all people's
tonishment, since we possessed this ring? Be
asonable and patient for a while. In the mean-
ne, consider what we really ought to wish for."
And that was the end of the matter.
It really seemed as if the ring had brought a
blessing into the house. Grana-
S ries and barns were full to over-
S .:. ;,, and in the course of a few
years the poor farmer became a
rich and portly person, who worked
with his men afield during the day,
as if he, too, had to earn his daily
bread; but after supper he liked
to sit in his porch, contented and
comfortable, and return the kindly
greeting of the folk who passed
and who wished him a respectful
So the years went by. Some-
times, when they were alone, the
farmer's wife would remind her hus-
band of the magic ring, and suggest
many plans. But as he always an-
swered that they had plenty of
time, and that the best thoughts
Come last, she more and more rarely
mentioned the ring, and, at last,
S ceased speaking of it altogether.
To be sure, the farmer looked at
,' I the ring, and twirled it about as
S.many as twenty times a day; but
he was very careful never to wish.
After thirty or forty years had
passed away, and the farmer and
his wife had grown old and white-
haired, and their wish was still un-
asked, then was God very good to
S them, and on the same night they
died peacefully and happily.
S Weeping children and grand-
children surrounded the two coffins;
and as one wished to remove the
ring from the still hand as a re-
membrance, the oldest son said:
Let our father take his ring into
S the grave. There was always a
mystery about it; perhaps it was
ome dear remembrance. Our mother, too, so
often looked at the ring-she may have given it
o him when they were young."
So the old farmer was buried with the ring, which
ad been supposed to be a wish-ring, and was not;
et it brought as much good fortune into the house
s heart could desire.


- :: -


I, ..' \ .. .t .':h as fill ot9er boys with alarms, ___
Beasts that roar as they run, --
S. should think it but fun,
S :. run all the faster from me: "
-. is that sit still and smile,
A .I '. I'd been there awhile, -

l /- f Al h, you'd see
-,.. ,.., :., '-l mused they would be, / ",'' f ^
.. .....' le.samused they would be! i -r ,
I 'm a wonderful hunter in every way!" I ,
') Said the bold little boy that went gunning :
that day.

So bravely the ltle, buy started, : ed, as he -.
.1 ",--h. Ome, my bold hunterA. 7,y fri t
But ere he had traveled a mile, '-I .ome, my 'old hunter. .:. t.,;
-,,On the edge of the wood -' 'e a friend that car T
"A De Gustibus stood, And roar gently for i..., .
Nith a gentle expansible smile. r' ind you'll be glad de .
T, hen the little boy's hair .As for nme, I can smi ;.
Stood on end with despair.; .. Sit beside me a whii.
t And he cried: Oh, I had no ide: ,, r ['ll smile in a wondei.,i J ,
t A De Gustibus could, -. I My brave hunter, don, 't t, |
On the edge of a wood, -" Ii One might fancy, you Imow,
SLook so very uncommonly queer! 1 T you thought about running away!
SDear, Oh, dear, Stay, dear, stay.
iiH does look so remarkably queer: Don thinkabout running away.
you think that he sits here event, Oh, come, let us travel, my friend to see 2
. 'n. smiles at each hunter that .: n,.. Oh, come my (bold hunter, come roaming
y y with me '!t "-9-.... C
i : But the little boy hurriedly .1: cr:.i -C
S think I wont travel to-day,,
j-I' ,I should so like to go, .
S ; BuI 'm tired, you know,
Sor come such a very long way;
And then, besides that,
I 've got on an old hat,
And my gun; and that never would do,
T, j... " o rt out to call, .
I., >/' '(" : roaming, at all, '" ;-
i Most beautiful creature, with you.
'.' -" And the little by vanishedrfrom vi
Yes, he hastily vanished to
'll travel no more with 'gun d he, ,'
1 ,- "This hunting's a business that t suit me."
And still the De Gustibus sits. there, they say, .
And smiles at each hunter that comes that
*-*'- +_-=-- -/ way! .- .- -, 4 .









THE loss of the flat-boat, which had done the
party such good service, was disheartening, but
they all took it philosophically, though it gave
them cause for serious alarm. It proved that,
unparalleled as was the flood, the river was still
rising, and the cape of land on which they were
hemmed in was rapidly decreasing in area. If
the increase should continue at this rate a few
hours longer, the promontory would be entirely
Why the starving cattle should persist in staying
on this narrow strip of land, when the way was
open to the main-land, none of them could under-
The buffalo-gnats continuing to torment them,
it was decided that the best thing they could do
was to start a fire. The board which had served
them for a seat in the scow was whittled up for
kindling, while Jack and Crab climbed two of the
nearest trees to break off dead limbs.
All this time the cattle continued to crowd nearer,
and the three men fought them back from the
women and children, who were forced to the very
edge of the water.
After some delay, the fire was kindled, though it
burned slowly and with much smoke. This, how-
ever, was no objection, as it helped keep away the
gnats, which were really the most formidable of all
the foes with which the party had to contend.
With all their labor, the supply of fuel collected
was so scanty that it looked as though it would be
impossible to keep a fire going through the long,
dismal night, which had only just begun.
At this juncture, Crab suggested that it would
be a good idea to partake of some corn-bread and
roast pig; but the others decided that no one,
unless it were the women and little girls, should
trench upon the precious store of food before
Had they uncovered their provisions, it is more
than probable that some of the famishing cattle,
attracted by the smell, would have made a fight for
them, in which event the party would inevitably have
been trampled to death. But so long as the poor
beasts knew nothing of it, they were not likely to
attack our friends.
Feeling the necessity of keeping the fire going,

Mr. Wheeler, Jack, and Crab pushed their way
among the struggling animals, at no little risk to
themselves, and used their knives on several other
pines. The result was encouraging; each threw
down an armful of fuel, which, now that the fire
was fairly going, burned readily.
But, as if there was to be no end to their mis-
fortunes, a new danger soon arose. The suffering
animals appeared to understand that the flames
were a protection against the insects, and they
crowded forward until it looked as if they would
force the party into the water and trample out the
fire itself.
Wheeler, Strawton, and the man who had last
joined them (who gave his name as Bingham)
fought back the half-frantic herd as best they
could. Jack and Crab also assisted, and more
than once Jack was on the point of shooting
some obstinate ox or mule that would not budge
from the tracks in which it was standing. All
the members of the party were naturally much
"It can not be very far to the main-land,"
shouted Mr. Wheeler, seeing that it was out of the
question to maintain themselves where they were,
" and we must force our way there, or it will be all
over with us."
The others had thought of proposing the same
thing; so there was little hesitation in making the
Mr. Wheeler placed himself at the head of the
party, with a flaming brand in his hand, the men
and boys came next, while the women and little
girls were placed, for greater safety, between the
men and the river; and so the march began.
The weaker ones were thus shut out from direct
contact with the crowding animals, though it was
doubtful whether they could be thus protected to
the end. All the men carried torches taken from
the fire, which they swung about their heads, so as
to keep them in a continual blaze. They meant
also to use them as goads to force the animals out
of their path.
The party had not moved a dozen steps when a
number of the beasts crowded in behind them, and
the fire that remained was speedily trampled out.
Mr. Wheeler and his friends soon found they had
undertaken a task of the greatest difficulty and
danger. At first, the animals showed signs of fear,
and moved aside when the fiery brands were flour-
ished in their eyes and thrust against their sides;

* Copyright, 1883, by Edward S. Ellis.



but before long they became wedged so closely to-
gether that it seemed impossible for them to stir.
Mr. Wheeler struck a big ox in front of him, but
the beast paid no attention. He then brandished his
torch several times, until it was all ablaze, when he
made another attempt. The ox, frightened and
pained, threw up its head and made a plunge
which carried it a couple of feet, when its head and
shoulders became wedged in between others.
There was not enough space left for the party
to pass, and so Mr. Wheeler belabored him again,
with such effect that the poor animal made one more

Mr. Wheeler exerted himself to the utmost, but
could accomplish nothing, nor could any of the
others. Manifestly, it was beyond human power to
force a way through the living wall before them.
At last they were compelled to abandon the


MR. WHEELER stopped and looked back. By
the light of the flaring torches, he could see the


desperate effort, which gave a little more room.
The path thus cleared was a very narrow one, but
as the ox could evidently move no further, Mr.
Wheeler resolved to venture through it, and the
rest succeeded in following him.
The party struggled bravely forward, but had
not gone far when once more they were brought to
a stand-still. The cattle were wedged in so closely
that it seemed beyond the power of any one or any-
thing to stir them. The cape had been crowded in
the first place, and since then, its limits narrowed
by the rising waters, the animals were all but piled
one on top of another.

white faces of the women and little girls behind
him, all standing still and looking to him for guid-
ance. Back of them still, and around them on
all sides but one, were the cattle, the mules, and
the hogs all frantic with hunger, and maddened
by the dagger-like thrusts of the buffalo-gnats.
The brave man saw no way of extricating the
party from the dangerous situation. It was useless
to try to go back, and it was out of their power to
go forward.
No one spoke, for it was almost impossible to
hear amid the deafening uproar, and no one could
propose anything that promised the slightest relief.




