Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Animals of the cat kind
 Animals of the dog tribe
 Animals of the ox kind
 Animals of the horse kind
 Animals of the sheep and goat...
 Animals of the deer kind
 Gigantic fossil animals
 Animals of the hog kind
 Animals of the bear kind
 Animals of the hare kind
 Animals of the monkey kind
 Animals of the weasel kind
 Animals of the rat kind
 Porcupines, seals, bats, etc.
 Tales about birds
 Shell fish
 Tales about reptiles and insec...
 Back Cover

Title: Tales about animals
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065495/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tales about animals
Alternate Title: Peter Parley's tales about animals
Parley's tales about animals
Physical Description: xv, 2, 688 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Goodrich, Samuel G ( Samuel Griswold ), 1793-1860
Tegg, William, 1816-1895 ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons ( Printer )
Publisher: William Tegg
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: W. Clowes and Sons
Publication Date: [between 1870 and 1875]
Edition: 13th ed., carefully rev. and enl., with nearly 500 engravings on wood
Subject: Animals -- Anecdotes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Statement of Responsibility: by Peter Parley.
General Note: Date of publication based on binding and date of 14th ed. (1875).
General Note: Frontispiece printed in colors and pasted on.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065495
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002228373
notis - ALG8684
oclc - 70919662

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
    Animals of the cat kind
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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        Page 18
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        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Animals of the dog tribe
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
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        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Animals of the ox kind
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Animals of the horse kind
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
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        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Animals of the sheep and goat kind
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
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        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Animals of the deer kind
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
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        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Gigantic fossil animals
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Animals of the hog kind
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
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        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
    Animals of the bear kind
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
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        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    Animals of the hare kind
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
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        Page 293
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        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
    Animals of the monkey kind
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
    Animals of the weasel kind
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
    Animals of the rat kind
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
    Porcupines, seals, bats, etc.
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
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        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
    Tales about birds
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
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    Shell fish
        Page 608
        Page 609
        Page 610
        Page 611
        Page 612
        Page 613
        Page 614
        Page 615
        Page 616
    Tales about reptiles and insects
        Page 617
        Page 618
            Page 619
            Page 620
            Page 621
            Page 622
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


I' I 11 :I lii III, liii I,'.



r -------------------------- -T



v IT il'Rt ( it;,, CiR00 ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD. l.'








To those young friends who have read my Tales about
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, the Ocean, the Sun, &c.,
I now offer this Thirteenth and enlarged Edition of my
" Tales' about Animals," in the hope that, having been
amused and instructed by what they have already read,
this book may be esteemed by them an additional source
of recreation, and form an agreeable introduction to the
study of Natural History.
I have deemed it most desirable that the memories of
my readers should not be burdened with hard words,
difficult for them to understand, and requiring a larger
space than is at my disposal to explain them; therefore I
have refrained from using not only the scientific names of
the animals here treated of, but also the various scientific
terms necessary to describe their peculiarities, which
belong more properly to works of a more advanced nature.
Neither have I been particular in arranging all the animals
according to their class, order, or genus; thus, the whale,
the dolphin, the porpoise, are described with the fishes,
though they are really warm-blooded animals that must
of necessity breathe atmospheric air; yet their form, place
of residence, and general mode of living, make them so
resemble fishes, that it seemed most convenient to describe
them as I have done.
While thus attempting to smooth the approaches to the Q
a 2



I 1i

History of Animated Nature, I indulge the hope of soon
learning that this interesting subject, which contains so
much to attract and delight both young and old, may
become a recognized branch of the tree of knowledge,
which flourishes, or should flourish, in all our schools,
feeling certain that this delightful science will fully repay
all the time and trouble requisite to become acquainted
with its details.
No cost or labour has been spared in collecting
materials suitable for my purpose-to gratify the curiosity
of my youthful friends, to refine their taste, and to aid
them in forming correct ideas of the different objects
delineated. Few things are more provokingly misleading
than the sight of pictorial illustrations which bear no
resemblance whatever to the living creatures of which
they profess to be correct representations. To prevent
any such complaint against this production, the drawings
furnished to the engravers have, where possible, been taken
from living specimens in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's
Park; and will, in almost every instance, be recognized as
faithful likenesses of the animals which they purport to
It has likewise been my care to make this volume
accord as far as possible with its title of Tales about
Animals," by presenting the details concerning them in a
lively and engaging style, intended to inspire the minds of
all my readers with feelings of kindness towards the brute
creation, and tending to remind them continually that
every portion of it is the wonderful handiwork of Deity.






AAnD VArn .
Addax .
African Sheep .
African Bloodhound
Ai . .
Alligator .
Alpine Hare .
Alpine Mastiff. .
Alpine Rat .
AmeIriFr"m Tn Rlr .
A .a II I I..1: *u ].:l
American Elk .
American Hare
American Otter
Anchovy .
Angora Cat .
Annulated Snake .
Ants . .
Ant, White .
Ant-Eater, Great .
Ant-Eater, Little .
Ant Lion .
Antelope ..
Antelope, Indian .
Antelope, Prong-horned
Antelope, Scythian
Apes .
Ape, Barbary .
Ape, Long-Armed .
Apteryx .
Argali .

. 297
. 20-1
. 167
. 77
. 294
. 630
. 283
. 276
. 274
. 303
. 186
. 283
. 337
. 597
. 51
. 623
. 663
. 664
. 296
. 297
. 654
. 173
. 174
. 176
. 175
. 319
. 316
. 816

. 504
. 164

Armadillo, Great .
Armadillo, Six-banded
Ass .
Ass, Wild .
Auk, Great .
Australian Dog .

Baboon, Dog-faced
Baboon, Ribbed-nosed
Babyroussa .
Badger .
Badger, American .
Badger, Javanese .
Bald Eagle .
Banded Wolverine
Barbary Ape .
Barbary Jackal .
Barbolt . .
Barn Swallow .
Barren Ground Bear
Basking Shark .
Bat .
Bat, Long-eared .
Bat, Vampyre .
Beagle .. ..
Beagle, Dwarf. .
Beagle, Roughl
Bearded Griffin .
Bears .. ..
Beaver .
Bee, Hivo ..

. 356
S 511

3. 18
. 317
3 74
S 97
. 564
. 364


. 338
* 657 J

4 "

pd --I

a ,I



Bee, Humble. .
Beetles .. ..
Bird of Paradise
Bison .. ..
Bittern .
Bittern, Tiger .
Blackbird .
Black Bear, American
Black Bear, European
Blackcap .
Black Cock .
Black Snake .
Black Squirrel.
Black Stork .
Black-tailed Deer .
Bloodhound, African .
Blue Bird .
Blue Titmouse .
Boa Constrictor
Boar, Wild .
Bobac .. .
Boblink .
Bold Eagle .
Bonte-Bok .
Bornean Bear .
Bosch Vark .
Bow-banded Chbtodon
Brazilian Racoon .
Bream .
Brent Goose .
Brindled Gnoo
Broad-tailed Sheep
Brown Bear -
Brown Owl .
Brown Rat
Buffalo ...
Buffalo, Cape .
Bullfinch .
Bull .
Bull Dog .

rELB _____

660 Bull Frog .. ..
671 Bull Terrier .
493 Burying Beetle .
116 Bustard ... .
539 Butcher Bird .
540 Bush Hog .
447 Butterflies .
252 Buzzard, Common
251 Buzzard, Moor .
460 Buzzard, Turkey .
623 Cachalot, Blunt-headed
303 Camel . .
535 Camelopard .
188 Canada Goose .
61 Canary Bird .
76 Canna. .. ..
444 Cape Wolverine .
471 C ri. . .
620 i. .
235 Cardinal Spider
277 Carp . .
464 Carp, Golden .
379 Carp, Telescope .
206 Carrier Pigeon. .
261 Carrion Crow .
243 Cassowary .
605 Cat, Angora .
264 Cat, Domestic .
589 Cat, Javan . .
518 Cat, Lineated .
206 Cat, Squirrel .
168 Cat, Wild, or Wood .
247 Caterpillar ...
408 Cayman .
342 Centipedes . .
119 Cerasts .
123 Chacal . ..
465 Chacal, Barbary ,
112 Chstodon, Bow-banded .
73 Chaffinch .

U ~y. ~


476 ,

Chameleon. 634 Crane, Numidian. 530
Chamois .. 179 Crawfish .. .611
Cheese Fly .. 687 Cricket, Field .641
Chimney Swallow 482 Cricket, House 640
Chimpansee 315 Cricket, Mole 641
Chinchilla.. 345 Crocodile . 629
Chinese Monkey 319 Crossbill .. 480
Chub 590 Crow, Carrion .. 410
Civet 327 Cuban Mastiff 59
Clouded Black Wolf 94 Cuckoo 449
Coach Dog 73 Curlew 544
Coati-mondi .. 298 Curlew, Stone 550
Cochineal Insect 643 Cushat. 451
Cock, Black 435
Cock, Domestic .. 430 Death Adder 628
Cook, Sea .... .603 Death's-head Moth 649
Cockatoo, Sulphur-crested 490 Deer .. 184
Cockatoo, Yellow-crested 491 Diamond Beetle 673
Cockchafer. 672 Dingo.. 74
Cockroach 672 Dogs 57
Codfish 582 Dogs of Mount St. Bernard 58
Common Monkey .319 Dog-faced Baboon. 318
Common Mouse 346 Dolphin .. 567
Common Red Squirrel 300 Domestic Cat 51
Common Viper 624 Dormouse 348
Condor .392 Dotterel 546
Coot .. 555 Dragon-fly. 653
Coral Insects 685 Dromedary. 143
Cormorant .... .506 Ducks .. 523
Corn Weevil 677 Duck-billed Platypus 367
Couando 353 Duyker-Bok 202
Cougar .. 29
Cow 115 Eagles. . 371
Crab .. 609 Earth log 297
Crab, Land .. 610 Earthworm 684
Crab-eating Opossum 292 Economic Eat 345
Crake, Corn 531 Eel, Common .. 574
Crake, Water 552 Eel, Electrical 573
Crane, Common 528 Eel, Sand.. .574
Crane, Crowned 530 Egret .. 321
rane, Gigantic 532 Egyptian Viper 423
B&--_--- c:r----


Eider Duck
Eider, King
Eland .
Electric Ray .
Elephant .
Elephant, Asiatic.
Elk, American
Elk, European .
Elk, Wapiti .
Emgalla .
Emperor Butterfly
Emu ..
English Pointer .
English Terrier
Ephemera .
Ermine .
Esquimaux Dog

Falcon, Gentil ,
Falcon, Little .
Falcon, Peregrine
Falcon, Secretary
Fallow Deer .
Ferret .
Field Mouse
Fire-flare .
Fishing Hawk .
Fitchet .
Flamingo, Red
Flounder .
Flycatcher, Pied
Flying Fish
Fi, ; Scorpena
FI; .. Squirrel
Fossan .
Fox ..
Fox, Arctic
Fox-hound .
Fox Squirrel .
Frog .
Frog, Bull .

.- 527
S 208
. 215
S 220
S. 186
S. 184
. 187
S 244
S. 649
. 70
S. 72
S 655
. 323

S. 381
. 390
S. 382
S. 80
. 196
. 330
. 385
. 324
S. 542
. 472
S. 599
S 601
. 305
S. 331
. 98
. 303
S. 637

Gadfly ......661
Gannet . 521
Gargany Duck 524
Gazelle . 173
Gems-Bok 203
Genet . 334
Genet, Blotched 335
Gibbon. . 316
Giraffe. .... .. 155
Glutton . 266
Glutton, American 268
Gnoo . 205
Goat . 169
Goldfinch . 455
Goldfish .. 591
Golden Eagle. 372
Golden Plover 549
Goose, Brent .. 518
Goose, Canada . 519
Goose, Grey Lag 517
Goose, Tame . 517
Goose, Wild 516
Gorilla .... 309
Goshawk 384
Gossamer Spider 667
Grasshopper . 642
Grasshopper Lark 463
Grass Weevil . 677
Grayling .. 580
Great Ant-Eater 296
Great Armadillo .. 356
Great Auk .. 511
Great Horned Owl .403
Great Morse . 361
Great Sea Eagle 376
Green Lizard .. 634
Grebe . 553
Greenfinch. 476
Grey Eagle .374
Grey Ichneumon 328
Grey Squirrel . 302



Greyhound .
Greyhound, Irish .
Greyhound, Scotchl
Grizzly Bear
Grouse .
Grysbok .
Guinea Fowl
Guinea Pig
Gull, Skua .
Gulls .

Haddock .
Hare .
Hare, Indian Dog.
Harlequin Duck
Harrier .
Hart and Hind
Harte Beest
Harvest Mouse
Hedgehog .
Heron, African
Heron, Common
Hippopotamus .
Hive Bee .
Hobby .
Hog, Domestic.
Hog, Ethiopian
Hog, Indian
Hog, Mexican .
Holocenter .
Hooded Crow .
Horned Silure .
Iorned Viper .
Hornet .
Horse .
Horse, Sea .
House Swallow
Humble Bee
Humming Bird

S 65
S 67
. 254
. 202
. 285
. 509
. 508

. 280
S 63
. 242
. 239
. 607
. 412
. 606
. 626
. 660
. 127
. 602

Hymena Dog .
Hyena, Spotted
Hymna, Striped
Hyrax .
Ibex .
Icelandic Sheep .
Ichneumon, Common
Ichneumon Fly
Ichneumon, Grey .
Ichneumon, Javanese,
Imperial Eagle
Indian Antelope
Indian Hog .
Insects. .
Jackal .. ..
Jackal, Barbary .
Jackdaw .
Jaguar . .
Javan Cat .
Javan Squirrel
Javanese Badger
Javanese Ichneumon .
Javanese Peafowl .
Jay .
Jerboa . .
Jerboa Kangaroo .
John Doree .
Kangaroo .
Kangaroo Hare
Kangaroo, Rat .
Kinr Bird .
KliL Eider .
Kingfisher .
Kin; of the Vultures .
Kl ,- .
Koodoo .
Kyloe Ox .

