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The Lion is only to be found in very hot countries.
He is called the King of the Beasts; he is not as large
as many other animals, but he has immense power and
strength in his thick limbs and broad paws. The Lioness
has no mane, but the Lion's large head is covered with
a long shaggy mane, which grows every year longer as
he grows older. His tongue is rough and covered with'
prickles, which are as hard as a cat's claws. His eyes
are always bright and fiery. When he is angry, he
moves his mane in every direction ; it seems to rise and
stand up like bristles round his head. His huge eyebrows
half cover his glaring eyes, and he stretches out his
claws, which are almost as long as a man's fingers.
The Lion is not cruel, like the Tiger-he only kills
when he is hungry. He generally gets, hold of Gazelles
and Monkeys, of which there are., plenty in the forests.
Camels are his favourite food, and. he does not dislike
young Elephants. He will, eat, enough at one meal to
satisfy him for two or three days, but he drinks when-
ever he comes to water, lapping it up like a cat.
The Lion cannot :bear a strong light, so that where
there are flocks and herds fires are lighted to keep him
off. It is very difficult indeed and dangerous to hunt a
Lion, but sometimes men are bold enough to go out
with spears to attack him. Sometimes he is hunted
with dogs and shot, and he is taken, too, by pitfalls. It
is not difficult to get the cubs, or young Lions, which
are about the size of a large pug dog. The natives watch
the Lioness go out in search of food, and then, with the
help of a fast horse, carry off the young ones, which
they sell to the Chiefs of the country or to strangers.
This is a very small Monkey, with a very long, thick
tail, which it curls round its body at night to keep itself
warm. It runs up trees just like a Squirrel, and it feeds
on insects and fruits and on birds and their eggs.
The Marmoset may easily be caught and tamed, and
in former days they were made pets of by ladies. I have
been told of one kept by a lady which once helped itself
to a gold fish out of a bowl and eat it,up. The:ilady
then thought that Mr. Marmoset might like some El'e';
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he was frightened at them at first, as they wound them- birds still alive. The young Wolves begin by playing
selves round his neck, but he soon laid hold of them and with them, and end by killing them.
munched them up. Numbers of horrible tales are told about Wolves
The Wolf is dreadfully fierce and savage; always
hungry, and never satisfied. In that way he is like the
Hyena, but he likes to kill his food for himself, instead
of feasting upon bodies already dead. He is fond of
human flesh, and if he has once tasted it he will always
try to get it. This is the reason why the Wolf often
attacks the shepherd, when he gets the chance, rather
than the sheep.
The Wolf is disliked by all animals, no other creature
being known to eat the Wolf's flesh but the Wolf himself.
Even dogs, when they have hunted him and killed him,
walk away from him. His sense of smell is very strong;
he can scent a dead body three miles off.
The Wolf teaches her cubs to eat flesh by chewing it
first herself. As they grow, she brings them hares and
following travellers in the winter over the snow, when
there is so little for them to eat that ravenous hunger
makes them desperate. Then they generally go in
There used to be Wolves in England a great many
years ago, when there were not nearly so many people
living in the country.
The Giraffe is the tallest animal there is. Its fore
legs are twice as long as its hind ones, and in walking,
unlike any other animal, it moves the two legs on each
side at the same time.
Like the Camel, the Giraffe lives upon vegetables and
leaves. It is very timid when it is attacked, but defends
itself by kicking, and sometimes in this manner is able
to drive away even a Lion. Its skin is used by the
Africans as a covering for their huts.
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The Ounce is about as large as the Leopard, and at a
little distance might be easily taken for one, but it has
a longer and more bushy tail, and the body is differently
marked. From the thickness of its fur it is well fitted
for living in the cold, hilly parts of Asia.
The Ounce, like the Chetah, is used in hunting. It
has a quick eye, rather than a keen scent, and it is so
nimble that it can clear a wall several feet high. It is
often seen lying along the branches of high trees, from
which it darts down upon its prey.
OR, HUNTING LEOPARD.
This is another animal very much like the Leopard.
He is easily caught and tamed, and is used instead of a
dog in hunting Antelopes. He is taken into the field in
a cart, with a chain on and a hood over his head; when
,-.- ---- .-- ------ 6 9^ ^
the Antelopes are in sight he is let loose. At first he
steals very quietly along, till he gets within five or six
bounds of his victim, then he springs upon him and
pulls him to the ground. Of course the Chetah is not
allowed to eat the Antelope, which is wanted by the
hunters, so he is coaxed off by having pieces of meat
thrown to him, when he is covered up again and chained
in the cart.