But, as is often the case, at the very moment
when hope died out, it was revived in the most un-
expected manner. There was a sudden commo-
tion among the animals closer inshore, and then
all at once a singular stampede began. The panic
spread from one to another, and in much less time
than it takes to tell it, the whole herd was plunging
furiously toward the main-land.
The scene was most extraordinary; and but for
the fact that the little party stood in the edge of
the rushing torrent, they would have been trampled
under foot in an instant.
Before they clearly understood what was going
on, the frenzied herd of animals was gone. The
cape was deserted, and our party stood alone, too
much astonished to stir or speak, until the circling
torches revealed the whole truth. Dead animals
were on every hand, but not a living one was to
be seen. The latter were galloping through the
woods, still bellowing, whinnying, and squealing
from suffering; and now for the first time since
our party landed was anything like conversation
We may as well stay where we are," suggested
Mr. Bingham.
"No," replied Mr. Strawton, "the poor beasts
may come back, and then our situation will be as
bad as before."
"You are right," said Mr. Wheeler; "we will
be better off somewhere else. There 's no need
of running any risk."
All were agreed that their most prudent course
was to push on to the main-land, as had been pro-
posed, and they accordingly set out at once. The
night was very dark, and it was so hard to pick
their way through the woods along shore, where a
misstep was liable to precipitate them into the
water, that it was decided to go into camp as soon
as a suitable spot could be found.
"You want to know what I t'ink ? suddenly in-
quired Crab, while they were trudging along in
this fashion. No one expressed any desire to know
what the boy thought, and he therefore volunteered
the information: "We's taxin' our strength so
much dat we' d better stop and partook ob some
food afore going furder- Murderation !"
A projecting limb had caught Crab under the
chin, causing him momentarily to fear that his
neck had been dislocated.
"There 's a light ahead "
It was Jack Lawrence who uttered the words, as
he caught the star-like twinkle of a point of fire,
which instantly vanished again. Mr. Wheeler
had also noticed it, and thought it was a camp-
fire, the intervening trees and their own shifting
position causing it to disappear so quickly.
A moment later, all saw the light so distinctly

that there could be no doubt of its character. It
was a large fire, probably kindled by some refugees
whose plight was as pitiful as that of those who
were approaching them.
"They may be in need of some assistance,"
suggested Jack, ready, with characteristic gener-
osity, to share his last crust with any one more
unfortunate than himself.
It is hard to convey an adequate idea of the
condition of the multitudes who suffered from the
Mississippi floods. The little party of whom we
have particularly spoken were more fortunate than
hundreds, but their condition was still pitiable.
The two little girls were tired and worn out, as
were the women, one of whom carried an infant in
her arms. The woods were so dark that they had
to feel their way along, and, to add to all their
other discomforts, it had begun to rain.
Having no means of shelter, by common im-
pulse they all hurried toward the camp-fire, which
was now close at hand.
Here a pleasant surprise awaited them. Gath-
ered around the fire were four men, with their
wives and children,--the last numbering nine,-
who were encamped by the bank of the river,
where they had been for three days. They had
erected a framework of logs, which was covered
with bark and green boughs. The rising river
had compelled them to change its location five
times already, and they were now discussing the
advisability of moving it once more. The river was
within twenty feet and still rising, though so slowly
that it was hoped the highest point would be
reached before the rude cabin was again disturbed.
The shelter was a most welcome one to our
friends, who had barely time to huddle together in
the cabin when the rain came down in torrents, some
of it forcing its way through the primitive roof.
The party whose hospitality they were enjoying
were not suffering from anything, except an occa-
sional sting from the buffalo-gnats. Although
driven from their homes by the flood, they had
retreated slowly enough to take a good many
useful implements with them. They had a couple
of guns, axes, shovels, and many other utensils
which they had been fortunate enough to save
from the universal wreck and ruin.
One of this party had been a Mississippi pilot,
and was, therefore, able to give his companions
much useful advice.
With the descent of the rain, the temperature
grew cooler; and, although the accommodations
were poor, yet the fire and the shelter were most
welcome. The men fraternized at once and dis-
cussed their singular experiences, while the women
cheered each other and gave their fullest sympathy
to the unfortunate mother who had lost her boy.



The night was a long and dismal one, despite the
interest which the new acquaintances felt in each
other. They were crowded in the cabin, that was
not designed to accommodate so many. The rain
continued until after midnight, by which time the
younger members of the company were asleep, but
the men found the quarters too uncomfortable to
permit refreshing slumber. When, therefore, the
storm ceased, they moved out-doors under the trees,
where the fire was kept blazing, and they smoked
their pipes and talked until the long, wearisome
night came to an end. An examination showed
that the river had not risen since midnight, and it
was, therefore, safe to conclude that the highest
point had been reached. This intelligence made
every one feel more cheerful, despite the unpromis-
ing aspect of the weather.
The aim of the refugees was to attract the atten-
tion of some of the steamers that were constantly
passing up and down the river. With this pur-
pose in view, the fire was kept constantly burning
near the shore, and some one of the company
remained on the lookout from morning till night.
There were signs of a renewal of the storm,
when one of the party exclaimed in considerable
excitement that a steam-boat was in sight. Such
was indeed the fact, and, as it had just come around
a sharp bend of the western bank, it was close in
and cautiously feeling its way up-stream.
It was so near, indeed, that no difficulty was ex-
perienced in signaling it, and preparations were at
once made by those on board to take off the entire
The steam-boat proved to be the "Belle Mem-
phis," one of the floating "good Samaritans which
steamed up and down the Mississippi, and for hun-
dreds of miles across the overflowed lands, carrying
Government rations to the multitudes who were
starving and saving many who otherwise must have
A large number of refugees, both white and
colored, were on the Belle Memphis" when our
friends reached her decks. Almost the first to
greet Jack Lawrence and Crab Jackson was the
smiling, effusive Colonel Carrolton, who shook
both warmly by the hand, and congratulated them,
as he did all the men of the party, on their rescue.
Did you get through to Vicksburg ? asked
Jack, when the Colonel finally gave him a chance
to speak.
Not quite," replied he, with a laugh. "I was
going all right, and.would have fetched up there in
good time, but my rooster crowed so loud I could
n't sleep; he was determined to crow, and it kept
me busy choking him off. I found it was going to

be very exhausting; so when the 'Belle' offered
to take me on board I had n't any good reason to
decline; but, all the same, my folks in Vicksburg
will be disappointed in not seeing me coming down
the river on a hen-coop, among those ninety others
that I understand were picked up by an Indian in
a skiff."
Did you tell the captain about us? inquired
Of course," said the Colonel; we were looking
for you as we steamed up the river."
"Thank you," replied Jack; "for though we
have been pretty fortunate, our situation was still
bad enough at best."
And how did you stand it ? asked the Colonel,
turning to Crab, who had always been a favorite
with him.
"Fus' rate," answered Crab, with a comical
smile, though I does n't feel very cum'f'ble on
account ob habin' to keep on dis Sunday ulster all
de time."
"I think," said the Colonel, laughing heartily as
he surveyed Crab's tattered coat with a critical air,
that it would improve that ulster if you would
wear it right side out, and shove your left arm
through the sleeve instead of through that hole in
the rear pocket."
Crab proceeded very solemnly to examine the
,garment, and was not a little surprised to find that
the criticisms of the Colonel were warranted by the
facts. He undertook to put the ulster into shape,
but it was too much entangled and demoralized.
Dar 's no use ob my trying' to do anything,"
he finally exclaimed, as he abandoned the effort,
till I hab sumfin' to eat. I feels sort of faintish."
"Yes," explained Jack, "he has n't tasted a
mouthful since his breakfast, two hours ago. He
must really be suffering by this time."
The wants of the refugees were fully attended to,
and their physical sufferings were ended from the
moment they placed foot on the "Belle Memphis."

Mr. Lawrence knew nothing of the dangers to
which his two children and servant were exposed
until that danger was past. After the subsid-
ence of the overflow, he, like many others who
had thought themselves ruined, found that every-
thing was not lost, and that pluck, persistency,
and industry are sure to win, despite all discour-
agements. The cabin was rebuilt on a higher site,
fresh crops sprang up around it as if by magic,
and to-day there is not a lovelier spot along the
banks of the Mississippi, or a happier home than
that of Archibald Lawrence and our young friends,
Jack, Dollie, and Crab.






THE juvenile paper referred to in the last chap-
ter (which described our Panorama) was the Home
Wreath. It was entirely a home production, ap-
pearing regularly every Saturday upon a sheet of
foolscap paper. Every word in it was written
with pen and ink. Here is the opening sentiment
-written by one of our elders:
"Let father, mother, sister, brother,
Each in their turn, combine,
With true affection unalloyed,
Our Home Wreath to entwine.
Nor let us this love's labor leave
Till we a graceful garland weave."
And so at the head of every number there was
painted a wreath of oak, or of laurel, or of ivy-
every week a different one. Short stories were
copied from the papers or magazines, and puzzles
of all kinds were invented. If any of us took a
journey, the Home Wreath must be furnished with
a full description; and-if any new houses were built
or if any old houses were burned, the Home Wrveath
did not perform its duty if it was silent. After
VOL. X.-6o.

i TW.. --fh.,,, .- lul-

filled its mis- sion-sickened
and died; but we can never look upon that dingy
roll of papers without thinking of the pleasure and
profit that it was to us in the days that are past, for
it comprised about the only literary amusement that
we had outside of going to school, and occasionally
hearing a lecture from "Doesticks," "Mrs. Par-
tington," or Henry Ward Beecher in his younger
If our literary privileges were scanty, so were our
musical. The girls were all put to drumming on
the piano,-where there was a piano,-whether
they had a liking for music or not. We boys had
to amuse ourselves with ruder instruments. The
corn-stalk fiddle was a source of real pleasure.
The instrument was simply and very rudely made
from a single joint of a green corn-stalk, by cut-
ting on the flat side five parallel grooves, very near
together. The four fibers of cane thus left were our
strings, which we tightened at the upper end by slip-
ping under them a bit of wood as a bridge. The





notes were sounded by means of a small bow of
horsehair, which was rubbed across the strings near
the bridge, but toward the place where the fingers
were used in keeping the strings open or shut.
What we call the "lute was made by marking
the outline of Fi-. IT" on ,. an inch pine board.
S 1.. : I. :. -'' been cut ontheline,
tI .: -- .,.ly shaped block was
Sl. iurr.:d out inside, so that
I ii....ii but a narrow rim was
i I li ofshinglewere glued
I .: .. -,de of this rim and
e h .-l ..I.., .vith it. The distance
T from c to d was three and a half inch-
FIG. 17.-THE
"LUTE. es, and the length from e to b was ten
inches. A round hole, one and a half inches in
diameter, was made at a. After this, the neck
was worked out, and the places made for the pegs
that tightened the six strings-after the manner
of a guitar. These strings were fastened at e,
passed nver the bridge .--.
j ;i ,: : nt- ,..-i. i .i .:h "'
c r'- r: ., : .
I r .1 ,,ir '; r ; .
S:,_ .i-,,: ,-d.:.:t l..! tl... V- .-


OUR bows and arrows were made of the straight-
est-grained hickory, many a stick of which we
selected and laid aside before it was sawed, or
" cut," into lengths for the stove. Once in a while
our arrows were tipped with the end of a nail driven
in and filed to a sharp point. The cross-gun (Fig.