Lackey Moth .

S 75
. 109
. 245
. 662
S 96
S 97
S 51
. 891
. 207
. 114

. 651
'Qj -1

Lady-Bird .. 678
Lammer-Geyer .. 396
Lanceolated Holocenter 607
Land Crab. 610
Land Tortoise 632
Lantern Fly 656
Lapwing 547
Larks .. 461
Leaf, Walking 648
Leech .. .. .684
Lemming Rat 344
Leopard 33. .. 83
Leopard, Hunting 36
Leopard Marmot 277
Lesser American Flying
Squirrel. ... 305
Libellula ... 653
Limpet .. 614
Lineated Cat 50
Ling ..... 584
Linnet. 475
Lion 1
Little Ant-Eater 297
Lizard, Green 634
Llama .150
Lobster. 608
Locust 639
Long-armed Ape 316
Long-eared Bat 364
Long-legged Plover 548
Lory 486
Lump Fish. 603
Lurcher. .. ... 68
Lynx .' 43

Macaws .. 487
Mackerel .575
Magpie. ... 416
Malayan Rusa Deer 191
S Malay Bear. .... 261
I Mammoth .. 211

Manati. . 362
Manati, Round-Tailed 362
Mandril...... 17
Manis 357
Mantis, Orator 42
Marabou Stork. 533
Marmot .. 276
Marmot, Whistling 279
Marten. 331
Marten, Pine 332
Martin .. 483
Mastiff 64
Mastodon 211
Meadow Mouse 47
Meal Worm 677
Megalosaurus 214
Megatherium 210
Merlin .... .. 386
Mexican Hog 239
Minx 333
Mites .. 679
Mocking Bird 445
Mole, Common 349
Mole, Shrew 351
Mole, Star-nose 351
Mole Cricket 641
Monkey, Common. 319
Monkey, Egret 321
Monkey, Red-Tailed 320
Monkeys .. 308
Monkey, Spider 322
Monkey, Striated. 321 -
Moor Buzzard 388
Moor Hen. 554
Moose 185
Morse, Great 361
Morse, Round-tailed .. 362
Morse, Whale-tailed 62
Mother Carey's Chicken 511
Moths . 649
Mouse, Common 347


I n


Mouse, Field 347
Mouse, Harvest .. .347
Mouse, Jumping .348
Mule .. 138
Mule Deer. 188
Mussel. 612
Mussel, Pearl. 613
Musk Rat. 341
Musk Rat, Muscovy .. 342
Newfoundland Dog 60
Night Hawk .. 468
Nightingale 466
Norway Rat 342
Numidian Crane 530
Nuthatch.. .451
Nyl-Ghau ... .177
Ocelot 46
Oil Beetle... 673
Old English- found 62
Opossum, Crab-eating .292
Opossum, Virginian 291
Orang-Outang. 312
Orator Mantis .. 642
Oryx 203
Osprey .... 385
Ostrich 495
Otter, American 337
Otter, Common 336
Otter Hound ... 68
Ounce ..... 42
Owl, Brown 408
Owl, Great Horned .403
Owls 02
Owl, Snowy 405
Owl, Virginian Horned 404
Ox ... .. 112
Oyster ... 611
S Paco 154
Painted Lady Butterfly 647


I _

NTS. xi
Pallah .. 201
Palm Squirrel 304
Palm Weevil .- 677
Pangolin .. 57
Panther .. 25
Paradise, Bird of 493
Parroquet 488
Parrot . 485
Partridge ...... 437
Peacock 425
Peafowl, Javanese 428
Peacock Butterfly 648
Pearl Mussel .. .. 613
Pea Weevil. .. 676
Pepcv7. 239
F.l:, . 335
Pelican. .. 502
Penguin 512
Perch .. 586
Petaurus Squirrel. 306
Pheasant, Ring-necked 430
Pheasant, American 433
Pied Fly-catcher .472
Pigeon, Tame .. 452
Pigeon, Wild Wood 454
Pike. .. .. 585
Pilchard .. 596
Pilot Fish. .... 565
Pine Marten 832
Pintado. .... 429
Platypus, Duck-billed 367
Plover, Long-legged .548
Polar Bear ... 256.
Polar Hare ..... 283
Polecat ... 324
Polypes. 686
Porcupine, Crested .352
Porcupine, Brazilian 353
Porcupine, Sea. .. 602
Porpoise 569
Prairie Dog 278

n 1,311

Prawn 611 Royston Crow .
Ptarmigan 436 Ruffed Grouse

Puma .....
Puss Moth .

Quagga ....
Quail .

Rabbit .
Racoon .
Racoon, Brazilian .
Raft-building Spider .
Rats .
Ratel .
Rattle Snake .
Raven .
Razor Shell .
Redbreast .
nor r'.rmicin



. 36


Red-Headed Woodpecker 450 Sea
Red Squirrel 300 Sea
Red-failed Monkey 320 Sea]
Redstart . 469 Sea]
Red Viper. 625 Sece
Reindeer ... .188 Ser]
Remora .. 600 Ser
Rhea . 498 Sett
Rhinoceros. 224 Sha
Rhinoceros, Two-hored 227 Sha
Ribbed-nose Baboon 317 Sha
Rice Bunting 44 Sha
Riet-Bok .. 202 She
Ring Dove .. 451 She
River Horse .229 She
Roach ..... .590 Sho
Rock Kangaroo 288 Shr
Rocky Mountain Sheep .165 Sib
Roebuck ..... 199 Sill
Rooe-Bok .. .. 201 Sil
Rook .. 413 Six
Rorqual .. 562 Siy

e .
e Antelope
t Bernard's Dog
inander .
ion .
d Eel .
-fish .
lop .
pion .
ch Terrier .
ech Owl .
hian Antelope.
Cock .
Eagle, Great .
Horse .
Porcupine .
-Urchin ..
Wolf .
I. .
I, Ursine
retary Falcon
pents .
val ..
er .
d .
heen .
,rk, Basking
,rk, White
ep .
Drake .
ipherd's Dog
seller Duck
imp .
erian Dog .
worm .
ure, Horned.
-banded Armadillc
a-gush .


S 574
S 406
S 603
S 602
6 01
S 570
S 358
S 598
S. 563
S 162
S 523
S 641
* 45~

-- --




Skate . .571 Stickleback 587
Skua Gull 509 Sting Ray .... 572
Skunk .. .. 324 Stoat .. 323
Skylark. . 461 Stock-dove ... 454
Skye Terrier 73 Stone Curlew . 550
Sloth . 294 Storks . 533
Smelt . 580 Stormy Petrel . 511
Snails . 683 Strepsiceros .. 168
Snipe .545 Striated Monkey .. 321
Snipe, Shellfish 614 Sturgeon .. .. 570
Snowy Owl 404 Sulphur Crested Cockatoo 490
Sole .. ... 593 Surmullet . 577
South American Wolverine 272 Swallows ... .481
Spaniel ... 70 Swallow-tailed Butterfly 647
Spaniel, Water. 71 Swan .. .... .513
Spanish Pointer 69 Swan, Black 515
Sparrow, Common. 477 Sword-fish 560
Sparrow Hawk. 385
Spermaceti Whale. 562 Tabby Moth .. 651
Sphinx, Carolina 650 Tame Goose. .517
Spider, Cardinal 668 Tanree. . 355
Spider, Gossamer 667 Tapir . .. 233
Spider Monkey 322 Tapir (Fossil) 234
S|1;..1:, Raft-building 668 Tarantula . 670
.l., Tarantula 670 Tawny Owl . 408
Spiders. . 665 T. ...., Carp 592
Spider, Water .... .669 T,..... .. 615
Sponge .. 685 Termites . 664
Spoonbill . 543 Terrier . .. 72
Sprat ... .. .597 Thaleb . 97
Spring-Bok. .. 200 Thibet Bear . 260
Springer ..... 71 Thibet Dog 61
Squirrels .. .... 299 Thick-lipped Bear. 259
Squirrel, Lesser American Thrush, Missel. 441
Flying ... .305 Thrush. Song . 440
Squirrel Petaurua 306 Thrush, Wood 442
Squirrel, Java 307 Ticks ... .679
Stag ... 192 Tiger . 13
Stag Beetle. ..... .671 Tiger, Clouded 23
Stag Hound 63 Tiger Moth. 652
Starling, or Staro 448 Tiger Bittern . 540
l-j^ ___ _-L- 1 5 .-

xiv CON
Titmouse, Blue .471
Toad... 636
Toadfish, Spotted 605
Torpedo .... 572

Toucan .
Tortoise, Land.
Tortoise, Sea .
Tree Kangaroo.
Trout .
Trumpet-fish .
Tumbledung Beetle
Tunny .
Turbot .
Turkey, Honduras
Turtle .
Turtle-dove .
Turkey Buzzard .
Turkey, Dbmesti .
Turkey, Wild .

Ursine Seal .

Vampire Bat .
Vicuna ...
Viper, Bed .
Viper, Common
Viper, Death .
Viper, Horned .
Viper, Water .
Virginian Fallow Deer
Virginian Horned Owl
Virginian Opossum .
Vison Weasel .
Vlacke Vark .
Vulture .
Vulture, Bearded .
Vulture, Cape .
Vulture, Golden .
Vullure, King .
Vulture, Sociable .
Vulture, Turkey .

. 504
,. 579
. 576
. 419


. 626
. 244
. 39-4

Wagtail 479
Walking Leaf .643
Wallachian Sheep. .. 168
Walrus .. 361
W ..fi Elk ... 187
W., i.. 661
Water Beetle .. 674
Water Crake 552
Water Dog 72
Water Rail .. 552
Water Rat 344
Water Spider 669
Water Viper 627
Weasel, American. 23
Weasels. 323
Weevils 676
Whale .. 560
Whale, Spermaceti 562
Whale-tailed Morse 362
Whelk .. 614
Whip-poor-will 467
Whitebait. . 581
White Bear 256
White Owl 406
White Stork 534
Whitethroat 459
Whiting . .584
Wild Boar .. .. 235
Wild Cat ... 48
Wild Goose 516
Wild Pigeon 454
Wingless Bird 504
Wolf .. .. 91
Wolf, Clouded Black 94
Wolf, Prairie ... 93
Wolf, Sea .. 570
Wolverine 268
Wolverine, Banded 272
Wolverine, Cape 269
Woodcock. 545
1 Woodlark ..... 462



Wood Grouse .
Woodshock. .
Woolly Kangaroo .
Worms .. ..
Wren .
Wren, Golden-crested
Wren, Willow .
Yaguar .

41 7--

Yellow Crested Cockatoo.
Yellow Plover .
Zebra .... ..
Zebra of the Plains
Zebu .
Zibett .
Zoophytes .


A' .
-- ':

'I %7-

- ET., 7 O F HOU.-.S .. ,S rA O .





I~ IL~




S A--




. 450
. 434
. 335
. 684
. 456







-l, -7 11
-- I'

THE animals of the cat tribe combine within themselves
the most agile and beautiful form and colour, with greater



ferocity than those of any other tribe. In treating of them,
I would first observe that they are (with the exception of
one or two of those enigmatical creatures which are found in
every group of animals) as distinct from any other order as
the monkeys and birds. They are carnivorous in their diet,
and destructive in their habit of obtaining food. Their
bodily form is admirably adapted for carrying into effect their
peculiar instinct. Light, stealthy, silent of foot, quick of ear
and eye, they crouch and spring upon their prey, and then
tear it in pieces.
I dare say it seems strange to some of my juvenile readers
that lions, tigers, and leopards, should be classed as of the
same species as the kitten they play with; but I have no
doubt, as they peruse these pages, they will become convinced
of the correctness bf the designation.

While the head, neck, and shoulders of the Lion are very
large, his hinder parts are comparatively thin and small; but
the absence of flesh is perhaps in consequence of the great
development of muscle. His neck is furnished with a thick
shaggy mane. His form admirably contrived to produce great
SThe height of the Lion is from three to four feet; his
length is six to nine feet. An ordinary Lion is six feet in
length, and three in height, and is in size between the tiger
and stag.
The strength of the Lion is prodigious. He can easily
break the skull of a horse by a stroke of his paw. A large one

1- if


can drag off a horse or an ox : there are few animals, indeed,
that he cannot master. The elephant, tiger, and rhinoceros,
are said to be the only animals that can withstand him. His
strength and supposed courage have given him the title of
King of Beasts.

The colour of the Lion is a yellowish red; his mane is
dark-coloured, and sometimes black. When at rest, his
aspect is very grave and majestic. When he is enraged, his
look is terrible. He then lashes his side with his tail, lifts up
his bristly mane, curls his lip: with a malicious expression,
discloses his strong teeth, and his eyes sparkle with such
brightness that they seem to emit fire.

The Lion roams about in forests, sometimes uttering a
roar so loud that it sounds like distant thunder. He crouches
in thickets where antelopes, buffaloes, and other animals- are
wont to come for food or drink; and when one of them is
near, he springs upon it with a furious bound, and seizes it
in his strong claws. He then tears it in pieces, devours the
flesh, and sometimes the bones. He usually seeks his prey
in the night; and is sly and 1kuilii. like a cat, in, his
method of pursuing other animals.

The Lion is a native of most parts of Africa, and the
southern parts of Asia. He is much more common in Africa,

9b ^

- It~l



however, than in Asia. In the hottest climates he grows to
the largest size, and displays the fiercest qualities. There is
an animal found in South America called a Lion; but its
proper name is puma or cougar.