THE POLAR BEAR.
This Bear lives near the North Pole, where it is so
cold that the ground is never free from snow, and where
the ice collects in enormous masses, which float about
in the sea. But no cold can hurt the Bear, for he is
covered with very rough, thick hair; even the sole of
his foot is almost covered with long hair, which not
only keeps his feet warm, .but makes him able to walk
along the ice without slipping.
The Polar Bear eats Fish and Seals, watching
patiently by the hole where the Seal comes up to
breathe, and pouncing suddenly upon it, or catching it
when it is lying asleep on the ice. When the Bear
cannot get these he tries to find berries on some moun-
tain from which the snow is melted, and sometimes,
when all else fails, he makes a meal off sea-weed.
The mother Bear sleeps all the winter in a hole
which she digs in the snow. The father Bear does not
go to sleep, but roams about hunting for food; he can
swim a long way. Sometimes the piece of ice on which
he is walking gets broken off from the rest, and Mr.
Bear gets carried off ever so far, sometimes even to Ice-
land. I have been told it sometimes happens that when
a man is paddling out at sea, by coming too near one of
these pieces of ice, a white Bear unexpectedly jumps
from it into the boat, and if he does not upset it sits
quietly like a passenger and suffers himself to be rowed
to shore. You may be sure the poor Bear is soon killed
then, and eaten up too.
The tendons of the Bear's legs are split and made into
I am not quite sure which the Hyena is most like, a
dog or a cat; in shape it is like a dog, but the stripes
-- - -
on its skin make it something like a cat. It is fierce,
ill-tempered, gluttonous, and cowardly. It is more
savage and hard to tame than any other beast. It goes
about with its head poked down, showing its teeth,
setting up the bristles of its back, and making a
horrible, snarling, growling noise, as if it were always
angry, and ready to fight and quarrel.
Hyenas live in holes in the sides of mountains, or in
caves which they dig in the ground. They stay in their
dens all day and only come out at night, when they eat
up all they can find, not only the flesh of dead beasts,
but the bones too they munch up. When it is dark
they prowl about the streets of towns, picking up
whatever they can find, no matter how dirty and nasty,
and they don't mind walking into houses or tents. I
have heard of one which was killed while it was carrying
away a bunch of candles.
Sometimes the Hyena attacks live sheep, goats, or
donkeys. He is a dreadful coward, and is afraid of
all animals stronger than himself; but he will hunt
any creature which runs away from him.
THE BENGAL TI(
There is an old saying, that "As the Peacock is the
most beautiful among birds, so is the Tiger among
beasts." It has a slender body, and very bright, glossy,
yellow hair, streaked with black. But its temper is not
so much to be admired as its skin. It is mischievous
and cruel; fierce, even without being provoked, and
cruel for the sake of amusement. It is neither afraid of
man or beast. It is difficult to tame it either by force or
kindness, and it snaps at the hand which feeds it as
much as at that which beats it.
The Tiger does not hunt other animals, but it lies
hidden under trees or bushes, and then springs out upon
them. It will attack a young Elephant or a Rhinoceros,
and sometimes a Lion. It carries off its prey to the
forest, dragging it along as quickly and as easily as a
fox would a goose. Sometimes, when a Tiger comes
down to the river-side to drink, a Crocodile will pop its
head out to seize it. The Tiger plunges its claws into
the eyes of the Crocodile, which dives at once; and the
Tiger goes down too, for it will sooner die than let go its
hold. In this way the fight lasts sometimes a long
while, till the Tiger is drowned, or escapes from his
People in India go out on Elephants to hunt the
Tiger. The Elephants tear up the thick, long grass
with their tusks to drive the Tiger out. When it can
no longer hide itself it rushes out furiously; but, on
being wounded, it goes back, and has to be driven
out again. The men on the Elephants fire whenever
they get the chance; but it sometimes takes a good
many shots to kill a Tiger.
The Tiger's skin is thought very valuable, especially
in China, where it is used as a covering for thrones.