18) required considerable trouble in the making;
but, once done, its aim was much more accurate
than that of the simple bow and arrow. In the
first place, a piece of half-inch pine plank, three
feet and four inches long and six inches wide, was
selected. Both sides having been planed, the shape
of the cross-gun, as shown in the picture, was
marked and the wood cut away. At b a hole
about an inch square was cut with a knife or chisel,
through which the bow might be slipped and fast-
ened. The distance from a to c was two feet,
and from a to b three inches. The bow was four.
feet long. From a to c the upper
surface was channeled with

-- ,J a .S-BOW GUN.
a gouge or curved chisel; and at c
there was a trigger so placed that, when it
was pulled, it would release the string from a notch
and shoot to a great distance the arrow that lay
in the groove ac.
The simplest pop-gun that we had was a quill
three or four inches long, with a bit of a stick for a
rammerr." Slices of potatoes-four
or five slices d i
tothe inch'
-furnished G.19.A ,'EA-SHOOTER. )b ad
the ammu-
nition, the sharp ends of the quill cutting through
and punching out the wads without any trouble.
Larger pop-guns, of course, were made of pieces
of the alder bush, about a foot long. The f, e
pith having been pressed out, the gun was
ready for the wads of wet paper. Some- -..d
times a bit of a bamboo fish-pole served
the same purpose; but the bore was re-
quired to be not only straight, but of uni-
form size throughout. A squirt-gun"
was made after the same manner as a b
pop-gun, except that one end of the alder
or bamboo was closed with a block of
wood through which an awl-hole had
been bored. The rammer also became a
plunger by the addition of a piece of CL
leather or sucker" at the end. Equipped FIG. 20.-
with this water gun, the boy was a terror CANNON.
to the whole school. Another kind of pop-gun
(Fig. 19) was made from a piece of bamboo and
a length of whalebone. Small holes were cut at
a, 6, and e, and a longer hole at c. The whalebone
was bent and shoved through ea and cb. A pea
was placed in the opening d, and allowed to run
down till it touched the whalebone spring below
c. The end of the whalebone was pressed up-
ward through b, and the pea went spinning away.




A simple hollow tube of alder was also used as an
air-gun for shooting peas by the quick expulsion
of the breath.
Aside from an old, roughly made hickory pistol,

painted in green and red,
appliances for firing
have survived to
were sc. F. u. If.. .

S.. .' 1. "- i

none of our
fire crackers
this day. We
as to be pre-
lI sented with
.- an old rifle-
_. barrel, and it
was indeed a
prize. There
were three of
us, and the
S barrel was
therefore cut
_.. into three
pieces by a
file. Then
came the
ARCHERY. hardest work

of all, for each of the three boys wanted the rear
end of the barrel, on which there was an old-
fashioned flint-lock. So we drew cuts," and the
two who drew the pieces of the barrel that were
not so good took them to the gunsmith and had
the ends plugged up with pieces of iron. After
a great many trials, we finally gave up the old gun-
barrel, and went back to our lead cannon, as the
safer of the two. A cannon of this kind was very
easily made, the size varying according to the
quantity of lead that we could
muster. A block of wood. rn
(Fig. 20), was whittled out :: .
that the part from b to a i.:.!.: i
be round and tapering towa, .:1 '



THE first attempts we made at
boat-building were among our
most successful. The simplest
kind of boat to build was the one-
masted yacht. A piece
of two-inch pine plank ---
was selected, fifteen .
inches long and eight -.
inches wide. The fif- .-


teen inches was the '
length of the boat from b to g (Fig.: i
The breadth, eight inches, was at c, rl-.
place where the mast entered the hull.
Having shaped the outside of th.: !i. !.
the inside was hollowed out, and .1.:1:!
of shingle tacked upon the edge ti -
was left. A cabin at the stern we :
also added. The mainmast
was twenty inches from c to
S; and from the point d rope-
ladders of copper wire ran THE BU
down to the deck on either side. The bowsprit or
jib-boom was six inches from b to a. From c to b
the distance was five inches. The boom, ec, that
held the lower part

- i IL *-~.-. 11"1Y

IL 'I'

- i


The size at b was the size --- -
at the mouth of the pro- .'
posed cannon. The size' '
from c to b was the length '
and the diameter of the .-
bore. Havingmadesmooth '
every part of the wood, a ,'1 ,' .
strip of paper was wound '.i ,
tightly about the part ba- '
and secured with a string. -
The paper, in several thick- I" "i
nesses, came up as far as --- _,: '-
the dotted lines e andf; Ab/
and this formed the mold.' -- .
Carefully handling the.-
melted lead, we poured it into the opening at e and b of the mainsail, was fourteen inches long; and the
untilitcameupasfarasd. Onstripping off the paper gaff, fd, was ten inches long. The mainsail, the
and pulling out the wooden core" c, the cannon gaff-top-sail, the jib, and the flying jib were all
was complete, with the exception of a small touch- raised and lowered by linen threads that were both
hole," which was afterward drilled with an awl. large and stout. A keel of hammered lead, three-





quarters of an inch deep and half an inch broad, (for the sides of the boat) were fifteen inches wide;
kept the yacht from tipping over when she spread the other two (for the bottom and ends) were not
too much sail. quite so wide. The two fifteen-
The schooner (Fig. 22) : .inch boards were nailed togeth-
greater favorite with us er, and each end was cut off at
Su' I _- an angle -as you will see at a
and b. The two narrower boards
Were sawedinto "lengths," each
I l' one of which was two feet, or
S ". '-- i: .[ 'i perhaps two and a half feet,
i ..long, and these short pieces
'-- were nailed to the sides, begin-
... -', ii ning at cd. When the bottom
-a-- nd both ends had been cov-
'- '' i' .i ered, all the cracks were stopped
S '"1 i ,ij l with oakum and pitch. With-
S. out waiting for a coat or two

Sof a boat upon the four solid
wooden wheels of a baby cart,
and trundled it down to the
--.--- lake. We had fine times with
i' = this boat, as we rowed along
SA PNEUMATIC PEA-SHOOTER. with our home-made oars.
than the yacht; for while the yacht was the best When the usefulness of our craft as a means of
looking, yet it could not carry cargoes of beans transportation appeared to be over, we took it
and many other things that the schooner could from the lake and, p planting it in the back
carry in her hold. It was very difficult to find garden, used it as a tub for the sail-
such a' piece of lumber as we wanted for the hull; ing of our smaller boats. Fi-
but whenever we discovered that a new house nally, the wood began
was building, we generally managed to secure a \f to decay, and from
block of pine thirty inches long, eight inches wide, \ that time on, no one
and four inches deep. These figures represent the seemed to know
length, breadth, and depth of the outside of or carewhatbe-
the hull. After the outside had been properly .. came of the old
shaped, the inside was dug out in the same / < pine scow.

manner as that of the yacht I have already
described. A deck of quarter-inch pine was
then fastened to the hull. The measure-
ments were as follows: fiom a to the center
of b (a circular hatchway), seven inches;
from a to c (the hole for the foremast),
nine and a half inches; from c to e (the
hole for the mainmast), thirteen and a
half inches. The hatchway at d was
four inches square; and the one at f
was two inches square. The rudder- '3.
post came up through the hole g. A -
keel of hammered lead; half an inch square,
was fastened to the bottom of the hull.
The masts and sails were made after the
manner of the yacht's; but they were
coarser, and they did not look so well.
The only row-boat that we made was the one
that I have drawn in Fig. 23. The lumber-mill
was first visited, and four twelve-foot pine boards,
one inch thick, were selected. Two of the boards


FROM the time that we could handle knives, saws,
and hammers, we often made the coarser and
plainer kinds of wagons for hauling earth or our


sisters' dolls--it made no difference which. And
it was only when we had reached the "old boy age
of eleven or twelve years that we attempted to copy,
on a small scale, one 'of the stages that went by
our door every day, on its way to -. When

auib ec ~ fl ef g

we had once made up our minds to commence the
work, we brought together several shingles,- those
treasures to the boy,--and planed both sides of
every one very smooth. Then we proceeded to
make the "body" of the coach. A pattern was


cut from paper in the curious shape abcdejg (Fig.
24). The distance from a to fwas 4Y inches;
from c to d, I Y inches ; from d to e, Y inch ; from
g to the line ad, I Y inches. The two sides hav-
ing been accurately cut, one of them was still fur-
ther prepared by rounding off the edge from a all
the way to g and f This gave the swell" to
the body. The other side was rounded upon the
edge in the same way, except that the rounding
was done upon the other side. A "bottom board,"
zijk, was prepared, 3% inches long and I3'
inches wide. This board was curved at the ends,
and the edges from h to i and from j to k were
grooved for the "thorough-braces," of which you
will hear more presently. The side pieces having
been glued to the bottom board, four posts, Z1nno,
each i inches high, were fastened at the ends
of the side pieces. Four other upright pieces, grs,
were cut off so that they would be even with the
four posts already placed in position. The end
pieces," mlz/k and ijno, were then fitted into their
places and glued fast. If we wished to make a
nicer job, we made the bottom board and the end
pieces shorter at hk and ij, and filled the opening
with a piece of curved wood, the grain of which
ran at right angles to the grain of the bottom and
the ends. After this, it was an easy matter to
make a top into which should be fastened all the
upright pieces, mzlPqrsno. The edges of the top
were rounded off in every direction, so that it
might shed the rain. Three seats, with cushions,
were placed inside. At the first end (as you will
see in Fig. 28) a seat for the driver was made,
i Y inches high and broad, and standing out from

