• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX
 Chapter XXI
 Chapter XXII
 Chapter XXIII
 Advertising
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Boy travellers in Australasia : adventures of two youths in a journey to the Sandwich, Marquesas, Society, Samoan and Feejee islands, and through the colonies of New Zealand, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia
Title: The boy travellers in Australasia
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065442/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boy travellers in Australasia adventures of two youths in a journey to the Sandwich, Marquesas, Society, Samoan and Feejee islands, and through the colonies of New Zealand, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia
Physical Description: 538 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (some col.), maps. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Knox, Thomas Wallace, 1835-1896
Harper & Brothers ( Publisher )
Publisher: Harper & Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: 1889, c1888
Copyright Date: 1888
 Subjects
Subject: Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Tutors and tutoring -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Friendship -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailing -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Oceania   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Hawaii   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- New Zealand   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- Juvenile fiction -- Australia   ( lcsh )
Travelogue storybooks -- 1889   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1889   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1889
Genre: Travelogue storybooks   ( local )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Thomas W. Knox ; illustrated.
General Note: Maps on end-papers.
General Note: Frontispiece and title page printed in colors.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue precedes and follows text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065442
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002469898
notis - AMH5409
oclc - 05757600
lccn - 04017326

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Chapter II
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Chapter III
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Chapter IV
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Chapter V
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Chapter VI
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Chapter VII
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
    Chapter VIII
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Chapter IX
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Chapter X
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
    Chapter XI
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
    Chapter XII
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
    Chapter XIII
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
    Chapter XIV
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
    Chapter XV
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Chapter XVI
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
    Chapter XVII
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
    Chapter XIX
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
    Chapter XX
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
    Chapter XXI
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
    Chapter XXII
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
    Chapter XXIII
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 537
        Page 538
    Advertising
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Back Matter
        Back Matter 1
        Back Matter 2
    Back Cover
        Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text

tv







N.






N





3z.
liz l.:l .1 Z,
El
A,
K-A U
:\4 m
NIME... .. .....

X
p
'T --w 5-,-y,.*..--q,&.- N",
:21
m
IN
*R g"

al
Inggg,
z
01
.. ........
j
w. ZV-\\ R\:
g&
mgm,
... N"NMM,
m m ol
RA,
;SDffi "IN k"O W "A
8
v
\sg
z N
all, ;Rz
M
Kz::

W- ,.,Ml,
M
g
N

N".

121 M\ "N\ ,
V
N1
A W R\ M
M.-M,

N, N." .

t,\X 0;
_$ "M
NIXOl
A. affim"
m
1,zlIN, N
R,
"N. A N.
mm"\

V,
.........
a
x
'So
1111:, Z,
INAM: I M "I.N
_rM I
-I. Z: Sl 'K
pw
n
isk" x



V ,
1-1 3



-"'- -"'"';----""- IeT'T- -l" ", 11 11 III M l' I TT -T- I ""'V "T -, ,- 111- tL -- I
-
III 10 1 7 :-'"' -' -,' -- -- 1,
""' -ti- 4'-' '7 ,,,
---"-:- -"-'r'-- -17i7- '-- '--- -4']"--I-' "I", i,-7',--7,",,'--"',-",,,, -"-", "
I I r7l.il
7"'-'"''V- ", 1, I I I -Y ", -`- 11,
-' I I IT, I I -' -'Iy i'I' I I "'- ";'Ti' I
j 4.'- 7 7 I '-. "'""'-,' '-' -'' 11 --"-' ""'
I -, T, '' '' A : ".- -T -, '
I -1, '.1 -, "' '' I I -"'T'." T- T'- "' --' -, I "" '-' -'-"'' -T'i"
Ir-L
I : 71 I-I 1: -
I -1 ,T K I ''' "'i : '-, -'
tT_''
'' '- ----":'--'-'-',' --- lo n I ,.;
I
I I '' i -
'' --, I I "Ii";W- 1. -' I -
11 I I I I x ki' -j"'t)"I" !':2'
'' I 1 I I 1- "' C' .11 "T'J 13L lltwqi- .--1 --- --
-" I 'T-,',t,,l:li '7"f',,'-,,, ... M t!' i-' L '' '' i
"I ... loo 11 1)' L',pjt.11l', -' 9 '''l -- Ng"-'% --- -------------------- ,,-------- ------
" 1- 1 '11, 'T-', 4 '% "-'.- q'.I":''eT -Tlr"_
-- %-, I 1- I'
I -- --- -- - I ol `111
I !111 4 '''.T -
11 11 I I -: I I I I .- I I ;" I 1, I 11 -' ''111 -- ''w
W 11 I n -- 1, I r -; '
' I I I -, - - - I
- -- - I I I ". im 'sj,l L
.
-- T,,- '7 -, '-' "' i', r," ':'N'L" 4' 'T I I
-- I I I I I 11 T '
I I I 11 --- '- 7 T ,J- x
I T" n I T'l-':' -, _
11, jJZ_-, I --7--7- 1 T ; -' I '' ", : -, I T f I ," : I I -- i, 1'1""I`T-'
I I T, a- .f, I I :' : I I I I
'r, C, 11 1 -, I I ,
lg ;;. I r' I I T I 11 -, % :'; I -' 7 "l,"', O '-' -, I I -' -
'r I ' --""'' T;1 .' r ", I i I, 11 ,,.- -,';-' I L llN -' ''I 1, 1: T '
"T I ` -, N
"E cng R" I i,.,. -1 I -" I ,I'], I '1i '0 "":;;'"l" ";'Tz ,,, -- ''
-, I I T 1 ; I I I i LW ''.
,% ." L r 11 ,' 1, -- '- I '-
'- -'I r :r r ... ;,,F .' 1'1 -
,, ""'T-P,,T'_',, I-IL --- y' I I I L '
-- - :- __ ..... Z1.1411':W?l :", \i' 7f'AA I I I
'-'i'' r -'T "T 'I, ,,,, -'X, r -
1 ,,, '
l I I : I -1 """' I I ""'.-'"'
-
(I I
6 1' 'L'' -
-- -- 'L"L!""' r"T'i 2 '? 'O ,,,, G' ""'-' T"' ", ", ' ' ,,,,
F 1"' ','t .il- I T I SL I I '' -7, '
I I I
I 'V "''x'N t ,,",,Iq,''.','*-,',,,t,,'-"-"T, T,'.,"',,'-V',,, s _"' r, ," IT i, -:1 ` '""
, I 20 1 1 17 .1, I f -'"4' '' I I I I I I -' '',- 11 -1 r
am'n 4;- i"'. -p : I I ' '"' ;", ", _-',I` I ,"' i,' _', -'' lr':'"r,, 1
_. -",'!-"",i;"-'- ;' T -'' %, ,"', r, r,' ',"
1, .: z Ir I t Llt ; ''I.V'L','' 'TI- I -- -`"T-f
I I I'q I '_ I T: ""4--
". I j , "; --'yr ;"' ", 11 'T,' I .- :I 1 "- y -`j I T 'X' l' ", l' ,,
lj' i r'. ]T r '!' -T ; I
I '; I I .:, I ' '. ':'- %' -, '' r 4` "','i'j'- Q -r --Z' I ,'!,- I I I I I 11 I j I
, I I I 11 ':"' [ I ., I I I ,r .:' :' I I 'j """ .'"n' ''" ,,, ,'T; ,
I Vv I I ," 'j, 1, r .:", ,,,r. ,,, Tr' : : :' """I
I i -1 v _I _, T, ; 1 '" '.--! I
-- -, -j -- -, ,. ,- ,--- -- -- I
. I I .. .. I I ," ,. I I I 7 ` ' i,,, L' I l T':f' .1 ':
", T ",-_", --'A' ', -- "'' i I I *-"- '1'%',L I T ', ",_", -"' r
1'1 I 1. I',- 1, iL A D I'ZO N E IS]r, li"'b s' -, I r I -" '--- -'-''';P '; I f U'? I I '; I 11 _"" '- 1 -r '
I I 'r ": il ""` r -, I T I I I 11 I : "'T T. I -' I I L '.rrLT -"I"
,T 1, L I 11-',' M a 'j I I 11 I I --' '. ,,, !'
i r I '-'

: : e, ""' -
I I
z LT ' ;' ,- 1 ".
I n ',T g -, -r I I N-T I 1, j I _r 'L4, L r ,
.1 ,t-k
r I r 7 1 rL, '!" ;' -, I ''
., L T I '. ', j ` ""--'' 11 i ',L4 r ,
I T "''Y i, r 1, ,_ %" "_ I I '' -', '- 4 -
I PlIT-Lipp- -A L I
2i -" , r L r -
I 1 ". 1-1 '-
I : INN-Tril. '" 'T "' I -N D'S
A"- i_ ... .. """'T'
-
-- ,,,, -" I "T"V-1 --' : L "I L- ri -, ", ;I,-'- ,,, '. ,,,
.
I I -'- _i'%"'-'" w- -'''-"' "" il I
"'" I I ,, r I

i -, ;,,-, '' ',_N' ""'TT"'.'-', 44 ir' T 'V -'-' -, ",-'--l"',-'m '
, I L I I I I 1, I r-Gu,, Gu orl 1 4 'r ,, 'T '- "'! -- ' I I I
- I 7 I ''--c 'y- ," -"T -,"" -' -

4 11 '- -' r ."" -- 11 "I,,,,,,,-,,,,,,l,,,,,,V,-,,L,-.,,-,,,,,,,;, '' "I'- '- I '\ ,,.r,- L_
,- I I A I c I I ' ", T ',',' 1. 4, ,r : I
i io '' -3 11, I I
,. "Zl' 'T- i r,-,,",., ',r" ''-' --, I \1 L I _' I
I I
--r -' T i 'e C : "' T, 'T L .' 'p X ; "
j ',,", ri P,, '' ,L 1 -' -, I I I
:- 11 .- I -' 1, i
11 -. I r ' I 1 J T ; r : ,I
T' I 11 L
-; L" I I I T L -- I ,
.
I I Z' -0 ,'-- ,,, -N- -"." ".""'' ] "''-'-x I '%l"'i"
r I I 1 ,,, -' I I 1 I 1, 1 L ; L r ,- r t : I
T ''' i x I .1 7: I .
I! '_ r ",' r, i '
') p -'.' : T s ; r" "L ; -'"'
' ,. .: 1;2" C' I j -
I ) I '
1, T : "' r T L
-. '. r !' T, __ ,' L ,
'-7 t' 'T L -, r- I L I --' 'T,"
I C I ,. 'r, T ;' '. I r 7' ," r I 9
, -
I
-' i""', ) I r, -- F-'-'-"'* ',r ". L ''' '' I -
L '' I ,,, LT I e"-""-''-" I
11'. I I '; v 11 I I I L 11 I 1 --- I- ,-'L;"""';"` ,: G"'-'; I r -, I 'T ', -- N I I
'?, I -- -- 1 __ ,' 'Z r i I I r, -,
T" L 4 '10 i-T"" ------ JSLANDS i' 'L I. '; '": c, I i t ( M IV i' I "' "' I T L -
I
Ir "Lr.,- ,,, : : T ,r -, r, "T T "
_r -- -, 'P 1, -'.'
4I i ,! iA AW A Ti Q'% I, 'I, I C A TIO L IN U, : I I il ,' -,I' r- ,' .. .....
1 ,.- I 1, I., ri '-'" ,] ,, i L I ' ', .' 4 "il' : L' T "T 7 I r , I ,'.
1, I C) ; L I I I .. I 7 ''O"' A -'& '. -" , 1, I 1' , ', _'L l i t
: 11 I i 1 I r 1 r, T rr, r ,1 1, '- L '61 .
I I N I)i i I .---- rl I 'L L ," r '-', "" T"T"T
-j L' 'I -' -' "l L, I ,,, , ,
11 I l j', ,-"' '`'T I ,- rT, 1 ",-" 'i ", -"L I '.: T -, -' 1, I 'r I T ,I ,
11 11 I I '. ,. 1 : I I L11 : 14t, _1z, 11 ' T''X" '' ", ,
I _t'7'. 'i v ' r -' -
I I I I : "- : v , I P E LrW T I I I r I I I I- il I I : : 1 I I 1 41 I L -" ., 4 '7' T 11
-, I ,. ": ; I -T- _' -r.' " ','' I r
I ; '- Llilln E Ts] -'v7i-p s zL -1 -1 r' ,""-', ';""' I _T'
;' I I 11:. ", ' rT '7 L-1 I j T, -r,
I I "" :i ""L' I --' j I .
.11 T'r I ;' '1' ';-'- ,'T '""'
`, ) k -, I r '' : I T I ; -
,;; I I I"; I L', I ,, T I N 4 -T-l L I
i o i 'P- .' '" --, I I I I I I I I I r I n '- I 1 I- ;T L T ' -" ; ' '-b' I I I I .... lq "i """"'.%" I i : ,,, -" "'- '; lzl
I L I I- "T r' I I I 'rj L r, ',l
I 11 ,,, ` '!' '- I 1 I "I -' '" T : ,
'r I .. : I 1: T Lo v I I ,- I I I' "'' ",
,- ' 11 r' T rl I 1 L L" T- ", --, ' ,
I I I : lT''- .. i, "T %'T -' ,,, L ",
I c I 1, ; z ,- I '-- 'I, 11 ,I -' Lr I
'' I , I '' L" ` I I T, ';' ,- i, 'Lj' "-' '- ---" -L '" I _
i 1- -""'-" ;""" "'L' -h "-"' k:"" ; ,

I 'I'll, "' 7 ` I -"' ': 11 11
"' 4T L .r 't' -,,'rVT 'I' ,7/ 1 cz' TIP E, 3 's FA -- 4 1, i I ; r '_7 -r I ' : ' i "" 114
r 1 I I r; -- ;' '; 'i
1 I i ,_,, r ", L 11' % 11 "
' --'jj f- L,'' 1, 11' 9p
'I. I I ;'. I E r I : --- "L 1l, I'L ) J' 17a !' ',', ...... ,- , -, L "
I .. 11 I 11 I N C I
I I I I~ I "' I L T 'Tk: "' ., , L' IT "' I
ump'n i, '' I M rt ; ; I I I I I 1, 4" ", ,
1 ]Jt: S r1h I I I % I ., ,, h '
'' 1:V -" 'q' IT. ir, tt' I 11'
I- 'i; '."' "''-'-s-"' 1"-' -"'"-"'L"--'! "- "::I-"',`"'"- I I I I _., ,r Ti sa-'W) I
x
AT "T' ( % -, ,,- L i -
I I 1 1 --I'111- r, _"* ' ",r',,4, T-",, 1','f 'L',,' "Ag 1, '
""' rn -1v-, '-" : V '""W -1 ,
,"I',' 'r ,, .
__ L 1 ',i V" :' v 2'
(I Z : T 11 ri---'7' 1'. I I I I I i 1 _- 1Y I- -"''" ", ,- ,, ,)TTj,EQ IJATO RI , ,, '""TM""I; ''-
'. L I '' kr ," "" I S
1 6 it :N ---.;' I I r I 'r I 1 t, I 4 1'1 I ; I o L 1) I I ] '-" 1 I I I 2 -, ",' "-TuT!T-` I 't t ,

'': ,_,-
', I I I )3 1 o r '" -f I I I I -
'L L t-"'L'111 0:'- : t L, 'I ,' L, I I l', 11 -" T I I I I 1-1 I [ ' j,,q.,'r "- -, '- -
1, I 0 q J' "I "I I I I '

":i `4-1 -
4 ' i"""z' i, I~ ') ", "', 't' Lill, ." I 11-11 I I I I I
"'' -' P
1, "'i; ,,, '1,'' '- L ;111 t I I --, 1. I I ,L I I '

I u :i"It L -"'- I I I I I I il T 'l l i_' I r I r I' .'' I I T"
z
,r -" : "', I "Y1 ll In. -_' I "i ; 1: I I '. I I -111,11, T,-" -j"'
i; -11 ; :. '.' I I I I T, "', ;'
k I I I I j % 11 4--." "' I I _'i 1. I -, I '- _r 'L I i
-- ,- .
I 11 I'L'
T) ,- I' LL 'j
1 L, "' -- I All I I ------- I I r I .- ;-,_ I I I .- L, 1 -, I
.J: : l' I ,
I I -- .1 -- I I" u P l:ij ." L L -- I -T,

1, I : ij ; 11 I 'z '
I I I I :" I `TT1 ,,, 1 'Ai
'-1 t,- v I 11 I I I ,,, 1'1',' I I i ',-, -'"' I i I
-1 -,- I r_ I T,,,'_ ,_, r I T- L ,,, 1,
," ': '' 11' C' U I -N I j -11-' 11 T .-I ' ', r i'
'% I 1"' '" I, E' : """Lr" i
'" I ,,, 1 I "' I I -1 I 11 : '-, r I" I t ,. I -, -"' ,"
'. I 1 7,- jj-, 1'11 "l, I T -1"
rr r -' -'- r t" I I 1, I : T I T "' I 7 i' '.
I- I I A ze ,- K L I 1111 V I "T", I:- c" "-"' 1 "'
; T
T',cdk. i 1, ,- I I I I I
S ,,, I a" L '. -, I ' '." X ,- '
1, I I I '' 1. L I I; ,r I _' ., ,,r, I I r'"" "' ,, 'r",
.1 ", '.' 1, i ` I I -, -"- 11 1- ': -"''" ," j T 'L" I j I '"L, 1' : 7 T I ; I 11
: L' T47
I -'----" It, J I '% _' T, i' T"' ,,r I L
"" -_1 '" I 1, '. : !, 'l T : 1 I _-jl -
I M, -- A- 111"t '-'J''; T, I I .\ I -, ( i i" i I N 11 r 11 '4' ' ','-- I "., I I I I -L 'T t L' ''z \ a cj e "
I I I
_
-' "''"'- "Ill 'T I I I -- ---- .". ''' L ,'- .