The Bison is larger than our English Ox. It has a
long, shaggy mane, which hangs over the head and
shoulders, and makes it look very wild. On its back it
has a hump covered with hair, almost as high as a
Camel's hump. This is thought a dainty morsel by
those who hunt it: very often the hump only is cut off,
and the rest of the body left for the birds and beasts to
It is dangerous t
rally taken by pitfi
used as horses; th
but they have to I
through any fence
of the Bison is usei
:o hunt the Bison, and so he is gene-
ills. The young ones are trained and
ey can be taught to carry burthens,
e closely watched, as they will break
to get into the cornfields. The skin
d by the Indians for making tents and
The Elk is a kind of Deer. It is much larger than
the common kind, and lives only in very cold countries.
It has such long legs and such a short neck that it
cannot reach the ground with its mouth, so it has to
content itself with eating leaves and the bark of trees,
and moss growing on the rocks.
An Elk was once kept in Paris which eat every day
thirty pounds of bread, besides a quantity of hay, and it
hardly ever drank less than eight buckets of water.
Elks can run very fast, and can swim too. The Indians
catch them by setting traps for them; but sometimes
they hunt them. The flesi
so tough that a rifle ball w
said that clothes made front
The Leopard is smaller
beautiful spotted skin, and
so flexible that he can take
or crawl like a snake up
very fast and he can swir
claws and terrible teeth,
beast which comes within
first provoked, he does not
The Leopard steals into
the fowls : sometimes he (
will lie hidden among the
spies out some unfortuna
strong for him, when he p
to his den, where, after eat
is hungry again.
is capital food. The skin is
ill not go through it, and it is
Sit never wear out.
than the Tiger. He has a
is very graceful. His body is
wonderful leaps, climb trees,
)n the ground. He can run
n. He is sly, and has sharp
and woe betide any man or
his reach; but, unless he is
often attack people.
farm-yards at night and takes
carries off a young lamb. He
branches of a tree until he
te animal which is not too
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ounces out ana carr
;ing it, he goes to sle
es it on
ep till he
There are some countries where there are no hard
roads such as we have, and no nice green grass fields, but
where there is, as far as one can see, nothing but sand
I -sand everywhere, just as there is sometimes by the
u-s a n d^ ^ ---- ,^- /. -__
The Rhinoceros looks as if he had crawled into the
skin of some larger animal, which was too big for him,
for it hangs in such strange, thick folds about his body.
His skin is so tough that even the Tiger's claws and
the Elephant's tusks cannot scratch it; and they are
afraid to attack it because, with its sharp horn, it can
give most terrible wounds. The Rhinoceros feeds on
thorny, prickly shrubs, which it would hurt other
animals either to gather or to swallow. It lives
generally by the river, or actually in the water, but
comes out on dry land to feed. Very pretty walking-
sticks are made out of the Rhinoceros's skin. The
horn is worked into drinking-cups and boxes.
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sea side in England. Well, there Camels live and are
used instead of Horses. The Camel has broad hard
feet, which hardly sink at all into the sand; it carries
its head high, and it can shut up its nostrils, if it likes,
when the wind blows up the sand. It has strong sharp
teeth, so that it can crop nettles and thistles and the
prickly plants that grow in sand.
From the time the Camel is quite young it is trained
to go a long while without food (it has been known to
go five or six days without any); it eats enough at
one meal to last it through the day, and it can drink
sufficient water at one time to last several days. In
Arabia no waggons and large carts are used such as we
have in England, but the Camel carries everything
which has to .be taken from one place to another on its
back. It kneels down to receive its load. It can go
a long way without wanting to rest. It serves as a
railway too; for men and women travel mounted on
the Camel's back. They go in large numbers, the tail
of one animal is tied to the head of the one behind it,
and this long procession is called a caravan.
The Camel is very patient, but it has an uncertain
temper, and has to be treated carefully. Its milk is
very good. Its long hair is made into tents and
clothing; the finer hair is used for paint brushes.
THE CANADIAN LYNX. lives in rivers. It can swim and dive as well as a water
rat, and can stay under water half-an-hour without
Coming up to breathe. The mother swims about with
her young ones on her back, just as a swan carries her
The Lynx is a funny-looking animal, something like
cygnets. It eats such fish as it can find, but when it
the Ounce and the Panther, but its tail is very much
cannot get enough it comes out at night on to the dry
shorter; it has long fur, and long ears tipped with
land to feed, eating up quantities of corn, and trampling
black. It is valued for the sake of its fur, which
Down as much as it eats.
makes capital wrappers.