the body I4 inches. An oval window was cut
over the seat; and at the rear end there was a bag-
gage rack, IY inches wide and 2 inches long, the
sides being lined with thin black leather. The
"running gear" (Fig. 25) was made as follows:
The rear axle, ef, 3 inches long between the wheels;
the "reach," ad, 5 inches; the part a, Y inch
from the part b ; d also 3 inch from c ; the parts
a, b, and d, each 2Y inches long; forward axle
(Fig. 26), 3 inches long, like the rear axle, both
axles being Y inch deep, and long enough at each
end to receive the wheels. The tongue, b, was 9
inches long. The hole a (Fig. 26) was then
placed over the hole a (Fig. 25), and a pin or
wire was thrust down through both holes to serve
as a "king bolt." Strips of tin, one inch high,
bent into the form shown in Fig. 27, were fastened
into the frame-work of the running gear at g~zi
(Fig. 25). The diagram shows how they were
fastened. In Fig. 28 you will notice that these
tin supports held narrow strips of leather, called
thorough-braces, one on each side; and you will
also notice that the body of the stage rested
upon these thorough-braces. It would have been
almost impossible for us to make the wheels after
B1 s the manner of the
-- wheels on a large
stage, with hubs
i and spokes. Even
S if we had had the
< proper tools, the
job would not
have been an easv
one. So wemark-
ed the wheels upon a small strip of white wood Y or
Y of an inch thick. The hind wheels were 2y
inches in diameter, and the fore wheels were 2
inches in diameter. Having fitted them upon the
axles, they were secured with linch-pins made from
ordinary pins, and the whole
stage (Fig. 28) V '~'- was ready to
take our sisters' dolls out for
a holiday trip. When we were a lit-
tle older, and knew more about cars and
railroads and depots, we thought it would
be a fine thing to have a railroad of our own.
We cleared an upper loft in the barn and
swept the floor clean, never caring for the
great dust that we / raised. The next step
was to saw from half- inchboardslong strips
half an inch e ll l F f in width.
The strips T--j were after-
ward planed s m 0 smoothly
upon each o.-RUI f the four
edges. Our strips measured thirty or forty feet
before we commenced to nail them to the floor with
inch brads. The strips-or, rather, the rails of the



track as they then became-were nailed exactly four
inches apart. It was easy enough to lay what we
called the main track," but when we laid the

C .

FIG. 26.

FIG. 27.

" switches," we worked very carefully. Fig. 29
shows how a switch was put in position. The main
track ran (from left to right) from a to g and from b
to k. But in order to switch off from the main track,
it was necessary to have two movable pieces of track,
ac and bd, which were fastened at a and b, so that
the end c could move up tog and the end d to k. A
single nail was all the fastening that was required.


Small wires kept the movable pieces of track
exactly four inches apart, and they were moved to
g and h,' or to c and d, by the handle at f. The
track was cut away at e, so that the wheels of the
cars might pass on either the main track or the


switch. The movable pieces ac and bd were about
fifteen inches long, but in the picture they are


through the freight house. A pair of wheels (Fig.
31) was made by fastening two ribbon-blocks, ab, to
a round stick, or "journal," c. Before the blocks
were fastened to c, they were secured to round
pieces of tin a little larger in diameter than them-
selves. The tins, being on the inside, formed the
rims that kept the wheels on the track. Two pairs
of wheels (like Fig. 31) were secured with wire
staples to the bottom of a box, and the car (Fig.
32) was ready to run upon the track, provided that
no mistake had been made by placing the wheels
either more or less than four inches apart, inside.

S _-_-- )

The building of an engine that would draw several
of these cars--or the more elaborate passenger
cars-was quite beyond our power. Our hands,
therefore, served to pull or to push our trains
wherever we pleased.
After we had played in this way for a year or
two, an older boy came to visit us from a great city,
with a tin locomotive in his hands. Winding up
the spring, he set it to running before our wonder-
ing eyes.
I wonder if it will draw our car?" said one of
the railway kings.
"Let us try it and see," said another to the
older boy.
The older boy consented. The locomotive was

FIG. 32.-A CAR.

again wound up and placed on the track. The
cars were light, and they were drawn swiftly along
the track.
All went well as long as the new machine was
there. But, before many days, the mother took
the older boy and his locomotive back to the city.





made shorter in order to show the construction of
the switch more plainly. Fig. 30 shows how we
made switches at agbcdef, and ran two of them

We once more moved our cars by hand, but it
seemed too much like hard work.
Let 's strike said one.



Our railroad will not be worth a continental
customer, if we do not have all the big railroads
have," said another.
So we struck. The rails were torn up and
the cars were thrown from the track and over-
Thus ended the last of the playthings. Since
that time, we have become more interested in
"live" railroads and sail-boats; and we do not
feel as much like playing with all of the things

that we have mentioned as we used to when we
were younger.
But I think you will agree with me when I say
that we had just as much real fun as it was possible
for boys to have; and that I would not exchange
experiences with the boy who has had every toy in
his possession furnished to him from the store. Try
the making of some of these toys for yourselves,
boys, and see if you are not greatly benefited in
the end in the same ways that we were benefited.


home to go to. He felt very hungry; his feet were tired, and he had
run up and down ever so many streets; but no one had said, Come
in, Prince !" not even once.
At one house, there was quite a big, pleasant door-yard. The dog
thought that he would go into that, so he went very softly up a stone
walk and past an open window.
Then a lady who saw him went out upon the porch and said:
" Come here, poor dog. What is the. matter with you?"
She did not say, "Come here, Prince, for she did not know his
name; but the dog knew she meant him, and he went right- up and
looked at her, as if to say: "I'm lost, and I am hungry."
This lady must have seen dogs' eyes talk before, for she said: Never
mind, nice dog; I will feed you."
So she gave him some bread and milk and a soft pat on his head;
and then she sent him away to find his home.
Two or three days after this time, the lady was going away to stay
all summer on a small island in the sea. And the morning she was to
set off, the dog came again to the house; but she did not see him.


How Prince found out that she was going, no one could tell; but
when she went into the rail-car, there was the dog, right by her side,
and the train moved off, with the dog on it.
Soon the conductor came along, and asked the lady: "Is this your
dog? "
And she had to say: "It is not my dog."
"Very well, then; at the first station I will put him off," said he.
Then the conductor went away, leaving Prince looking 'very sad.
"Poor fellow!" said the lady, patting him gently. "What can I do
with you ?"
The great brown eyes said: "Take me with you, take me Aith you
- oh, please do."
Dear doggy, I will take you with me," she said.
Then the tail began to wag with joy; it struck the car seats so hard
that two little boys laughed. But happy Prince did not care; he leaped
upon the red car-seat beside his friend, and lay down with one foot in
her hand.
By and by, the conductor came along to take, him out. Prince was
ready for him. He barked and growled so that everybody laughed; and
at last the lady said: "He is lost, and I will keep him."
After that, all went well until they had to change from one train
to the other. Then a brakeman, seeing Prince try to jump up (the
step was high), gave him a kick, and he went under the car.
When he found that it was all right for the dog to get on, he
offered to lift him up; but the dog was afraid of him, and kept out of
his reach.
Poor Prince! The train began to go. He ran after it, but it was of
no use. He could not keep up, and the lady could not do anything
for the poor lost dog.
She staid at this place some time, waiting to be taken over to the
island. At last, a man came with her trunks. And there was Prince,
too! I can not begin to tell you how glad she was to see him, nor how
he twisted and jumped and wagged and barked with joy at finding her
once more.
The lady thought the man had gone back to the other towni to get
him. But it was not so. He told her that when he went to the
station, the dog was standing on the track, and would not go with him,
but stood there gazing up and down the track until the baggage was
taken out. Then, when Prince saw the trunks, he wanted to go with
them, for he seemed to know that they would be taken to the lady.




Prince barked all the way over to the little island. He was such a
happy dog, and he was in such fear of getting lost again, that, for a
week, he would not let the lady move out of his sight.





This story is all true, for this dog Prince has lived with me more
than eight years, and I love him as much as ever a dog was loved, and
I have been writing this with his pretty head on my lap.
Dear, brown Prince! Long may he live!




i I'
i* (

y ~



I -
I ., ...i -

I ;. I -,- -. -" ,1 _ ,'I

-- ..



AFTER the summer comes the autumn. So far,
so good. This is just as it should be, my beloved.
But just when does the summer go and the autumn
come? That is the question.
Ha! Ha! Everybody knows that, you say?
Let's see. To begin with, which are the three
autumn months?
September, October, and November.
Right! Now, when does the autumn begin ?
On the first of September, of course.
Wrong !
When does the winter season begin?
Why, the winter months are December, January, and February;
so, of course, winter begins on the first of December.
Wrong again, my dears. The winter season does
not begin on December Ist. Neither does the spring
begin on March Ist, nor the summer on June Ist.
Now, youngsters, this is no joke. It is the alma-
nac truth-and yet I warrant that, of the first half-
dozen folk that you may ask concerning the opening
day of each season, hardly one will answer correctly.
I 'd be glad to explain it all to you, my hearers;
but the fact is, when a Jack-in-the-Pulpit tries to
talk about astronomical matters, such as equinoxes
and solstices and all that sort of thing, he gets
bewildered, and his hearers soon begin to drop
off. This much I can tell you. During this good
year of 1883, the seasons open precisely as follows:
Spring began on March 20th.
Summer began on June 2ist.
Autumn began on September 23d.
Winter will begin on December 21st.
Now, is not that rather surprising? Ask ques-
tions; study the thing out, my chicks, and maybe
you will find out the why and the wherefore.