The Lion sometimes lives to a great age One named
Pompey died in London, in the year 1760, at the age of
seventy years.
Although the size or bulk of the Lion does not much ex-
ceed that of a stag, yet his weight is much greater. This
arises from the extreme solidity of his structure. His bones


tt I




I 11


are very hard and strong, and his muscles exceedingly large
and compact. A smaller portion of his body is flesh, and a
greater part bone and muscle, than that of most other
The LIONEss, or female Lion, is much smaller than the
Lion, and this disparity of size is more apparent as she has
no mane. She is less patient and more ferocious in her
character. There
is, however, one -P
instance on re- i ,
cord, of uncom-
mon gentleness,
in the female
Lion. It is given J
by M. de France,
a French officer, who was recently a prisoner with Abd-el-
Kader. "A year previously they had brought," says he, "a
young Lioness to Mascara, and had built a hut for her in the
outskirts of the town. She ran about the streets of Mascara
the whole day, at full liberty. The children played with her,
mounted upon her back, pulled her by the tail, attempted
to turn her over, and wrestled with her. She allowed herself
to be teased without roaring; and amused herself in play-
ing with the children, and biting without ever hurting them.
A few days ago she was brought to the camp, and the Arabs
played with her as they would with a dog."
Young Lions, when a few weeks old, are not larger than
small dogs, and are harmless, pretty, and playful as kittens.
You would be much astonished, were you to try to lift a
young Lion (and then, a dog of the same size), at the great


_ I)


difference in the weight of each. The extraordinary solidity
of structure exhibited in the Lion makes him weigh heavier
than any other animal of the same size.
It has been common to impute many generous qualities to
the Lion; and to illustrate these traits of character, multi-
tudes of tales have been told. And when we see a Lion in a
cage, his grave and noble mien may easily persuade us to
believe them. But we should consider that any wild animal
which has been a long time confined, and been fed at regular
intervals, without any exertion of his powers to procure food,
has lost, in some measure, the qualities which characterized
him in the wilderness. There he is represented by travellers
as a bloodthirsty and ferocious, yet sly, cowardly, and trea-
cherous animal, stealing upon his prey like a cat, and often
retreating in fear when faced by man.
The Lion lives principally in the plains of Asia and Africa,
and is always found where there are large herds of wild ante-
lopes and other animals feeding together; he follows these
herds, and, watching his opportunity, springs on any that are
disabled or separated from the herd.
It is supposed, by the agitation which oxen display when
a Lion is approaching them, that they can scent him at a con-
siderable distance. Whatever may be his strength, there-
fore (and we know it is prodigious), it is evident he could
not easily take these and other animals by strength alone.
The instinctive fear of the creatures upon which he preys
would be constantly called into action by their keen sight
and acute scent; and they would remove to some distant
part before the destroyer could reach them. Lions, tigers,
and others of the same species, seldom run. They either




---` ~-~--~`-~----~




walk or creep, or, for a short distance, advance rapidly by
great bounds. It is evident, therefore, that the Lion must

..... .--. ..-. _
--- '.' -"--

seize his prey by stealth; that he is not fitted for an open
attack ; and that his character is necessarily that of great
power, united to considerable skill and cunning in its exer-
The Lion requires about fifteen pounds of flesh, for food,
every day. As he prefers the flesh of animals recently killed,
and will seldom condescend to make a second meal upon the
same carcase, the havoc he makes among the antelopes, and
other beasts upon which he preys, is prodigious. If we con-
template the death of one of these harmless creatures; the
shock of affright when he hears the bound of his enemy ; the
agony when he feels his grasp, and the mortal pang when the
jaws of the monster are fastened in his throat; we cannot
but be struck with wonder at the amount -- 'I !.; ." -il is
necessary to support this king of the forest during a life
which sometimes extends to seventy years.







But if we look further, we shall observe the same process
going on around us on a smaller scale. The cat inflicts simi-
lar pain and destruction upon the birds and mice, and is as
greedy and bloodthirsty, in proportion to her size, as the
Almost every one is familiar (by reading or by hearing)
with the roar of the Lion. It is a sound of terror, and pro-
duces an appalling effect. It is said by travellers that it
sometimes resembles the sound which is heard at the moment
of an earthquake; and that he produces this extraordinary
effect by laying his head upon the ground, and uttering a
series of growls, by which means the noise is conveyed along
the earth. The instant this roar is heard by the animals who
are reposing in the plains, they start up with alarm, and fly in
all directions; frequently rushing into the very danger which
they seek to avoid.
The Lion, like all the cat tribe, takes his prey at night;
and it is necessary, therefore, that he should have peculiar
organs of vision. In all those animals which seek their
food in the dark, the eye is usually of a large size, to admit
a great number of rays. The power of seeing in the dark,
which the cat tribe possess, has always appeared a subject
of mystery; and it is natural that it should be so, for man
himself sees with more ( '1,. ilt in the dark than any other
animal: he has a compensation in his ability to produce arti-
ficial light by lamps, candles, and gas. This peculiarity of
eye, therefore, is necessary to enable the Lion to perceive his
prey; and he creeps towards it with a certainty which nothing
but this distinct nocturnal vision could give. The cause of
L this power to see in the dark is said to arise from the differ-

ence which exists between man and some animals, in a par-
ticular membrane of the eye. In man the membrane is
black, so that all the light that falls on it is absorbed ; in these
animals it is, more or less, of a pearly white, or of a yellow,
green, blue, or variegated colour, by means of which the rays
are reflected from the bottom of the eye, instead of being
You must have observed what are usually called the
whiskers on a cat's upper lip. The use of these in a state of
nature is very important. They are organs of touch. The
slightest contact of these whiskers with any surrounding ob-
ject is felt most distinctly by the animal, although the hairs
are themselves insensible. They stand out on each side, in
the Lion, as well as in the common cat, so that, from point
to point, they are equal to the width of the animal's body.
Therefore, if we imagine a Lion stealing through a covert
of wood in an imperfect light, we shall at once see the use of
these long hairs. They indicate to him, through the nicest
feeling, any obstacle which may present itself to the passage
of his body ; they prevent the rustle of boughs and leaves,
which would give warning to his prey if he were to attempt to
pass through too close a bush; and thus, in conjunction with
the soft cushions of his feet, they enable him to move towards
his victim with a stillness greater even than that of the snake
who creeps along the grass, and is not perceived till he has
coiled round his astonished victim.
Naturalists have generally admitted that there are dif-
ferent species of Lions, and one, the maneless Lion of Gu-
zerat, seems to bear out this view; but if we examine closely
into their habits and peculiarities it seems apparent that










these modifications are principally caused by differences of
climate, and that they really do not amount to more than the
difference between a Newfoundland dog and a pointer.
Dr. Livingstone, the missionary and explorer of Southern
Africa, states in the accounts of his travels that the inhabit-
ants of a village where he was staying were much troubled
by Lions, which invaded their cattle-pens and destroyed their
cows. These depredations rose to such a height that the
poor ignorant natives deemed they were bewitched, or, as
they said, given into the power of the Lions by another
tribe." Consequently they besought Dr. Livingstone's advice
and assistance, which he readily gave ; and knowing that if
one in a troop of Lions is destroyed the others frequently
leave the place, he offered to lead the hunt if the villagers
would muster in force, which they did, and the Lions were
soon found. One of the natives fired at a Lion, but the ball
missed the Lion and struck the rock on which he was sitting, on
which he bit like a dog at the place where the bullet struck,
and then by a succession of bounds reached the cover of the
brushwood. Shortly after the doctor saw another Lion about
thirty yards distant, at which he dischargedboth barrels; but
perceiving through the branches that his enemy was still on
his legs, he hastened to reload his gun; when, as he was ram-
ming home his bullets, the natives set up a loud cry, and
lifting his head he saw the wounded and infuriated beast
springing at him. Livingstone was standing on a slight
eminence, and in his great leap the lion caught him on the
shoulder, and both rolled on the ground together. Growling


7M t_

THE Lion. 11~

horribly in my ear," says Dr. Livingstone, "he shook me as
a terrier does a rat. The shock produced a stupor similar to
that felt by a mouse after the first shake of the cat; it caused
a dreaminess in which there was no sense of pain or terror,
though conscious of all that was happening. It was like
what patients feel when partially under the influence of
chloroform. This singular condition was not the result of any
mental process. The shake destroyed all fear and allowed no
sense of horror in looking round at the beast."
The fore-paw of the Lion pressed heavily on the doctor's
head, and he slightly turned to relieve himself of this pressure,
when the Lion left the prostrate man and bounded off to attack
a native who had attempted to shoot him, but whose piece
missed fire. This man he bit in the thigh, and then attacked
another native ; but the exertion was too much for him, the
wound given by Livingstone proved mortal, and with his claws
in the shoulder of the second native he rolled over and died.
A gentleman who had a Lion cub was very fond of his
dangerous pet, and would play with him as you would with a
kitten. One day the gentleman, overpowered with the heat, fell
asleep on a couch with one of his hands hanging down, and in
this position was found by his favourite, which began to lick
the hand so exposed. Now, as the tongue of the Lion is very
rough, the licking caused an abrasion of the skin, and the
blood soon began to flow: the pain awoke the sleeper, who
naturally endeavoured to withdraw his hand. At each move-
ment he made for this purpose the Lion emitted angry growls,
and feeling his situation becoming critical, for the first taste
of blood had transformed the hitherto plaything into a savage
I wild beast, the gentleman, to save his own life, put his other

\ ft






hand under the pillow and drew forth a loaded pistol which he
always kept there, with which he shot the Lion dead.
At the time when men first adopted the Lion as the em-
blem of courage, it would seem that they regarded great size
Sand strength as indicating it; but they were greatly mistaken
in the character they have given to this indolent, skulking
animal, and have overlooked a much better example of true
courage, and of other virtues also, in the bold and faithful
After what has been related of the Lion, I think my read-
ers will agree that we have much cause of gratitude that our
lot is cast in a happy land, where we are free from all danger
of wild beasts. The Lion is never seen in our forests; and, if
he visits the country, he comes only as a prisoner, and for no
other purpose than to gratify our curiosity,

." .j .
h ^______"__i : '" T ''

~ ~ ~~ ~~~~:~ ,I- ,, -,,?, .-




~--c, Q 3 -.

IN form the Tiger, though much larger and more powerful,
greatly resembles the cat. He is more slender and elegant in
his shape than the lion, and is better formed for swiftness and
The average dimensions of the Tiger are: height, three
feet; and length, six feet. They vary very much in size,








LL 11


The strength of the Tiger is but little inferior to that of
the lion. It is said that he often engages in battle with the
lion, and, on account of his superior agility, with frequent
success. A Ti -r has been known to carry off a horse, or a
buffalo, passing rapidly over the uneven ground, apparently
very little hindered by his enormous load.

The body of the Tiger is a tawny yellow, beautifully striped
with black. He has black rings, generally fifteen in number,
on his tail. There are black bands also on the legs, while the
under-parts of the throat, chest and belly are of a cream colour,
and the hair on the sides of his face is tufted and nearly
white. Nothing can be more beautiful than the power and
freedom of his movements, or better indicate the force and
agility which make him the dread of the countries he inhabits.
The colour of the Tiger varies more than is generally sup-
posed; some skins are much lighter than others: indeed, a
Tiger which was in the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park,
London, was so light coloured as to be generally known as
the White Tiger.
The Tiger, like the lion, springs upon his prey from an
ambush, very much as a cat springs upon a mouse. He lurks
about in marshy or swampy places, and when he kills an
animal he usually first sucks the blood, and then devours the

1= __ _- 1.Traia



The manner in which the Tiger seizes its prey was fully
exemplified, (as we are told by Major Smith) by a full-grown
individual, which was lately exhibited at Madras. The
animal was so far tamed as to be held merely by a chain; but
was kept muzzled, except when it was to attack some animal.
For this purpose a sheep was tied to a stake. The Tiger, on
being brought out, instantly crouched, and moved along,
almost on its belly, but slowly and cautiously, till within the
distance of a spring from its victim it leaped upon it, struck
it down dead almost instantly, seizing it at the same moment
by the throat: the Tiger would then roll round on its back,
holding the sheep on its breast, and, fixing the hind claws
near the throat of the animal, would kick or push them
suddenly backwards, and tear it open in an instant. Not-
withstanding the natural ferocity of the race, the individual
in question was so far subjugated, that while one keeper held
the chain during this barbarous exhibition, another was en-
abled to get the carcase of the sheep away, by throwing down
a piece of meat.
The largest kind of Tiger, commonly called the Royal
Tiger, is a native of all the southern parts of Asia; and is
found in no other countries. Panthers, leopards, and animals
nearly resembling the Tiger, and frequently called by his
name, are found in Africa. In South America there is a
species of Black Tiger, which is peculiarly fierce and ferocious.
There are White Tigers also found in Asia, but they are very
In Sumatra the Tigers are of an unusually large size;


f =

I EL--_


*\ u





historian of that island, that the Tigers are most destructive
enemies to the natives, not only in their journeys, but even
while engaged in their domestic occupations, so that the
number of lives lost is almost incredible; whole villages being
sometimes depopulated. The East India Company used to
offer large rewards for the destruction of these ferocious
animals, but owing to the superstitious feelings of the natives
they were loth to undertake the task, and so allowed their
enemies to increase. It seems, however, that when roused



they are said to break the legs of a horse or a iiftl il .. by a
single stroke of the fore-paw, and to drag the body without
difficulty into the forests. We are told by Mr. Marsden, the

i.J,.41 i: W 114, 1-J .-A'k,,' I ,

i I



by injury sustained in their own families, these people con-
trive several ingenious modes of catching the Tiger. One of
these is a trap, like a large cage with folding doors, into which
the animal is enticed by a small quadruped put in as a bait.
A very effective trap is made of a large beam so constructed
as to fall into a groove and break the Tiger's back or a
plank, nicely balanced, is placed in a sloping direction, which,
by turning when the animal has passed the middle, preci-
pitates him into a pit filled with sharp stakes.