The Lynx is very shy and timid, never fighting with
the larger beasts, but living upon Hares and Rabbits.
It is often caught in a tree, and, though it spits and
sets up its back when attacked, a single blow with a
stick will kill it. It runs in a kind of gallop, bounding
forward in leaps. It is fond of the water, and is a
The Hippopotamus is only seen in very hot countries.
Its body is almost as large as the elephant, but the
shortness of its legs makes it seem much smaller. It
The Hippopotamus is horribly ill-tempered: it does
not take much to irritate him. The Hippopotami some-
times fight each other fiercely, rearing up on their hind
legs and biting one another in the most savage manner.
In a boat it is dangerous to provoke him: he will rush at
the boat open-mouthed, and seize it in his jaws; or
suddenly rear himself up, upset the boat, and attack the
unfortunate men who are turned out. Sometimes men
kill him with spears, and sometimes they shoot him.
His flesh is eaten, whips are made of his thick hide, and
his teeth are sold for ivory.
The Zebra lives amongst the hills in Africa. He is
rather like a Donkey, but he is so very wild that we
don't know much about him. He runs so fast that it is
difficult to catch him; and when he is caught, he kicks,
and plunges, and bites so that no one can get on him to
ride him, or train him to wear harness.
THE WILD BOAR.
The Wild Boar lives in forests, and always near a
stream of water. It eats mostly fruit, vegetables, and
roots, which it digs up with its strong, crooked tusks.
These tusks are very sharp and sometimes a foot long,
so that it is a formidable beast to attack. When it is
attacked, with its young ones, the strongest face the
danger, forming a ring round the weak ones.
The Wild Boar is stupid, slow, and sleepy. Though it
seldom attacks any other animal, but is content with
such food as it can get without trouble or danger, it is
glad to eat up any beast which may happen to die in the
forest, or which is so hurt that it cannot defend itself.
When it is full grown it is hunted with dogs for amuse-
ment. When it is driven from its covert, it retreats
sullenly and slowly, gnashing its teeth, foaming with
rage, and often stopping to rush furiously on its pursuers.
The foremost dogs are sure to suffer. The hunters are
always mounted on horseback, and are armed with jave-
lins, which they throw at the animal as he runs away,
or rushes to the charge. His assaults are frequently so
furious that the horses will not stand the shock, or if
they do are thrown and severely gored. Sometimes the
horses are so frightened that they will not take their
riders within javelin distance, then the Boar escapes to
The Kangaroo looks very curious, with its long, thin
head and neck, short fore legs, and very long strong hind
ones; but the funniest thing about it is that it can stand
on tip-toe and on its tail, and so make itself an immense
height. When it is fighting, it will stand for a moment
on its tail only and strike at its enemy with both its hind
It eats roots,
HE BROWN BEAR.
Bear lives in the woods near mountains.
berries, ants, and fruits: when it is very
legs. Sometimes it fights with its tail only, with which
it can beat away the strongest dog.
When it is near water the Kangaroo uses a singular
way of defending itself. It will jump into the water and
stand waiting for the dogs, and, as they swim up, it
catches hold of them with its fore paws, and holds them
under water till they are drowned.
The Kangaroo has a pouch like a purse in which
it carries its little ones till they are strong enough to
leap about and take care of themselves. It is quiet,
inoffensive, and timid. At the sight of men it starts off
at a great pace, taking immense leaps, and jumping over
rocks and banks seven or eight feet high. All the time
it is trying to escape it keeps looking back after its
pursuers, and often kills itself by running against a tree
The Kangaroo, like the Deer or Antelope, lives among
low, grassy hills where there are patches of brushwood
and high fern, in which it takes shelter during the heat
of the day.
hungry it attacks cattle. Bears have been known to
climb on to the tops of cowhouses, and, after tearing off
the roof, they have killed the cows, which they then
contrived to drag through the hole and carry off. The
strength of the Bear is tremendous. A traveller tells a
story of having once seen one in Sweden carrying a dead
horse in his fore paws as he marched on his hind legs
along the trunk of a tree that had fallen across the river.