ONE day, at the Red School-house, the dear Little
School-ma'am gave out a subject, requesting all the
boys and girls to take their slates and write a little

composition upon it at once, without asking a
question or looking into a book.
The subject was The Ermine," and here are
three of the compositions. Which one do you
think is the most nearly correct ? I should like
to have your opinions:
THE ERMINE.--I am not able to say exactly what this means;
but as I must write something about it, I think it means a king's
cloak. We often hear it said that such and such a man was worthy
to wear the ermine. Now I think I will stop, as I have nothing more
to tell. JOHNNIE W.
THE ERM1NE.-The ermine is not a common animal, because
things made of ermine fur are generally very expensive. But they
must be very beautiful creatures, with their pure white bodies dotted
evenly with black spots. Some of them must grow to be very large,
for their skin is made into cloaks and other garments. I once saw
a play with a queen in it. It was by William Shakespeare, the
greatest writer of his day, and the queen wore a long train all made
of an ermine. MABEL C. R.
THE ERMINE.-The ermine is a very small animal, something like
a weasel, and his fur is gray, excepting in the winter, when it changes
to a pure white. This enables the little animal to run across the
snow without being seen by the hunters. But they do sometimes
get caught, and their skin is a valuable article of commerce. When
made up into ladies' muffs, tippets, and capes, or into cloaks for
noblemen, it has little bits of black or dark fur sewed into it at
regular intervals. This makes it look like a sort of dotted fur. The
dark pieces are made from the fur of the ermine's tail, I believe. But
I can not assert this for certain. It requires the skins of a good many
ermine to make one ermine cape. CHARLES B.

HERE is a little request from the birds. Many
of them, you must know, are very fond of dipping
their little bodies in fresh pools, but these often are
hard to find. Now, they would like you to know
how glad it would make them to find sometimes
a little bath made ready for them in a quiet place
in the grove, or in the orchard, or in any of their
Sink a tin pan or basin in the soft earth till the
rim is only a little above the ground. Lay soft
moss about this edge and make the place about it
as pretty as you, please with vines and flowers.
Now all you have to do is to keep the little bath
filled with clean cool water, and hide yourselves
away so as not to frighten the little bathers. Your
Jack's word upon it, they will find it out in time and
enjoy your good work. Pebbles and clean gravel
in the bottom of the basin will make your free
bath all the more delightful to the birds.

CAN any of you young folk look behind you
without turning your heads? You can? Why,
how? Ah! by using a mirror, you say. Yes ..
that will do very well. You hold the mirror
before your face and, lookgin i, you can see what
is going on behind you. But I know some one
who can do better than this. Without turning his
head, and without using a looking-glass, he can
see behind him, perfectly well- even survey his
own back if he wishes to do so. To make it still
more wonderful, the individual I refer to can not
even turn his eyes. In fact, they are not movable.
Yet, I repeat, he can look behind him with perfect
ease, and without moving. To prove it, you have
only to let your finger approach him stealthily in
the rear, and try to touch him. His name is Mr.
Fly, and you can find him any day if you wish to




try the experiment. Now, how does he keep up
this patent back-action lookout of his? That is
what Deacon Green asked in speaking of Mr. Fly
to the boys, and what do you think one of them
replied ?
Why this boy said that, if the other fellows who
had n't answered would notice Mr. Fly sharply,
they would find that his immovable eyes are shaped
each like a half-apple standing out from the head
-only instead of being smooth hemispheres they
have a very great number of facets, like certain
crystals, and that each one of these lets in the
light to the retina, so that the fly can see in every
That is what th- 1..-, said, as nearly as I can
remember. They ,!;...1 more about the matter,
and the Deacon told the boys about the retina, and
how it receives images -upside down, by the way.
But what is a retina? some of you may ask.
Well, a retina is like happiness, the Deacon says.
You can always find it in the dictionary.

POUGHKEEPSIE, August 15, 1883.
DEAR JACK: Will you please tell me why people say as brown
as a berry" ? Are there brown berries ?
Yours truly, EMILY C. W.

OF all Jack's great army of correspondents not
one has explained correctly the curious story of
floating sand which Deacon Green heard at the
Academy, and which we talked about in the August
ST. NICHOLAS. Even the dear Little School-ma'am
said she could n't trust herself to express her
opinions on the subject without first consulting
a scientific man.
(Ah, what a wise little woman that is !)
Well, the scientific man has proved equal to the

occasion; and both the Deacon and the little lady
agree with me that you ought to see his letter:
Here it is:
DEAR LITTLE SCHOOL-MA'AM : I am not surprised that the floating-
sand story, told by Jack-in-the-Pulpit in the P .... -' -
puzzled the children of the Red School-house a .i .... i..
Yet the story is quite correct, and the explanation is as follows:
I. The air adheres to the sand of the surface of the beach, dried in
the sun, and so buoys it. I It is able to adhere sufficiently well
only to a few grains. III. Disturbance of the water on which it rides,
or other causes, ultimately breaks away the air-buoys, and allows
the grains, one by one, to sink. Yours truly, E. I.


MY birds tell me a bit of good news that will
interest carrier-pigeons everywhere. It appears
that those wonderful Chinese have hit upon a
plan for protecting their messenger-pigeons from
birds of prey. This is to fasten to the tail-feathers
a very lightly made but shrill-sounding whistle of
reeds. This whistle, when the bird is flying rap-
idly through the air, becomes so noisy that it scares
off all bird enemies. They don't dare to attack
such mysterious little singers as these. This
Chinese plan works so well, I 'm told, that it is
being extensively tried in some parts of Europe.


TALKING of whistling, did
ever you hear of a whistling
fish, my hearers ? I never did
until the other day, when the
school children had a picnic
near my meadow, and Deacon
Green read this out of a news-
paper which somebody had
sent him:
o One of the most singular
S, of the fish family," read the
Deacon,-after explaining to
the children that he was read-
ing from The Walker Lake
Bulletin, published in the State
of Nevada,-" is, doubtless,
the whistling sucker, some-
times caught in Walker Lake.
The fish, when caught, emits
a plaintive whistle, which will
almost persuade an angler with
any tenderness of heart to throw it back into the
water. Charley Kimball has one which was caught
in a net when quite young. He keeps it in a tank,
and has taught it to know him and whistle when it
is hungry. When its master approaches, the fish
pushes its nose and mouth barely out of the water,
and, making a pucker with its lips, which the human
pucker does not nearly equal, whistles some shrill

notes. It appears to have some of the parrot char-
acteristics, and Kimball thinks that in time he can
teach it to whistle part of some simple tune."





SINCE the issue of the June number we have received the following
subscriptions to the Garfield fund: "Marie," of Newcastle, $2.00;
Margaret G. Spring, $1.56; E. A. F., $1.44; W. P. S., $1.00, and
"Fred," $1.oo. A subscription of $2.oo, sent by Nannie C. Stevens,
of Philadelphia, should have been acknowledged in the July number.

VIA VIENNA, HUNGRY, July 19, 1883
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I am writing to you to thank you for the
pleasure you give me every month. I have not seen many maga-
zines, but I think ST. NICHOLAS the most beautiful in all the world.
I must beg your pardon if my English is not very good, for I am
neither English nor American, but Austrian, and have learned
English only one year and a half. 1 live in Hungary; my greatest
delight is having English books, and I have got a lot of them. This
is the first year I have taken you; but, I think I shall take you
always now, and have you bound at the end of the year. I was
delighted with the two colored pictures in the November and
December numbers, and hope you will have more. I like Miss
Alcott's stories so much and hope she will write many for ST.
NICHOLAS this year. Your constant reader,. TILDI ZIPP.

Thanks, dear young Austrian friend, for your hearty letter, which
has not only pleased us greatly, but will interest all the American
girls and boys who, like you, enjoy ST. NICHOLAS. You and they,
we are sure, will be glad to find another story by Miss Alcott in this
number, and to know that, next year, you are to have not a few but
many tales from her pen, in what will, in reality, be a serial bear-
ing the delightful title of "Spinning-wheel Stories; or, At Mrs.
Gay's Summer School."

As the beech-tree grows throughout a very wide portion of Amer-
ica, there are probably few among our readers who have not found
the tender beech-nuts in their rambles through the woods; and in
some districts it is not unusual for parties of young folk to go nut-
ting for beech-nuts, as well as for chestnuts, walnuts, and hickory-
nuts. Such a party, moving about under the thick shade and around
the shining, beautiful trunks of the beeches, would make a pretty
picture, and so thought the artist, Harry Fenn, when he made the
drawing presented on page 927.
It may interest you to know that the beech tree is rarely struck by
lightning, and that woodmen and Indians consider themselves safe
from the electric shock when under its shelter.


EDITOR OF ST. NICHOLAS: I think I can add another to the
S"Curious Items about Birds" published in the ST. NICHOLAS for
Last summer I visited Mt. Vernon and the tomb of Washington.
The tomb, as most of your readers probably know, has an open front
and is guarded by two heavy iron gates. In addition to these the
floor of the tomb on which the stone coffins of Washington and his
wife restis so constructed that the lightest footfall inside the tomb
will cause a burglar alarm to be rung at the mansion a few rods away.
And here, on the inner wall of this doubly guarded vault, a pair of
birds have built a nest. Did they not select a safe place for it, and
is it, I wonder, as a gentleman remarked, the only burglar-proof
nest in the world? Yours truly, E. B. FLORENCE.

DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: Reading the article in your book called
"Curious Items About Eirds," I thought I would like to tell you
about some little wrens who built their nest in a very funny place.
A lady that lives a little way from our house hunga small watering
pot on a nail by her door under the porch; the next time that she
took it down to use it she found some sticks and straws in it; she
threw them out, used it, and hung it up again.
A few days after, she had occasion to use it again, and took it
down; but this time she found not only sticks and straw, but a little
nest with eggs in it; she hung it up again carefully, much pleased
with the little neighbors that had gone to housekeeping in her small
watering-pot (I think they were very fashionable to choose a water-

ing-place for their summer home). She often took it down to show
to her friends, and the little wrens did not mind it at all, but staid
there all summer. Your little friend, NELLIE F. C.

NEW YORK, June i8th, 1883.
DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I have often wished to write to you; now
is my opportunity. I have read the story of "Curious Items about
Birds," in the May number. I have seen in Central Park two birds'
nests, one in the arm of the statue of Shakespeare, and the other at
the feet of Sir Walter Scott. Your constant reader, DORA T.