The Tiger has been often described as a creature which,
in comparison with the lion, deserves all the hatred of man-
kind, and none of their admiration. "To pride, courage, and
strength, the lion joins greatness, clemency, and generosity;
but the Tiger is fierce without provocation, and cruel without
necessity." Thus writes Buffon, the most eloquent of natu-
ralists, taking up prejudices instead of attending to facts, and
using his real information for the support of a false theory.
A more favourable and correct estimate of the Tiger's
character is formed by Mr. Bennett, an eminent modern
naturalist. Almost in the same degree that the lion has
been exalted and magnified, at the expense of his fellow-
brutes," says he, "has the Tiger been degraded and depressed
beyond his natural level. While the one has been held up to
admiration, as the type and standard of heroic perfection, the
other, with equal capriciousness and disregard of the close
and intimate relationship between them, has been looked upon,
by mankind in general, with those feelings of unmingled hor-
ror and detestation which his character for untamable ferocity
C ..


and insatiable thirst for blood was so well calculated to in-
spire. It requires, however, but little consideration to teach
us, that the broad distinction which has been drawn cannot
possibly exist; and the recorded observations of naturalists
and travellers, both at home and abroad, will be found amply
sufficient to prove that the difference in their characters and
habits, on which so much stress has been laid, is in reality as
slight and unessential as that which exists in their corporeal
structure." After satisfactorily vindicating the claim of the
Tiger to superior beauty, his advocate adds, In comparing
the moral qualities of these two formidable animals, we shall
also find that the shades of difference-for at most they are
but shades-which distinguish them, are, like the external
characteristics, pretty equally balanced in favour of each. In
all the leading features of their character, the habits of both
are essentially the same." Mr. Bennett thus closes his plead-
ing in behalf of the Tiger:-" In his wild and unrestricted
state he is unquestionably one of the most terrible of the
living scourges, to whose fatal ravages the lower animals, and
even man himself, are exposed. But in captivity, and espe-
cially if domesticated while young, his temper is equally
pliant, his disposition equally docile, and his manners and
character equally susceptible of amelioration, with those of
any other animal of his class. All the stories that have so
frequently been reiterated, until they have at length passed
current without examination as accredited truths, of his in-
tractable disposition and insensibility to the kind treatment
of his keepers, towards whom it is alleged that he never ex-
hibits the slightest feelings of gratitude, have been proved,
by repeated experience, to be utterly false and groundless.




A I i





He is tamed with as much facility, and as completely, as the
lion; and soon becoines familiarised with those who feed him,
whom he learns to distinguish from others, and by whom he
is fond of being noticed and caressed. Like the cat, which he
resembles so closely in all his actions, he arches his broad and
powerful back beneath the hand that caresses him; he licks
his fur, and smooths himself with his paws; and purrs in the
same mild and expressive manner when he is particularly
pleased. He remains perfectly quiet and undisturbed, unless
when hungry or irritated, and passes the greatest part of his
time in listless repose. His roar is nearly similar to that of
the lion, and, like his, is by no means to be regarded as a
symptom of anger, which he announces by a short and shrill
cry, approaching to a scream."
In narrow passes in Hindostan, travellers have often been
seized by Tigers, or a bullock or a horse has fallen a victim to
the ferocity of this prowling beast. Horses have such a
dread of the Tiger, that they can scarcely ever be brought to
face him. Hunting him on horseback is, therefore, a service
of great danger; the elephant, on the contrary, though con-
siderably agitated, will stand more steadily, while his rider
anticipates the fatal spring by a shot, which levels the Tiger
to the earth.
One peculiarity of the Tiger is his willingness to take to
the water, either when pursued, or in search of the prey
which he espies on the opposite bank of a river.
As the sovereign of Persia has his tame lions, so have the
wandering priests of Hindostan their tame Tigers. These
will accompany them in their walks, and remain, without
attempting to escape, in the neighbourhood of their huts.


19 ~l




The Tigers in the Zoological Gardens appear, with a few ex-
ceptions, to be ordinarily under as complete control as the
The Tigers that we see in cages are caught when young.
They are found and taken when the mother is absent. When
the Tigress returns and finds her young ones gone, she pur-
sues the spoiler with the most fearful rage. When he sees
her coming, he drops one of the cubs; the Tigress returns
with this to the den, and the hunter takes advantage of her
absence to make his escape with the others. In this way he
is able to carry off two or three of the family.
The Tigress brings forth from three to five cubs or kittens
at a time; and her extreme fondness for her young has given
rise to a proverb among the shikarees, or hunters, who say,
when speaking of a miser, It is as easy to coax a Tigress out
of her young as to get money from him."

Some years ago some British officers camped near Mul-
kapoor went Tiger-hunting, and shot a large Tigress. On
returning home they came upon the lair of a tiger in a
secluded spot, where bones both of the human and brute
kind, with shreds of clothing, lay about, and amongst them a
young Tiger-kitten not more than a fortnight old, which they
took away with them, and on reaching camp attached it with a
light chain and collar to the tent pole, where for about two
hours it gambolled about to the great delight of a numerous
audience. At the end of this time, just as it was growing dusk,
a dreadful roar and shriek was heard evidently from a Tiger mad
with rage. In an instant the young Tiger strained with all its

[BH ~---------





might at the chain, and, while the company were panic-stricken,
a bold Tigress leaped into the centre of the tent, and without
noticing those assembled caught her newly-found baby
by the neck, with a jerk snapped the chain, and then pass-
ing through the door went off at full speed with her trea-
It is only a few years since that a Tiger which had escaped
from its cage dashed down Ratcliff Highway, London, and
in its course sprang on a youth, whom it bore down to
the ground, but providentially without doing him serious
damage. Probably the Tiger was too terrified at its novel
position to give its natural instincts full play. The keepers
soon came up and secured him. This same Tiger is noted
for having, in a battle with a lion, destroyed the latter. The
two animals had been placed in a large cage, with a partition
to keep them separate. While the keepers were absent the
Tiger had beaten down this too slight barrier, and, leaping
into the lion's compartment, a fierce contest began; but
the lion, weakened by long captivity, had lost his pristine
vigour, and although his heavy mane defended his head and
neck, so that little injury could be inflicted there, he finally
sank under the wounds inflicted on his flanks and abdomen
by the claws and teeth of the Tiger.
The attack of one of these animals upon Mr. Monro, in
India, was attended with the most tragical consequences.
"We went," says an eye-witness, on shore on Saugor Island
to shoot deer, of which we saw innumerable tracks, as well as
those of Tigers.
We continued our diversion till near three o'clock, when,
sitting down by the side of a jungle, or thicket, to refresh our-







selves, a roar like thunder was heard, and an immense Tiger
seized Mr. Monro and rushed again into the jungle, dragging
him through the thickest bushes and trees, everything giving
way to his monstrous strength: a Tigress accompanied his
"The united horrors of agony, regret, and fear, rushed at
once upon us. Ifired on the Tiger; he seemed agitated. My
companions fired also; and in a few moments after this our
unfortunate friend came up to us bathed in blood. All
medical assistance was vain, and he expired in the space of
twenty-four hours, having received such deep wounds from
the teeth and claws of the animal as rendered his recovery
A large fire, consisting of ten or twelve whole trees, was
blazing near us at the time this accident took place; and ten
or more of the natives were with us. We had but just pushed
our boat from the shore, when the Tigress made her appear-
ance, almost raging mad, and remained on the sand all the
time we continued in sight."
This is a dreadful story, and I wish I could give a more
pleasant account of the Tiger. Happily for us, he is far
removed from our land; and, in the countries which he in-
habits, the instances are becoming more rare, in which human
beings are made the victims of his thirst for blood. It is true
that he is still the scourge of some portions of India; and it
is said that many Hindoos every year fall a prey to him. But
man is the natural enemy of these fierce animals, and they
rapidly diminish, and finally disappear, in every place which
becomes the seat of civilized society.
I cannot leave this subject without making one closing







remark. The Tiger is the most graceful and beautiful, as well
as the fiercest and most bloodthirsty, of animals ; showing,
therefore, that external beauty is no proof of corresponding
good qualities in the character and disposition. Experience
teaches us that a selfish and ornel heart may be hiddlen be-
neath a pleasing exterior.


THERE is one animal which bears the name of Tiger, but
which has nothing of the ferocity of the species which I have
just described to you. This is the Clouded Tiger, which is a
native of Sumatra, where it is called the Rimau Dahan. It is
obnoxious to the Sumatrans only by destroying their poultry,
which, with birds and such small deer, forms its principal
food. Its ground colour is whitish grey inclining to brown;
there is scarcely any yellow about its external tint. The
marks on the body are oblong, irregular, and very broad,
having on the margin a deep velvet-black line. When fully
grown, it is about four feet long, from the nose to the base of
the tail, and one foot ten inches high. The tail is only six
inches shorter than the body. Sir Stamford Raffles kept
two of these animals confined, both of which were as good-
tempered and playful as domestic kittens. They were always
courting intercourse with casual passengers; and in the ex-
, pression of their countenance, which was always open and


F: T







pleasing, showed the greatest delight when noticed-throwing
themselves on their backs, and delighting in being touched
and rubbed. On board the ship which conveyed one of these
to England was a small dog, which used to play around the
cage with the Tiger; and it was amusing to observe the play-
fulness and tenderness with which the latter came in contact
with its little companion. When fed with a fowl that had
died, he seized the prey, sucked the blood, and then threw the
body about in sportiveness, for hours, as a cat plays with a
half-dead mouse. It never seemed to look upon men or
children as prey, but as companions. It was constantly
amusing itself during the voyage, by jumping and clinging
to the top of the cage and throwing a somerset, or by
twisting itself round in the manner of a squirrel when con-
fined-the tail being extended, and showing to great ad-
vantage. We maybe sure that the gambols of this interesting
animal were a source of constant amusement to all on board
during the monotony of a long voyage, and that its quondam
shipmates parted from their amusing companion with some-
thing like regret.
The very beautiful specimen of the Clouded Tiger exhibited
in the Zoological Society's Gardens, Regent's Park, London,
was obtained from an officer formerly in the service of the
East India Company: he had killed the mother and captured
two kittens when but a few days old: these were brought up
by his servants, and acquired habits of familiarity with their
keepers which were long retained by the animal in question.

l Eri U ^- N



THIS animal is closely allied to the leopard; indeed some
naturalists consider it a variety only, and not a different spe-
cies. It is smaller
than the tiger,
and seldom ex- a,
ceeds five feet in
length, exclusive
of the tail. Its
colour is bright < .
tawny yellow, -
with black, ring-
shaped or angular marks, some of them having black spots in
the middle. The under parts of the body are white. The
hair is short, sleek, and glossy.

The Panther is fierce, swift, and greedy of blood; climbs
trees with the agility of a cat; and leaps upon his prey from
lurking-places, like the tiger and others of the cat family. It
is a denizen of the hottest climates of the Old World.
The mode usually adopted to destroy the Panther is to
suspend a piece of flesh on a tree, near which the hunter has
previously built a hut to conceal himself. While the animal
is seizing the flesh, the hunter fires, and generally wounds him




(A L



mortally. It is not, however, till the following day that the
hunter ventures from his hiding-place. By means of a trained
dog, he then tracks the animal to his retreat. The Panther
is usually dead; but if he be still alive, the dog becomes an
inevitable sacrifice to the rage of the wounded beast. Warned
by the cries of the dog, the hunter retreats in time. Porrit
records an instance of presence of mind in a Moor, who was
pursued by a wounded Panther. The Moor threw a part of
his clothes upon a bush by which he passed, and effected his
escape while the Panther was tearing them into fragments.
It has been said that this animal could not be rendered
tame and docile; but abundant proof of the contrary is
furnished in the following anecdotes.

Mrs. Bowditch, an English lady, who resided in Africa,
gives a very interesting account of a tame Panther that was
first in the possession of the king of Ashantee, and afterwards
in that of Mr. Hutchison, who resided at Coomassie.
"This gentleman, observing that the animal was very
docile, took pains to tame him, and in a great measure suc-
ceeded. When he was about a year old, Mr. Hutchison re-
turned to Cape Coast, and had him led through the country
by a chain, occasionally letting him loose when eating was
going forward, at which time he would sit by his master's side,
and eat his share with comparative gentleness. Once he pur-
loined a fowl, but easily gave it up to Mr. Hutchison, on being
allowed a portion of something else.
The day of his arrival he was placed in a small court-yard,
leading to the private rooms of the governor; and, after dinner,





/ II






was led by a cord into the room, where he received our
salutations with some degree of roughness, but with perfect
good-humour. On the least encouragement he laid his paws
upon our shoulders, rubbed his head upon us; and his teeth
and claws having been filed, there was no danger of his tearing
our clothes. He was kept in the court-yard for a week or
two, and evinced no ferocity, except when one of the servants
tried to pull his food from him; he then caught the offender
by the leg, and took out a piece of flesh, but he never seemed
to owe him any ill-will afterwards.
He one morning broke his cord, and the cry being given,
the castle gates were shut, and a chase commenced. After
leading his pursuers two or three times round the ramparts,
and knocking over a few children by running against them, he
suffered himself to be caught and led quietly back to his old
quarters, under one of the guns of the fortress.
"By degrees the fear of him subsided; and orders having

iii nn, I, ,

been given to the sentinels to prevent his escape through the
gates, he was left at liberty to go where he pleased, and a boy


~ '-"-----






was appointed to prevent him from intruding into the apart-
ments of the officers. His keeper, however, generally passed
his watch in sleeping; and Sai, as the Panther was called, after
the king of Ashantee, roamed at large. On one occasion he
found his keeper sitting on the step of a door, upright, but
fast asleep, when he lifted his paw, gave him a blow on the
side of the head, which laid him flat, and then stood, wagging
his tail, as if enjoying the mischief.
"He became exceedingly attached to the governor, and
followed him everywhere like a dog. His favourite station
was at a window of the sitting-room, which overlooked the
whole town: there, standing on his hind-legs, his fore-paws
resting on the ledge of the window, and his chin laid between
them, he appeared to amuse himself with what was passing
beneath. The children also stood with him at the window;
and one day, finding his presence an encumbrance, and that
they could not pull their chairs close, they used their united
efforts to pull him down by the tail.
He one morning missed the governor, who was settling a
dispute in the hall, and, being surrounded by black people,
was hidden from the view of his favourite. Sai wandered with
a dejected look to various parts of the fortress in search of
him ; and while absent on his errand, the audience ceased, the
governor returned to his private rooms, and seated himself at
a table to write. Presently he heard a heavy step coming up-
stairs, and, raising his eyes to the open door, beheld Sai. At
that moment he gave himself up for lost, for Sai immediately
sprung from the door on his neck. Instead, however, of
devouring him, he laid his head close to the governor's, rubbed
his cheek upon his shoulder, wagged his tail, and tried to evince
his happiness.