'L I I llo, 1,1Z 11 T I .' 11, G""dah ,11 L '' F '. L , -
-- I -"' '' I __:T, 11 ,Ll 11 I I I -- -- I ,' r- '-; -" ',I 'I r L -- I -' ,--, L L
I 1"' ' "' I,- -T-1-1 ,,,, - r 'p '.f
1)1/ -1 r,, I '2 --"
_L- ", T, :5 r I I ."' ,,, ,'
I
I r T L ,, I L '
,, L ', "I ", ,,,' I I I 11 I I 11
.. '-'- I I ", 'f i, I I : ,- -'' Ai'rj''R' T "
?I JJTj _4 -L'-'' ., '' I "'I' :1, - T 1
:- Z' '' "-L i L '' -' w ', I ,,, ,I ,'j- T "',-'- I T_ ,
r I I 1 -4'TTTI f-"" ,,` i I
L';! T' r .1 IT 'i"- ""-' "L "" r T' ,
"
,. 1z" I .' I I -': -" '' W
',- ,,, ;- '11'tlr
` _' -':: '' "'Z' sr"T '-- -- F : ,-
-1 ':C '' I ", _'_'ji' L'-' ,. ". 1, J ,- :"' T, ., 5 'L _"
,.r ,,,14 ', Ll
: .. 'I. I ,. -, ttb 1. 'c I "' ,- L i I Ir r A- I L 'YL T-" '
I- I I I I ". ", 1 'L 'l 6 j'- jj" -' L I ,
11 I I I 'J' -- c I I I L I I ,,, SA ,A-", _N 1: "7' r', "
I I 11%> ,) ...... .. 'r "' - i -' ',' ` ....... L '''- "
.i ;1 %' ", '711 '-, ` 11 1 h : -'i Ill Sr-IiE l"i], ,- '-'- 11111:"'j 3. ,,, "' N' 'L -, AY ","* '' -`T"",,' L"",' ,rT j ', -,
I 1 1
1, 'i v .'r "" "v I: A ", -- I r -: I '" '"' r
-, --i, I c -I_ I 1, I I '' I '"`
-T"-' r, T rr T ilT I "- !' -'- i 1
':'6 ,i : "I L 4'?,r
I I _' ,, L,',l:.4T1. "t, t 1, -' r 1- t ,,, T '2" '
:i __ '-'L' ':;- i1' -f !' -7-
:- -i' 1 : 7, _' ..".,T,%r "" -TL"-'Ln ""' -- L' 'T J4'' J"' ,' 'r': -r tj4 Z' -4
';'-'*- q -l' 11'-' ", c 'CIL11" I I "'" ',f'- f -A',V '-r 7---'.;;'L' !c i '."' -;'?A;, j
11 I 1, L ' I I I -1 y' -- I 1, I 11 I -
L, I i I 1 6 "I-,' 1, ': R I'll T., '7" 1 T T'
L, T""' I 1, I -1 I ;" 7,!'r _T' 6i, '
I I I L' ' I' I L' j ',L -, r'. 'i,' -" OV
-1 L' I I I J 11, L " 111, l" ,'," 4r
I T 11 I L I I I I "f )i" ,l ,' j ,- ",' T' "'5 -s'" 'r j' ,'L, I N "'. t'i
';' T, I- -r I I -1 I I 1, 11 -- ,'-, "' 'T ;7-" ,' --"L" ''F,7'777 i .t' "T ,I _
I ,. ,,, I ,- ( c z: I '.
I J, ,- I f) -11 IT 'p
'-;. '' I j"-i"' '- 'IL _",'I.,IJrl yl,
I I I I ,i' I ''-' -'I 'Y'' l ; T' ,j, ), ,T-;7,7-',,' ,',' -, "', I I
r" I
,* Jjt]X :` --- 11-1--"- I .' ..' i, Id I, T'
0 ,'., '-' ', W A N '" C -, ---I. I ""-"-L 111' I- ",r,- r ; :--% --""'-"" T I 1, .I j4'-' 111, ,
I I I I", "i :'',
I "4: f N `"" I i-- '11 1, 1; 1-11 I' --T 'L I I ," 'i I -T j -w I I I L I L '.'," T, -, I I I I 1 t -, ''L" -J 1, I j, -
I -'-' _',, _' I -. 16 I I 11 -- 11. I "I I
i" .1 1, I r I 1 ., ,,,
'Q11 )'. f I V- -,I- 1z L : i 11 I I I T"V I i-"' I I I I "L' ''
1111, 11, I .1> I I- ( : I ,; ,:-)- "I '- 7 1;4 'T
V :)' "' .';-' L:' i ""' -IT -r", v' I I r L'l
'-17 ly- -1 L r "! ,- T -
I L 'L" I. -1 .
11 I -, I L, L '. I ; T'^ '- 1- ,' I I I ", Ill I'll, I I
11 , '- _nl , ') '
'Pl -. I" 'L -'r ", 4 1 I 11 ;'T 11 11 A "" -;- -
'17i'T''M ,
__j _, L 11 '--' _" 1, $ T ,
1 -v
26 73Lq "- ' -'L' 01- 1 1 1 1 / I "I I I r ,
'3' L r I -L _, ., 1, T L -- ';'_ ',, -4rly A .1 A. S T, -2
,,, I: "' "'-''T'ii I 1
'r r I I ', .1- I r i,,' f : I .' ' r I -' 'b '-' '" _'T--' 'L",I' ,'
-- '' I I _I '-I'"-"' ' L! 0 t" I ,,, r A is rle' lr-- r I "', ': u I lluQ 0 8 t r I
-
."' I r ' 'T ff I 11TW'11 IT, 11 i ", "' 'i ,
r I 1, "J' I I "'_ '.T"? A"O' ,, , I I I I t ";! "*'
r .\ I I 1 -1'r C, "' "' I- I I I ';
V1 I ;; -, "T I" '"' I '
I ) C 6 r t r 'o I I I -IT '' , "' -'', '- '-" L' "' ', T T "`i'.- "I
F.- -11 111 I '-, "T "" j';' -'C' Ai
q-' --'-"' I '-'' 4* 1 I I I I I !_1 y '', T; i' V. W, 'tT- I I : -. ---- -- ,
_
-, '-' T, 'T' 11 T'
11 I I -1 1 4 : I I i, : IT 4 LL J"'j ... "' -""-I T'.' L l -N I", i, L I ;- T r 't'"'Tl"i"';' i 0
11 I I -N ,,, : 'j i5 i' ; - I ' '%'
L P -- ,_ 4 i "_' T- L4-S"-' '-
:' ': I I It. I I I
S, t -,-,,, '' 6" 4'. L t -- -- tlr 'Q
; "" : I ,- 1,1 i' L : F- -' '14cf I$ -
'
I - -1 - - -- 6 T L %' I
l-l'101 ,'! --- .- llt. i-';' i 66 r n'. ',;,,', il ",,,,, I ,'r ', q, T" "T
I 7 C- I'-- - --- 1 A- '- I I 1 -----17-- [ 7 ) I : '
i 1 7 - "'"' "' '""" '''* I ,
: = -- --- I I ,-r' ,r1o u r q14" ""I" .- I -1 P'r 1, ll- '.
1, .. I I I _r ,- ';'" 'e V" I 1 "r
; 7, 1, I I j I '.' -:" L 7, "'"-" 'I
", T IS2, 11 iu S ? I R L 1 I ,,,,, 1-11, -T'W -.t;;' "T r;,'' ,,, ; ,,, TT "Ill ( --7 : 1, I I
1' I ,I """', 1, t 'L -"N '*)
11 -,-I -, "T' ", -'- -" 'L r" '-- % T","`- '!' N '
1: %- I 1 "i, "'; "l:"' jlm T 4
I "2' 1 """ ,' fn" , ," ill 11 i '- p F--, ; L' I
'' I 1, ,,, : '- ""' -,I "%" I 11 1- ., '?'.'111. I "" -,
11 ' -- '\ I 'e' -- ''p _r',-'I,--r-'j`,' "-;" m
I I DI t I H,111z I I I _';', --- I I 11 \- : ' "
I
1 I I "1111 -. 7 Tr r I i ,
'
I 11 -.' -
E I j,T I I 4,' 'L ', "
_,_ r '-, 1- 1, 11 r k. -, L" '- ,, I I
r I I ** ""I- I ,,, ,
AV I I I 1 3 -' "' j 1"rl ...... ,,, ;' '7' ,,, -- -
-'" ...... 2vfl)" ;L :' -;- ` ""L"--' ""' I -! # T"' -- T
li "" -'"'N' '3
I I
i-"""'
-' -, T, L 'j I i ", g ,













/7 I1
<1

































Al

fi 'F~j~*











i *














406.
7-r ".









17%' .,- I



I:I-:.'~i:; ~ 'N.I








THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN



AUSTRALASIA



ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO

THE SANDWICH, MARQUESAS, SOCIETY, SAMOAN, AND FEEJEE ISLANDS, AND
THROUGH THE COLONIES OF NEW ZEALAND, NEW SOUTH WALES
QUEENSLAND, VICTORIA, TASMANIA, AND SOUTH AUSTRALIA




BY

THOMAS W. KNOX
AUTHOR OF "THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST" "IN SOUTH AMERICA"
"IN RUSSIA" AND "ON THE CONGO" "THE YOUNG NIMRODS
"THE VOYAGE OF THE 'VIVIAN"' ETC.




jllustrated








NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1889















BY THOMAS W. KNOX.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Vol-
umes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO JAPAN AND CHINA.
II. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO SIAM AND JAVA. With
Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
III. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO CEYLON AND INDIA. With
Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
IV. ADVENTURES OF Two YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY TO EGYPT AND PALESTINE.
V. ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY THROUGH AFRICA.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA. Adven-
tures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with
Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages
upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated.
8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey in European and
Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a Tour across Siberia, Voy-
ages on the Amoor, Volga, and other Rivers, a Visit to Central
Asia, Travels Among the Exiles, and a Historical Sketch of the
Empire from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously
Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS ON THE CONGO. Adventures of
Two Youths in a Journey with Henry M. Stanley "Through
the Dark Continent." Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $8 00.
THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA. Adventures of
Two Youths in a Journey to the Sandwich, Marquesas, Society,
Samoan, and Feejee Islands, and through the Colonies of New
Zealand, New South Wales, QueenslandVictoria,Tasmania, and
South Australia. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.
THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE
AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open
Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.
HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two
Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The
volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.
I. THE YOUNG NIMRODS IN NORTH AMERICA.
II. THE YOUNG NIMRODS AROUND TIlE WORLD.

PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK.
g Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United
States or Canada, on receipt of the price.





Copyright, 1888, by HARPER & BROTHERS.-All rights reserved.

















PREFACE.



HE first settlement in Australia was made in 1788; consequently
the inhabitants of the great southern continent are this year cele-
brating their centennial. Three millions of people settled in five great
colonies, possessing all the characteristics of an advanced civilization,
with the unity developed by a common language and a common alle-
giance, and the rivalry that springs from the independence of each
colony by itself, are uniting in the centennial celebration, and contrast-
ing the Australia of to-day with that of one hundred years ago.
Previous to the discovery of gold in Australia, in 1851, Americans
had but little knowledge of that far-away land. The opening of the
auriferous fields attracted the attention of the whole civilized world to
the antipodes, and many Americans joined the multitude that went
thither in search of wealth. Since that time our relations with Aus-
tralia have, year by year, grown more intimate. Railways across our
continent and steamship lines over the broad Pacific have brought
Sydney and Melbourne in juxtaposition to New York and San Fran-
cisco, and in this centennial Australian year we may almost regard the
British colonies under the Southern Cross as our next-door neighbors.
The writer of this volume is not aware that any illustrated book
descriptive of Australia and its neighboring colonies, New Zealand and
Tasmania, by an American author, or from an American press, has ever
yet appeared. Believing such a book desirable, he sent those youthful
veterans of travel, Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson, over the route indi-
cated on the title-page, with instructions to make careful note of what
they saw and learned. Under the guidance of their mentor and our old
friend Doctor Bronson they carried out their instructions to the letter,
and the results of their observations will be found in the following
pages. Trusting that the book will meet the favor that has been ac-
corded to previous volumes of the "Boy Traveller" series, they offer
their present work as their contribution to the Australian centennial,








iv PREFACE.

and hope that the boys and girls of their native land will find pleasure
and profit in its perusal.
The method followed in the preparation of previous volumes of the
series has been observed in the present book as far as it was possible to
do so. The author's personal knowledge of the countries and people of
Australasia has been supplemented by information drawn from many
sources--from books, newspapers, maps, and other publications, and
from numerous Australian gentlemen whom he has known or with
whom he has been in correspondence. During the progress of the
work he has kept a watchful eye on the current news from the an-
tipodes, and sought to bring the account of the condition of the rail-
ways, telegraphs, and other constantly changing enterprises down to
the latest dates.
Many of the books consulted in the preparation of "The Boy Trav-
ellers in Australasia" are named in the text, but circumstances made it
inconvenient to refer to all. Among the volumes used are the following:
Wallace's "Australasia," Forrest's "Explorations in Australia," War-
burton's Journey Across the Western Interior of Australia," Alexan-
der's Bush-fighting in the Maori War," Smyth's Aborigines of Vic-
toria," Bodham-Whetham's "Pearls of the Pacific," Murray's "Forty
Years of Mission Work in Polynesia," Cumming's "At Home in Fiji,"
Markham's "Cruise of the Rosario," Palmer's Kidnapping in the
South Seas," Buller's "Forty Years in New Zealand," "Australian
Pictures," Harcus's South Australia," Eden's Australia's Heroes,"
Trollope's Australia and New Zealand," and Nordhoff's "Northern
California, Oregon, and the Sandwich Islands."
The publishers have kindly allowed the use of illustrations that have
appeared in HARPER'S MAGAZINE and other of their publications, and
these illustrations have admirably supplemented those that were spe-
cially prepared for the book. The maps on the front and rear covers
were specially drawn from the best authorities, and are intended to
embody the most recent explorations and the latest developments of the
railway systems of the Australian colonies.
T. W. K.
NEW YORK, July, 1888.






















CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.
FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO HONOLULU.-SIGHTS ON THE PACIFIC OCEAN.-A PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR.
-NEARING THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.-THE MOLOKAI CHANNEL.-SURF-BEATEN SHORES OF OAHU.
-ARRIVAL AT HONOLULU.-A PICTURESQUE PORT.-DISCOVERY AND HISTORY OF THE SANDWICH
ISLANDS.-CAPTAIN COOK: HIS TRAGIC DEATH.-HOW THE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN CIVILIZED.-
WORK OF THE MISSIONARIES.-SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES.-PRESENT CONDITION OF THE POPULA-
TION.-OLD CUSTOMS.-SIGHTS AND SCENES IN HONOLULU,-TARO AND PI.--A NATIVE DINNER.
-THE COSTUMES OF THE ISLANDERS.-PECULIARITIES OF THE CLIMATE.-THE HULA-HULA AND
OTHER DANCES ........... .. ....... ........ ............. .....................Page 1

CHAPTER II.
IN AND AROUND HONOLULU.--PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-THE THEATRE,-ROAD TO THE PALI.-A MAGNIF-
ICENT VIEW.-VILLAS NEAR THE CITY.-GIRLS ON HORSEBACK.--TARO-FIELDS.-THE WATER
SUPPLY.-MOUNTAIN-PASS.-HAWAIIAN COW-BOYS.-HILO AND THE VOYAGE THITHER.-APOCRY-
PHAL STORIES ABOUT THE RAIN.-SUF-SWIMMING.-THE GREAT VOLCANO OF KILAUEA.-OVER
THE LAVA-FIELDS.-DIFFICULT ROADS.--TH VOLCANO HOUSE.-A DISTURBED NIGHT.-BURN-
ING LAKES.-SIGHT-SEEING UNDER DIFFICULTIES.-TERRIFYING SCENES.-KILAUEA AND MAUNA
LoA.-THE GREATEST VOLCANO IN THE WORLD.-HISTORIC ERUPTIONS.-CRATER OF HALEAKALA,
-SUGAR CULTURE IN HAWAII: ITS EXTENT AND INCREASE.-OTHER INDUSTRIES.-RETURNING BY
SCHOONER TO HONOLULU.-LEPER ISLAND OF MOLOKAI.-A DAY AMONG THE LEPERS......... 24

CHAPTER III.
SUDDEN CHANGE OF PLANS.-THB YACHT "PERA."-DEPARTURE FROM HONOLULU.-VOYAGE TO THE
MARQUESAS ISLANDS.-NOOKAHEEVA BAY.-HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE MARQUESAS.-WHAT
OUR FRIENDS SAW THERE.-TATTOOING AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED.-THE DAUGHTER OF A CHIEF.
-NATIVES AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-COTTON AND OTHER PLANTATIONS.-PHYSICAL FEATURES
OF THE ISLANDS.-VISITING A PLANTATION AND A NATIVE VILLAGE.-MISSIONARIES AND THEIR
WORK.--THE TABU.-CURIOUS CUSTOMS.-PITCAIRN ISLAND AND THE MUTINEERS OF THE BOUN-
TY."-WONDERS OF EASTER ISLAND.-GIGANTIC MONUMENTS OF AN UNKNOWN RAE ........ 47

CHAPTER IV.
FROM THE MARQUESAS TO THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.-THE GREAT BARRIER REEF.-THE CORAL INSECT
AND HIS WOKL.--ATOLLS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-ORIGIN OF THE POLYNESIAN PEOPLE.-AR-
RIVAL AT PAPEITI.-ON SHORE IN TAHITI.-A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ISLANDS.-WORK OF THE
MISSIONARIEs.-THE FRENCH OCCUPATION.-VICTIMS FOR SACRIFICE.-OLD-TIMEi CUSTOMS.-
PRODUCTS OF THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.-BECRE-DE-MER FISHING.-VISIT TO THE REEF.-CURIOUS
THINGS SEEN THERE.-ADVENTURES WITH SHARKSf STINGAREES, AND OTHER MONSTERS.-GIGANTIC
CLAMS.-VISITING THE MARKET.-EATING LIVE FISHES.-A NATIVE FEAST.-ExcuRSION TO
POINT VENUS................................................... .......... 74









vi CONTENTS.