HERE is a rather thrilling little story, but with a good moral, as you
will admit when you shall have read it. It conies from a young
Wisconsin reader of ST. NICHOLAS, and we print it just as it was

Once upon a time there was a boy who liked to play soldier, so
by and by war broke out, so now that he was about twenty-one years
of age he was allowed to go, so just as the war was in the thickest
part the men got in the habit of going and picking up the wounded
men as soon as they failed, so by this way they lost a good many of
their men-for they would get shotwhen picking them up,-so one
day the captain said they would get shot to pick up the persons,
even if they did get back alright, even if he should get shot; but just
as he got out the line he fell from his horse, for he was wounded,
one of the men saw him fall, so he rushed out to take him in behind
the breastwork, but just as he stooped over him he was shot. So it
is better to not disobey. Yours Affectionate, JOHN D. HOGAN.

DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I have been taking you for more than a
year. Do you know whether "Donald and Dorothy," by Mary
Mapes Dodge, has ever been printed in book form, or whether it is
intending to be? I should like to know very much. I hope you
will print this letter. One of your readers, KATY STEBBINS.

Yes, Katy, the story you mention is "intending to be" printed
in book form. "Donald and Dorothy" will be published as a
book during this autumn, by Messrs. Roberts Brothers, of Boston.

WASHINGTON, D. C., August 17, 2883.
Mv DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: When I came to that story entitled
"Our Special Artist," in the August ST. NiCH (as we have
come to call the magazine at our house), I did n't cut the leaves any
farther until I had finished that story. It was what I call a'
"good un," too. We all laughed as I read aloud till the laugh-tears
flowed freely. I happen to be an amateur photographer, and that
is why we enjoyed it so much and can appreciate Ben Brady's mis-
takes; although I don't claim to have had so many and such doleful
failures as he had. Ben certainly neglected to read the little instruc-
tion book which usually accompanies a photographic outfit. By the
way, dear brothers and sisters, if you have an idea of getting an out-
fit, please don't be deceived by some advertisements. Outfits are
advertised, I know, at $10; but let me inform you that, if you intend
to take and make the pictures complete yourself, you will do very well
if you do so under twice the amount of the $1o outfit. This is
merely intended as information, which as a rule does not accompany
the advertisement of a $10 outfit. However, please be assured that
I learned it all beforehand, and as I happened to have the spare cash
and have made lots of splendid pictures, I am satisfied.

DEAR ST. NICHOLAS: I live in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and my
name is Marion Allison Grant, and I will be ten years old next
January. I have taken ST. NICHOLAS for three years and I think it
is a lovely magazine, and I do not think I could do without it.
Would you please to put a few more stories for little girls in the next
number, something like Editha's Burglars," and Lost and
Found," and "Grandma's Pearls." Mamma and Papa both like
ST. NICHOLAS very much. Your little friend,
Yes, Marion, we shall give you many more fine stories for girls in
our new volume that begins next month.




In connection with the "Art and Artists" paper for the present
month, which will be found on pages 923 to 927, we present the
following list of the principal works of Rembrandt to be seen in
European galleries:
PITTI PALACE. FLORENCE: Portrait of an old man, and his own
portrait. UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE : Domestic interior, and a
landscape. MUSEUM, ANTWERP: Woman's portrait, and two
small portraits attributed to Rembrandt. MUSEUM, BRUSSELS:
Male portrait. THE TRIPPENHUIS, AMSTERDAMI: "The Syndics,"
AMSTERDAM: Portraits of the Burgomaster Six, and his mother.
GALLERY AT THE HAGUE: Simeon in the Temple," "Anatomical
Lecture," "Susannah in the Bath," portrait of a youth, and a por-
trait of Rembrandt. MUSEUM, ROTTERDAM : An Allegory-allud-
ing to the Triple Alliance. IUSEUM, BERLIN : "Samson," two in-
teriors, two heads, and a female portrait. CASSEL GALLERY:
Ten portraits, young girl, two landscapes, "Jacob Blessing
Ephraim and Manasseh," and others. DRESDEN GALLERY:
Four portraits, "Ganymede carried off by an Eagle," "Sam-
son Feasting," landscape, and others. PINACOTHEK, MU-
NICH: Two portraits, six scenes from the Life of Christ, Autumn
landscape, and others. BELVEDERE, VIENNA: Six portraits, and
the "Apostle Paul." MUSEUM, MADRID: "Queen Artemisia."
LOUVRE, PARIS: Eight portraits, "Angel leading Tobias," Pil-
grins of Emmaus," "Philosopher in Meditation," and others.
DULWICH GALLERY: "Jacob's Dream," and three portraits. NA-
TIONAL GALLERY, LONDON: "A Jewish Rabbi," a landscape, five
portraits, and others. THE HERMITAGE, ST. PETERSBURG:
"Abraham entertaining the Angels," "Sacrifice of Isaac,"
"The Coat of Many Colors brought to Jacob," "Joseph and
Potiphar's Wife," Holy Family," "Return of the Prodigal,"
"Parable of the Laborers," "Denial of Peter," "Danae," and
twenty-three others.


MR. BALLARD -Dear Sir: In my busy professional life I have
little time to study books of natural science, but gather about me
specimens, and from them gain knowledge. If any of your members
require any help in determining species of crinoids or pentremites, I
will aid them all that I can, for I can see that an extended interest
in the natural sciences is one of the chief factors in improving the
minds and manners of our young generation. Hoping I may be of
service, I am Yours respectfully,
317 N. 4th street, Burlington, Iowa.

Our entomologists will study the Diytera in October. Less is
known by most of us about flies than about butterflies. They are
smaller, less brilliant as a rule more annoying, and more difficult to
determine. But after all, the subject is full of interest, and the
month can not fail to be among the most profitable in the course.
The class in Botany will continue their collections and drawings
of leaves, which are to be prepared according to the appended
scheme, and sent to Prof. Jones as usual.

III. LEAVES.-Continued.

(for parts, see simple leaves.)

Bud Scales,
Bulb Scales,
Parts of Flowers (see flowers).
Uses :
to the plants,
to animals.

PHYLLOTAXY (arrangement on stem). VERNATION (position in
Alternate, the bud).
Opposite, straight,
Whorled. bent,
Ranks: folded,
two (one turn) = (grasses, conduplicate,
etc.i, plaited, etc.
three (one turn) = (sedges, rolled,
etc.), circinate,
five (two turns) = 2-5 (roses, etc.), involute,
eight (three turns) = 3-8, etc. revolute,
(for others, see flowers.)

Owing to the summer vacation and the consequent dispersion of
people to sea-shore and mountain-top, only two new Chapters have
been reported for the month of August.


No. Name. No. of .Members. Address.
512 Buffalo, N. Y., (G)...... 6..D. A. Curtis, 204 Seneca street.
513 Far Rockaway, L. I ...... 8..Carleton Greene.

Notwithstanding the distractions of summer, however, a large
number of individual members have been added to our register,
which has now reached a total of 5873.

Silver ore and ten crinoid stems, for a piece of gold ore.-W. S.
Johnson, Boonville, N. Y.
Petrified wood, buffalo horns, agates, Dakota cactus, for sea-
shells, minerals, or eggs.-Jesse and Levi French, box 25, Grand
Rapids, Dakota.
Insects, eggs, and bird-skins.-G. W. Field, Brockton, Mass.
Eggs of bunting, Cal. quail, Cal. linnet, Western gull, and
foolish guillemot, for eggs.-Tod Liliencrantz, box 62, Oakland,
Silk-worm cocoons and moths, for a geode.-Lottie Watson, Cran-
ford, N. J.
Fossil ferns and peacock coal, for labeled woods or birds' eggs.-
Thomas F. McNair, Hazleton, Pa.
Ironores.-D. A. C...; ?.. .. .r Cffalo, N. Y. (Ch. G.)
Mineral paint, for I .1i -I..i r'.-. .:,.. curiosities.-D. W.
Rice, box 193, Brandon, Vt. --
Minerals, fossils, and woods for exchange or sale, at 2 cents per
ounce, all post-paid.-L. L. Lewis, box 174, Copenhagen, N. Y.
Micaand other minerals and ores, coral, labeled foreign shells, for
specimens of foreign woods not smaller than 4 x 2 x /s inches. Ebony,
tulip, pomegranate, olive, orange, and lemon particularly desired.-
Ezra Lamed, 2546 S. Dearborn street, Chicago, Ill.
Vermont marble (sets of from 4 to io kinds, colors, and shades, any
size), for minerals and marine specimens. Correspondence solicited.
-H. M. Downs, box 176, Rutland, Vt.
Cecropia, polyphemus, and promethea moths, for eggs.-G. J.
Grider, Bethlehem, Pa.
Correspondence on ornithology and geology.-Geo. B. Hudson,
Wareham, Mass.


(47 Insect Pins.- Gilt insectpins can be obtained from James W.
Queen & Co., 924 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, at 30 cents per
hundred, or $1.75 per thousand. Sec. Chapter 153.
(48) Woodfeckers.-I found seventeen woodpeckers' nests in a sin-
gle stump, 18 feet high. Most of them were occupied.
W. R. LIGHTON, Ottumwa, Iowa.
(49) Geodes.- I found some clay formations which resembled
geodes, being hollow and containing peaks of the clay instead of
crystals. I could not account for them, but thought other geodes
might be formed in this manner. CARRIE A. LAMSON.
--) Sinistral Snail Shells.-I saw in Morse's First Book of
2 1 : that snails with sinistral shells are rare. I have about two
dozen of them, all raised from a single snail that I caught in a
stream. F. A. R.
(51) English Spfarnows.--After careful study, I have come to the
conclusion that the English sparrow does a great deal more good
than harm. In different parts of the country they have been exter-
minated, but always with disastrous results to the trees. They are
so numerous and require so much food for their young, that they do
more to rid the trees of the insects than other birds are able to do.
As to their driving other birds away, I have seen a robin on our
lawn when there were ten sparrows close to it, and they did not even
notice it.
Blue birds have kept them away from a little house I made for
them, and the white-bellied swallow often chases them and punishes
them severely. I should like to hear what others have to say about
it. CHARLES KEELER, Milwaukee.