"Strangers were naturally uncomfortable when they saw
so powerful a beast at perfect liberty, and many were the
ridiculous scenes which took place; for not liking to own their
alarm, they were yet perfectly unable to retain their com-
posure in his presence.
This interesting animal was well fed twice every day, but
never with anything having life in it. He stood about two
feet high, and was of a dark yellow colour, thickly spotted
with black rosettes; and from the good feeding, and the care
taken to clean him, his skin shone like silk. The expression
of his countenance was very animated and good-tempered, and
he was particularly gentle to children; he would lie down on
the mats by their side, when they slept, and even the infant
shared his caresses and remained unhurt."


THE size of this animal is not more than two-thirds that
of the lion. His body is rarely five feet long, his head small;
his colour a pale-brownish red, fading to a greyish-white on
the under parts.
It is very nimble, and climbs trees with ease; it prowls
in woods and thickets for deer, sheep, and other animals. It
is greedy of blood, and will often destroy more than it needs
as food. It approaches its prey by crawling along upon its
S belly, and then springs upon the back of its victim. It fre-

'~ R--'l


quently hides on the branches of trees, where its colour har-
monizes so well with the bark as to render it almost invisible
to those below. From this vantage-ground it springs with
unerring certainty and deadly effect on the passer-by whom
it destines for its prey. After having sucked the blood and
devoured the flesh of the beast, it carries the remainder to its
den. Cows defend themselves against the Puma by forming
a circle round their calves, and they often destroy their
assailant. The ass, too, by jerking out his heels, frequently
defeats the Puma, which is naturally a coward. Major Smith
quotes the following instance, which came under his own
notice, as a proof of the voracity of the Puma in devouring
its food. A captive Puma was ordered to be shot; and the
time fixed upon was immediately after the animal had re-
ceived its food. The first ball went through its body: the
only notice he took of it was by a shrill growl, at the same
time doubling his efforts to devour the food, which he actually
continued to swallow till he fell.
It is said that the Puma, or Cougar, seldom attacks a man
unless he springs upon him from behind. Even when it
ventures to attack a traveller, if he turns round and looks it
boldly in the face, the animal seems discomfited and retreats,
moving his head from side to side as if endeavouring to escape
the fixed gaze.

This animal is a native of both North and South America.
In the latter country he is called a Lion-in Europe he is
called the American Lion. He resembles the Lion only in
S colour, and in his voice, which is said to be a roar somewhat

] fl






like that of the lion of Africa. He has no mane. Indeed, the
only apparent reason for giving him the name of Lion is on
account of the absence of those spots or lines on his skin
which are so prominent a feature on other animals of the cat
tribe, with the exception of the lion.
In North America he is called panther, and, by common
people, painter. He used to inhabit the regions along the
Atlantic, and was often seen in New England and New York,
But he is now seldom found in the United States, except in
the remote wilds.

Two gentlemen were travelling in Ohio some years ago.
The country being thinly inhabited, and having some reason
to fear being robbed, they resolved to sleep in the woods. In
the night they heard something stealing softly through the
bushes upon them. Thinking it a robber, they waited a little,
and then rushed toward it. They saw nothing, but in the
morning they found their horses bloody and torn, and there-
fore knew that a Cougar, instead of a robber, had been prowl-
ing about them; and that this animal had chased the horses,
and scratched them with its claws.
A short time since, some gentlemen were hunting in
Pennsylvania: one of them shot a deer: on going up toward
it he saw a Cougar had taken possession of his prize. He shot
this Cougar; but on going nearer to the deer, he found that
another Cougar was engaged in 1, i -,i-; the animal, which
was not quite dead. After killing him also, the hunters were
able to take peaceable possession of their game.
The following tale is related by Captain Head:-

iT" -1


A gentleman was trying to shoot some wild ducks, and in
order to approach them unperceived, he put the corner of his
poncho, which is a sort of long narrow blanket, over his head,
and, crawling along the ground upon his hands and knees, the
poncho not only covered his body, but trailed along the ground
behind him.

'..;*l , -.t. ', ,

"As he was thus creeping by a large bush of reeds, he
suddenly heard a loud noise, between a bark and a roar; he
felt something heavy striking his feet, and instantly jumping
up, he saw, to his astonishment, a large Cougar, actually
standing on his poncho; and perhaps the animal was equally
astonished to find himself in the immediate presence of so
athletic a man.
"He told me he was unwilling to fire, as his gun was
loaded with very small shot; and he therefore remained
motionless, the Cougar standing on his poncho for many
*seconds. At last the creature turned his head, and walked
very slowly away."
The Cougar is still common in South America.
Mg^ _________.^ liT




T ..- L, ..i nI ..1. .I, -,i,' than the tiger, much resembles
him in form, and vies with him in the splendour of his coat
and the elegant ease of his movements. His length varies.
according to age and circumstances, from three to four feet.
His restless, crafty eye shows him to be possessed of great



It used to be said that the
trap, with a mirror so contri
the reflection of himself, would

Leopard could be caught by a
ved that the animal, on seeing
imagine that he had met with




cunning, while his motions, always abrupt and precipitate,
are full of grace.
In colour he is brighter than the panther, and the spots
on his skin are smaller, and so disposed as to resemble the
print of the animal's foot. The circular spots or rings on the
panther have frequently a spot in the middle; those of the
Leopard have none. He is very beautiful, and his skin is
much prized. He preys, like the panther, on antelopes, sheep,
monkeys, and other animals. He abounds in the interior
of Africa, and is found in Eastern and Southern Asia. The
negroes take Leopards by means of pit-falls, slightly covered
with hurdles, on which a piece of flesh is placed as a bait.
When he finds himself attacked, he will generally en-
deavour to steal away from his pursuers; but should he
receive a wound, he at once becomes dangerous, and will
charge the hunter with the utmost daring. The native
African hunter decorates himself with the spoils of the
Leopard; and if he can muster a necklace of Leopards' teeth,
a cloak of Leopards' skin, and seven or eight Leopards' tails
to suspend from his waist, he is in the height of fashion,
and an object of envy to all who do not possess these coveted
In the Island of Java a Leopard is found of so dark a
colour as to obtain the name of the Black Leopard, though
on close inspection the spots on his skin are visible.






an enemy, and so attack it; upon which the trap would spring
and secure him.

I have heard of a boy who had never seen a mirror, till one
day, when in a great passion, he happened to pass one. He
thought the image he saw was another boy, and it looked so
wicked, that he was very much alarmed. He lifted his stick
to defend himself, when the boy in the glass lifted his stick
also. He took this for a challenge, and struck at the imaginary
boy, thus dashing the mirror in pieces. The Leopard, then, is
not alone in disliking his own angry face, so long as he thinks
it belongs to another.
Not long ago, two of these animals, a male and female,
with three young ones, broke into a sheepfold at the Cape of
Good Hope. They killed nearly a hundred sheep, and regaled
themselves with the blood; after which they tore a carcase
into three pieces, and gave one of these to each of their off-
spring; they then took each a whole sheep, and thus laden,
began to retire ; but, having been observed, they were waylaid


r --- I ff

I i






on their return, and the female and the young ones were
killed, while the male effected his escape.
The Indian Leopard exercises the same caution and
cunning as its African namesake, and when occasion requires
it is as bold also.

THIS animal, which is called Youze in Persia, and Chotah

' _\ r


in India, combines something
of the dog with the usual
characteristics of the cat kind.
The ground-colour is a light,
tawny brown, marked with
numerous circular black spots.
In his domesticated state he
is one of the fondest and most
playful of animals, and has
none of the caprice and mis-

chievousness of the cat.
The Chetah, or Hunting Leopard, is about thirty-two
inches high, and differs from other members of the cat
tribe in that his claws are not retractile ; that is, he cannot
withdraw or protrude them at pleasure.
He is generally taken when very young, and trained to
hunting deer, antelopes, &c. ; and although the deer has the
advantage of speed, yet, aware of the terrible character of
his pursuer, he seems panic-stricken, and instead of continuing
his speed, falters and becomes confused, so that he easily falls
a prey to the Chetah, which bounds on to his back, fixes his




r E n


fangs in the throat, and there remains draining the blood till
driven away by the hunter.
This is a cruel, unmanly pursuit, for the "so-called sports-
man can only look calmly on, certain that the Chetah's fangs
and thirst of blood will be more than a match for the poor
bewildered deer.



THE Jaguar is somewhat less than the panther, but is like
him in shape. His colour is a brownish-yellow, with black
streaks and long open spots; the thighs and legs are marked


A Spaniard bein
horse near the place
that the horse was
Sand that the Jagu

g infor
ar, hav

med that a Jaguar had attacked a
he was, ran to the spot, and found
and part of his breast devoured;
ing probably been disturbed, had


with black spots, without the central spaces. The spots on
the leopard have a rounded outline, while those on the Jaguar
are more angular: the under parts of his body are of a greyish-
The Jaguar is a solitary animal, and inhabits thick forests
and the borders of rivers. He lives on small animals, but
will sometimes destroy cows, and even horses. He generally
retreats before a man, unless attacked or pursued.
The Jaguar has a wonderful power of climbing. Sonnini
tells us he has often seen, in the forests of Guiana, the marks
of this animal's claws on the smooth bark of a tree from forty
to fifty feet high, which had no branches except at its summit.
The Jaguar had evidently slipped more than once, but had
succeeded in reaching the top, and, no doubt, had secured the
prey of which he was in pursuit.
He often amuses himself in taking fish, by the following
artifice. He drops his spittle on the surface of the water, and
thus entices them to the top ; as they approach, he dexterously
knocks them out of the water, upon the shore, by a stroke of
his paw.
The Jaguar is peculiar to South America. He is called the
American Tiger, and resembles the true tiger more than any
other American animal.




fled. He then caused the body of the horse to be drawn
within musket-shot of a tree, in which he intended to pass
the night, anticipating that the Jaguar would return to its
victim; but while he was gone to prepare for his adventure,
the animal returned from the opposite side of a large and
deep river, and having seized the horse with his teeth, drew
it about sixty paces to the water, swam across with his prey,
and then dragged it into a neighboring wood, the whole
time in sight of the person who was left by the Spaniard, con-
cealed, to observe what might happen before his return.
The favourite food of the Jaguar is the flesh of the numerous
varieties of the monkey tribe, but it is not easy to procure;
the only chance is to pounce upon them unawares, or when
asleep: he is not over-nice, however, for he will feed on birds,
lizards, fish, turtles, deer, and even the horse is not secure
from his attack, as noticed in the foregoing anecdote. His
mode of attacking the horse shows, at the same time, his
immense strength and the determined ferocity of his
character when pressed with hunger: he leaps on the back of
the doomed animal, places one paw on the back of the head and
the other on the muzzle, and with a tremendous wrench dis-
locates the neck. Smaller animals are despatched with a single
blow of his powerful paw. His manner of dealing with the
turtle shows much discrimination : watching the female (for it
is generally the female turtle he selects) as she is slowly
making her way to the sea, he springs upon it, and adroitly
turns it on its back. There the poor turtle lies helpless ; but
at first sight it would seem not easy to be got at on account
of the strong shell which covers its body. The Jaguar, how-
ever, knows what he is about, and, inserting his strong claw







--=v--~ -- ______



40 -TALE

i Irr

in that part of the shell nearest the tail (which is the softest
and most suitable for his purpose), he tears away as much
as he can, and through the opening thus made scoops out the
flesh and vital parts as neatly as if spoons, knives, and forks
had done the work.
The taking of the Jaguar forms a portion of the warlike
features distinguishing the Indians of South America, par-
ticularly the Laneros, or men of the plains. One inducement
a Laneros has in pursuing the Jaguar is the honour attending
its capture, for "I apprehend," says a late traveller in South
America, the value of the skin, and the little depredations
it commits on the flocks would never induce him to risk a.
single combat with such fierce animals; but there is a stronger
stimulus, viz., that killing seven Jaguars, or six tigers, will
give him the title of guapo, or warrior. When the Laneros
wishes to secure the animal, he envelops himself in a Jaguar's
skin and approaches him, taking good care to have the wind
in his favour, as the Jaguar's keen scent would soon discover
the imposition. Even this sagacity and instinct they think
they have got over, by burning plantain-leaves, so as to take
away, for hours, any scent which the human body has; though
this is probably a mere fancy. As soon as the Laneros per-
ceives the Jaguar, he runs from him on all-fours, and en-
deavours to imitate the whining cry of the beast, which by
some is said to be like a cat, or like hogs crouching in a sty;
the latter is what I would compare them to, as I have seen
them mustering by night, previous to hunting. As soon as
the male perceives him he bounds towards him; when the
Laneros dexterously throws the noose (or lasso) over him, and
strangles him. Sometimes he wounds him with his lance

I Lj_






and then a sanguinary conflict takes place. As the Laneros
has his left arm bound round with tanned horse-skin, im-
pervious to the Jaguar's tusks, he presents his left hand; as
soon as the Jaguar seizes it, he is stabbed with a long knife
which seldom
misses the heart, ;.' "''- '
as the principal j'-"I-. '
excellence of. a : :'
guapo consists in -., : ''r
killing the beast .
with as few stabs / I -v. "." .-_2-.-
as possible. As I, ''--2 .
soon as he de- -- -
spatches the male, ----
the female becomes an easy prey. Sometimes the Laneros,
when their numbers are complete, will, to show their dexterity
and address, decoy the Jaguar into a defile, when the man un-
covers and shows himself; the Jaguar endeavours to retreat,
but is prevented by the other Indians, who scare him with
firebrands-for they can produce fire, by rubbing two pieces
of wood quickly together. In this manner they worry him
with dogs, while they keep him at bay until the women arrive
to witness their cruelty. As the Jaguar gets frantic, he en-
deavours to bite at everything near him; but as often as the
creature opens his mouth, he is sure to have a burning brand
thrust into his throat, until madness exhausts him, and he is
no longer able to close his jaws; then the women and boys
descend from their high positions, chop off his paws,
hammer out his teeth, and often skin him alive, while the
boys are smeared with the blood in order to make them good




*: 10




THE Ounce is

nearly of l
lBt~ -

less than the panther, seldom exceeding
three feet and a
S half in length:
..he is stronglong-
S, '.'- backed, short-
legged, and in
1\ ifr figure much re-

Sard. His ski is
L with irregular black marks.

warriors, and the mothers take delight in seeing the ani-
mosity they have to the creature, even when no longer able
to do any injury. As to the female Jaguar, they have only to
come near her couching-place to provoke a quarrel; she will
often attack them before they are within two hundred yards
of it: and in her they sometimes find a more formidable
enemy than in the male, though much inferior in point of
size and strength, but more subtle and crafty. Their bite is
difficult to heal, and the Laneros think a wound from a Jaguar
a great disgrace ; so much so, that a young aspirant for the
title of guapo, who had the misfortune to be wounded in a
rencontre, was so ashamed of acknowledging it, that he suf-
fered mortification sooner than expose the wound, although
he was well aware that the women possessed a salve that would
cure him."