CHAPTER V.
FROM THE SOCIETY TO THE SAMOAN ISLANDS.-BEFORE THE TRADE-WINDS.-- OTES ABOUT THE MISSION-
ARIES.-OPPOSITION OF TRADERS TO MISSIONARIES.-HOW POLYNESIA WAS CHRISTIANIZED.-THE
WORK OF THE MISSIONS.--REV. JOHN WILLIAMS.--ROMANTIC STORY OF THE HERVEY GROUP.-
THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY.-THE WESLEYAN AND OTHER MISSIONS.--DEATH OF MR. WILL-
IAMS.-SANDAL-WOOD TRADERS.-POLYNESIAN SLAVERY.-LABOR-VESSELS AND THE LABOR-TRADE.
-How NATIVES WERE KIbNAPPED.-" THE MISSIONARY TRICK."-THE MUTINY ON THE CARL."
-CAPTURE OF THE DAPENE."-HOW LABOR IS OBTAINED AT PRESENT. ..............Page 99

CHAPTER VI.
THE SAMOAN ISLANDS.-APIA.-ITS POSITION AND PECULIARITIES.-BEACH-COMBERS.-HISTORY AND
ADVENTURES OF SOME OF THEM.-CHARLEY SAVAGE.-SAMOAN POLITICS.-ATTEMPT TO POISON
MISSIONARIES.-FRENCH CONVENT AND SCHOOLS.-COMMERCE WITH SAMOA.-VISITING A NATIVE
VILLAGE.-GAMES OF THE YOUNG PEOPLE.-YOUTHS THROWING SPEARS.-MISSION COLLEGE AT
MALUA.-HOW THE STUDENTS LIVE.-PANGO-PANGO.-ADMIRAL WILKES'S DESCRIPTION.-AT-
TENDING A SAMOAN PICNIC.-DIFFERENCES OF TASTE.-MASSACRE BAY.-LA PEROUSE.-HOW HIS
FATE WAS DISCOVERED.-THE SWORD-HILT AT TUCOPIA.-LOSS OF THE "BOUSSOLE AND AS-
TROLABE."-VANIKORO ISLAND .................................................... 122

CHAPTER VII.
THE FEEJEE ISLANDS: THEIR EXTENT AND POPULATION.-TERRIBLE FATALITY OF THE MEASLES.-RO-
TUMAH AND ITS PEOPLE.--KANDAVU AND SUVA.-VITI LEVU.-SIGHTS OF THE CAPITAL.-PRO-
DUCTIONS AND COMMERCE OF FEEJEE.--GROWTH OF THE SUGAR TRADE.-THE LABOR QUESTION.-
OBSERVATIONS AMONG THE NATIVES.-FEEJEEAN HAIR-DRESSING.-NATIVE PECULIARITIES.-CAN-
NIBALISM: ITS EXTENT AND SUPPRESSION.--HOW THE CHIEFS WERE SUPPLIED.--A WHOLE TRIBE
OF PEOPLE EATEN.-LEVUKA.-INTERVIEWS WITH MERCHANTS AND PLANTERS.--THE BOLOLO
FESTIVAL.-ANCIENT CUSTOMS ................ ............................ ... 147

CHAPTER VIII.
ATTENDING A NATIVE CHURCH.-A FEEJEEAN PREACHER;-DINNER WITH A FEEJEEAN FAMILY.-THE
SEASONS IN FEEJEE.-A TROPICAL SHOWER.-A HURRICANE.-A PLANTER'S ADYENTURES.-
SCENES OF DEVASTATION.-THE CLIMATE OF THE FEEJEE ISLANDS.-WRECKED ON A REEF.-ES-
CAPING FROM THE JAWS OF CANNIBALS.-A WALKING ART GALLERY.-A TATTOOED WHITE MAN.
-RETURNING TO SUVA.-THE FRIENDLY, OR TONGA, ISLANDS.-TONGATABOO.-THE KING OF THE
TONGAS: HOW HE LIVES.--A REMARKABLE CAVERN AND A LOVE STORY ABOUT IT.-FROM FEE-
JEE TO NEW ZEALAND.-HAURAKI GUL.--AUCKLAND.-A FINE SEAPORT AND ITS COMMERCE.-
HOW NEW ZEALAND WAS COLONIZED.-THE -MAORIS.--CURIOUS FACTS ABOUT A CURIOUS PEOPLE.
-MISSIONARIES IN NEW ZEALAND.-HOW THE MAORIS MAKE WAR............ ...... 173

CHAPTER IX.
THE SUBURBS OF AUCKLAND.-EXTINCT VOLCANOES.-MAORI FORTIFICATIONS.-A KAURI FOREST.-
KAURI LUMBER AND GUM.-HOW THE GUM IS FORMED AND FOUND.-TREES OF NEW ZEALAND
AND THEIR VALUE.-FERNS AND THEIR VARIETY.-A PAKEHA MAORI: HIS REMINISCENCES.-
CURIOUS NATIVE CUSTOMS.-BUYING HEADS.-SALE OF A LIVING MAN'S HEAD.-THE LAW OF
MURU.-NEW ZEALAND BIRDS.-THE GIGANTIC MOA, OR DINORNIS.-NATIVE WEDDINGS.-KA-
WAU ISLAND.-SHARK-FISHING.-OYSTERS.-VISITING THE THAMES GOLD-FIELDS.-SIGHTS AND
SCENES.-GOLD-MINING IN NEW ZEALAND.-POPULATION OF THE COLONY.-ENCOURAGEMENT TO
IMMIGRATION.-JOURNEY TO THE HOT LAKES.-CLIMATE OF NEW ZEALAND ............... 198

CHAPTER X.
THE HOT LAKE DISTRICT: ITS EXTENT AND PECULIARITIES.-MEDICINAL SPRINGS.-ANALYSIS OF THE
WATERS.-FRED'S NARROW ESCAPE.-SCALDED TO DEATH IN A HOT POOL.-LAKE ROTOMAHANA.









CONTENTS. vii

-THE WHITE TERRACES: HOW THEY ARE FORMED.-THE PINK TERRACES.-BOILING LAKES.-
NATURE'S BATH-TUBS.--PETRIFIED BIRDS.-A TABOOED MOUNTAIN.-THE TABU ON DUCKS.-
NATIVE DEMORALIZATION.-WAIROA.-DESTRUCTION OF THE TERRACES.-TERRIBLE ERUPTION,
WITH LOSS Or LIFE.-A VILLAGE THROWN INTO A LAKE.-TAURANGA AND THE GATE PAH.-
MAORI FORTIFICATIONS.-SHORT HISTORY OF THE MAORI WAR: ITS CAUSES AND RESULTS.-FROM
TAURANGA TO NAPIER.-A PASTORAL COUNTRY.-ATTRACTIONS OF NAPIER.-OVERLAND TO WEL-
LINGTON.-FARMING AND HERDING SCENES.-A CURIOUS ARTICLE OF COMMERCE ......Page 222

CHAPTER XI.
ADVANTAGES OF WELLINGTON AS THE CAPITAL.-ITS INDUSTRIES AND PROSPERITY.--A CITY OF EARTH-
QUAKES.-ITS PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-THE COLONIAL GOVERNMENT: HOW THE COLONY IS RULED.
-THE COLONIAL PARLIAMENT.-MAORIS AS OFFICE-HOLDERS.-A WALK IN THE, BOTANICAL GAR-
DENS.-DIVISION OF THE ISLANDS INTO COUNTIES AND DISTRICTS.--NO CONNECTION BETWEEN
CHURCH AND STATE.-RELATIVE STRENGTH OF RELIGIOUS BODIES.--EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES.-
THE COLONIAL DEBT: ITS ENORMOUS FIGURES.--OVERLAND TO NEW PLYMOUTH.-ALONG THE
SEA-SHORE.-MAKING IRON FROM SEA-SAND.-RIDING THROUGH THE BUSH.-NELSON AND PIC-
TON.-THE WAIRAU MASSACRE.-TO PORT LYTTELTON AND CHRISTCHURCH.-AN ENGLISH MODEL
COLONY.-THE CANTERBURY DISTRICT.-THE "SERVANT-GIRL QUESTION ................. 246

CHAPTER XII.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CANTERBURY DISTRICT.-VISIT TO A SHEEP-STATION.-HOW THE SHEEP-BUSI-
NESS IS CONDUCTED.-THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE.-IRRIGATION IN NEW ZEALAND.-SHEEP
LOST IN SNOW-STORS.--THE SHEEP-RAISER'S ENEMIES.-DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY PARROTS.-
THE RABBIT PEST.-HOW RABBITS ARE EXTERMINATED.-VISIT TO A WHEAT-FARM.-WHEAT
STATTISTCS.-IMPROVED MACHINERY.-THE SPARROW PEST.-TROUBLESOME EXOTICS.-WATER-
CRESS, DAISIES, AND SWEETBRIER.-AN INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL.-MOUNT COOK: FIRST ASCENT.-
PERILOUS CLIMBING.-GLACIERS AND LAKES.-THE SOUTHERN ALPS.-DUNEDIN.-OTAGO GOLD-
FIELDS.-INVERCARGILL.-LAKE WAKATIFU.-MINING AT QUEENSTOWN .................. 268

CHAPTER XIII.
FROM NEW ZEALAND TO AUSTRALIA.-ARRIVAL AT SYDNEY.-HOW THE CITY WAS FOUNDED.-ITS
APPEARANCE TO-DAY.-THE PRINCIPAL STREETS, PARKS, AND SUBURBS.--PBLIC BUILDINGS.-
SHOOTING SYDNEY DUCKS.-THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM.-HOW AUSTRALIA WAS COLONIZED.-
LIFE AND TREATMENT OF CONVICTS IN AUSTRALIA.-THE END OF TRANSPORTATION.-POPULAR
ERRORS OF INVOLUNTARY EMIGRANTS.-THE PAPER COMPASS.-TICKET-OF-LEAVE MEN.-EMANCI-
PISTS AND THEIR STATUS.-SYDNEY HARBOR.--STEAM LINES TO ALL PARTS OF THE WORLD.-
CIRCULAR QUAY.-DRY-DOCKS.-EXCURSIONS TO PARAMATTA AND BOTANY BAY.--HOSPITALITIES
or SYDNEY .................. .... .... ............................. ....... 293

CHAPTER XIV.
FROM SYDNEY TO BRISBANE.-POLITICAL DIVISIONS OF AUSTRALIA.-ORDER IN WHICH THE COLONIES
WERE FOUNDED.-EXPLORATIONS AND THEIR EXTENT.-DOCTOR BASS AND CAPTAIN FLINDERS.-
ABSENCE OF WATER IN THE INTERIOR OF AUSTRALIA.-A COUNTRY OF STRANGE CHARACTERISTICS.
-NATURE'S REVERSES.-HOW THE COLONIES ARE GOVERNED.-RELIGION AND EDUCATION.-JEAL-
OUSY'OF THE COLONIES TOWARDS EACH OTHER.--NEWCASTLE AND ITS COAL.-RAILWAY TRAVEL-
LING IN NEW SOUTH WALES.-TENTERFIELD AND STANTHORPE.-COBB'S COACHES.-AUSTRALIAN
SCENERY.-THE EUCALYPTUS, OR GUM-TREE, THE TALLEST TREES IN THE WORLD.-SILVER STEMS
AND MALLEE SCRUB.-BRISBANE.-RELICS OF THE CONVICT SYSTEM.-QUEEN STREET AND THE
BOTANICAL GARDENS ..................................... ..................... 317

CHAPTER XV.
LEAVING BRISBANE.-THE REGIONS AROUND THE CITY.-QUEENSLAND SCRUB AND FOREST LAND.-
FRUITS AND GARDEN PRODUCE.-TROUBLES OF THE EARLY SETTLERS.-IPSWICH AND ITS COAL-









Vii CONTENTS.

MINES.-WINE-MAKING IN AUSTRALIA.-CHARACTER OF AUSTRALIAN WINES.-THE LABOR QUES-
TION.-POLYNESIAN AND CHINESE LABORERS.-POPULATION OF QUEENSLAND.-NATIVES AND ABO-
RIGINES.-PECULIARITIES OF THE BLACK RACE.-CATTLE TRACKERS AND THEIR ABILITIES.-HOW
THE ABORIGINALS LIVE: THEIR HOMES, WEAPONS, AND MODE OF LIFE.--AUSTRALIAN MYTHS
AND SUPERSTITIONS.-CURIOUS THEORIES OF RESURRECTION.-SMOKE AND FIRE SIGNALS.-HOW A
WANDERING WHITE MAN SAVED HIS LIFE.-RELIGIOUS IDEAS.-HOW THE EEL MADE THE FROG
LAUGH.-THE BUN-YIP AND HIS WONDERFUL ATTRIBUTES .........................Page 838

CHAPTER XVI.

RIDING THROUGH THE BUSH.-AUSTRALIAN HOSPITALITY.-ARRIVAL AT THE STATION.-THE BUILD-
INGS AND THEIR SURROUNDINGS.-A SNAKE IN FRED'S BED.-SNAKES IN AUSTRALIA.-UNDER-
WOOD'S REMEDY FOR SNAKE-BITES, AND WHAT CAME OF IT.-CENTIPEDES AND SCORPIONS.-A
VENOMOUS SPIDER.--NOCTURNAL NOISES AT A CATTLE-STATION.-HORSES AND THEIR TRAITS.-
BUCK-JUMPING AND ROUGH-RIDING.-HOW A NEW CHUM" CATCHES A HORSE.-ENDURANCE OF
HORSES.-AMONG THE HERDS OF CATTLE.-RIDE TO A CATTLE-CAMP.-DAILY LIFE OF THE STOCK-
MEN.-CASTE IN AUSTRALIA.-SQUATTERS AND FREE SELECTORS.-HORRIBLE ACCIDENTS IN THE
BUSH.-A MAN EATEN ALIVE BY ANTS.-BURNED TO DEATH UNDER A FALLEN TREE.-CHASING
AN EMU.-RoUSING A FLOCK OF WILD TURKEYS. ..................................... 859

CHAPTER XVII.

CATTLE AND SHEEP RAISING IN QUEENSLAND.-GRASS THAT KILLS SHEEP.-PROFITS OF RAISING CAT-
TLE.-RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF THE TWO ENTERPRISES.-INCREASE OF FLOCKS AND HERDS.-
STATISTICS.-LIVE-STOCK IN QUEENSLAND.-VISITING A SHEEP-STATION.-DUTIES OF A GOOD
SHEPHERD.-INSANE TENDENCIES OF SHEPHERDS.-MONOTONY OF THEIR LIVES.-DISAGREEABLE
WORK FOR NOVICES.-SHEEP-SHEARING, AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED.-PACKING AND SHIPPING
WOOL.-AMUSING STORY OF A STOLEN HORSE.-THE MINER WHO HID HIS GOLD IN A HORSE-
COLLAR.-BUSH-RANGERS AND THEIR PERFORMANCES.-" STICKING UP."-" OLIVER, THE TERROR
OF THE NORTH."--HELD' BY A WOODEN LEG.--ThICK OF A DISHONEST GENIUS.--PEARL-FISHING
IN AUSTRALIAN WATERS: HOW THE BUSINESS IS CONDUCTED.-ALLIGATORS.-THE "CARDWELL
PET."-SUNDOWNERS ............................................................. 882

CHAPTER XVIII.
THE PLAGUE OF FLIES IN AUSTRALIA.-OTHER CREEPING AND FLYING THINGS.-LAUGHING-JACKASSES,
BOWER-BIRDS, LYRE-BIRDS, PARROTS, ETC.-TRICKS OF THE LYRE-BIRD.-ORIGIN OF THE BOWER-
BIRD'S NAME.-BLACK SWANS AND WILD-DUCKS.--SNIPE, QUAIL, AND OTHER BIRDS.-AUSTRA-
LIAN RIVERS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-RETURN TO THE COAST.--GYMPIE AND THE GOLD-MINES
OF QUEENSLAND.-AN AUSTRALIAN GOLD RUSH.-DOWN THE COAST TO SYDNEY.-THE GREAT
BARRIER REEF: ITS EXTENT AND PECULIARITIES.-SPORT IN NORTHERN QUEENSLAND.-GOING
UP-COUNTRY IN NEW SOUTH WALES.-A KANGAROO HUNT.-DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A HUNT AND
A DRIVE.-AUSTRALIAN MARSUPIALS.-SHOOTING WILD HORSES.-KILLING AN OLD MAN "
KANGA .-NGR .INGOES.-STORIES OF KANGAROO HUNTS .............................. 407

CHAPTER XIX.

A NATIVE ENCAMPMENT AND A CORROBOREE.-RIDING ACROSS-COUNTRY.-AMONG THE BLACKS.-NA-
TIVE DANCES.-A WEIRD SCENE.-ABORIGINAL MUSIC.-STORIES ABOUT CORROBOREES.-CURIOUS
CUSTOMS.-- OW THE BLACK MEN OBTAIN THEIR WIVES.-TESTING THE STOICISM OF YOUTHS.-
AN ALARM AT NIGHT.-RETURN TO SYDNEY.-A BRICKFIELDER.-HOT WINDS FROM THE DESERT.
-How A PICNIC WAS BROKEN UP.-OVER THE BLUE MOUNTAINS.-RAILWAYS IN NEW SOUTH
WALES.-SALUBRITY OF THE MOUNTAIN CLIMATE.-GOULBURN.-THEATRICAL GOSSIP.-FIRST
THEATRE IN AUSTRALIA.-A CONVICT'S PROLOGUE.-THE DRAMA UNDER DISADVANTAGES.-THE
RIVERINA.-ALBURY AND THE VICTORIAN FRONTIER.-PROTECTION AND FREE-TRADE.-FISHING IN
THE MURRAY RIVER.-AUSTRALIAN FISHES.-FROM ALBURY TO MELBOURNE ............. 429









CONTENTS. ix


CHAPTER XX.
THE FOUNDING OF MELBOURNE.-BATMAN AND FAWKNER.-GROWTH OF MELBOURNE, CHICAGO, AND
SAN FRANCISCO COMPARED.-SIGHTS AND SCENES IN THE AUSTRALIAN METROPOLIS.-COLLINS
STREET, BOURKE STREET, AND OTHER THOROUGHFARES.--A GENERAL DESCRIPTION.-THE YARRA
RIVER.-BOTANICAL GARDENS.-DINING AT A SUBURBAN RESIDENCE.-THE SUBURBS OF MEL-
BOURNE.-HOW ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS BECAME ONE MILLION IN FIFTY YEARS.-SANDRIDGE
(PORT MELBOURNE).-SCENES IN THE HARBOR.-REMINISCENCES OF THE GOLD RUSH OF 1851.-
BUSH-RANGERS AND THEIR PERFORMANCES.-PLUNDERING A SHIP IN PORT.-HOBSON'S BAY AND
PORT PHILLIP BAY.-WILLIAMSTOWN AND ST. KILDA.-SHARK FENCES.-QUEENSCLIFF.-CURIOUS
ROCKS ON THE COAST.-GEELONG.-MELBOURNE NEWSPAPERS .....................Page 452

CHAPTER XXI.
THE RACE FOR THE MELBOURNE CUP.-POPULARITY OF HORSE-RACING IN AUSTRALIA.-CRICKET AND
OTHER SPORTS.- SUMMER RETREATS AMONG THE MOUNTAINS OVERLOOKING MELBOURNE.-"A
SOUTHERLY BURSTER:" ITS PECULIARITIES.-RAPID FALL OF THE THERMOMETER.-FLOODING THE
STREETS OF MELBOURNE.-CHILDREN DROWNED IN THE GUTTERS.-BALLARAT AND THE GOLD-
MINES.-HISTORY OF THE DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN AUSTRALIA.-THE RUSH TO BALLARAT AND BEN-
DIGO.-SANDHURST: ITS PRESENT APPEARANCE.-REMARKABLE YIELD OF THE BALLARAT MINES.
-" THE WELCOME NUGGET."-WESTERN DISTRICT OF VICTORIA.-LAKE SCENERY.-AUSTRALIA'S
POTATO-FIELD.--GIPPSLAND.-FROM MELBOURNE TO TASMANIA.--LAUNCESTON.-A CHAPTER OF
TASMANIAN HISTORY.-MEMORIES OF CONVICT DAYS.-CORRA LINN AND OTHER SHOW-PLACES. 474

CHAPTER XXII.
EXCURSION TO DELORAINE.-THE CHUDLEIGH CAVES.-FROM LAUNCESTON TO HOBART.-ACROSS THE
MOUNTAINS.-THE OLD WAGON-ROAD BUILT BY CONVICTS.-DEATH OF THE LAST TASMANIAN.-
HOW THE ABORIGINES WERE DESTROYED.-A WONDERFUL TIN-MINE.--HOBART: ITS CLIMATE AND
ATTRACTIONS.-LOVELINESS'OF TASMANIAN LADIES.-PORT ARTUR.--DOGS AT THE NECK.-FROM
HOBART TO ADELAIDE.-ARRIVAL IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA.-ADELAIDE: ITS PRINCIPAL FEATURES.
-A RIVER THAT IS NOT A RIVER.-CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS.-POPULATION OF THE CAPITAL
AND COLONY.-EXTENSIVE WHEAT-FARMS.-PRODUCTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.-FRUIT-GROWING.
-GLENELG.--THE HISTORIC GUM-TREE.-PARKS AND GARDENS.--OVERLAND TO PORT DARWIN.-
HOW THE TELEGRAPH WAS BUILT.-EXPLORATIONS OF STURT AND STUART.-CAMELS IN AUSTRA-
LIA.-A SIDE-SADDLE CAMEL.-AN AFFECTING INCIDENT.-THE OVERLAND RAILWAY ..... 497

CHAPTER XXIII.
AUSTRALIAN EXPLORATIONS.-THE BLUE MOUNTAINS FIRST TRAVERSED.-DISCOVERY OF THE LACH-
LAN, MACQUARIE, MURRUMBIDGEE, AND MURRAY RIVERS.-EXPLORATIONS OF STURT, MITCHELL,
CUNNINGHAM, HUME, AND OTHERS.-EYRE'S JOURNEY ALONG THE SOUTHERN COAST.-SUFFERINGS
AND PERILS.-BURKE AND WILLS: HOW THEY PERISHED IN THE WILDERNESS.-MONUMENT TO
THEIR MEMORY.-COLONEL WARBURTON AND HIS CAMEL-TRAIN.-STRAPPED TO A CAMEL'S BACK.
-PRESENT KNOWLEDGE OF THE AUSTRALIAN DESERT.-ABORIGINALS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA.-
THROWING THE BOOMERANG.-A REMARKABLE EXHIBITION.-ORIGIN OF THE BOOMERANG.-DUCK-
BILLED PLATYPUS: A PUZZLE FOR THE NATURALISTS.-VISITING A COPPER-MINE.-MINERAL RE-
SOURCES OF THE COLONY.-WESTERN AUSTRALIA.-ALBANY, ON KING GEORGE SOUND.-DESCRIP-
TION OF THE COLONY.-CURIOUS POISON-PLANTS.-FAREWELL TO AUSTRALIA.-THE END .. 518






















ILLUSTRATIONS.