(52) Ickneumons.- A tree by our door had on it several insects like
the ichneumon fly. After the ovipositor was in the tree, the insect
appeared to inflate a bladder-like substance at the head of the ovi-
positor until it was about half an inch in diameter, and nearly round,
of a light, bluish-green color. Will some one explain this ? We are
more and more delighted with our work.
D. M. MORRELL, Ch. 263.
(53) Agassiz's Home, Neufchltel, Switzerland.-This house is
one of those where Professor Agassiz used to live, and the one in
which his son, Professor Alexander Agassiz, was born. I shall try
to get a photograph of it, and if I succeed I will send it to you.
Most of the Alps to be seen from here have lost their snow, but Mont
Blanc, the Jung Frau, and their neighbors are still, and always will
b., pure white. With many good wishes for all the A. A.,
(54) Butterfly-tree.- In one of the back numbers of ST. NICHOLAS
(in "Jack-in-the-Pulpit") was an account of a butterfly branch. I
think what I saw on the 26th of last March was similar: On the
25th I was on the beach, and saw a large number of brown butter-
flies, which looked as if recently blown ashore. Next day, they
spread over the island in large numbers. They began to collect on
a live-oak tree in our yard. Their numbers increased from the
morning unril about dark, when the top of the tree, for the space of
three or four feet, was so covered with them that we could see neither
leaves nor branches. Other smaller groups gathered on the tips of
the branches of a cottonwood tree adjacent, which had just leaved
out. Next morning they were gone from their resting-place, but
were still seen in large numbers about the flowers. They gradually
disappeared. Some were killed by mocking-birds, and others died,
so that large numbers lay about the ground. The oak-tree was in
full bloom, or tassel, like the others on the place,
PHILIP J. TUCKER, Galveston, Texas.

[We have seen May-flies on Lake Erie so thick as to cover the
decks of the steamer to the depth of nearly an inch; to fill up the
globes of the lamps in the saloons, and darken the air like a snow-
storm, while the surface of the lake for a quarter of a mile was green
with them. But can any one parallel this butterfly-tree ?]

(55) Bees and Pllen.-I have given some of my time te his month
to bees. The first one I caught had much pollen of a single kind on
the hairs of his leg. The second one I watched flying about some
white clover for a little time before I caught him, and I saw on his
hind legs two strange protuberances. A post-mortem examination
showed that they were masses of pollen, evidently stuck together by
some means. I mounted some of it, wetting it on one side of the
slide in order that the grains might float apart and clearly show
themselves to be pollen, but on the other side I have left it just as it
came from the bee. I inclose a specimen. I have not been able to
use a strong microscope this month, but the little one that I have em-
ployed seems to show it to be all of one kind. Since then I have
looked for these pollen masses on every bee I saw, and always found
them larger or smaller, of course, according to the length of time
which the bee had been working. I suppose the first few layers are
caught by the hairs of the corbicula, and afterward the grains are
plastered on with some sticky substance, perhaps the honey of the
flower, perhaps some secretion. I am not well enough acquainted
with bees to tell. I also watched some bees to see whether they
always took from the same flower. A great bumble-bee visited sixty-
five red clovers, passing over white clover, white weed, and other
flowers, and going out of sight after the sixty-fifth. A smaller bee
visited fifty-three white clovers, which were close together, to be
sure, but yet, by flying a very few feet, he might have reached other
flowers. I send with the others a slide of the pollen of the milkweed.
Perhaps what follows is well known to all the members, but it was
new to me, and I found it so interesting that I must repeat it:
Knowing that all the Asclepiadacem had their pollen in masses, 1
wanted very much to see it, but could not find it till the flower was
explained to me. Clinging to the pistil are the anthers, each con-
taining two pollen-masses, and on the stigma, alternate with the
anthers, are five little black glands, and from every one spring two
stalks, each attached to the nearest pollen mass of an adjacent anther;
so that if one of the black specks be lifted on the point of a pin, the
two clubs of pollen follow, astride on it.

The Secretary of Ottumwa, Iowa, writes: "During the time since
my report we have rented a large hall for our meetings, and have
bought a six-by-ten-foot cabinet. We are all happy and much inter-
ested in work."- Fairfield, Iowa, has had a lecture from the finest
entomologist" in the State [who, be it noticed, is a woman --Miss Alice
Walton]. She gave us much encouragement, and kindly promised
further assistance."-"I have avery beautiful emperormoth. Itmeas-
ures five inches across the wings from tip to tip. I have a piece of
crystallized quartz in which is a green stone clearly defined." Bessie

Young. [The emperor moth is quite rare in many parts of the
country, and would prove a valuable exchange.] We have had
a debate on the question, 'Resolved, That plants have their color,
scent, and nectar to attract insects.' It was decided in the negative
by a tie vote. We have a debate now pending on the question,
'Resolved, That animals have, beside instinct, the power to reason
from cause to effect.'" Rob't P. Bigelow, Sec. o09. [On account
ofthelittle "hit" at the girls contained in the following extract, we
omit the address, that, if just, the hint may be acted on by the girls
of all Chapters, and if unjust may b, i ...., iI .ad generally re-
sented!] "A drawback is that the ..i I. .. ..I to say much, if
anything, at the meetings, and most of them sit around the room as
silent as Egyptian mummies. We boys have to do all the .11 :.
and this comes all the harder when the girls are all so ..11 -
Scituate, Mass., writes: "We have an alphabetical and a classified
list of the birds in our neighborhood, and ,. ., : Llist of fishes
for our next meeting. We have started a I-' ,- i Smithsonian
Institute has sent us quite a number of books." -" The Nassau
Chapter is making some progress. Our meetings have been inter-
rupted by absences from town of members, which, during vacation
months, is expected. Some have taken the spirit with them and re-
turned with fruits. We hope to enrich our collection with specimens
from the sea-shore this month. We have hhad five meetings. We
have been most interested in Lepidoptera and have a very pretty col-
lection. One member has two beautiful hawk moths. Some have
followed Mrs. Ballard's directions for raising from the larva. We
have 'Insect Lives,' Packard's 'Common Insects,' Insects,' by
Ebell, and 'Parables of Nature.' Interest is not confined to the
six members, but perhaps to six times the number--so many of our
friends are interested in getting specimens for us, and looking at
them through the small microscope. The egg of the polyphemus
moth is beautiful under the microscope. One member has dis-
covered that the wasp that builds its nest out of sand feeds its young
with small spiders; another has observed the ant tapping the plant-
lice for its sirup. It has been a grand thing for us all, and has
greatly enriched our lives already." Emily P. Sherman, Nassau, N.Y.

June lyth.
MR. HARLAN BALLARD--Dear Sir: Our Chapter, 480, Balti-
more (C), is quite enthusiastic. Quite a number of moths and
butterflies have been obtained. As te mothers have objected to
the use of chloroform, coal oil has been resorted to, and found most
effectual. Some are keeping. caterpillars. Several of them (Va-
nessa, we think) were seen wriggling themselves into the chrysalis
state. Quite a number of chrysalids have brought forth only ichneu-
mon flies. Our chief difficulty is want of cheap books, as the little
girls wish to know the name of every insect. Respectfully,
R. JonEs, Sec.

You have perhaps begun to question as to what has become of
Chapter 388, because I have not written in so long. But we have an
existence yet. A few weeks ago, the whole Chapter adjourned in a
body to the timber, some three miles east of here. We had a splen
did time, and some caught a good many beetles. I got thirty,
two of which were green-spotted tiger beetles (Cincindela qrgiata).
They are quite common about here, hut are so difficult to capture,
and are so exquisitely colored, that when one has been caught the col-
lector may well consider it a prize. One day, while out collecting,
I got eight large beetles just alike. As I do not know their names,
I will describe them, and perhaps you can answer through ST. NICH-
OLAS. Length, from tip of mandibles to extremity of abdomen, one
and one-quarter inches; width, seven-sixteenths of an inch; upper
surface of back, deep glossy black, very shiny. Thorax smooth and
jet glossy black. Elyt." i' : :overs) indented by deeplycut lines,
running lengthwise. j. II: prominent and having four hooks;
antenna long and dentated o Len c.trrn and powerful;" first
pair, hooked; third and four'- ., ,i. I-. also covered with
hair of a brownish color. In tr... 1i.. ,i.. miead is a horn point-
ing forward. As these beetles seem plenty about here, I am very
desirous of finding their name. I have several, now, which were
invariably captured in pairs, probably male and female, though I
can not distinguish them. Sometimes one is found which is of a
brown color instead of a black, but they are always glossy. (I will
exchange these specimens for other beetles.) We meet weekly, on
Thursday evenings. To-night will be held the twenty-third meet-
ing. Subject, Insects: beneficial vs. injurious. Four boys will
debate on this question.
With best wishes for the prosperity of the A. A.,

With next month, we commence our third year, and shall give a
brief account of our progress during the past two years. Address
all communications to the President,
Principal of Lenox Academy, Lenox, Mass.






CROSS-WORDS: I. A riverof the
United States. 2. Alliance. 3.
Partofaclock. 4. A tone in music.
5. A preposition. 6. In dine.

8 i 2

7 9 3

6 5 4
FROM I to 9, the shape of a
sugar-loaf; from 2 to 9, a haut-
boy; from 3 to 9, a narrow road:
fjn 4 to 9, to importune; from 5
to 9, a companion; from 6 to 9, a
color; from 7 to 9, to incite; from
8 to 9, a wise man.
The letters represented by the
figures from I to 8 spell the name
of a very famous man.

o 3

4 2
AcRoSS: i. An exclamation
of contempt. 2. A wanderer. 3.
Morose. 4. To wager. 5. A
quadruped of Southern Africa.
Diagonals, from i to 2 and from
3 Lo 4, each name a well-known
dance. DYCIE.

You 'LL find me in the harbor,
You'l find me at an inn;
I'mi made of such materials
As iron, brass, or tin.
You'l find me in a prison,
And in a court-room, too,
Where prisoners are catechised
To find out what is true.