His hair long, and rather shaggy. The lower parts of his
body are of a lighter colour than the upper.
This animal preys on antelopes and other small animals.
He is easily tamed, and is used in Persia for the chase of
antelopes and hares. He is a native of Asia and Africa

The method of hunting with the Ounce is as follows. He
is carried on horseback behind the rider, on a small leather
pad, made for the purpose. As soon as the horseman sees an
antelope at a moderate distance, he makes the Ounce descend,
which, creeping unperceived near the spot, springs, at five or
six amazing leaps, suddenly upon it, and seizes it securely by
the neck. The scent of the Ounce being much inferior to
that of the dog, he hunts almost entirely by the eye.


THIS animal is about as large as the ounce: his tail is much
shorter, and black at the extremity. His ears arc erect, with
a pencil of black hair at the tip; the fur is long and thick;
the upper part of the body is a pale grey, with a reddish tinge,
marked with small dusky spots; the under parts white;
but it is said these animals change their colour with the



IFF 74 -- IlI




change of season and climate. The tail of the Lynx is short,
seldom exceeding seven, and frequently not reaching six,
inches. The skin of the male is more beautifully marked
than that of the female. He is not a powerful animal, and
offers little resistance when attacked. In captivity he is one
of the most untamable of the cat race, and utters a snarling
scream on being irritated in the slightest degree.
There are several varieties of Lynxes. The European is
spread over a great part of the Continent, being found from
Scandinavia to the Pyrenees. It is met with in the northern
portions of Asia. Another kind, distinguished by the name
of Pardine Lynx, from its spotted coat, is found in the more
southern districts of Europe. The New World produces the
Canada Lynx, commonly termed the Peethoo by the natives.
The Booted Lynx is so named from the black hair which
covers the sides and hinder parts of the legs, giving it the
appearance of wearing boots. It is found in Asia and Africa.
The Lynx climbs the highest trees, and preys on squirrels,
deer, hares, and other small animals. He is fond of blood,
and kills great numbers of animals to satisfy this unconquer-
able thirst. Sharp-sighted as a Lynx," is a well-known
The Lynx will sometimes undermine a sheepfold, for the
purpose of killing the sheep. It is related that, in Norway,
a Lynx made an attempt of this sort upon a fold; he had just
got his head in sight, when an old goat very deliberately
marched up, and butted him to death in his burrow.
N La________S ~


I think this a well-merited reception for all house-
breakers, whether they bear the name of Lynx or not.


THE Caracal, which is the lynx of the ancients, is only
found in hot countries. It is common in Barbary, Arabia,
and the southern half of Asia. In size it is somewhat larger
than a fox, but is much more strong and fierce. The stripe
of black hair at the extremity of the ears marks its affinity
with the lynx ; but, in several other respects, it differs consi-
derably from that animal. It is not spotted as he is; its hair
is rougher and shorter; its tail is larger, and uniform in
colour; it has a more lengthened snout; and its appearance
and disposition are more savage. As the strength of the
Caracal does not enable him to assail large animals, he attacks
hares, rabbits, and birds; of the latter he is exceedingly fond,
and will pursue them with astonishing swiftness, to the tops
of the highest trees. He seems, however, to derive his
principal support from the leavings of the more potent car-
nivorous destroyers. From the refuse of what the lion has
devoured, the Caradal enjoys many a comfortable meal.
Though not strong enough to encounter a beast of mag-
nitude, he has been known to tear into pieces, in a few minutes,
a large dog, who, fighting for his life, defended himself with
all his might. It is very difficult to tame him: in captivity
he is extremely sulky, and snarls furiously whenever he is

II _! .


1 *

noticed. It is, nevertheless, said, that if he is taken when
young, and carefully trained, he may be used in the chase,
provided he is let loose only against such animals as are his
inferiors, and unable to resist him. Should the service be
one of danger, he declines having anything to do with it.
From this it appears, that if he is not an amiable beast, he is
certainly a prudent one.


THESE animals seem to hold a middle station between the
~leopard and the
domestic cat, are
slender in their
forms, and are the
'most beautiful of
'" the cat family.
When full grown,
'- they are about
S' i three feet long,
--. ''and eighteen
inches high. There are several varieties of the Ocelot. Some
naturalists have divided them into the Common, the Grey,
and the Painted Ocelot.
The Common Ocelot, the skin of which is of a lightish
grey-fawn colour, marked with broken bands of deep fawn
colour, edged with black, running along the line of the

f i t


THE Serval is a beautiful, but wild and voracious quad-
ruped, resembling the panther in its spots, but the lynx in the
shortness of its tail, in its size, and in its strongly-built form.


body; the band that extends along the spine being alone
unbroken: on the neck, inside the limbs, and on the head,
these bands are broken into spots and short lines of black
The Grey Ocelot is so distinguished on account of the lighter
hue of the fur, and the absence of spots or lines on the lower
part of the body.
The Painted Ocelot is marked in the richest manner with
numerous spots set closely together: the skins of all are in
much request.
The Ocelot is sufficiently active, vigorous, and fierce to
become an awkward opponent if wounded, or otherwise
irritated : in captivity it soon learns to distinguish friends
from foes, but is of a capricious, uneven temper.
The Ocelot is widely spread over the American continent,
being found in the far-separated regions of Mexico and
Paraguay. It abides in the depths of the forests during the
day, and gives chase at night to birds and small quadrupeds.
As it is an active climber, it follows the monkeys into the
trees, and they and the birds are its most frequent prey.

L-, ..



It is seldom seen on the ground, but lives chiefly in trees,
where it makes its nest and breeds its young. Birds are its
principal food ; and in pursuit of them it leaps from tree to
tree with the agility of the monkey or squirrel. It is a native
of the mountains of India.


THE Wild Cat is not nearly so frequently found as for-
merly in this country, the conversion of the various extensive
forests into cultivated land, and the spread of civilization, has
gone far to exterminate it or at any rate to drive it further
northward, since it is still occasionally, but rarely, met with
in Scotland. The difference between the Wild and Domestic
Cat is most marked by their tails, that of the domestic cat
being long, slender, and tapering, while the Wild Cat's caudal
appendage is much shorter and more bushy.

Wild Cats live in hollow trees, in the fissures of rocks and
in the cavities of precipices, from which they steal forth
usually in the night in search of prey. They live on birds
and small animals.
Their howl in the forest at night has a peculiarly startling
and thrilling effect. The low melancholy wail of the Wild
Cat seems to impress upon the traveller in the wilderness a

Ir" ,i!



sense of solitude and desolation, which is never forgotten
when it has been once experienced.

The Wild Cat has often been known to attack furiously a
person who has wounded it. At Barnborough, a village in
Yorkshire," says Mr. Bingley, "there is a tradition extant oli
a serious conflict that once took place between a man and a
Wild Cat. The inhabitants say, that the fight commenced in
an adjacent wood, and that it was continued thence into the
porch of the church. I do not recollect in what manner it is
reported to have begun; but they say it ended fatally to both
combatants. A rude painting in the church commemorates
the event; and the natural red tinges on some of the stones
are considered stains of blood still remaining."
The most formidable of the Wild Cat's antagonists is the
pine martin, a much smaller animal. Their mode of fighting is
described with admirable spirit by the author of the British
Naturalist. "The onset," says he, "is one of some skill on both
sides. The aim of the Cat is to pounce with her paws on the
head of the martin, in such a way that the claws may destroy
or wound his eyes, while her teeth are imbedded in his neck ;
and if she can accomplish that, the fate of the martin is decided.
That, however, if done at all, must be done in a moment, and
if it be lost, there is no repairing the mistake. The spring of
the Wild Cat is larger than that of her opponent, and the Cat
takes up her position so that she shall, if possible, alight upon
his head with her full spring and impetus. To distract her
attention, he keeps moving his head from side to side, and if
he succeeds in his object, he rushes to close quarters by a side
u ^E U--h4

nJ .I


movement. If the spring of the Cat takes proper effect, there
is a struggle, but not of long duration; and it is the same with
the opposite result, if the Cat miss and the martin fasten,
during the short pause of exhaustion after the spring. Should
both miss the contest is renewed, and seldom in the observed
cases (which indeed are not very numerous) given up until
one is killed; and in a protracted contest, the martin is always
the victor, as the Cat is first exhausted by the greater weight
of her body, and the violence of her leaps."

THERE are many species of Cats in various parts of the
world, but I will not load your memory with more than these
three, and our own domestic Grimalkin.
The LINEATED CAT is a native of Guiana, in South America,
and is larger than the Wild Cat. It has a very flat, broad
head, slender body, and exceedingly strong legs. Whitish
grey and white, with black tawny-edged streaks, are its pre-
vailing colours. The legs are all dark grey as far as the knees.
An officer of the Rifle corps, having shot one of these crea-
tures, had it stuffed and sent to England. On his descent of
the river Paramaribo, he placed the stuffed animal on the awn-
ing of the boat. The boat often passed under the branches of
large trees, which overhung the water, and which were much
frequented by monkeys. No sooner did these cunning little
creatures observe the stuffed specimen, than the whole com-
S munity trooped off with prodigious screams and howlings.

i -I



It was of course surmised, from their excessive terror, that
this was one of their most inveterate enemies.
The JAVAN CAT, which is a native of Java, is one of the
most untamable of animals. It is about two feet long, and
its general colour is a greyish brown. From head to tail it
has four rows of elongated spots, and the sides are regularly
covered with smaller spots. It inhabits all the larger forests
of Java, retreating into the hollows of trees during the day,
and sallying forth at night to commit depredations among the
poultry of the neighboring villages. The natives assert that,
to take the fowls by surprise, it imitates their voice.
The ANGOnA CAT is just as remarkable for the sweetness
of its temper as the Javan Cat is for its ferocity. When
M. Sonnini was in Egypt, he had a Cat of this kind, which
displayed the warmest attachment to him. It was no less
beautiful than amiable. It was entirely covered with long
silky hairs: its tail formed a magnificent plume, which the
animal elevated at pleasure over its body. No spot or dark
shade tarnished the dazzling lightness of its coat. Its nose
and lips were of a delicate rose tint. Two large eyes sparkled
in its round head; one of which was a bright yellow, and
the other a fine blue colour.


THE Domestic Cat i,
its appearance, as it is i


s so common that I need not describe


)) j


found in almost all


I ii

It I


The skin of the Cat is exceedingly tender, which renders it
very susceptible of cold, and afraid of being beaten. This
leads the animal to be assiduous in searching for a warm
place. The feet of the Cat, though they are thickly clothed
with hair above, and padded with a soft cushion of thickened
epidermis, intermediate between cartilage and tendon, on the
soles, may be always observed to be cold to the touch when
the animal has been exposed to a low temperature, as are the
ears likewise ; and in such circumstances it manifests its un-
comfortable feelings
by wandering about
till it can find a
warm corner. This
desire for warmth
4"''' appears to us to be
the chief cause
Ii, which prevents our
,, -'"- Domestic Cats from
--ever becoming wild;
for in every part of
the country where
there are woods, they might find abundant prey; and it is
well known that after cats take to bird-catching in the woods,
they never eat anything dead, but with reluctance. We have
had many opportunities of observing Cats in this half-wild
state; but though they depended for food wholly upon the
birds and mice they could catch, and were so wild as scarcely
to permit themselves to be seen, much less approached, yet
no instance ever came to our knowledge of their having
made their domicile in the woods; but they uniformly slept


II nh





Notwithstanding these unamiable traits, her grace, beauty,
softness, and insinuating manners, make Puss a general
favourite, particularly with ladies.
Every person is acquainted with the playfulness of kittens.
Indeed, nothing is more amusing than their happy gambols.
Alas! that they should ever cease to be kittens, and get to be
old Cats; that they should lose their gentleness and vivacity.
Yet, to do Puss justice, we could not well do without her.
But for her, our houses would be overrun with rats and mice,
and our very food would be stolen and carried away by these
greedy creatures.

and littered in the least frequented barns and outhouses of
farms. This we are inclined to attribute to their finding
such places warmer than any they could discover in the woods,
and to the supply of mice they might find there when
birds were less plentiful; for it could not well be traced to
their attachment to man, from whom they always fled as
fearfully as a fox.
The Cat is assiduous to please, but is sly, distrustful, and
treacherous. She will take advantage of your inattention, to
steal your breakfast; and if by chance you tread on the tail
of one that has been your favourite for years, she will turn on
you with teeth and claws, and retaliate the accident with the
fiercest spite. Their affection is only apparent; they are not
attached to persons, but to places. They do not easily ex-
change their residence, but they forget their old friends, and
form a new attachment, in cases where one family leaves a
house and another enters it, with great facility.