Mount Kosciusko, the Highest Peak in Australia........................ Frontispiece.
Map of Australasia, .................................... ............. Front Cover.
Map of Australia, New Zealand, and Tasmania...........................Back Cover.
PAGE PAGE
Royal School, Honolulu .............. 1 View of one of the Burning Lakes..... 35
The Physalia ........................ 2 View on a Lava Field ................ 37
The Island of Oahu .................. 8 Hawaiian Warriors a Century ago ..... 88
General View of Honolulu ........... 4 Chain of Extinct Volcanoes, Island of
In the Harbor of Honolulu ............ 5 Kauai ............................. 39
Queen's Hospital, Honolulu.. ......... 6 Map of the Haleakala Crater ........... 41
Kealakeakua Bay, where Captain Cook Kamehameha I., First King of the Sand-
was Killed........................ 7 which Islands..................... .. 4
Mrs. Thurston, one of the Missionaries Water-fall on Island of Kauai ............ 4
of 1820 ............................ 8 Implements of Domestic Life ......... 44
Kawaiaho Church-First Native Church Hawaiian Pipe ........................ 45
in Honolulu ...... ................ 9 Looking Seaward ................... 48
Bethel Church ...................... 10 The Owner of the Yacht............. 49
Native School-house in Honolulu...... 10 "Good-by!" ........................ 49
The Court-house in Honolulu......... 11 At Home on the "Pera".............. 50
Native Gentleman of Honolulu........ 12 Below Deck in the Tropics............ 51
Hawaiian Poi-dealer................ 13 On the Coast of the Marqucsas ........ 53
The Hawaiian Archipelago ........... 14 A View in Nookaheeva ............. 55
Hawaiians at a Feast................. 15 Gattanewa's Portrait ................. 56
Native Hay Peddler................. 16 Tattoo Marks on a Chief of the Marque-
Dress of Hawaiian Women........... 18 sas ............................. 57
Ancient Idols of Hawaii.............. 19 The Chief's Daughter ................ 59
Grass House, Hawaiian Islands........ 20 A European's Residence in the Marque-
Government Buildings, Honolulu...... 21 sas ........................... 61
Hawaiian Dancing-girls............... 22 A Marquesan Village ................. 6
Map of the Sandwich Isles............ 23 Catholic Missionary ................ 64
Lahaina, Island of Maui .............. 25 In a Gale near the Marquesas.......... 65
Women on Horseback, Honolulu...... 26 Commodore Porter's Fleet in Nooka-
A Mountain Valley.................. 27 heeva Bay.... ..................... 66
Hawaiian Temple ..................... 28 Easter Island House and Children ..... 67
Mountain Scene in the Sandwich Isl- Lava Rock Image, Easter Island ...... 68
hands ............................ 29 Easter Island Man.................... 69
Hilo ................................ 31 Easter Island Woman................. 70
Surf-bathing at Hilo.................. 32 Stone Tablet of Character Writing..... 71
The Volcano House .................. 33 Stone Platform for Images............ 72









xii ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Coast Scenery, Tahiti ............... 74 A Beach-comber ................... 124
Specimen of Coral .................. 75 Growth of Coral on a Mountain slowly
The Coral Worm ..................... 76 Subsiding.................... ..... 125
On the Shore of the Lagoon........... 77 Ass's Ears, Florida Island............. 126
A Cabin in the Suburbs .............. 78 A House in the Tonga Islands......... 127
The Coast in a Storm.................. 79 Native Teacher, Upolu, Samoan Islands 129
A French Bishop .................... 81 Map of the South Sea Islands.......... 181
View in an Orange-grove..... ........ 82 Crabs eating Cocoanuts................ 132
Native Bamboo House, Tahiti.......... 83 A Plantation in the South Sea Islands.. 133
Natives of the'Society Islands Fishing.. 84 A Fair Wind......................... 184
A Sea-urchin ......................... 85 Bread-fruit ......................... 185
The Bottom of the Lagoon........... 86 War Canoe of the Olden Time ........ 187
Sea-anemone and Hermit-crab ......... 87 Canoes drawn on Shore ............. 188
Hermit-crab and Sea-shell............ 88 Captain James Cook................. 189
View among the Coral Branches....... 89 An American Resident .............. 140
A Fish inside a Sea-slug............... 90 Cave near the Picnic Ground.......... 141
Coralline ............................. 91 Massacre Bay...................... ...143
Octopus, or Devil-fish ............... 92 A Village in Vanikoro ................ 144
Stingaree, or Sea-devil ............... 92 Hat Island, west of Vanikoro.......... 145
Garden of a Suburban Residence ...... 93 Louis XVI. and La P6rQuse.......... 146
Gathering Oranges for the Feast........ 95 A Native of Feejee..... ........... 147
Tamarind-tree at Point Venus......... 97 A Royal Attendant.................. 148
A Grove of Cocoanut-trees........... 98 Ancient Feejee Temple ............... 149
Running before the Trade-winds ..... 99 A Polynesian Idol................... 151
Dr. Coan, Missionary to Hawaii........ 100 A Coast Scene in Kandavu............ 152
No Respect for Missionaries ........... 101 A Planter's Residence ............... 153
Trading Station in the Pacific ........ 103 A New Arrival...................... 154
John Wesley, the Founder of Method- Going to Feejee ..................... 155
ism ............................... 104 Scene on a Cotton Plantation ......... 156
Mission Church and Station .......... 105 Sugar-cane Mill ..................... 157
Mission Park Monument.............. 106 Feejeean Iead-dress ................ 158
Mission Ship on her Voyage........... 107 An Accomplished Liar ................. 159
Landing on an Atoll of the Hervey Fork of a Cannibal King............. 160
Group ............................ 109 Tanoa, former King of Feejee ......... 161
Cocoa Palms in the Hervey Islands .... 111 A Cannibal Dance ................... 162
Native Houses and Canoe............ 118 Skull found at the Banquet Ground.... 162
Missionary Station on Aneityum Island 115 View in a Valley of the Interior of the
Tauna Islander on a Queensland Plan- Island .................. ....... 168
station ................ ........... 116 Avenue of Palms..................... 165
Group of Islanders on a Feejeean Plan- A Part of Levuka .................... 166
station ...................... .... 117 Fred's Fly ....................... 167
Firing down the Hatchway .......... 118 Frank's Mosquito .................... 167
The "Rosario" chasing a Man-stealing One Variety of Sea-worm ............. 169
Schooner ........................ 119 Going for Balola .................... 170
A Witness for the Defence............ 120 Ancient Feejeean War-dance......... 171
Indian Girl House-servant in Feejee ... 121 Moonlight on the Waters.............. 172
Samoan double Canoe ............... 122 Mission Church in the Feejee Islands... 174
Coral Architects in Samoan Waters.... 128 Going to Church.-River Scene........ 175





it









ILLUSTRATIONS. iii

PAGE PAGE
Feejeean Head...................... 176 A Mud Crater....................... 227
Feejeean Weapons ................. 176 The White Terraces, seen from above.. 229
Telling the Story..................... 177 The Pink Terraces, seen from below ... 231
Formation of Clouds before a Feejeean Lake Tarawera, in the Hot Lake District 233
Hurricane ....................... 178 The Tabu Removed ................ 234
After the Storm..................... 179 Maori Village of Wairoa, in the Hot Lake
Coast Scene in a Calm ............... 179 District .......................... 235
Lost in the Hurricane ................. 180 A Maori Prophet in the King Country.. 236
Mota, or Sugar-loaf Island ........... 181 British Soldiers attacking a Maori Pah 237
Two-tree Island .................... 181 Outworks of a Maori Pah............ 239
A Young Student .................. 182 In the Harbor...................... 240
Stone Monument, Tongataboo ........ 188 In Napier for his Health............ 241
A Volcano in the Pacific ........... .. 184 Scene on a Sheep Farm.--Off to the Past-
An Island Cavern .................. 185 ure .............................. 243
Islands on the Coast................ 186 Farm Scenes in the Open Country..... 244
Auckland in 1840.................... 187 On the Coast near Wellington ........ 246
View of Auckland from Mount Eden .. 189 Just down from the Interior.......... 247
Mission Station at Tangiteroria, New Mountain and Lake in New Zealand ... 249
Zealand .......................... 190 Just arrived from England............ 250
Early Days in New Zealand........... 191 A Promenader ...................... 251
In a State of Decadence.............. 198 An Afternoon Call................... 252
A Kainga Maori (Native) Village ...... 195 Sewing-class in an Industrial School.... 258
Carved New Zealand Chest............ 196 Residence of the Governor, Wellington. 255
Maori War Clubs .................... 197 Down the Slope.................... 257
Lake in the Crater of an Extinct Volcano 198 Logging in "the Bush ".............. 258
Sawing a Kauri Pine................ 199 Settlers' Cabins in the Open Country... 259
Stock-farm in the Suburbs............ 200 Mount Egmont and Ranges ........... 261
A Water-oak....................... 201 Home Scene at Christchurch ........ 263
A Pakeha Maori .................... 202 Harvest-time in Canterbury ........... 264
A Pakeha Maori's Home............. 203 Maid-servant off Duty ............... 266
View of a Part of Auckland and its Har- Gardening in the Park............... 267
bor ........................... 204 Under the Shears...................... 268
Maori Tattooing.................... 205 A Sheep-shearing Shed in New Zealand 269
Inland Scenery................... 206 A Flock of Sheep among the Hills..... 271
Captain Cook's Gift to the Maoris...... 207 Sheep and Herder killed in a Snow-storm 273
Skeleton of the Extinct Moa (Dinornis). 209 Reducing the Rabbit Population....... 274
Dressing Flax ...................... 210 Parrots ............................. 277
Family of Deer on Kawau Island..... 212 A New Zealand Pest ................ 277
Prospecting for Gold ................ 213 A Steam Threshing-machine ......... 278
Stamp-mill at Grahamstown ......... 214 English Sparrows at Home............ 280
"Struck a Pocket"................... 215 Class in the Industrial School ........ 282
Gold-mining on the Sea-shore ............. 217 A Perilous Night-watch .............. 288
A Miner's Camp in the Mountains ...... 218 The Summit of Mount Cook ........ 285
Visiting a Mine ..................... 219 Attempt to climb the Eastern Spur .... 286
Inland Scenery...................... 221 River issuing from a Glacier ......... 287
Among the Hot Springs ............. 223 Hydraulic Mining ................... 288
The Baths at Rotomahana............ 224 A Squatter's Home .................. 289
Hotel Life at the Hot Lakes.......... 225 A Mountain Water-fall ............. 290









xiv ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Shotover Gorge Bridge ................ 291 Battle between Hostile Tribes of Austra-
On the Shore of the Lake ............ 292 lians ..................... ...... 354
Bound for Sydney.................. 293 Aboriginal Australians and their Huts.. 355
Entrance to Port Jackson............. 294 Aboriginal Children playing in the Water 357
General View of Sydney Harbor....... 295 The Haunt of the Bun-yip ........... 358
Statue of Captain Cook, Sydney....... 297 The Team ........................... 359
George III ........................... 298 Pets at the Station ................... 360
Avenue in the-Botanical Gardens...... 299 The Tiger Snake .................... 361
Candidates for Transportation......... 301 Camping-out on a Cattle-run .......... 363
Sydney and its Harbor ............... 03 The Poisonous Spider (magnified)...... 364
The Town-hall, Sydney............... 305 The Prosperous Squatter.............. 365
Sentenced to Hard Labor ............. 307 "I'm waiting for You ".............. 366
View of Sydney from Pyrmont, Darling Performance of a Bucker ............. 366
Harbor ........................ 309 The Milking-yard .................... 367
Home of an Emancipist............... 310 Coming in from Pasture ............. 68
A Ticket-of-leave Man ............. 311 An Australian Stock-rider............. 869
Just arrived in Port ................. 312 An Unsteady Seat ................... 370
Ship-yard Scene ..................... 313 A New Chum's First Ride ........... 371
On the Paramatta River ............. 314 A Stampede ........................ 372
Irrigating an Orange-grove............ 315 A Free Selector at Home.............. 378
Interior of a Coal-breaker ................ 317 Arrival of the Weekly-Mail .............. 374
Gold-fields of Mount Alexander, Austra- "Cutting Out"....................... 375
lia .................... ....... 319 Mustering Cattle ....................... 377
Clearing in an Australian Forest....... 321 Branding a Calf ..................... 378
A Waterless Region ................. 322 Died alone in "the Bush" .......... 379
Australian Lyre-birds ................ 323 The Emu ......................... 380
A Member of the Legislature........... 25 The Pride of the Station ............ 382
Infant Class in an Industrial School.... 327 The Squatter's Pet................... 383
Completing the Railway ............. 829 Cattle going to Water............... 384
A Fallen Giant....................... 330 A Home in the Bush................. 385
Silver-stem Eucalypti ................... 332 Herd of Mixed Cattle on a Station ...... 387
From Tenterfield to Stanthorpe ....... 333 A Shepherd's Dog.................. 388
A Balcony .......................... 335 Ewes and Lambs ................... 389
Palm-trees in the Botanical Gardens... 336 Mother of a Family.................. 390
"No more Tricks at the Wheel" ..... 337 Sheep-shearing in Australia ............ 3891
A Relic of Old Colonial Times.......... 338 Sheds and Chicken-yard of a Station... 393
Among the Foot-hills ............... 340 Sheep-washing on the Modern Plan.... 395
Picking Figs....................... 341 The Rush for the Gold-mines........ 397
A Clearing in the Scrub ............. 342 Bush-ranger out of Luck.............. 398
Suburban Residence on the River's Bank 343 Bush-rangers at Work .............. 399
Gathering the Grapes .................. 844 Leading Citizens of Somerset.......... 401
Cellars for Storing Wine .............. 346 Pearl Oyster ....................... 402
Chinese Laborers in a Vineyard........ 347 Australian Pearls (full size)............ 402
Aboriginal Australian .............. 348 Big Ben and his Friends ............ 404
West Coast Australians .............. 49 Waiting for Sunset .................. 405
Civilized Aborigines .................. 351 Evening Scene at an Up-country Station 406
Aboriginal Method of making Fire..... 352 An Australian Pest................. 407
Australian Warriors watching a Boat .. 353 The Sand-flea(naturalsize and magnified) 408









ILLUSTRATIONS. XV

FAGEI PAGE
The Australian Bower-bird............ 409 A Suburban Residence .............. 463
Wallace's Standard-wing Birds-of-para- Harbor Scene in the Moonlight........ 465
dise, male and female .............. 411 Boarding-house of 1851 .............. 466
Head of the Valley Quail ........... 412 A Good Location for Business......... 467
A Quail Family..................... 413 Loading a Ship from a Lighter ....... 468
Out Prospecting ................... .. 414 The Artillery Rocks, near Lorne, on the
Quartz-mill in the Gold-mines ......... 415. Coast of Victoria ............... 471
Australian. Gold-hunters .............. 416 Waiting to see the Editor ............ 472
A Gold-miner's Home ............... 417 Distributing Papers to Newsboys ...... 478
A Chinese Discussion ............... 418 The Race for the Melbourne Cup...... 475
Wrecked on the Reef ................ 420 Head of a Winner .................. 476
The Manatee, or Dugong .......... 421 A Cricket-match....................... 477
Evening at Home on the North Coast.. 422 Summer Retreat in the Mountains ..... 479
Dingoes, or Australian Wild Dogs ..... 423 Caught in a "Burster" on the Austra-
Australian Wild Horses ............. 424 lian Coast........................ 481
A Kangaroo Battue, or Drive.......... 425 Seeking Shelter ..................... 482
Red Kangaroo....................... 426 Pioneer Gold-hunters................ 483
Short-eared Kangaroo .............. 426 Map of the Gold-fields of Victoria Twen-
Kangaroos in Captivity .......... .... 428 ty Years ago ...................... 484
A Corroboree ....................... 431 Edward Hargreaves, the Gold Discov-
Something for Breakfast.............. 432 erer.............................. 485
Near the Camp...................... 433 The Rush to Ballarat ................ 486
An Australian Courtship............. 434 Lake Scenery ....................... 487
The Night Alarm ................... 435 A Gippsland Settler ................. 489
Reception of a Brickfielder .......... 437 The Peach Harvest.................. 491
A Brickfielder putting in its Work .... .438 A Cottage in the Suburbs of Launces-
Building a Railway on the Plains...... 439 ton............................... 492
Zigzag Railway in the Blue Mountains; 441 An Old Settler ...................... 493
The Blue Mountains.................. 442 At Bay in the Bush.................. 494
On the Head-waters of the Murray Riv- A Camp in the Bush .................. 495
er ................ ............. 443 Entrance to Cave .................... 497
Gallery of a Theatre during a Perform- Near Deloraine ..................... 498
ance............................ 445 Australia at'the Feet of Tasmania...... 500
Scene in the Riverina .................... 447 Old Convict Church, Port Arthur, Tas-
Steamboat on the Murray River ....... 449 mania ............................ 501
Fish-hatching Boxes on a small Stream. 450 One of the Watch-dogs ............... 502
Immigrant's Camp in the Foot-hills of "Land, ho!"........................ 502
the Range ......................... 451 On the Pier.......................... 503
The Founding of Melbourne, August, Post-office and Town-hall, Adelaide.... 505
1835 ........................... 458 Adelaide in 1887..................... 507
Public Library, Melbourne .......... 454 Reaping Brigade at Work............. 509
Melbourne Post-office ................. 455 Proclamation Tree at Glenelg, near Ade-
Government House, Melbourne........ 456 laide ............................. 510
Collins Street in 1870 ............... 457 Victoria Regia House, Botanic Garden,
Public Offices and Treasury Gardens... 458 Adelaide ........................ 511
Town-hall, Melbourne .............. 459 Exploring Expedition on the March... 513
View from South Melbourne, 1868..... 460 Camp Scene on the Desert Plains of
Part of Melbourne in 1888............. 461 South Australia .................. 515








XVi ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE PAGE
Government House and Grounds, Ade- A War-dance of Australian Blacks..... 527
laide ............................. 517 Americans who use the Boomerang .... 529
Ready for the Start................. 519 Platypus, or Duck-billed Mole......... 580
Explorers in Camp .................. 520 Home of the Duck-bill............. 531
Monument to Burke and Wills, Mel- One of the Miners.................. 532
bourne ............................. 521 View of Perth, Capital of Western Aus-
Colonel Warburton strapped to his tralia............................. 588
Camel ................... ........ 523 Forest Scene in the South-west........ 535
Desert Scenery................... 525 A Kid-gloved Colonist............... 586
The Way of Civilization .............. 526 In the Pasture Lands ................. 537
A Boomerang...................... 526 Rocks at the Cape........ .......... 588














i(A\















THE BOY TRAVELLERS
IN

AUSTRALASIA.