The Bear eats enormously in the summer and grows
very fat, and then sleeps like a dormouse all the winter
in a warm den, which it digs and lines with moss. The
den has a hole at each end, so that, when the hunter
attacks Bruin through one, he can make his escape out
of the other. Though he is so fat and heavy he can
climb trees easily. Some of us have seen him at the
Zoological Gardens climbing up the pole for buns. The
people in those countries where he is found hunt him for
the sake of his flesh.
One way of taking the Bear is to stupify him by
throwing brandy upon honey, of which he is very fond,
and for which he looks in the hollows of trees. The
tongue, paws, and hams of the Bear are thought very
good. The skin, with the fur on, makes a beautiful rug
The Elephant is a friendly, sociable animal, and is
generally found near a river, with a number of com-
They often stand in the water, or give themselves a
bath by dashing water over their bodies with their trunks.
They use their trunk very much as we do our hands,
uprooting a tree with it, or killing a man; but they
can manage, too, to pick up a sugar plum with it,
untie the knots of a rope, and unlock a door.
The Elephant never touches meat. He is fond of
sweet things, like cocoa or bananas or sago, and particu-
larly of the orange blossom and tree, of which it will eat
up every bit, even to the roots. They can easily move
and raise their enormous ears, flapping them over their
eyes to protect them from the flies and dust.
The Elephant is fond of music, and very readily learns
to beat time to the sound of the drum or trumpet. Its
enormous body is unwieldy and helpless; the neck is so
short that it can hardly turn its head; when it gets old
its joints grow so stiff that it cannot lie down, and the
tusks get so big and heavy that it is obliged to make
holes in the walls of its stall to rest them in. Once
tamed, it is gentle and obedient, and soon gets fond of
---- --- --------- I----- --------------------
the person who takes care of it, knowing him by his
voice; but if it is hurt or ill-treated, it watches its
chance of revenge. It can trot as fast as a horse, and
can draw a load which six horses could not move.
Elephants are hunted in Africa for the sake of their
tusks. The Princes of India use them as we should
horses. To catch them a piece of ground is enclosed
in a strong fence; by means of a tame Elephant the
wild one is decoyed into this trap. Once shut in, with
no means of escape, he becomes furious, rushing about
till he is fairly exhausted. After a while, ropes are
thrown over him, and he is tied to a strong post, men
pouring buckets of water over his body, and oil down
his ears. In about a fortnight he is quite tame and
gentle, and will suffer himself to be led about or driven
THE MALAYAN TAPIR.
The Tapir, like the Hippopotamus, is fond of the
water. It is very shy, and directly it hears a noise it
dives, and stays walking about the bottom of the stream
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for a long while; it seldom swims.
on fiuits and leaves, and he has suce
he can scramble through the thickest
bles without hurting himself.
The Tapir feeds
Sa thick skin that
bushes and bram-
THE CLOUDED TIGER.
This Tiger is not fierce, like other Tigers. It never
attacks men, though it will come into villages and steal
the fowls. If taken quite young, this Tiger is easily
tamed; it is very good-tempered and playful, liking to
be noticed, and to lie on its back to be rubbed and
tickled, as a kitten does. It is quite gentle. I knew of
one which was brought home to England in a ship, and
which made friends with a dog, playing with it, rolling
it over, but taking care not to hurt it. On being given
a dead fowl, he played with it for a long while, throwing
it about and jumping after it as a kitten would after a
ball. In its wild state it lives on small birds and small
kinds of deer., .
,----- 7 '--------------------
The Gorilla is an enormous ape, most wild and un-
earthly in its look; it runs about on all-fours, but when
it stands up it is taller than the tallest man. It lives
upon sweet fruits; but it is savage in the eitremie, and
if an Elephant happens to fix upon the same tree for 'his
dinner, the Gorilla, with a stout' stick, gives him such a
blow on his trunk that he runs off screiaing with rage
and pain. It is said to be more than a match for
When it is attacked by men, the Gorilla will stand
still and beat his breasts with his large fists, making
them sound like a drum, and beginning to bark like an
angry dog, going off at last into a roar like thunder. If
he is only wounded instead of killed his rage is fearful,
and he makes a rush forward; one blow of his paw will
kill a man. A traveller once contrived to capture a
young Gorilla, but nothing would make it tame: it was
always trying to escape, tore its cage to pieces, and,"aft6r
a very short time, it refused to eat and died.'- The Gorilla
is only found in one particular part of Africa"