I *- -

r14 I


One of the most remarkable qualities of the domestic Cat
is the anxiety with which it makes itself acquainted, not only
with every part of its usual habitation, but with the dimen-
sions and external qualities of every object by which it is
surrounded. Cats do not very readily adapt themselves to a
change of houses: but we have watched the process by
which one, whose attachment to a family is considerable, re-
conciles itself to such a change.
He surveys every room in the house, from the garret to the
cellar; if a door is shut, he waits till it be opened, to com-
plete the survey ; he ascertains the relative size and position of
every article of furniture; and when he has acquired this
knowledge, he sits down contented with his new situation.
It appears necessary to a Cat that he should be intimately
acquainted with every circumstance of his position, in the
same way that a general first examines the face of the country
in which he is to conduct his operations. If a new piece of
furniture, if even a large book or portfolio, is newly placed in
a room which a Cat frequents, he walks round it, smells it,
takes note of its size and appearance, and then never troubles
himself further about the matter.
A curious fact connected with the Domestic Cat is the
property which its fur possesses of yielding electric sparks
by rubbing. In frosty weather this is occasionally very extra-
I have told you that Cats attach themselves more to places
than persons; but I had a Cat for some years which learned
to know my regular time for coming home in an evening,
L~k___ ^



and as the time drew near invariably sat on the chair
nearest the door, and as soon as I came in leaped on my
breast, where she remained until 1 took my seat, when she
claimed my lap as her resting-place, purring her satisfac-
tion as long as I remained seated: her colour was black,
with a white breast and fore-paws.
Cats are said to possess the power of fascinating birds, so
-;, t.:. ,uL i.h,-i u ,--- "i'i,.* I.:.li t .; u, i-lab- t],. I:..1-
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: li t l.:- ; i n .ji i..- t'l i L[, l 1l : l i l: ...
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*l1 ___________




appeared that it was affection, not hunger, which incited her,
as she suckled them and brought them up as their mother."
The Isle of Man possesses a peculiar breed of Cats, known
as Manx Cats, which are covered with a short, close-set fur,
and possess scarcely the vestige of a tail, the place of which is
only indicated by a rather wide protuberance. It is by
no means so pretty an object as our own domestic Cat; and
the absence of the tail destroys the graceful undulating move-
ments of our own home pet. The Manx Cat, especially if it
be a black one, seems, from its weird-like appearance, to be
a fit companion for those silly old women who, under the
reign of the British Solomon, suffered death as witches, and
who, it was commonly reported, were attended by a familiar
in the shape of a black Cat.
Thus I have told you of several of the most remarkable and
interesting of those animals which belong to the Cat family:
the Lion, Tiger, Panther, Cougar, Leopard, Jaguar, Ounce,
Ocelot, Caracal, Lynx, Wild Cat, Serval, and Domestic Cat.
There are several others belonging to the race, but I have
not space to mention them in this little volume.
All these animals resemble each other in their construc-
tion and habits: they are all furnished with sharp teeth to
tear their prey; and they are all endowed with instincts
which lead them to feed on the flesh of other animals.





MUCH conjecture has been hazarded as to the parent stock
from which the numerous different descriptions of the Dog
have sprung. Some writers have awarded to the wolf, or the
fox, the honours of paternity; while others think that the
Kholsun or Dhole, which is found in the western frontiers of
British India, and the wild dog, or Buansuah, which inhabits
Northern India and Nepal, are entitled to divide this honour
between them; while others, again, assert that the Shepherd's
Dog is the original stock from which all the varieties have,
by intermixture, descended. However this may be settled,






this we know, that a man seldom finds a more faithful friend
than he has in his Dog ; for in adversity or prosperity the poor
Dog is still the same affectionate and faithful servant of his
master, and more especially so if his master treat him with
The intelligence and docility of the Dog have been brought
out or cultivated by his constant association with man as
companion of his home, his walks, his sports, or his employ-

THIs magnificent Dog derives its first title from the locality
in which it lives, and its second from the monastery of St.
Bernard's, where a number are kept, which, when the sudden
storms of the Alpine districts occur, are sent out to succour
travellers, who, but for their aid, would be lost in the snow.
These Dogs are trained to render this service; and their great
strength enables them to scratch away the snow beneath
which the unfortunate traveller is nearly buried, while their
fine sense of smell discovers him, should he be entirely
covered. On removing the snow the Dog stretches himself
upon the traveller (so that he may communicate warmth to
his already-chilled body), and then commences a loud baying,
which is heard by the good monks, who hasten to the rescue.
One of these noble dogs was decorated with a medal, in
commemoration of his having saved the lives of twenty-two
persons who, but for his sagacity, must have perished. He








was lost, however, at last, in an attempt to convey a poor
traveller to his anxious family. The man was a Piedmontese
courier, who arrived at St. Bernard in a very stormy season,
labouring to make his way to the village of St. Pierre in the
valley beneath the mountain, where his wife and children
dwelt. It was in vain the monks sought to alter his resolu-
tion to reach his home. They at last gave him two guides,
each of whom was accompanied by a dog, one of which was
the remarkable creature whose services had been so valuable
to mankind. Descending from the convent, they were in an
instant overwhelmed by two avalanches, and the same common
destruction overtook the family of the poor courier who were
toiling up the mountain to obtain some news of their expected
protector. The whole family, with the good monks and the
valuable dogs, perished.


THE Cuban Mastiff was not originally a native of the
country from which it derives its name, but is supposed to
be the produce of the Bloodhound and the true Mastiff. It
was imported into Cuba, where the breed has been perpetu-
ated, and was taught by its owner to chase men, and not deer
or other game.
When the Spaniards invaded America they took with them
a number of these Dogs, which by their sagacity, ferocity,
and keenness of scent, greatly contributed to the success of
their masters, and were regarded by the poor natives as the

t- __________


very incarnation of evil. In more recent times these Dogs
were employed against the rebels who rose against the go-
vernment in Jamaica: indeed, it is considered that, had it
not been for their sagacity and the terror with which they
inspired the rebels, all the Europeans on the island would
have perished.

The NEWFOUNDLAND DOG is remarkable for his handsome,
intelligent looks, his fine temper, and magnanimity. He is
smaller than the St. Bernard's Dog, but is very powerful, and
an excellent swimmer ; he has often been instrumental in
saving the lives of persons who have been nearly drowned,
while his sagacity, attachment to his master, and fine, noble
presence, make him a general favourite. He was first brought
from Newfoundland (whence his name), and there he is em-
ployed in very heavy work, and so scantily fed that his many
good qualities, not stimulated by kindness as they generally
are in this country, are kept in abeyance; for travellers tell
us that the Newfoundlanders yoke these dogs to sledges for
drawing heavy loads, and think the offal of fish quite suf-
ficient for their food. When the busy time of the year is
over, they are turned out to provide for themselves, and often
commit great havoc among the sheep.
There are two distinct breeds of Newfoundland Dog, one
known also as the Labrador Dog, about twenty-four to
twenty-six inches high, and the other about thirty-two inches
high. In this country these fine animals are the friends and
companions of their owners, and faithfully do they serve and
repay them for the kindness they receive.

[ i r i -E O- .i



Tms noble animal is one of the most magnificent of
domesticated Dogs, and is highly esteemed for its faithful-
ness to his owner, by whom he is employed as a guard for
his house, family, and property, during his long and frequent
absences from home. The Bhoteas, or inhabitants of the
Table-land of the Himalayan Mountains, are a singular race
of beings, of a copper complexion, short in stature, but of
good dispositions: they are tillers of the ground, and possess
large flocks of sheep. The men frequently leave their moun-
tain homes and descend to the valleys, bringing borax, tincal,
and musk for sale, sometimes journeying as far as Calcutta.
At these times the women, children, and flocks remain at
home safe in the guardianship of these huge Dogs.
The colour of the Thibet Dog is most commonly deep
black, with a tawny patch over each eye. Their pendant lips
give them a curious aspect, and the skin seems to fit the body
very loosely.


THE Bloodhound is a tall, well-formed animal, remarkable
for his strong powers of smelling. Our ancestors used these
dogs to recover game that had escaped wounded from the
hunter, or had been stolen out of the forest, and also to track
the footsteps of robbers and thieves. They have been used
in deer-stalking to track the wounded animals ; but their

uncertain temper and desire for blood sometimes made it
dangerous for even their master to approach until the Dog
had satisfied his appetite. A well-bred Bloodhound should
be of one uniform colour, deep fawn or blackish tan, with no
white except on the tip of his tail. In the Spanish West
Indies they are used for hunting criminals. The Bloodhounds
are accompanied by chasseurs, each of whom hunts with two
Dogs. The chasseur lives with his Dogs, and is inseparable
from them.

THIs species of Dog is becoming exceedingly scarce in
England: he is a very powerful Dog, and has so exquisite a
sense of smell that he has been known to hit off" the scent
an hour after it had been given up by other hounds. He has
a long body, deep chest, long sweeping ears, and a peculiarly
deep and mellow voice.
The STAG HouND, which is becoming exceedingly rare, is
closely allied to the Bloodhound, partaking also the nature of
the Greyhound. It is considerably lighter than the Blood-
hound, with great length of limb, but not so speedy as its
appearance would indicate. Its courage, speed, and determi-
nation have often been put to severe test. Two of these
hounds, having left the remainder of the pack behind, chased
a stag upwards of one hundred miles, and all three were found
dead within a short distance of each other.


nooG. 63

THIS is the best known of all the Dogs bearing the
common title of hound," and great care and attention have
been bestowed to bring him to perfection. Nor has the care
been bestowed in vain. The British sportsman has suc-
ceeded in obtaining an animal which, though much smaller
and lighter, possesses in a large degree the exquisite sense of
smell, courage, speed, determined character, and perseverance
of the Bloodhound, without his dangerous uncertainty of
temper. The height of a Fox-hound should not exceed
twenty-five inches, and it is important that all the hounds in
a pack should be as near alike in size and speed as possible.
They vary in colour; but black, white, and a tawny red in
patches, are the prevalent colours.

So called because it is used in hare-hunting, partakes
much of the nature of the Fox-hound, but is smaller; indeed,
frequently Fox-hounds that are considered too small are
drafted into the "Harrier pack." The true Harrier, how-
ever, has a more melodious tongue, and a finer sense of smell
than the Fox-hound, which latter accomplishment enables
him to follow all the turnings and windings of the hare with
the utmost nicety. The Harrier ought not to exceed nine-
teen inches in height. In colour ho resembles the Fox-



THERE are three varieties of this hound:-
The BEAGLE (proper) resembles the Harrier, but is
heavier about the shoulders and throat, with a larger body
and stouter limbs. He is not so speedy as the Harrier, and
stands from twelve to fifteen inches high.

The ROUGH BEAGLE is by some supposed to be a distinct
variety; but I suppose it is only a mixture of Beagle and
Terrier blood. Its coat is rough and wiry; it has the squeak-
ing bark of the Terrier, and, like him, its nose is furnished
with stiff whisker hairs.

The DWARF, or RABBIT BEAGLE is the smallest of all the
Dogs used for the chase, but has a good nose, and is swifter
of foot than his size would warrant. The reader may form a
just opinion of the size of these little Dogs when he is told
that a whole pack have been conveyed to the hunting field in
the pockets of two of the sportsmen.

THE Mastiff is large, powerful, and courageous, with a
massive head and pendant lips ; he has a noble countenance,
is very intelligent, and in great request as a watch-dog; his
activity, power, and courage render him a terrible opponent
to those who would attempt to make free with the property
be is appointed to protect. There is some generosity in his

pmz====: --^i

disposition, for he is said not to tear his opponent unless
resisted, but only to hold him down till assistance arrives,
He seems glad to afford his protection to all who are weaker
than himself; and when annoyed by smaller Dogs disdains to

use his immense strength to their permanent injury, but
merely inflicts some slight punishment to show his superiority.
The hair of the Mastiff is smooth, and varies in colour from
a reddish fawn, with brindlings, to patches of white and
darker colours.


UNLIKE the hounds we have been describing, the Grey-
hound follows his game by sight and not by scent; his form
is admirably adapted for speed, and denotes greater capability
of endurance; his long slender legs, on which the muscles
stand out like whipcord, deep, broad chest, affording ample

! 1

r---- r;-- S U -- .




I ,
t %' ~ -

_-- __~Lr,


room for the play of his lungs, fine head, sharp-pointed
muzzle, graceful neck, and long tapering tail, all seem specially
arranged to offer the least possible resistance to his rapid
The Greyhound is used for coursing the hare; and while
we speak offox-hInting and hare-hunting, we call this kind of
sport Greyhound-coursing. The marvellous swiftness of the
Greyhound far surpasses that of the hare; but the latter is
able to make short quick turns in rapid succession, so that
her pursuer, running at full speed, overshoots her, and has to
make a wide circuit before he can again come on her track,
and thus the poor hare frequently escapes into cover, from
whence the Greyhound, being without scent,'is unable to
drive her.
A well-bred English Greyhound is smooth-haired, and his
easy springy action as he trots by the side of his master suffi-
ciently denotes his swiftness when excited by the sight of

The SHEPHERD'S DOG. This is by many writers considered
to be emphatically the native Dog of Great Britain, from
which all other breeds have descended; the difference in form,
disposition, and instinct, being obtained by a mixture with
other species. Living in almost constant companionship
with the shepherds, their masters, these Dogs attain a high
degree.of intelligence, and the most wonderful tales are told
of their cleverness; indeed, in the widely-spread districts
which are devoted to sheep-farming, it is easier for one shep-
herd and his faithful Dog to manage a large flock of sheep
Than it would be for many shepherds without Dogs. Numerous
9)z 1-
t --- ^ ZL----

1~11 .. ~-- ----;-~II

- -It =


instances are on record showing the great care and patience
displayed by these Dogs in the discharge of their duty. They
are covered with a rough, warm, wiry kind of fur, enabling
them to bear exposure to all kinds of weather; and their fine
intelligent faces, as they listen to the orders of their master,
show how readily these orders are understood.