CHAPTER I.
FROM SAN FRANCISCO TO HONOLULU. -SIGHTS ON THE PACIFIC OCEAN.--A.
PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR.-NEARING THE SANDWICH ISLANDS,-THE MOLO-
KAI CHANNEL.-SURF-BEATEN SHORES. OF OAHU.---TP.IVAI T _HON'TLULU
-A PICTURESQUE PORT.-DISCOVERY AND HISTORY OF THE SANDWICH -iL-
ANDS.-CAPTAIN COOK.-HIS TRAGIC DEATH.-HOW THE PEOPLE HAVE BEEN
CIVILIZED.-WORK OQ THE MISSIONARIES.-SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES.-PRES-
ENT CONDITION OF THE POPULATION.-OLD CUSTOMS.-SIGHTS AND SCENES
IN HONOLULU.-TARO AND POL-A NATIVE DINNER.-THE COSTUMES OF THE
ISLANDERS.-PECULIARITIES OF THE CLIMATE.-THE HULA-HULA AND OTHER
DANCES.
AND, HO !" from the mast-head.
"Where away ?" from the bridge.
"Dead ahead, sir!" was the reply; but it was almost drowned by
the buzz of excitement
which the announce-
ment produced. The
passengers, who had I
been strolling about the
decks or listlesslyloung-
ing in their chairs, rush- T
ed hastily forward, in
their eagerness to catch -a o
a glimpse of the land
which had been report- __
ed "dead ahead."
This happened on __...._ __ __"-
board the steamship ROYAL SCHOOL, RONOLULU.
Alameda, early one
pleasant afternoon as she was nearing the Sandwich Islands on a voy-








2 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.








-?-





age from San Francisco. There
E -ft' were three passengers who did
___ _not join in the scramble towards
._ __ the bow of the ship, but remained
quietly seated in their chairs.
Se They had been through the ex-
-_ perience of sighting land from a
Steamer at sea too many times to
Regard it as a novelty.
They 'were our old friends,
Doctor Bronson and his nephews,
r l Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson,
whose experiences and adventures
THE PHYSuLIA. in various parts of the world are
familiar to many American youths.
Not content with what they had seen in Asia, Africa, and Europe, they
were now bound on a voyage to the antipodes with the intention of
adding another volume to the series in which their wanderings are re-
corded.*
It was on the eighth day of a voyage over the lovely azure waters
of the broad Pacific that the Alatmeda neared the land, and many of
her passengers half regretted that they were about to separate. The
weather had been delightful, the breezes were light, the sky was nearly
always clear, and the temperature high enough to make thick clothing
uncomfortably warm, and an awning over the deck desirable. Since
"The Boy Travellers in the Far East" (five volumes), and The Boy Travellers in
South America," "The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire," and "The Boy Travel-
lers on the Congo (three volumes). See complete list at the end of this book.








A "PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR.. 3

the second day out from San Francisco not a sail had been seen, as the
sailing-ships take another track in order to obtain stronger and more
favoring winds. Four or five whales had shown themselves, and a few
schools of porpoises played around the vessel from time to time as
though they wished to make the acquaintance of the strange monster.
Flying-fish were numerous, and so were those curious denizens of
the deep popularly known as "Portuguese men-of-war." One of the
latter was caught by means of a bucket; a verdant passenger who ad-
mired its beautiful colors took it in his hand for a careful examination,
but on feeling a stinging sensation he dropped it immediately. Doctor
Bronson consoled him with the information that the scientific name of
the Portuguese man-of-war is Physalis pelagica, and its power of sting-
ing enables it to benumb its prey. It consists principally of an air-sac
which floats it upon the water, and has long tentacles hanging down at
various lengths. These tentacles are armed with stings; they paralyze
any small fish that comes within their reach, and then act as fingers to
sweep up the prize. It is a favorite trick of sailors to induce a novice
to pick up a captured physalia, so that they may enjoy his haste in
dropping it.
As the Alameda continued her course the outline of the land grew
more and more distinct, revealing the rugged volcanic cliffs of Oahu,
and reminding the passengers of the burning mountains for which the
Sandwich Islands are famous. The course of the vessel lay through the
Molokai Channel, leaving Molokai Island on the left, and hugging
closely against the surf-beaten shores of Oahu, on which the capital,
Honolulu, is situated. Near the water there were occasional groves of
cocoanut-trees; but on the whole
the shore was less tropical in ap- ._ .,
pearance than our young friends ,,., 'L
had expected to find it.r ~
Every eye was straining to catch
a view of Honolulu; but when its -
position was pointed out most of "
the passengers were unable to dis-
cover any marked indications of the THE ISLAND OF OAHU.
presence of a town. After a time
the steamer made a sharp turn to the starboard; and passed through the
narrow channel which leads into the pretty harbor of Honolulu. Then
the town appeared rather suddenly in view; its houses surrounded by
groves of palms and tamarind-trees, interspersed with other tropical








4 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

growths in rich profu-
sion. ,The harbor is a
deep basin in a coral reef,
and so perfectly land-
looked that it is ordina-
rily as smooth as a mill-
pond, and is safe in all
Sii winds that blow. There
is good anchorage for
S1 ,' ships, and when the Ala-
mnedac entered there was
Ii t a fleet of sufficient size
in the port to give it a
very prosperous appear-
ance. Numerous small
boats were darting about,
and almost before the en-
gines were stopped the
little craft swarmed in
great force about the
steamer.
Back of Honohilu rises
a series of volcanic mount-
ains three or four thou-
sand feet high, and from
the town itself to the foot
of these mountains the
ground rises in a gentle
slope, so that the view
from the harbor is an ex-
cellent one. Doctor Bron-
son called the attention
of the youths to a val-
ley opening through the
mountains, and to the
contrast between the
cliffs and slopes, and the
bright waters immediate-
ly around them. All
zHZagreed that the place was







SIGHT-SEEING IN HONOLULU.

very prettily situated, and the view was a great relief after the monot-
onous voyage from San Francisco.
As soon as possible the party left the steamer and proceeded to the
hotel, and, without waiting to see the rooms assigned to them, started
out for a sight-seeing stroll. They desired to make the most of their
time, as they expected to continue their journey in a week or ten days
at farthest. The Alameda was to return to San Francisco as soon as
she could land her cargo and receive another; the regular mail steamer
for Australia would touch at Honolulu at the time indicated, and it was
by this steamer they were to proceed southward.








.,,m,,







--- --_ --

IN THE HARBOR OF HONOLULU.

As they walked along the streets, accompanied by: a guide whom
they had engaged at the hotel, Doctor IBh :Io' :o .gave the youths-a brief
history of the Sandwich Islands, which Fred afterwards committed to
paper lest it might escape his memory. Substantially it was as follows:
The famous navigator Captain Cook has the credit of discovering
these islands in 1778, but they were known to the Spaniards more than
a century before that time. The death of Captain Cook served to bring
the islands into prominence; he named them after Lord Sandwich, who
was then First Lord of the Admiralty, but they are known here as the
Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii being the largest of the group."
"That is the. island where Captain Cook was killed, is it not in-
quired one of the youths.







.6 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

"Yes," was the reply. It was at Kealakeakua Bay, in sight of the
great volcano of Mauna Loa. The famous navigator did not get along
well with the natives, who, like nearly all savages, were addicted to
thieving. One of his boats having been stolen, he determined to seize
















QUEEN'S HOSPITAL, HONOLULU.

the King and hold him a prisoner until the boat was returned. For
this purpose he landed with a lieutenant and nine men; the natives
suspected his intentions, and a fight ensued, which resulted in his
death."
"And they devoured him, it is said," Frank remarked.
"As to that," replied the Doctor, "there has been much dispute.
Captain King, the successor of Cook, and historian of the expedition
after the latter's death, positively declares that the body of Cook was
eaten, along with the bodies of the sailors and marines who were
killed at the same time. On the other hand, the islanders declare with
equal positiveness that cannibalism, did not exist here at that time;
and though great indignities might have been perpetrated, the horrible
accusation is untrue. At this distance of time it is impossible to say
what happened, and we will dismiss the subject. But it is generally
conceded that the great navigator owed his death to his severity in
dealing with the natives, and his imprudence in venturing on shore
with the small force which accompanied him.
"But we'll leave the famous captain at rest," continued the Doctor,
"while we give our attention to more modern things. Great, changes
have taken place in the hundred years or so that have elapsed since







WORK OF THE MISSIONARIES. 7

Captain Cook's death. Then the people were savages and idolaters;
now they are civilized and Christianized, and may be considered a
harmless and kindly disposed race. Education is universal among
them, hardly a native of Hawaii being unable to read and write.
Every child is obliged to attend the public schools, and there is a
special school-tax of two dollars on every voter, in addition to a gen-
eral tax for educational purposes. Schools are in every part of the
islands where there is any population, and the teachers are paid out
of the taxes I have mentioned."






















KEALAKEAKA BAY, WHERE CAPTAIN COOK WAS KILLED.

"I suppose the missionaries are to be credited with the spread of
education here, are they not ?" one of the youths asked.
"Yes," was the reply; and there have been. no more earnest and
energetic missionaries anywhere in the world than those that came to
the Hawaiian Islands. The first missionaries arrived here in 1820,
and for thirty-three years the mission enterprise was supported by
contributions in the United States and elsewhere. In that time the
donations of Christian people in the United States for the conversion
of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands amounted to more than
nine hundred thousand dollars."







8 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

"What was done at the end of that time ?" Fred asked.
"In 1853 the missionaries reported that the people of the Hawaiian
Islands had been converted to Christianity, and that idolatry no longer































MRS. THURSTON, ONE OF THE MISSIONARIES OF 1820.

existed among them. Then it was voted by the American Board of
missions that 'the Sandwich Islands, having been Christianized, shall












no longer receive aid from this Board.' From that time the churches
have been practically self-supporting, though they have received some
aid from America. At present the Hawaiian Islands have a missionary
society of their own which is sending missionaries and teachers into
other islands of the Pacific; and they have a printing office, where
Bibles are printed in several Polynesian languages just as Bibles
.-b -1 T_-J

20-kt






-7.








MRS. THURSTON, ONE OF THE MISSIONARIES OF 1820.

existed among them. Then it was voted by the American Board of
Missions that 'the Sandwich Islands, having been Christianized, shall
no longer receive aid from this Board.' From that time the churches
have been practically self-supporting, though they have received some
aid from America. At present the Hawaiian Islands have a missionary
society of their own which is sending missionaries and teachers into
other islands of the Pacific; and they have a printing-office, where
Bibles are printed in several Polynesian languages--just as Bibles







A CHURCH CARRIED BY A WHALE-SHIP. 9

were formerly printed in New York for the use of the Sandwich
Islanders."
Here the guide interrupted them to point out Kawaiaho church,
which, he said was the first native church in Honolulu, a substantial
and well-built edifice that reminded the strangers of many churches
they had seen in the New England States. In reply to Frank's remark
to this effect Doctor Bronson said that the most of the early mission-
aries came from Boston and its vicinity, and it was therefore to be
expected that the churches would be of the New England pattern.





_- ~- -- --- -- -


















KAWAIAHO CHURCH-FIRST NATIVE CHURCH IN HONOLULU.

Fred asked if the church they were passing was the first ever built
in the islands. The guide explained that it was the first native church,
but not the first American one. That honor belongs to the Seamen's
(or Bethel) church, which was sent from Boston in a whale-ship around
Cape Horn; it was brought in pieces, and set up soon after the ship
arrived here. Honolulu has been for a long time a great resort for
whalemen, and about 1816 special attention was paid to their needs by
the establishment of a Bethel church and society.







10 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

The most famous man in connection with this branch of the mission-
ary enterprise was Rev. Mr. Damon, who obtained the reputation of an
earnest friend of the seamen, and was generally called "Father Damon,"







o".p




2_ --~ -HI -=- .
+ ',! 'ihII iIIIli n
1 1 11'. -




BETHEL CHURCH.

in consequence of his paternal care and his kindness towards all who
came within his influence. He established a Seamen's Home in connec-
tion with the church, and it has been of great use in keeping the sailors
away from the evil influences that are found in most ocean ports.
Go .where you will on these islands," said the Doctor, "you will














NATI SCHOOLHOUSE I HONOLL
NATIESHOO -HOUS I_._

NATIVE SCHOOL-ROUSE IN HU ONOLUL.








A DECREASING POPULATION. 11

find churches everywhere, and not far from each church there is a na-
tive school-house where the children are taught to read and write. On
Sunday the churches are filled with worshippers, and there is no more
devout people anywhere than on these islands. There are now more
churches than are needed by the population, for the reason, not that
there is any decline in religious zeal, but because of the decrease in the
number of inhabitants. At the time of Captain Cook's discovery the
islands were estimated to have a population of not far from two hun-
dred thousand. Small-pox, measles, and other diseases have made ter-
rible havoc, and at present the native population is little if any above
fifty thousand. It has been declining with more or less rapidity ever
since the beginning of the century, and the last census showed a con-
siderable falling off since the one that preceded it.












.- V







THE COURT-HOUSE IN HONOLULU.

"Not only are the islanders diminishing in numbers," he continued,
"but the people of to-day are said to be smaller in stature than those
of a century ago. The missionaries and other old residents say that
when they first came here they used to meet great numbers of natives
of high stature and majestic figures, belonging generally to the old
families of chiefs and nobles. Occasionally at this time you may see
them, but not often."







12 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
"I suppose the chiefs and nobles were of a different race," Frank
remarked, otherwise they would all be of the same general height."
That was formerly supposed to be the case," was the reply," and
even now the theory is sustained by many people. But I believe the
general opinion is that all were
of the same race, and the superior
-FIT development of the chiefs and no-
*S bles was due to their easier life and
better food, which could hardly
fail to have an effect through many
Generationss"
I One of the youths asked if the
people received the missionaries
Kindly, and showed a desire to be
S-* instructed and civilized.
"In a general way they did,"
was the reply, "though that was
I by no means always the case.
Some of the chiefs looked suspi-
ciously upon the coming, of the
1 strangers, fearing, and not without
reason, that their power would be
diminished as their subjects became
"' enlightened. The King was favor-
able to the work of the missiona-
NATIVE GENTLEMAN OF HONOLULU. ries, and consequently the hostility
of the chiefs could not be exer-
cised with severity. Before the advent of the missionaries the Ha-
waiians had no written language. The missionaries reduced the lan-
guage to writing, prepared school-books, a dictionary, a hymn-book,
and a translation of a part of the Scriptures, all in the native tongue,
and they trained the native teachers who were needed for the man-
agement of the schools then and afterwards established.
"In this way the missionaries gave the Hawaiian people the bene-
fits of civilization, and year by year saw the old superstitions and cus-
toms disappearing. Some of them still remain, but not many; just as
in New England you may to this day find people who believe in witch-
craft, and all over the United States persons who have implicit faith in
supernatural things. The Hawaiians are by no means perfect in their
morals and beliefs, and you can find iniquity in Honolulu, just as you







SIGHTS IN THE STREETS. 13

may find it in Boston or Philadelphia. Murder and theft were very
common a hundred years ago; now the former crime is quite as rare
as in the United States, and as for the latter, it is even more so. Near-
ly all the stealing in the islands is done by Chinese or other foreign-
ers, and not by the natives."
Our friends passed near the court-house, which bore a marked re-
semblance to an American town-hall in a prosperous town, and stood
at the edge of a well-kept garden. The Doctor remarked that court-
houses and jails were some of the adjuncts of' all civilized lands, and
therefore they were needed in Hawaii as well as elsewhere. "But I
am told," he continued, "that the majority of the inmates of the jail
at Honolulu are of other races than the Hawaiian, and that Americans
and English form a good proportion."
A little way beyond the court-
house our friends met a man carry-
ing two covered baskets slung at the,
ends of a short pole which rested on
his shoulder. Frank turned to the
guide and asked what the man was .
carrying. 1 .6
"He's a poi peddler," was the re-
ply, "and I wonder you have not met
one before, as there are many of /
them. He peddles poi, and the people /
buy it to eat."
He then explained that poi is the '
national dish of the islands, and is
made from the taro-root, which is the '
Sandwich Island form of the potato. .
He pointed out a taro-garden, and '.
said that there were many such gar-
dens in and around Honolulu, as the '
natives did not consider a home com- HAWAIIAN POI-DEALER.
plete without one.
The taro-root is baked in an underground oven, and then mashed
very fine, so that it would be like flour if the moisture were expelled.
After it has been thoroughly mashed it is mixed with water, and in
this condition is ready for eating. It has an agreeable taste when
fresh, and most foreigners like it upon the first trial. For native use
it is allowed to ferment; when fermented it suggests sour paste to the











169U9 a 157 15056 1

S. .THE
HAWAIIAN
...- iokap ARCHIIPELAGO

L ..: iI ... ~








KA HOOL I

160
(--' =,,' = -- T :' '-'"-



hjI
. "i. l






,- I
___ : -- ;. ;; L~. '.: .^ .'*_ -'*'.*"''




i::







UNPOPULARITY OF LABOR-SAVING MACHINERY. 15

uneducated palate, and is nauseating to the novice. Natives greatly
prefer it in this form, and a good many foreigners cultivate their taste
until they too would rather have their poi sour than fresh.
Soon after the islands were settled by foreigners an ingenious
Yankee saw a chance for making money by importing machinery for
making poi, in place of the old form of hand-crushing: Now there are
factories in various parts of the island where poi is made in large quan-
tities, chiefly for the use of planters and other large consumers. It
forms quite an article of export to other islands where Polynesian
labor is employed, and especially to the guano islands, where nothing
can be cultivated. A former king of Hawaii established a poi factory
at Honolulu, and by so doing became very unpopular with his subjects,
just as has been the case with other kings who have introduced labor-
saving machinery into their dominions.























HAWAIIANS AT A FEAST.