Now look amongst your music;
You 're sure to find me there;
And yet men put me in a cage,
Which I think most unfair.
Though in so many places,
I'm quite a little word,
Which all of you, I am full sure,
Have very often heard. i. J. M.

I. BEHEAD a time-piece, and leave a fastening. 2. Behead a
sign, and leave mankind. 3. Behead solitary, and leave a unit.
4. Behead to cultivate, and leave sick. The beheaded letters will
spell the name of a small horse. I. A. w.

IN this puzzle are shown five horizontal lines, each line containing
five monograms. In each monogram will be found one or more
white letters. First row: the white letters will spell the name of one
of the United States. All the letters in the first monogram will form
a city; second, a river; third, a city; fourth, a bay; fifth, a town;
all in the State spelled by the white letters. Second row: white
letters, a country in Europe. Letters of first monogram, a river;
second, a city; third, a river; fourth, a city; fifth, a coast town; all
in the country spelled by the white letters. Third row: white letters,
a division of the Eastern continent. Letters of first monogram, an
island; second, a country; third, a city in the country named by the
fourth; fifth, a city; all in the division named by the white letters.
Fourth row: white letters, one of the United States. Letters of first
monogram, an island; second, a series of lakes; third, a bay; fourth,
a river; fifth, a city; all in the State named by the white letters.
Fifth row: white letters, a country of Europe. Letters of first mono-
gram, a river; second, a city; third, a city; fourth, a river; fifth, a
coast town: all in the country named by the white letters. G. F.

MY first it is when the sun is bright,
My second 's a digit,
My third is a midget;
My whole is a blackamoor wight. c. s.






EACH of the words described contains four
letters. Change the last two letters in the
word first defined so that it shall form the
word described by the second definition.
Thus: A mineral; to imitate. Answer,
coal, copy. When these changes have been
rightly made, and the words placed
one below another, the third row of
letters, reading downward, will spell
the name of a place at which were
fought two memorable battles; the
fourth row will spell the place where a
battle was fought between Generals
Sherman and Hood.
To help: a word mean-
ing father. 2. A flower; to
put to flight. 3. A large cord; t
to revolve. 4. Otherwise; a
girl's name. 5. Repose; to
gain by labor. 6. To perfor-
ate; a contest. 7. Soon; a
girl's name. FRANK B.

MY primals name a v
German composer,
who was born about
the middle of the
eighteenth century;
and my finals a Ger-
man author and one
of the greatest poets
of any age or country.
CROSS-WORDS: I. Officious.
2. A city which was the capi-
tal of Portugal till 1174 when
the seat of government was
transferred to Lisbon. 3. A
girdle or belt. 4. A mountain
of Western Asia in Armenia.
5. A native prince of India.
6. The muse who presides over
the dance. E. IH.

THIS differs from the ordinary hour-glass puzzle in that the
words forming it are pictured instead of described. The words
are to be placed in the order in which the pictures are numbered,
and the object named by the central letters is represented in the
.. REPLACE the first dash by a word of four or
more letters, which may be successively be-
headed to fill each dash following:
To tuneful warbler's merry -
And cheery sound of meadow -
His heavy heart accordeth -
ANSWER, trill, rill, ill.

I. The rain drips ceaseless from the
Nell's face is darkened by a -
Through the wet panes she gazes -
From lashes wet as they.

II. In fitful gusts the wind blows -
The clouds hang low on yonder -
Ah little Nell, it augurs -
For archery to-day.
A. B. C.
I. A MUSICAL composition. 2. A player on a wind
instrument. 3. The last part of an ode. 4. A kind of
rampart. 5. A place of public contest. MAMIE R.

THE central words of the two diamonds, read in connection, vIl
spell the name of an illustrious English writer who was born in
the early part of the nineteenth century.
I. i. Not in Vanity Fair." 2. An exclamation. 3. Precious
stones. 4. The Christian name of the author of Ela." 5. A
..i ... i .. me. 5. The jurisdiction of a bishop. 7. Not in
i-, !-,i i.. Faun."
II. i. Not in "The Last of the Mohicans." 2. A cover. 3.
Wealth. 4. The surname of an illustrious English writer. 5. To
fear. 6. Termination 7. Not in "The Alhambra." A. L. B.


PICTORIAL ANAGRAMS. I. Tiles, stile. 2. Notes, stone. 3. Arts,
tars, star. 4. Sabre, bears.
PI. It is the Harvest Moon! On gilded vanes
And roofs of villages, on woodland crests
And their aerial neighborhoods of nests
Deserted, on the curtained window-panes
Of rooms where children sleep, on country lanes
And harvest fields, its mystic splendor rests!
The Harvest Moon, by H. W. Longfellow.
ZIGZAG. James Fenimore Cooper.
CROSS-WORDS: 1. Jog. 2. Pan. 3. Gem. 4. Fed. 5. Sip. 6. Oft.
7. Rye. 8. One. 9 Inn. Io. Emu. oi. Ado. 12. Arm. 13. Eke.
r4. Ice. 15. Ago. 16. Cod. 17. Pat. 18. Beg. 19. Car.
CROSS-WORD ENIGMA. Answer, cross-word enigma..

CURIOUS HALF-SQUARE. I. Carouse. 2. Arouse. 3. Rouse. 4.
Ouse. 5. Use. 6. Se. 7. E. CHARADE. Jack-in-the-Pulpit.
I heard, as still the seed he cast,
How, crooning to himself, he sung,
I sow again the Holy Past,
The happy days when I was young."
NOVEL WORD-SQUARE. I. Noon, Otto, Otto, noon.
CUBE. From I to 2, evince; from 2 to 6, empire; from 5 to 6,
effuse; from I to 5, edible; from 3 to 4, enable; from 4 to 8, efface;
from 7 to 8, entire; from 3 to 7, engine; from I to 3, Elbe; from 2
to 4, Erie; from 6 to 8, ease; from 5 to 7, edge.
DIAMOND. I. M. 2. Pit. 3. Resin. 4. Pebbles. 5. Mis-
belief. 6. Tillage. 7. Neigh. 8. See. 9. F.

THE NAMES of those who send solutions are printed in the second number after that in which the puzzles appear. Answers should be
addressed to ST. NICHOLAS "Riddle-box," care of THE CENTURY Co., 33 East Seventeenth street, New York City.
ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN THE JULY NUMBER were received, too late for acknowledgment in the September number, from Bell Mac-
Dbnald, Lyttleton, New Zealand, x2-Francis W. Islip, Leicester, England, xo--C. S. C., England, no--Hugh and Cis, Leicester,
England, io-T. S. Palmer, 3.
ANSWERS TO ALL THE PUZZLES IN THE AUGUST NUMBER were received, before August 20, from S. R. T.-Madeleine Vultee.
ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN THE AUGUST NUMBER were received, before August 20, from Eliza Westervelt, 2-Paul Reese, 2--A. J.
Tlorganstern, i Margaret McGuffey, I Emily P. Cutler, i Grace E. Keech, 3 R. M. B., I E. Blanche Johns, I Hermes," 3
- A. E., 2- M. Cissy Thompson; 5-" Star, Beth, and Auntie," 8 Harry Donahue, F. L. F., L. Florence Savoye, ro- Mary
E. Ashbrook, F. R. Temple, x-Arthur B. Phelan, 3--Arthur Peter, x-Bucknor Van Amringe, i--Edward J. Shipsey, 2-
"'Rallek," x-Philip Embury, Jr., 9-Little Gracie, 2-Sam Holzman, x-A. A. A., 2-Camillie B. G., -Emma and Ida, 6-
Charlotte Holloway, 4- Arthur Hixon, 5 Freddy and Alex. Laidlaw, xx Alice Wann, I -J. Frederic Millar, to-- "Third Base"
and Cooney," 12-" Bijou," 5- Katie W. Green, 3- Emmet and Frankie Nicoli, i Carroll S. Shepard, I Birdie N. S., i Maggie
T. Turrill, io- W. Prentiss and Rob't O. Ray, I- "San Anselmo Valley," 12- Effie K. Talboys, 9- Lizzie Thurber, 8-Walter S.
Garfield, x-Frank Brittingham, I- "Mamma, Madge, and I," 9-Hal Prentiss and his cousin, i--W. T. Hopkins, 2--"Hen and
Chickens," 12-"We, Us, and Co.," 8-Amy K. Pickett, 3-Fannie S., 2--Minnie M. Carson, i -"'Kansas Boy," 2- Ignoramus
and Nonentity," 5- Bantie, 4-" Rough and Ready," 4-Walter B. Angell, o Eisseb Sregor, 7- The Stewart Browns, 7- Clara J.
Child, o G. G., 2-" Two Blackberries," 5-"Alcibiades," 5-" Pinnie and Jack," 12-Jennie and Birdie, 5 Charles H. Wright,
3- Louisa H., 6- Charles H. Kyte, 9 Estelle Riley, o "Rita and Bessie," 3 Maude Osgood, 2 Professor and Co.." 8 Helen
W. Merriam, 8- Mattie Fitzgerald, 3--Adeline Hendee, R. Coates and Co., 8- F. and H. Davis, :- Lester W. Walker, 6 -
George L. Waterhouse, I Vessie Westover, i -Francis W. Islip, 0 "The Gray Wolf," 4--John Hobble and S. L. P., 9-"Syd-
ney Carton," 2- Florence E. Provost, 5 Hugh and Cis, Io The McK's at Edgemere," 12 Edabagha," 6- Katie, Polly, and
Eva, 6- G. Lansing and J. Wallace, 5- Algernon Tassin, 9- Willie L. Brower, 3- Beatrice and Annette, 8.





". K"eep yur Card ithi. Pocket and return it
.- with -lie'book to the library.

.' ,.. -:LP .

........Aperso i wfilly and maliciously .
-' ri s uion- or injares a60'k, plate, picture,
S.'. :engraving or etatue belonging to a-law, town
republic li.rary, sli1 be fined not more than
ione thousan-d dollars, nor less tharinfive dol-
Sars." Section .6978, of the General Laws
6 :f f:Verrnont, 191..



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