The ScorcH GREYHOUND is rougher in its coat even than
the Irish, but is seldom so tall as the English breed, the
average height being about twenty-eight inches. I consider
there is only one breed of the Scotch Greyhound, though some,
from being trained to chase the deer, obtain the name of
Deer-hounds, and these appear to enter so entirely into the
peculiarities of this particular kind of sport that they are not
of much use in coursing the hare. It is asserted that the
Scotch Deer-hound possesses the power of scent, while the
Greyhound does not; however this may be, it seems agreed
that the Deer-hound carries its head higher in the chase.

The IRISH GREYHOUND is a very fine animal, usually of a
palish-fawn colour, and very firmly built; he is provided with
a rougher coat than his English namesake. When not excited
by the sight of his game, or from some other cause, he is very
peaceably disposed; but when aroused shows a most deter-
mined spirit. In former times this Dog was used for
destroying the wolves and wild boars that infested the
country. His action in fighting is peculiar: he seizes his
antagonist by the back and literally shakes his life out.

r-1I. ===D == r --i






PARTAKING of the natures of the Greyhound and the Shep-
herd's Dog (his progenitors),
he possesses the qualities of
each in a remarkable manner,
and may be trained indiffer-
S ently to perform the duties
of either. The poor Lurcher
-:has obtained a bad character
in spite of his handsome
appearance, great intelligence
and eminent qualities of speed and scent. These good
qualities, indeed, fit him so completely for the purpose of
securing game that he is the constant companion of poachers,
and so obtains that disreputable character which ought to
attach to his masters. His sagacity is wonderful; he soon
learns to understand that his duties demand secrecy in their
performance, and the unspoken commands of his master he
easily comprehends.

THE OTTER HOUND is used almost exclusively for hunting
the animal from which it is named, and is a very active, bold,
and hardy animal. Great courage is necessary to attack so
lithe a creature as the otter, which can, with its long teeth,
inflict serious and very painful wounds: this courage the
Otter Hound possesses in a large degree, degenerating in
some into needless ferocity. There is no Dog which fights
so savagely or bites so fiercely as the Otter Hound : indeed
his attack is more to be dreaded than that of the Bnll Dog;






~-~E3~ -






The ENGLISH SETTER is one of the most valuable of our
sporting Dogs, and is justly esteemed for his handsome appear-
ance, hardiness, and activity. He is possessed of exquisite
scent and sagacity. It is quite a treat to see him enter a field,



for while the latter fixes his teeth and hangs, the Otter Hound
tears away its teeth without relaxing its jaws, and imme-
diately seizes its antagonist with a second gripe. These
Hounds, having to endure great hardship, are furnished with
strong, rough, wiry coats, and the face and muzzle are guarded
with a profusion of whiskers. It takes the water readily after
its prey, and displays great science in overcoming him.
The SPANISH POINTER is, as its name implies, of Spanish
extraction, but
has long been ,
naturalized in
Great Britain ,
where it is in -5,
high favour as a ,
sporting Dog. It :. -.
is remarkable for
the facility with which it receives instruction, and is used by
sportsmen to find and point out partridges, pheasants, and
other game. It is a fine clean-limbed Dog, with smooth hair,
generally of a liver-and-white colour, having a large head and
slightly pendant lips.
The ENLIsH POINTER resembles the Spanish; but requires
greater care and patience in its instructors, and is capable of
enduring more fatigue than the Spanish.




and observe how carefully he quarters or divides it into
such equal parts as to make sure of his leaving no portion of
it untried. See how he races over the ground, with head and
tail well up, until, catching the scent, he at once drops on
his belly and cautiously creeps forward, thus setting the game
to his master.
The SPANIEL is of Spanish extraction. His form is ele-
gant; he has long pendant ears; and his hair, of silky soft-
ness, is gracefully curled or waved. His scent is keen, and he
is sagacious, docile, and very affectionate. Instances have been
known of a Spaniel dying of grief for the loss of its master.
Dash, a Dog of this species, belonging to Mr. T. M. Maude,
of Selaby Park, in the county of Durham, would not quit his
late owner's bed after his death: he was taken away and
much caressed, but he perpetually returned to the room, and
daily visited the grave ; he died at the end of fourteen days.
The Spaniel is employed in setting for partridges and other
birds, and he performs his task with the utmost steadiness
and patience. He may
be taught fetching,
.. '- carrying, diving, and
a ea y variety of tricks.
is one of the most
;- docile of Dogs, and
,_ most attached to man.
Neither unkindness
nor blows can diminish his affection for his master. He is
used for hunting of otters, ducks, and water-fowl. As soon
-iE'aL __ __ ____



as the gun is discharged, he swims after the game, and brings
it to his master. He will fetch and carry, dive after a piece
of money, and bring it to his owner's feet. As the poet Cowper
was walking by the side of the Ouse,.with his spaniel Beau,
he was desirous to obtain one of the water-lilies out of the
river, but was unable to reach it. Beau seemed anxious
to assist him, but the poet called him off, and pursued his
ramble. On his return, however, Beau rushed into the
stream, cropped a lily, and laid it at his master's feet.
There are many varieties of the Spaniel. They are all
characterized by superior sagacity and -1..1.;t ,-.

The SPRINGER is a very lively species of Dog, used prin-
cipally in starting woodcocks and other birds in swamps and
marshes. There is a variety of this Dog called the Cocker,
which is smaller.

The WATER DOG. This Dog, which in size is between the
Spaniel and the Pointer, has a
roundish head, short nose, long N
hanging ears, and hair in short
curls. The webs between the
toes are larger than in most
other Dogs, which renders it
an excellent swimmer. The jet
black with white feet are the -
most esteemed. It is often M-ji _-.' I-
kept on board ship, to fetch
out of the water any small article which has dropped over-

-9 _____

, II





TERmIERs of all kinds are the best known- of all British
Dogs, and the numerous crosses have increased their varieties
in a greater degree than those of any others.

The ENGLISH TERRIER is generally black, with tanned legs.
He possesses a smooth coat, a tapering muzzle, and a bright
intelligent eye. His natural instincts prompt him to dig
in the ground, and his shoulders and forelegs have the proper
development to enable him to do so with much ease. He is
not naturally a high-couraged Dog, and the celebrated Dog
Billy, that destroyed one hundred rats in a few minutes, owed
his courage to a mixture of the Bull Dog.

The BULL TERRIER is one of the best types of British
sporting Dogs, uniting the activity and intelligence of the
Terrier with the unhesitating courage of the Bull Dog. His
intelligence, added to his quick eye and delicate scent, renders
him invaluable in facing those small animals which are apt to
turn upon their antagonists.

The SCOTCH TERRIER is rough coated, always ready to join his
master in any sport he may be inclined for, and never better
pleased than when he can comprehend his wishes and carry
them into effect. The Scotch resembles the English Terrier
in colour, but has also its varieties, the most celebrated of
which is the Daudie Dinmont breed. There are two varieties
of this breed, the "Pepper" and Mustard." The former
is of a bluish-grey colour, while the latter is a ruddy-
brown. When mature these are both high-couraged active
animals, with rough wiry hair, pendant ears, and short legs.





The SKYE TERRIER has of late years become a great
favourite as a pet dog. These animals are long in the body,
short in the leg, have strong necks, and slightly elongated
heads, covered with a rough wiry coat; the hair is extremely
long and hangs straight and close to the body, while the head
is almost hidden by the profusion of hair falling over it;
indeed the true breed is distinguished by the quantity of hair
falling over the head. The fine silky-haired breed is obtained
by crossing with the smaller breed of spaniels.

The CoAcH Doo is remarkable for beauty, it being white,
elegantly and profusely marked with round black spots. The
handsome appearance of this animal has occasioned it to be
employed as an attendant on gentlemen's carriages. It has
been erroneously called the Danish Dog, but its native country
is Dalmatia, on the Adriatic coast.

The BULL DOG is noted for his ferocity, courage, and deter-
mination: he was formerly used in that cruel and debasing
sport, bull-baiting; and such was his antipathy to the bull, that
he could not be prevented rushing upon him and seizing him by
the nose, by which he would hang, despite allthe shaking and
tossing of that poor ill-used animal. The Bull Dog possesses
the pendant lips and peculiar mastiff-like formation of the
head which betoken the indomitable courage he exhibits. He
is almost as dangerous to his master as to strangers, for, owing
to his uncertain temper, he will attack any man or animal
that excites his anger; and he possesses this singularity,
that he makes his attack silently, never barking before he





1 I



-*i," k

-, ,



.. "-

. U .

* -- .-_

THIS animal, which is also called the Australasian and
Australian Dog, and by the natives the Dingo, is about two
feet high, and two feet and a half long. It is a native of
Australia, but is not known in Van Diemen's Land. It has
muscular legs, a head like a fox, erect ears, a bushy tail, and
long straight hair, which is generally brown. It seldom if ever
barks, but howls in a dismal manner, and not unfrequently
yelps like the common Dog. The Dingo is extremely vora-
cious and fierce. Sheep in great numbers are often worried
by it in the course of one night. The kangaroo is also sub-
ject to its attacks. A settler watched one which was pur-


\.y ,-



Y Iri)


II 1


suing a kangaroo of some size: when the latter turned round
to fight, the Dog would leave it; but the moment the kanga-
roo set off again, its pursuer would keep biting at the hind
quarters : this went on till the former was exhausted : at this
moment the settler rode up and secured it. There is little
doubt that the Dingoes (at least occasionally) hunt in packs,
as several of them have been found together. A gentleman
came unexpectedly upon no less than thirteen: they were
devouring a young bullock, and close by were the remains of
a calf, a mare, and a colt, supposed to have been killed by
the dogs.


SOUTHERN AFRICA is the native country of these Dogs,
which are a serious nuisance -
to the Cape frontier settle-
ments. They hunt in packs,
usually at night, and are re-
markably fierce, swift, and
agile. Sheep are frequently '
worried by them; but they ..--
will not venture to attack the -
horse or the ox unless they -
can steal upon these animals
when asleep, and then the tail seems to be their favourite
object. The wounds which they give are generally mortal.
Their ferocity appears to be unconquerable. Mr. Burchell,


I~---U I






who first brought one to England, kept it for twelve months;
at the end of which time even its feeder could not venture to
lay his hand on it.
This animal is smaller and more slender than the hysena
or wolf. It is of a reddish or yellowish-brown colour, variously
mottled along the sides of the body, and on the legs, in largo
blended patches of black and white. The nose, muzzle, and
ears are completely black, and its tail is covered with long
bushy hair.

THREE animals of this species, two males and a female,
were sent to England by the late Major Denham, who brought
them from the interior of Africa. They were consigned to
the Tower Menagerie, where, shut up in a close den, they
evidently felt very miserable. Instead of exerting their
energies in pursuit of the antelope on the African plains, they
were prisoners, with no opportunity for the display of their
natural instincts. The species is distinguished for elegance
and sagacity. These Dogs were used by him in hunting the
gazelle, a service in which they displayed a high degree of
intelligence. They would follow the scent after an hour and
half or even two hours had elapsed, and would often quit the
line of it to cut off a double, or in other words, to shorten the
distance, and would recover the scent without the slightest
difficulty. By the natives of Central Africa they are used to
track a flying foe to his retreat. Captivity, and perhaps also
the change of climate, rendered the female very surly, and
deprived the males of much of their accustomed spirit.


i I



- rX I'

THIS animal is very graceful and good-tempered, small
and slender, with long and delicate legs, erect ears, a narrow
pointed muzzle, and a thick bushy tail, which has a slight
upward curve. The hair on its muzzle is white, and very
short; on the body it is long and straight, while the ground-
colour is white, marked with large irregular patches of greyish-
black, diversified with shades of brown. This species, which
is also called the Mackenzie River Dog, seems to be peculiar
to the Hare Indians and the other tribes which wander on
the banks of the Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie River.
Those Indians live almost wholly by the chase, and this Dog
aids them greatly in the pursuit of game, as its broad feet








and light make enable it to run over the snow without sink-
ing, however slight may be the crust on its surface.



'- -^^ ^ ^-^ -.---:J"

THE Esquimaux, a race of people inhabiting the most
northerly parts of the American continent and the adjoining
islands, are dependent upon the services of their Dogs for
most of the few comforts of their lives; for assistance in the
chase; for carrying burdens; and for their rapid and certain
conveyance over the trackless snows of their dreary plains.
The Esquimaux Dog is about one foot ten inches high,


DOGS. 79

and two feet three inches long, from the back of the head to
the root of the tail. He bears some resemblance to the
Shepherd's Dog and the Wolf Dog. He has short erect ears,
a bushy tail elegantly curved over his back, and a long and
furry coat, sometimes striped, sometimes of a dingy red, often
black and white, and at other times almost wholly black.
The Esquimaux Dog does not bark, and in this point he is
like the Dingo, or Australian Dog.
Subjected to a constant dependence on their masters,
scantily fed, and abundantly chastised, these Dogs assist
them in hunting the seal, the reindeer, and the bear. In the
summer, a single Dog carries a weight of thirty pounds while
he is attending his master in pursuit of game; in winter,
yoked in numbers to heavy sledges, they drag five or six
persons at the rate of seven or eight miles an hour, and will
perform journeys of sixty miles a day.
From the cruel manner in which these useful animals are
treated by their almost equally brutal masters they are solely
governed by their natural instincts. Their owner seems to
have no affection for his dogs, but regards them simply as
beasts of burden, provided for his use and convenience; and
they, in return, show none of that faithfulness and fidelity to
him which they do when placed with a kind master who
treats them fairly. In such cases they display reasoning
powers of no mean order, and bestow affectionate caresses on
their attendant. In their native land cruel treatment, hard
work, and scanty food produce their natural results; and
they have been known, when suffering the pangs of hunger, to
gnaw the tough leather harness which binds them to the
sledge, and even to devour the weaker members of the train.


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