At dinner that evening Frank and Fred asked for poi and were
promptly supplied. It was explained to them that the native way of
eating it was to insert the forefinger in the dish, twirl it around until
i- -I- --
___ ___ ___ -I
HAAHN AT A NAT
Adinne thateveing Frn and Frdakd o oadwr
promtlysuppied Itwas xplinedto hemthatthenatie wy o
eaig tws oisetteoeinge inZ th ihtu taon nil







16 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

it was well coated with the sticky substance, and then draw the finger
through the mouth. Both the youths concluded that they would allow
the natives to monopolize that form of eating, which was hardly to be
reconciled with civilized customs. They contented themselves with
spoons, which answered their purpose completely.
Poi, fish, and pork are the prin-
cipal articles of food among the
Hawaiians; but at a feast several
S' articles are added that do not come
M, into the daily bill of fare. The
Guide took Frank and Fred to a
'- native luau, or festival, and pointed
South the following dishes: poi, fish
'and pork, as already mentioned;
baked ti-root, which bore a striking
resemblance to molasses cake, of
'" which New Englanders are fond,
and the resemblance included both
IN f .. C Aappearance and taste; raw shrimps
and limu, which is a sea-moss smell-
..-P. 2 ing and tasting very disagreeably-
:_to the novice; kuulaau, which is an
Agreeable compound of cocoa-nut
and taro-root; paalolo, a combina-
tion of cocoa-nut and sweet-potato,
NATIVE HAY PEDDLER. of a sweetish taste; and two or
three additional mixtures of the
same sort. Then there were cuttle-fish raw and cooked, roasted dog,
and a small quantity of pickled salmon, liberally dosed with red pepper.
Fred suggested that as the salmon was imported, and therefore expen-
sive, the red pepper was freely added in order that the article would
be sparingly eaten.
The guide, who was a native, explained that the feast was for the
purpose of enabling the giver to build a new house, and each guest was
expected to pay fifty cents for his entertainment. He pointed out a
calabash bowl lying on the.ground as the receptacle of the money, as
it was a matter of etiquette for the master not to receive the cash
directly from the hands of his guests. The affair had been arranged
some time beforehand, and the price of the feast was mentioned in the
invitation. Everybody was in new clothes, it being one of the Ha-,







A HAWAIIAN FEAST. 17

waiian customs that every garment worn at a feast must be quite new,
and a native would rather be absent from the entertainment than vio-
late this point of etiquette. Five or six men who served as stewards
were dressed exactly alike, each of them wearing a green shirt and red
trousers, made for the occasion. In addition to this, they had green
wreaths on their heads, and most of the persons present had their heads
decked with flowers or leaves.
The diners sat on the ground, and as they took their places their
portions of roast pig, neatly wrapped in ti-leaves, were distributed to
them. They were expected to be satisfied with their allowance, and
etiquette forbade their asking for more of this article, though they
could help themselves freely to anything else. When the feast was
over each one carried away whatever of his roast pork was uncon-
sumed. The guide said it would be very impolite to leave any portion
of it, and even the bones were carried away. The feeding was not
done in a hurry; a native feast lasts for several hours, the guests
pausing two or three times to get up a fresh touch of.appetite, and
occasionally walking about, singing, dancing, talking, or laughing, in
order to increase the capacity of their stomachs.
Our young friends tasted some of the dishes, and each dropped a
half-dollar in the calabash bowl that was designated as the receptacle
of the contributions of the guests. They carried away their portions
of roast pig, and gave the packages to some urchins whom they en-
countered a short distance from the scene of the feast. The latter
immediately sat down to enjoy the toothsoie delicacy, and no doubt
imagined themselves to be for: the time the most favored beings
in the land. Their appearance indicated that roast pig did not of-
ten enter into their bill of fare, and the rapidity with which they
attacked the contents of the packages showed that they had not
dined.
Frank thought it must have been a great change for the people
of the islands-when they abandoned their old custom of going with-
out clothing and adopted the dress of civilization. When it is remem-
bered that a hundred years ago the islanders were naked savages, the
remark of the youth is not to be wondered at. The missionaries say
that in the early days the attempts of the natives to adopt European
dress were decidedly ludicrous; they could not understand the, neces-
sity of three or more garments, but thought a single one sufficient to
begin with. A hat, a shirt, and a pair of trousers were considered
enough for three, and some of them used to argue that these garments
2








18 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.



























DRESS OF HAWAIIAN WOMEN.

were altogether too numerous for one individual, when there were so
many others without anything,
Fred made a sketch of a group of women, and afterwards procured
several photographs showing how the feminine natives of the islands
are ordinarily clad. On the back of the sketch he wrote as follows:
"The dress of the women can hardly be called picturesque, but after
being seen a few times its oddity is not as apparent as at first. Most
of the women go bareheaded, or with wreaths of leaves and flowers in
their hair. Their dress hangs from the shoulders without being gath-
ered in at the waist, and quite closely resembles the morning wrapper of
civilized lands, though it is not so ornamental. Black, dark, and pink are
the usual colors of the dress, but on festive occasions something gayer
can be frequently seen. You would be surprised to see the grace and
dignity with which the older women carry themselves, and I think
nuch of it is due to the loosely flowing dress."







CLIMATE'OF THE ISLANDS. 19

The climate is so mild that heavy clothing is not needed. The
heat is of course greater in the lowlands than among the mountains,
whose highest peaks are covered with snow for a considerable part of
the year. Honolulu is said to be the hottest place in the kingdom,
and thin clothing, but not the thinnest, is worn there the entire year.
White is worn a great deal, but it is so easily soiled that a good many
prefer to wear garments of blue serge, or blue or gray flannel. Flannel
is desirable for the winter months, but the islands are so near the equa-
tor that the difference between winter and summer is not very great.
In December and January
the temperature sometimes falls
to 620 Fahrenheit in the early '
morning, but by noon, or 2 P. ., m.)
it generally reaches 750 or 760, ,I
and remains between that point
and 700 until midnight. In July
the highest point reached is 86,
and on a few occasions 87. The J
extreme range of the thermome-
ter is not more than 26 or 28,
which makes it a very com-
fortable climate to live in. It
is said to be an excellent one,,\.-l
for persons suffering from pul- ". 1
monary complaints, though it .
is somewhat debilitating for i
healthy men and women accus-
tomed to the rigorous climate of / .
the northern States of America. I' '
Residents of the islands say \ '
there are regions among the ,
mountains where the nights are "
invariably cool enough for a fire
all the year round, while the ANCIENT IDOLS OF. HAWAII.
days are never hot. Even in
Honolulu the air is not as sultry as that of New York or Philadelphia
in July and August, and the greatest heat experienced is almost always
tempered by a breeze. There is more rain in winter than in summer,
but there is no really dry season. It is a circumstance that strikes
the stranger curiously that there is much more rain on the windward







20 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
side of the islands than on the leeward; sometimes the former will have
a great deal of rain, while .the latter gets little or hardly any. The
trade-wind controls the rainfall, and by ascertaining where it strikes a
new-comer may have much or little rain accordingly as he selects his
place of residence.


I--A II V


-" "- :- __- : :












GRASS HOUSE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

The guide told the youths that they could sit on the veranda of the
hotel at Honolulu and see the rain fall every day, but without getting
a drop within the limits of the city. You may be here all day in the
sunshine," said he; but if you are going to the windward side of the
island you must take your rubber overcoats. The showers that you see
from the hotels are from the clouds that have been blown over the
mountains, and as soon as you cross the range you will be in the midst
of them."
Doctor Bronson said that the decrease in the population of the isl-
ands had been, by some people, attributed to the adoption of clothing
by the natives. It is argued," said he, that the people are very care-
less, and have not learned the sanitary laws which govern the use of
clothing. A native thinks nothing of lying down with his wet clothes
upon him when he has been soaked by a rain or dipped in the surf; it
is hard to make him understand that such a practice is dangerous, and
--r------






--_---=-=~ -------7'
-- S, ~BIB SLNS
ih ud odteyuh htte ol i ntevrnao h

















is ha'd to make him understand that such a practice is dangerous, and







LIFE IN THE ISLANDS. 21

many of the inhabitants have died of the severe colds contracted in
this way."
In the outskirts of the city our friends came to a house which the
guide said was a good specimen of the native dwelling, and they ob-
tained permission to enter and examine it. It had a door, but no win-
dows; was a single story in height, and its sides were made of upright
sticks interwoven with palm-leaves, while the roof was thatched with
grass. The floor was of solid earth covered with mats, and at one end
there was a sort of platform raised a foot' higher than the rest. This
platform was the sleeping-place of the inmates, and was elevated in
order to insure its freedom from dampness in case of a heavy rain. In
front of the house was a bench, where one might sit in the shade during
the afternoon, and where no doubt the owner idled away a considerable
part of his time. The islanders are not fond of hard work, and in fact
they have no occasion to labor as industriously as do the inhabitants of
more rigorous regions.
Around Honolulu the expense of living is greater than it is away
from the port, owing to the increased price of the products of the fields.



I









.--- -------- - _

GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS, HONOLULU.

In the country it may be said that a man who works two days in the
week can support his family comfortably, especially if he is near the
sea-coast, whence he can obtain a supply of fish at anytime he chooses
to go .for them. Fishing, taro-planting, and making poi are his chief
occupations, and to these he generally adds mat-weaving, which is
neither difficult nor laborious. His wants are few and easily supplied,
and it is no wonder that the islander displays an unwillingness to wear







22 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

himself out in constant toil. The conditions of life do not require him
to do so, and he lacks the ambition to accumulate a fortune solely for
the sake of accumulating it.
After dinner the guide proposed that the strangers should witness a
hula-hula, or native dance. It was quite unlike the dancing of Euro-
pean countries, consisting principally of more or less active movements
of the limbs while the body of the dancer swayed from side to side.


I i




















HAWAIIAN DANCING-GIRLS.

The dancers were girls dressed in short frocks like those worn by
American school-girls; they had wreaths in their hair and around their
ankles, and their dresses were loosely gathered in at the waist, where
they were held by cords. The music was supplied by two men who
struck their hands upon large calabashes and sang or chanted a low
monotonous air. A very little of the dance satisfied the curiosity of
the visitors, and they returned to the hotel at an early hour.
The Hawaiians have another dance, which can be seen at their fes-
tivals; it is performed by men and women, usually elderly people, and
is accompanied by singing, in which all may join. Then there are








THE HULA-HULA AND OTHER DANCES. 23

dances for the younger people, but they are not generally practised,
owing to the opposition of the missionaries, and possibly to the unwill-
ingness of the people to indulge in active exercise unless they are paid
for it. All the dances have descended from the days before the advent
of the foreigners, and therefore have an interest for any one who de-
sires to learn whatever he can about the history of the islanders.





120 14000 10 180 160 140 1 0 100 80
MA A c IC C 0 C A N 7 (
showing theposition
ofthe 1 .-
SANDWICH ISLES 0
or 'I7
HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO ALASK I




Go leP A C I I -'


S- ---- ------------~-- ------------


L iadronieo
P CY'F-I C' E A ENS
Fd wl. Is ------- ---




0 10 0 1 1 0


10 ustral ia l 180 160 140 10 0 L







-24 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.









CHAPTER II.
IN AND AROUND HONOLULU.-PUBLIC BUILDINGS.-THE THEATRE.-ROAD TO THE
PALI. -A MAGNIFICENT VIEW.--VILLAS NEAR THE CITY. GIRLS ON HORSE-
BACK. TARO-FIELDS. THE WATER SUPPLY. MOUNTAIN-PASS. HAWAIIAN
COW-BOYS. -HILO AND THE VOYAGE THITHER. APOCHRYPHAL STORIES
ABOUT THE RAIN.- SURF-SWIMMING.-THE GREAT VOLCANO OF KILAUEA.-
OVER THE LAVA- FIELDS.-DIFFICULT ROADS.-THE VOLCANO HOUSE.-A DIS-
TURBED NIGHT.-BURNING LAKES.-SIGHT-SEEING UNDER DIFFICULTIES.-TER-
RIFYING SCENES.-KILAUEA AND MAUNA LOA.-THE GREATEST VOLCANO IN
THE WORLD.-HISTORIC ERUPTIONS.-CRATER OF HALEAKALA.-SUGAR CULT-
URE IN HAWAII, ITS EXTENT AND INCREASE.-OTHER INDUSTRIES.-RETURN-
ING BY SCHOONER TO HONOLULU.-LEPER ISLAND OF MOLOKAL-A DAY AMONG
THE LEPERS.

THE next day was devoted to excursions in the immediate vicinity
of Honolulu, a carriage-drive through the principal streets of the
town, a visit to the palace and other Government buildings, and two or
three calls to present letters of introduction. The visit to the palace
included an introduction to the Kin l, Kalakaua, who received his visit-
ors politely and devoted a short time to their entertainment. The con-
versation referred mainly to the United States, and barely touched upon
matters connected with the islands.
In their drive about the city Frank and Fred found that Honolulu is
a well-built town with narrow streets. The houses are mostly of wood,
dropped down rather carelessly in many places, with little attempt at
uniformity, and not much decoration. The amount of tropical verdure,
which almost concealed many of the villas and detached residences in
the side streets and outskirts of the place, recalled Ceylon and other
regions near the equator which they had visited in their former travels.
Frank thought he could readily imagine himself in the suburbs of Co-
lombo, while Fred was inclined to close his eyes for a moment and
think he had been transported on the enchanted carpet of the Arabian
Nights to Batavia or Buitenzorg, in Java. In many of the court-yards
fountains were playing, the drops of water sparkling in the bright sun-
shine, and adding materially to the beauty of the scene.







EQUESTRIAN PERFORMANCES OF THE NATIVES. 25

There are some fine residences in Honolulu, but none that would be
considered of much consequence in a wealthy capital of Europe. The
best buildings are the public ones, and in the list we must include the
Hawaiian hotel, as it was built by the Government at an expense that
was considered a heavy one for the country to bear. Near the hotel is
the theatre, which is also a Government affair, and brings very little
revenue to its owners. It is in use occasionally whenever a strolling
company on a voyage between Australia and America happens along
and gives a few performances. Honolulu is hardly able to support a
theatre through the entire year, as the portion of the population able
and willing to patronize it is very small.
























LAHAINA, ISLAND OF MAUI.

Frank and Fred were amused at the equestrian performances of the
natives, and particularly at the dash and energy with which the laugh-
ing girls pushed their horses at full speed. They rode "man-fashion,"
bestriding the horse instead of sitting on a side-saddle, and few of them
seemed contented with any but the most rapid pace. The horses of the
Hawaiian Islands are small but strong, and capable of great endurance;







26 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
in fact, if they were otherwise it is evident they would not live long,
when the habits of the natives are remembered. In travelling in the
Hawaiian Islands it is necessary to carry your saddle, as carriage-roads
are not numerous, and a good many places that one wishes to visit can-
not be reached by wheeled vehicles. Of course it is possible to hire
saddles when hiring horses, but this is by no means universally the case.



_Z .,. .4 ,













WOMEN ON HORSEBACK, HONOLULU.

The afternoon drive was extended to the Pali, a mountain-pass six
miles out of the town, and one of the chief attractions to visitors who
can only make a brief stay at Honolulu. Outside of the business por-
tion of the place our friends entered upon a straight and very dusty
road, which for the first two miles and more led among the villas
belonging to the merchants and other well to do people who make
Honolulu their home. Each villa stands in a garden by itself, and the
houses are often rendered invisible by the masses of foliage that sur-
round them, and the creeping and climbing plants that rise to their
very tops. The road steadily rises, and consequently the occupants of
the houses have fine views of the bay and town; while the mountains
rise behind them to form a background. Fred was so charmed with
the beauty of the scene that he wished to sketch some of the villas, but
the recollection of their limited time prevented his carrying the desire
into execution.
-1





,..--;-



















into execution.







WATER SUPPLY OF HONOLULU. 27

Beyond this region of villas the carriage entered the foot-hills,
where the road wound with a steep grade among taro-fields, in which
men were at work up to their knees in water tending the plants which
yield to the Hawaiian the staff of life. The water which irrigates the
taro-fields is brought by innumerable streams from the sides of the
mountains, to which it is supplied by the clouds borne by the trade-
winds. Honolulu receives its water from the mountains, and there is
certainly an abundance of it.
Beyond the taro-fields there is good grazing for cattle and sheep, of
which there are numerous herds and flocks. Frank called attention to
a water-fall some distance away, which made a pretty contrast with
the dark sides of the mountain, and was evidently nearly, if not quite,




II,, ,.







Thi










A MOUNTAIN VALLEY.
Ing











two hundred feet in height. At one of the turns of the road the car-
riage came in contact with a cart which was descending the slope too
swiftly for safety; the damage was trifling, but for a few moments
things wore a serious aspect, as there was a good chance of being tossed
over the side of the almost precipitous slope.
There were not many travellers along the road, the most pictu-
A MOUNTAIN VALLEY.

two hundred feet in height. At one of the turns of the road the car-
riage came in contact with a cart which was descending the slope too
swiftly for safety; the damage was trifling, but for a few moments
things wore a serious aspect, as there was a good chance of being tossed
over the side of the almost precipitous slope.
There were not many travellers along the road, the most pictu-







28 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

resque being groups of girls on horseback and the herders who were
driving cattle to market or for a change of pasture. The girls were
generally in bright-colored robes, which were gathered in at the waist
with brighter sashes that streamed behind them as they dashed along








-- _'- -z. t














HAWAIIAN TEMPLE.
(From a Russian Engraving about 1T90.)

the road. Most of them wore straw hats on their heads, and generally
the hats were adorned with flowers in wreaths and festoons, which were
most liberally bestowed. Now and then Frank's attention was drawn
to a pretty face which surmounted a neck adorned with a string of
blossoms of gaudy colors; the necklace formed an admirable setting
for the complexion, but sometimes the blossoms were not chosen with
due regard to the contrast of colors.
The awaiian cow boys, or cattle drivers, were not unlike their
American prototypes, as they wore broad brimmed hats and bright-
colored scarfs; they were mounted on tough little horses, and sat in
saddles of the American cow-boy pattern, the pommel rising high, and
the stirrups made of wood. Then there were strings of pack-mules and
horses coming down from the points in the mountains inaccessible to







THICKETS OF ROW-TREES. 29

wheeled vehicles, and now and then our friends met a Chinese gardener
taking the produce of his little patch to market on the back of a pack
animal, and in some instances on a wheelbarrow. A few groups of
men and women on foot were encountered, but the number was so
small that Frank and Fred concluded that the Hawaiians were a home-
loving people, and did not wander about much.
Near the Pali the road passed through thickets of how-trees, which
resembled the growths of manzanita on the slopes of the California foot-
hills. These thickets are so dense that it is impossible for man or
horse to pass through them; in fact they are impenetrable to any but
the smallest animals. Frank thought he would like to cut a cane as a
souvenir, but refrained from doing so when reminded by Fred that he
could probably buy all the canes he wanted in Honolulu.




S .J .. .. .,


.1 ,





-.. .-t, ----......
l ,',, ', 'It "! 7 ~














MOUNTAIN SCENE IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.

Suddenly from the other side of the narrow pass a wonderful pano-
rama was presented. Around on each side were the rugged cliffs of
the mountain range, while in front they looked from a height of eight
or nine hundred feet above the sea-level upon a picture which included
every variety of scenery. In the distance was the blue Pacific washing
'i:. "" r''"' ' i ,,,. ,



~ ~ ~ ~ I ---_.


._-- ;--:: !_--;











every variety of scenery. In the distance was the blue Paci~fic washing







30 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

the sandy shores and curving reefs of coral, and between the ocean and
the point where our friends were standing were grassed and wooded
foot-hills, and long stretches of lowlands dotted with coffee and sugar
plantations, taro-fields, and other evidences of careful cultivation, to-
gether with villages and clusters of huts that marked the dwelling-
places of the men engaged in this tropical agriculture.
"We could almost say that we had the colors of the rainbow in this
bit of landscape," said Fred, afterwards, while describing the scene.
"The blue sky and sea were tinged with purple, the distant mountains
varied in shades of blue and gray, the foot-hills and plains gave us every
verdant tinge that you can name, from the bright green of the mountain
grass to the dark foliage of the vegetation that surrounded the villages;
and as for yellow, you had it in every variety, from the reddish tint of
the sinuous roads to the bright and almost white belt of sand that sep-
arated land from sea. We recalled several similar views in different
parts of the world, but could give none of them preference over this.
It was the view from the Baidar Gate in the Crimea, combined with
Wockwalla near Point de Galle, and a bit of the scene from the Righi
Culm in Switzerland."
Whoever goes to the Hawaiian Islands will consider his visit incom-
plete unless he includes the island of Hawaii and the great volcano of
Kilauea in his tour. Doctor Bronson desired that the party should pro-
ceed thither at the earliest moment, and found on inquiry that a steam-
er was to leave for Hilo on the second morning after their arrival at
Honolulu.
"Prepare for wet weather," said his informant, "as it rains all the
time at Hilo. They say they have seventeen feet of rain there annu-
ally, and sometimes there are days and days together when it rains
without letting up a minute. Gum-coats and water-proofs are in order,
and the more you have of them the better."
Continuing, the narrator said that a Hilo man once made an experi-
ment by knocking out the heads of an oil-cask, and it rained in at the
bung-hole faster than the water could run out at the ends! Frank
asked for the documents in the case--the affidavits before the justice of
the peace, and the certificate of the resident clergyman-but they were
not forthcoming. Another story was that the fishes frequently swam
up into the air a distance of three or four hundred. yards before discov-
ering they were not in the bay, the showers being so dense that it was
impossible for them to distinguish the one from the other. Fred de-
clared himself skeptical on this subject, as the showers consisted of








FROM HONOLULU TO HILO. 31

fresh water, v. I it., the bay was salt, and a salt-water fish does not usu-
ally show a willingness to swim up a fresh-water stream except in the
spawning season.
The run to Hilo was made in about forty hours, the steamer making
several stops on the way. It rained "cats and dogs" when the party
landed, but as all the baggage had been wrapped in water-proof cover-
ings, nothing was damaged. Arrangements were speedily made for de-
parture on the following morning without regard to the weather; horses
and guides were engaged, the best animals being selected for the sad-
dles and others for packing purposes, and a substantial lunch was made




















HILO.

ready for the mid-day meal. Doctor Bronson insisted that the horses
should all be freshly shod before starting, and an extra supply of shoes
and nails carried along. The road goes over the lava-beds for nearly
the whole distance, and if a horse loses a shoe he will go lame in a very
few minutes, so rough and cutting is the lava.
Fortunately the morning was fine, and the bay of HIilo presented a
pretty appearance. Groves of palm and other tropical t.rees lined the
shore, the surf broke in regular pulsations upon the curving stretch of
beach, and was made animate by dozens of men and boys at play in the
waves. For the first time our friends saw some of the sport in the







32 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

water for which the islanders are famous, though less so at present than
in the days that are gone. Fred thus described it:
"Each man had a surf-board, which was a thick plank twelve or fif-
teen feet long and perhaps thirty inches wide, and said to be made























SURF-BATHING{ AT HILO.

from the trunk of a bread-fruit tree. There were five or six of the
natives to whom we had promised half a dollar each for the perform-
ance. They pushed out with their planks to the first line of breakers
and managed to dip under it and swim along by the help qf the under-
tow. They passed the second line in the same way, and finally got
beyond the entire stretch of surf into comparatively smooth water.
"Then they tossed up and down for a while, waiting for their
chance. What they wanted was an unusually high swell, and they
tried to find a place in front of it so that it would sweep them towards
the shore just where it broke into a comber. They tried several times
but failed, anc we began to get out of patience.
"At last they got what they had waited for, while some were kneel-
ing on their planks and others lying extended with their faces down-







ON THE WAY TO THE VOLCANO. 33

ward, and just ahead of the great comber they swept on at a speed of
little, if any, less than forty miles an hour. There they were just ahead
of the breaker, and apparently sliding downhill; one of them was
swamped by it, but he dived and came up behind the wave and made
ready for the next. The others kept on, and were flung high and dry
by the surf, and as soon as they could rise from their planks they ran
towards us to receive their pay. One of the fellows stood erect on his
plank while in the surf, just as the Nubians at the first cataract of the
Nile stand up while descending through the foaming water."
Meanwhile the guides were busy getting the cavalcade in readiness,
and a little before eight o'clock the party was under way for the great
volcano. From Hilo to the Volcano House is a distance of thirty
miles. The horses go for the most of the time at a walk, and though
the ride has been accomplished in six hours, it is better to allow not
less than ten for it, and "take things easily." This will give time for a
rest of an hour for lunch at the Half-way House-the lunch being the
one which we have already prepared.


------~,-- ------_



-' -'-'fi,__. 1





THE VOLCANO HOUSE.

Frank wanted to try the effect of a gallop,-but to guard against acci-
dents Doctor Bronson suggested that gallops would be out of order for
the day. The path over the lava is full of holes, and very rough and
broken in many places. The natives trot and gallop along the road,
but the novice should refrain from so doing. At a walking pace there
is little discomfort and practically no danger, and parties of ladies
and children can make the journey without excessive fatigue. Chi va
piano va sano," as the Italians say.
The youths found the ride from Hilo to the volcano full of interest.
They amused themselves by comparing the lava-fields with those of
3







34 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

the volcanoes they had visited in other parts of the world, and they
studied the ferns, of which there were many varieties, the largest of
them having stalks three or four feet in diameter and a height of fif-
teen or twenty feet. Other ferns were very small, and between the
small and large there were all shades of colors and all possible sizes.
One of the guides showed that the ferns were not altogether orna-
mental plants, as he plucked from one of them a woolly substance he
called pulu, and said it was used for stuffing beds and pillows. Many
tons of pulu are exported every year to America and other countries.
At the Half-way House everybody was hungry, and the lunch was
speedily disposed of. A little'after six o'clock in the evening the Vol-
cano House was reached, and here the party spent the night. A good
supper was prepared and eaten, and the incidents of the day and plans
of the morrow were discussed; then the youths joined Doctor Bron-
son, at the suggestion of the latter, in a sulphur vapor-bath of Nature's
own preparation, and after it all retired to sleep. The accommoda-
tions were limited, but everybody was weary enough to be willing to
put up with the most primitive style of lodging, provided nothing bet-
ter could be obtained.
Here is what Frank wrote concerning the visit of our friends to
the crater of the volcano:
"We took a hearty breakfast and left the house about half-past
eight o'clock in the morning, to make acquaintance with the crater.
We put on our strongest shoes but did not encumber ourselves with
heavy clothing, as the guide said we should not need it. The house
is quite near the crater, almost on its edge, and so we didn't have far
to go to begin sight-seeing; in fact, we had begun it on the previous
evening, and all through the night, as the light of the volcano was
almost constantly in our eyes. Two or three times dii.bii-i the night
we saw the lava spurting up like a fountain above the edge of one of
the small craters, and altogether the scene was an exciting one.
"It is fully three miles from one side of the crater of Kilauea to the
other; but you do not walk in a straight course across it, for the simple
reason that you can't. The crater is a great pit varying from eight
hundred to fifteen hundred feet in depth; its floor consists of lava,
ashes, and broken rocks, the lava predominating. It is rough and un-
even, and in several places there are small craters sending up jets of
flame, smoke, and steam, and there are numerous cracks from which
smoke and steam issue constantly. In many places the lava lies in
great rolls and ridges that are not easy to walk over, and some of








.THE VOLCANO OF THE GODDESS PELE: 35

them are quite impassable. Consequently the path winds about a good
deal, and you may be said to walk two miles to get ahead one.
The floor of the crater is hardly the same from week to week,, and
if I should make a map of it, and describe the place very carefully, you
might not know it if you come here a year from now. In many places
it is so hot that you cannot walk on it. Lava cools very slowly, and
the thicker the bed of it the longer the time it requires for cooling.
























VIEW OF ONE OF THE BURNING LAKES.

"The Hawaiians say that the volcano is under the control of the
Goddess Pele; she is a capricious deity, and you never know for any
great length of time beforehand what she will do; Whenever the mood
strikes her she orders an eruption, and straightway the fires are light-
ed, the mountain trembles, and the earth all around is violently shaken.
Flames burst forth from the crater and shoot high in air, and sometimes
the floor of the whole area is lifted and tossed like the waves of the sea.
Kilauea may be said to be constantly active, as the fires never cease; but
there are periods of great activity followed by seasons of comparative
quiet.







36 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

"Over the floor of the great crater we picked our way for nearly
three miles to the Burning Lakes; and what do you suppose these lakes
are ?
Their name describes them, as they are literally burning lakes-
lakes of fire so hot that if you should be foolish enough to try to bathe
in them, or so unfortunate as to fall into their waves, you would be
burned up in less than a minute. We had to climb up a steep bank of
lava to get in sight of them, and then what a spectacle was presented!
There were two little lakes or ponds, five or six hundred feet in
diameter, and separated by a narrow embankment which the guide said
was occasionally overflowed, and either covered entirely or broken down
for a while. These lakes are on the top of a hill formed by the cooling
of the lava, and at the time we saw them their surface was perhaps one
hundred feet below the point where we stood on the outer edge or rim.
The wind blew from us over the lakes, and carried away the greater
part of the smoke and the fumes of sulphur; but in spite of the favoring
breeze we were almost choked by the noxious gases that rose from the
burning lava, and the numerous crevices in the solid banks where we
stood.
I said the bank was formed by the cooling of the lava; I should
rather say by its hardening, as it was far from cool. It was so hot that
it burned our feet through the soles of our thick shoes, and we stood
first on one foot and then on the other, as turkeys are said to stand on
a hot plate. Fred sat down to rest, but he stood up again in less than
half a minute, as it was like sitting on a hot stove. We had brought a
canteen of water which the guide placed on the ground near us; when
I went to pick it up for a drink, the air and exertion having made me
very thirsty, it was so hot that I burned my fingers in trying to hold
it. The water in the canteen was like a cup of tea as good housewives
like to pour it steaming from the kettle.
Otr faces were blistering with the heat that rose from the surface
of the lakes, and then we scorched our hands in trying to protect our
faces. We were blinded and suffocated; we coughed and spluttered,
and found it difficult to speak, and in a little while concluded we had
had quite enough of the lakes. We used our eyes rapidly, as there was
a great deal to look at, and the whole scene was such as does not often
come into one's opportunities.
"The molten lava seethed, bubbled, boiled, and rolled below us, its
surface covered with a grayish and thin crust, out of which rose irreg-
ular circles and patches of fire that seemed to sweep and follow one







ON THE EDGE OF THE BURNING LAKE. 37

another from the circumference to the centre of the lake. Every minute
or so the lava in the centre of the lake bulged up and broke into an
enormous bubble or wave which sometimes rose twenty or thirty feet.
into the air, and then broke and scattered just as you see a, bubble
breaking in a kettle of boiling paste or oatmeal porridge. I know the
comparison is a homely one, but I can't think of anything that will bet-
ter describe what we saw.
"The bank of the lake down near where the lava came against it
was red-hot, and so you may imagine if you can a mass of liquid fire
rolling and surging against a solid one. One of the lakes was much
more agitated than the other, and the liquid lava seemed to break upon
its sides very much like a sea upon a rocky shore. Owing to the half-
plastic condition of the lava, it could not break into surf and spray like
the waves of the ocean, but it made a dull roar, something like that of
the Pacific on the beach .near San Francisco just after the subsidence of
a storm.















VIEW ON A LAVA FIELD.

"The surface of the lava changes its height from time to time. The
guide said it occasionally rose until it overflowed the sides of the basin
enclosing the lakes, and formed streams that spread out over the level
area of the great crater. Sometimes it sank so that it was fully four
hundred feet from the edge of the rim down to the lava; but whether it
was high or low, there was never a time when it was wholly inactive.
"The guide called our attention to cones .which had formed on the
rim of the lake; they were caused by the cooling of the lava around
vent-holes, and as successive jets of lava were thrown up and cooled







38 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

they had formed cones fifteen or twenty feet high, and some of them as
much as thirty feet. When the height became so great that the lava
sought an outlet elsewhere, it generally left a hole in the top of the
cone. We looked down some of these holes and saw the seething mass

















dI Id AM












HAWAIIAN WARRIORS OF A CENTURY AGO.

of lava threatening each moment to rise and destroy the very frail foun-
dation where we were standing. The guide said there was little real
danger, as the lava had receded since the cones were formed. I ob-
served that the crust where we stood was not more than a foot or so in
thickness; and as the lava is very brittle, the spot was certainly not a
safe one. Besides, the fumes that rose from the vent-holes were abso-
lutely stifling; and though the sight was a fascinating one, it was im-
possible to remain there long, owing to the difficulty of breathing.








THE GREATEST VOLCANO IN THE WORLD. 39

"We have visited volcanoes in other parts of the world, but none
that equalled this, and never have we seen anything to compare with
the Burning Lakes of Kilauea. What a magnificent sight it must be
to see an eruption of Kilauea or Mauna Loa-especially the latter, as
it is much the larger of the two. Just now it is quiet, but when it
does break out it is, I believe, the greatest volcano in the world. Let
me give you a few figures:
Mauna Loa has had eight great eruptions in forty years, an aver-
age of one eruption every five years. It is 13,700 feet high, and in
several of its eruptions it has sent streams of lava fifty miles in
length to the sea. The flow of these streams is slow, usually requir-
ing eight or ten days, and sometimes longer, to cover the distance
from the mountain to the sea. In one eruption it was estimated
that 38,000,000,000 cubic feet of lava were poured out, and in an-
other 17,000,000,000. Kilauea is properly a spur of Mauna Loa, and
less than 4000 feet high, but nevertheless it is the largest constantly
active volcano in the world.









-- --- -------- '------


----.. .. --.



CHAIN OF EXTINCT VOLCANOES, ISLAND OF KAUAI.

"When the lava from Mauna Loa reaches the sea there is an im-
mense cloud of steam rising from the point where the molten mass
enters the water; the ocean is heated for miles around, and fishes
by millions perish from the heat. The ground all over the island
is devastated, earthquakes are frequent, and altogether Hawaii must
be an unpleasant place of residence at that time.
"We got back to the hotel about five o'clock in the afternoon,
thoroughly tired out with the day's excursion, which had given us so







40 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

many curious and terrible sights. It has been an experience wlihih
we shall long remember."
Our friends wanted to visit the great crater of Haleakala, on the
island of Maui, in order to be able to compare an extinct volcano with
a live one, but time did not permit. They talked with a gentleman
who had been there, and that, said Fred, was the next best thing
to seeing with their own eyes. Here is the substance of what they
learned concerning Haleakala:
"You have a ride of about twelve miles to reach the summit, and
you ought to go up so as to sleep at the top and get the view at sun-
rise. There is no house there, but of this there is no need, as there are
several caves in the lava-they are really broken lava-bubbles, which
are each large enough to shelter half a dozen persons comfortably.
Of course you must have a guide and must carry plenty of blankets,
or you will suffer from the cold. Water and wood can be found near
the top of the mountain.
"The crater of Haleakala is thirty miles in circumference, or ten
miles across, and it is two thousand feet from the edge of the rim that
surrounds it to the floor of the crater; over this floor are spread ten
or twelve smaller craters and cones, some of them large enough to be
good -sized mountains by themselves, as they are nearly, if not quite,
a thousand feet high.
"You can descend into the great crater if you wish, and there is a
path by which you can traverse it; but it is very necessary that you
should not turn from the path, as the lava is so sharp that it would
endanger your horse's feet to go even a few yards over it. Stick to
the route, and implicitly obey your guide."
Fred obtained a map of Haleakala, which we give on the following
page. It shows the shape of the crater and the openings at either
end, where the lava is supposed to have made an outlet for itself;
these openings are called Koolau Gap and Kaupo Gap, the former be-,
ing something more than two miles across, and the latter a trifle less.
Before leaving Hilo, Doctor Bronson arranged for a schooner to
meet the party at a point on the Puna coast, which was easily reached
in a day's ride from the crater of Kilauea. Before sunset they had
paid the guide for the hire of the horses and his own wages, and the
evening saw them dashing through the waters on the way to Honolulu.
The trade- wind bore them swiftly along; Hawaii is to windward of
Oahu, and while it takes a schooner or other sailing-vessel four or five
days to beat from Honolulu to Hilo, the return journey can be made







SUGAR CULTURE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 41

in from twenty-four to thirty hours. The second morning from Puna
saw the schooner anchored in the harbor of the capital, and our friends
had the satisfaction of breakfasting at the spacious and comfortable
Hawaiian hotel.
Through the courtesy of a gentleman engaged in the sugar culture,
our friends made a visit to a sugar plantation, the culture of the sac-
charine product being the principal industry of the Hawaiian Islands.
We have not space for an account of all they saw and heard, but will
give a summary from Fred's note-book.




,,"' O-





I /r









Sugar is grown on all the four large islands of the group, but the
principal seat of the industry is on Maui, which seems 'peculiarly fa-
vorable to it. We were told that the yield was sometimes between







five and six tons to the acre, four tons was not an unusual amount,
and it would be considered a poor plantation that did not give two
or two and a half tons. The volcanic soil seems to be just what the
sugar-cane loves; the seasons are such that planting can be done in
many places at any time of the year, and there. is not the least

The common custom is to raise two crops, and then let the ground
lie idle for two seasons; so that taking a series of years together, allow-
ance must be made for the idle time in estimating the yield of sugar.
In gam isalis n, eeially those where the isns o g rou tificial irri-
principl seat of the industry is on Ma-ui, which seems "peculiarly fa-

-ive and six tons to -the cre, four tons was not an unusual amount,


sugar-cane loves; the seasons are such that planting can be done in






In some localities, especially those where the ground is artificially irri-







42 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

gated, this plan is not always followed, as it does not appear to be
necessary. To show the growth of the industry, let me say that the
export of sugar in 1860 was 1,414,271 pounds, while in 1871, eleven
years later, it was 21,760,773 pounds. Last year it was in the neigh-
borhood of fifty million pounds.
"In the early years of-the
Sugar culture the work was per-
formed by the natives, but in
course of time it grew to such an
extent that the local supply of la-
bor was not sufficient. A great
number of Chinese and Portuguese
S were introduced, and laborers have
been brought from other islands of
Sthe Pacific Ocean, so that the pop-
P 'ulation of the country is now a
S mixed one. By the census of 1878
S, the population was 57,985; 44,088
I' of these were natives, 5916 Chi-
I nese, 4561 whites, and 3420 half-
.' .,;I castes. In 1882 the population
,... was estimated at 66,895, including
S 12,804 Chinese. In the two years
KAMEHAMEHA I., FIRST KING OF THE SANDWICH ending March 31, 1884, there was
ISLANDS. an immigration of 6166 Portuguese
from the Azores Islands. Among
the whites the Americans are most numerous, but the Germans are
steadily increasing in numbers, a large part of the sugar interest and
the commerce dependent upon it being in their hands. The commer-
cial king of the islands is Claus Spreckels, who is of German origin,
and practically controls the sugar culture. He owns a steamship line
between Honolulu and San Francisco, and the local steamers plying to
the various islands are mostly in his hands.
"Rice and coffee are also products of the islands, but they occupy
a low position when compared to that of sugar. I-ides, tallow, wool,
and salt are also exported, but the quantity is not great. The value
of the exports of the islands is from eight to ten million dollars an-
nually, and the imports amount to about two millions less than the
exports. The principal imports are textile fabrics, clothing, implements,
machinery, and provisions."







VISITING THE LEPER ISLAND. 43

So much for the commercial condition of the kingdom of Hawaii.
Let us now turn to other matters.
Our friends took a day, or rather two nights and a day, for a visit
to the famous Leper Hospital on Molokai Island. Leaving Honolulu
late one evening, they were landed the next morning on Mlolokai for
their strange excursion. We will let Frank tell the story of the visit.










17f.-. .F4 Ill-- 0" 1-




















WAriTER FALL ON ISLAND OF KAU-IAL


The leper settlement is on a plain, which is surrounded by mount-
ains on three sides and the sea on the fourth. The mountains are so
rugged as to be impassable except at a few points, which are always
carefully guarded. The sea-front is also watched, so that escape from
the settlement is practically impossible.
-:_- se___en s -.':..l ,,. ,le







44 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

"Any person in the Hawaiian kingdom suspected of lepil.-y is
arrested by the authorities, and if a .medical examination shows that
he is afflicted with the disease he is sent to Molokai. The sentence is




































a, Calabash for poi.-b, Calabash for flsh.-c, Water-bottle.-d, d, Poi mallets.-e, Pol trough.-f, Native
bracelet.-g, Fiddle.-h, Flute.-i, i, Drums.

perpetual, leprosy being considered incurable except in its earliest
stages. A man sent to Molokai is considered dead. His wife may
obtain a decree of divorce and marry again if she likes, and his estate
is handed over to the courts and administered upon as though he had
ceased to exist. Great care is exercised to prevent the banishment of







AMONG THE VICTIMS OF LEPROSY. '45

any one about whose case there is any doubt. .There is a hospital
near Honolulu where all doubtful cases are sent, and the physician in
charge keeps them there until the certainty of the presence or absence
of the disease is settled beyond question.
"The doctor who accompanied us through the settlement assured
us that leprosy is neither epidemic nor contagious in the ordinary sense
of the latter word. It can only be communicated by an abraded sur-
face coming in contact with a leprous sore; and he said that the prac-
tice among the natives of many persons smoking the same pipe had
done much to spread the disease. He shook hands freely with the
victims of leprosy during our visit, and did not take the trouble to
wear gloves, even when the hands of the others were covered with
-sores.
"He told us that the disease first showed itself by a slight swelling
under the eyes and in-the lobes of the ears; then the fingers contracted
like birds' claws, the face swelled into ridges that were smooth and
shiny, and later these ridges broke into festering sores. Sometimes
these symptoms on the face do not appear, the attacks being principally
on the hands.and feet. The fingers and toes wither and decay; they
seem to dry up and shrink, as we saw several persons whose finger-
nails were on. their knuckles, the fingers having shrunk away and dis-
appeared.
"It is a curious circumstance that the victims of leprosy rarely
suffer pain. The decay of the extremities is gradual, and the shiny
ridges on the face may be pinched
with the fingers or punctured with
a pin without giving any sensation.
Among the nine hundred and odd
persons in the leper settlement we
saw very few sad faces. The people
were enjoying themselves very much
as they would in Honolulu-talking
and laughing, walking or lounging
about, or riding horses, and in one
place they were playing a game that fTAWAIIAN PIPE.
evoked a good deal of shouting and
hilarity. Many were at work in the fields and gardens, or making
salt along the shore. There is a leper governor for the settlement, and
the usual number of subordinates that such a place requires. There
is a store where goods are sold at cost, and many of the lepers re-







46 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

ceive money from their friends and spend it at the store. The Gov-
ernment provides the lepers with clothes and lodging, and gives them
sufficient food for their subsistence. Those who can work are encour-
aged to do so, and all that they produce is bought by the Board of
Health and paid for out of the store.
"Then they have two churches-one Catholic and the other Prot-
estant. The latter has a native pastor, and the former a white priest,
who has volunteered to seclude himself among these unfortunate people
for their religious good. There are three white men and eight Chinese
who .have been sent here as lepers.. It has been charged that the Chi-
nese brought leprosy to the islands, but the doctor says this is not so,
the disease having existed here before the Chinese came; and besides,
it is quite unlike the malady of that name in China. There it princi-
pally attacks the skin, while the Hawaiian form belongs to the blood.
"The location of the settlement is an excellent one, as it is on the
windward side of the island, and constantly swept by the pure breezes
from the ocean. For those who are unable to move about there are
large and well-kept hospitals, where the patients are waited upon by
other lepers that have not reached the disabled stage. Access and
escape are alike difficult, and everything seems to have been done to
make life as comfortable as possible to the unfortunate victims who
are sent here."








THE VOYAGE RESUMED. 47








CHAPTER III.
SUDDEN CHANGE OF PLANS.-THE YACHT PERA.--DEPARTURE FROM HONO-
LULU.-VOYAGE TO THE MARQUESAS ISLANDS.-NOOKAHEEVA BAY.-HISTORI-
CAL ACCOUNT OF THE MARQUESAS.- WHAT OUR FRIENDS SAW THERE.-
TATTOOING AND HOW IT IS PERFORMED.-THE DAUGHTER OF A CHIEF.-NA-
TIVES AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-- COTTON AND -OTHER PLANTATIONS.-
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE ISLANDS. -VISITING A PLANTATION AND A
NATIVE VILLAGE.-MISSIONARIES AND THEIR WORK.-THE TABU.-CURIOUS
CUSTOMS.-PITCAIRN ISLAND AND THE MUTINEERS OF THE BOUNTY.-WON-
DERS OF EASTER ISLAND.-GIGANTIC MONUMENTS OF AN UNKNOWN RACE.

THOSE who have followed the Boy Travellers in their journeys in
other parts of the world will remember that their plans were often
changed by circumstances which could not be foreseen. At Honolulu
one of these changes took place, and this is how it happened:
When the Alameda entered the harbor on her arrival from San
Francisco our friends observed at anchor a trim-looking yacht display-
ing the English flag. They were too busy with the novelties of the
place to give her any attention, and her presence was soon forgotten.
On the morning of their return from Molokai Doctor Bronson en-
countered in the breakfast-room of the hotel an old friend, Doctor
Macalister, of Cambridge, England. Their greetings were cordial, and
all the more so as neither had the least idea that the other was in the
'Hawaiian Islands or anywhere else in the Pacific Ocean. In almost the
same breath each exclaimed,
What are you doing here ?"
Doctor Bronson explained briefly how he came to Honolulu, and
where he was going, to which Doctor Macalister responded,
I came here on the yacht Pera; she belongs to Colonel Bush, for-
merly of her Britannic Majesty's army, but for several years in the
service of the Turkish Government. I am the colonel's guest, and we
came here by way of India, China, and Japan. We leave to-morrow
for the South Pacific, where we are to cruise about for several months,
visiting the most interesting of the island groups. We go first to the
Marquesas Islands, and then-"








4S THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.


1~-~cs~ ~-~.- - - - - - - -_~ ~
----: z















LOOKING SEAWARD.

Just at this moment Colonel Bush entered the breakfast-room, and
was introduced to Doctor Bronson. A moment later Frank and Fred
arrived, presentations followed, and before the morning meal was over
the American contingent was fairly well acquainted with the English
one.
Conversation developed the fact that two gentlemen who had ar-
rived on the Pera had left by the mail-steamer for San Francisco,
having received letters at Honolulu which compelled their immediate
return to England. Consequently the Pera's party was reduced to
Colonel Bush and Doctor Macalister.
The party arranged to meet at dinner. Colonel Bush and Doctor
Macalister went to the Pera, while Doctor Bronson and the youths pro-
ceeded to make farewell calls, as the steamer on which they were to
continue their journey was due on the morrow, and they wished to be
ready for her.
Exactly how it came about we are unable to say, but it is evident
that Colonel Bush desired further acquaintance with Doctor Bronson
and his nephews, and that Doctor Macalister had heartily approved the
colonel's desire. At all events, when the three gentlemen were together
after dinner, Frank and Fred having left the table, the colonel invited
Doctor Bronson, with his nephews, to accompany him in his voyage
to the South Seas.







PLANS FOR A LONG VOYAGE. 49

"There is plenty of room on AT
the yacht," said he, "and pro- -- -
visions are abundant. The Pera
is almost identical with the Sun-
beasm, the famous yacht of Sir
Thomas Brassey, of which you
have read. She relies upon her-
sails-when there is any wind, and
has auxiliary steam- power to .
propel her when needed. The
north-east trade-winds will carry
us down to the equatorial belt
of calms, and then we'll steam
through it to the south east
trades, which will carry us
straight to the Marquesas. From
the ilirniq-s we'll go to the
Society Islands, then to Samoa,
and then to Feejee. There you THE OWNER OF THE YACHT.
can if you like take the mail-
steamer to New Zealand and Australia, or continue with the Pera
wherever she goes. Beyond
Feejee I have not formed my
plans very definitely, as they
will depend somewhat upon
the letters I receive there,
and upon the state of things
_. -in the New Hebrides, the
Solomon Islands, and other
of the groups to the west of
-- Feejee."
The heartiness of the in-
vitation, the opportunity the
voyage would give for seeing
f groups of islands not on the
regular track of travel, and the
fact that he was not pressed
for time, settled the question
with Doctor Bronson, and he
GOOD-BY!" accepted at once. -e ex-
4








50 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

caused himself shortly afterwards to inform the youths of the change in
their plans.
Of course they were delighted at the opportunity of making an ac-
quaintance with the islands that were included in the Pera's proposed
voyage, and earnestly congratulated themselves on their good-fortune.









1% P---I



1I61











AT HOME ON THE "PERA."

The baggage of the party was sent on board n the forenoon of the
next day; the travellers followed it, and a little before two o'clock in
the afternoon the Pera steamed out of Honolulu and headed southward.
When she had made a good offing her engines were stopped, the fires
were put out, and the yacht proceeded at a splendid pace with the
strong trade-wind on her port beam. Her course was directed to the
south-east, so as to enable her to cross the equator about longitude 140'
west, and take advantage of the south-east trades in making the Mar-
quesas.
Frank undertook a journal of the voyage; but like most works of
the kind, it abounded in repetitions, and our space will not permit ex-







LIFE AT. SEA IN THE TROPICS. 511

tensive quotations. One day was so much like another that the young
gentleman admitted that his narrative would make very tiresome read-
ing, and he doubted if any one would care to peruse it. Suffice it to say
the time passed agreeably, as there was a good library on board, and
each member of the party tried to do his share towards entertaining
the rest. Stories of sea and land, "' of moving accidents by flood and
field," and discussions upon. scientific, social, and all other imaginable
topics, served to beguile the hours and shorten the distance between the
Hawaiian and the Marquesas groups.
The north-east trades carried the Per almost to the equator, then
came a period of calm in a torrid temperature that drove everybody to
the shelter of the double awning over the deck, and made them sigh for
cooler latitudes. Heavy clothing was at a discount, and the lightest
garments were found more than sufficient. Social rules were suspended,
and pajamas were worn altogether, except at dinner-time, when light
suits of linen took their place. Dinner was served on deck beneath the
awning, and the ice-machine. was kept in constant action to supply ice
for the use of the sweltering travellers. Happily this state of affairs
















--7

BELOW DECK IN THE TROPICS.

did not last long; as soon as the Pera entered the calm belt the funnel
was hoisted, fires were started, the equator was crossed triumphantly,
and the yacht in due time caught the south-east trades, and was once
more turned into a sailing-craft.
As they left the equator behind them the north star disappeared







52 THE .BOY TRAVELLERS IN. AUSTRALASIA.

below the horizon, and the Southern Cross, that magnificent constella-
tion of the antarctic heavens, came into view. Frank regretted that
they could not look at it with a powerful telescope, when he learned
from the captain of the Pera that there is a brilliant cluster of stars in
the centre of the Cross, invisible to the unassisted eye, and only revealed
by a strong glass. Farther south their attention was absorbed by the
Magellan clouds, two nebulae of stars so densely packed together and
so far away that they resemble light fleecy clouds more than any-
thing else.
In a direct line it is about two thousand miles from Honolulu to
the outermost of the Marquesas group. The log of the Pera showed
a run of 2180 miles, and on the morning of the sixteenth day of the
voyage the lookout gave the welcome announcement that land was in
sight. Colonel Bush had given directions for the. yacht to proceed
direct to Nookaheeva Bay, the best harbor in the Marquesas group, and
consequently the travellers contented themselves with distant views of
the outer islands that lay in their course. The islands are evidently
of volcanic origin, as they present high peaks rising two or three thou-
sand feet, and in some places their sides are almost precipitous. With
a glass, or even with the unaided eye, it was easy to perceive that the
sides of the mountains and the valleys enclosed between them were
thickly clothed with tropical trees and undergrowth, that extended
down close to the water's edge.
Frank made the following historical note concerning the islands:
"They were discovered in 1595 by a Spanish navigator, Mendana
de Neyra, who named them Las Marquesas de Mendoza, in honor of
the Marquis de Mendoza, Viceroy of Peru. They are sometimes known
as the Mendafa Archipelago, in honor of their discoverer; and they are
also called the Washington Islands, having been so named by Captain
Ingraham of the American ship Hope, who visited them in 1791. They
are generally divided into two groups, the Northern and Southern, and
the Island of Nookaheeva, where we are going, is in the Northern group.
Altogether there are thirteen of the islands, with an area of less than
five hundred square miles and a population of about ten thousand.
"Properly the name Marquesas belongs to the Southern group only,
as they alone were visited by Mendaiia; the Northern group Was ndt
known until the American captain discovered it, and therefore we shall
insist that they are the Washington Islands."
For the description of what they saw at Nookaheeva we will rely
upon Fred's account.








ARRIVAL AT NOOKAHEEVA. 53

"As we neared the island," said the youth in his journal, "we got
up steam and went proudly into the harbor, which has a very good
anchorage. The French flag was flying from a tall staff at the end of
the bay, and you must know that the islands are under a French protect-
orate, and have been so since 1841. Hardly was our anchor down be-
fore the yacht was surrounded by a dozen boats, or canoes; one of them
contained a Frenchman in a greatly faded uniform, who said he was the
captain of the port. I very much doubt if he ever held the rank of cap-
tain anywhere else.































OS THE COAST OF THE MARQUESAS.
7,---- L 1; 1 1. P1--1.:_....
--_--~- -- _= --
-- -- -- .... -



















owever, he represented the authority of the French Government









and treated us politely. Evidently the port was not often visited by
pleasure craft like our own, as he seemed somewhat surprised when told
that we had nothing to sell, and did not wish to buy anything except
4*







54 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

fresh provisions. We bought some yams, bread-fruit, bananas, and other
fruits and vegetables, together with two or three pigs that the natives
brought alongside in their boats. The captain of the port promised to
Send us a man who would supply us with fresh beef, and then went on
shore, whither we followed as soon as we had lunched.
"Both in the boats and on the land we had a good opportunity to
study. the natives, who are said to be the finest type of Polynesians.
SThey belong to the Malay race, and are distinguished for their graceful
and symmetrical figures; the men are tall and well. proportioned, with
skins of a dark copper color, while the women are considerably lighter
in complexion, partly in consequence of their being less exposed to the
sun, and partly because of certain pigments which they apply to their
faces and arms.
Tattooing is in fashion here; it prevails among both sexes, though
more among the men than the women. It takes a long time to perform
it thoroughly. A resident Frenchman with whom we talked on the
subject said that the operation began at the age of nineteen or twenty,
and was rarely finished until the subject was approaching his fortieth
year. It is performed with an instrument shaped like a comb, or rather
like a small chisel with its end fashioned into teeth. The figure is
drawn upon the skin, and then the artist dips the comb into an ink
made of burnt cocoanut-shell and water, until the blunt ends of the
teeth have taken up some of the coloring matter. Then the comb is
placed on the proper spot, and with a mallet is driven through the skin,
eliciting a howl from the subject, unless he is of stoical mood.
"Only a few square inches can be operated on at a time. The flesh
swells and becomes very sore, and the performance cannot be repeated
until the swelling subsides and the patient has gathered strength and
recovered from the fever into which he is generally thrown. We are
told that the custom is far less prevalent than when the islands were
first discovered, and it will probably die out in another generation or
two.
"The marks made by tattooing are permanent, and no application
has ever been found that will remove them. We have seen several men
whose entire bodies were tattooed, others whose arms and faces had
alone been wrought upon, and others again who had kept their faces
free from marks but had their bodies covered. One old fellow con-
sented to stand for his photograph in consideration of being rewarded
with a hatchet and some fish-hooks, which we willingly gave him. We
added a pocket-knife, which he received with a grunt of satisfaction, but







TATTOOING IN THE MARQUESAS. 55.




-- __







He said his name was Gttnew, nd tht he ws grandson of former




The faces of the women are not tattooed, except that now and





















then they have a black line on the upper lip, which is quite suggestive


of a budding mustache. One pretty woman was pointed out to us who
was said to be the daughter of a chief; her hands and arms were tat-
tooed, the tattooing on the arms extending nearly to the elbow. At a
little distance she seemed to have on a air of embroidered loves, and







56: THE .BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
this fact suggested an idea. Why could not the ladies of civilized lands
have their hands tattooed in imitation of gloves, and thus save them-
selves the trouble and expense of donning a new pair so often? An
ingenious artist could do it nicely, and he might even tattoo the buttons
in their places, so that the gloves could have no possible chance of slip-
ping off or getting out of shape.



















4 \ .tA ,







GATTANEWA'S PORTRAIT.

"There was a chief of one of the interior tribes who presented an
excellent specimen of the work of the Polynesian artist on a living can-
vas. Circles, squares, and all sorts of curious figures had been delin-
eated on his skin, and then punctured in with the tattoo instrument;
and the. artist certainly possessed a correct eye, as all the drawing was
mathematically exact. The chief allowed Frank to make a sketch of
7'=-- '-- '














mathematically exact. The chief allowed :Frank to make a sketch of






-PREVALENCE OF TATTOOING CUSTOMS. 57
him, as the photograph did not bring out all the lines with distinct-
ness; of course' he was rewarded for his condescension, and as he re-
ceived twice as much as he had expected, we had any number of candi-
dates offering themselves when it was known how liberally we paid for
services.












L%











TATTOO MARKS-ON A CHIEF OF THE MARQUESS.

"Doctor Bronson -.iy the custom prevails in many of the islands
of Polynesia, though not in all, but is fast dying out through the influ-
ence of Christianity and civilization. Tattooing has been practised in
almost all parts of the world and in all ages. According to the Bible, it
must have existed in the time of Moses, for we find it to be one of the
practices prohibited to the Jews. Read what is said in Leviticus, xix.
--~-- "l














28: 'Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print
any marks upon you.' It prevailed among the ancient Thracians, and
any marks upon you.' Tt prevailed among the ancient Thracians, and







58 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

the ancient 'Britons practised it. It still exists among sailors, and has
probably descended through them from the time when it was. common
in Great Britain, though they may have adopted it from the barbarous.
countries to which their occupation carries them.
"Frank says these people are like a French salad, as they are .dressed;
with oil; they use cocoanut-oil for polishing their skins and anointing
their hair, and it is applied with great liberality. One of the presents
we gave to the chief who stood for his picture was a flat bottle like a
pocket-flask; he said through the interpreter that it was just the thing
for carrying oil, and he will no doubt use it for that purpose until it
goes the way of all bottles and is broken. The effect on the skin is less
disagreeable than you might suppose, as it makes it shine like a piece of
mahogany, and brings out the tattoo marks just as varnishing a picture
brings out its strong points more clearly than before.
Turmeric and other coloring substances are used with the oil. Tur-
meric gives a reddish tinge to the natural brown, and when it is applied
to the skin of a pretty woman the effect is like that of the tint of an
American belle who has spent a summer at the sea-side or on a yacht-
ing cruise, and has not been careful of her complexion. Here is a hint
for the ladies who pretend to go to the sea-side or the mountains in
summer, but are really obliged to remain at home: Make a cosmetic of
cocoanut-butter and turmeric, and apply it in place of cold-cream night
and morning. In this way you can get up a 'sea-side tan' at a trifling
expense.
Before civilization came here the natives wore very little clothing,
and even at the present time they do not spend much money on their
wardrobes. The native cloth, tappa, is made by pounding the inner
bark of a species of mulberry-tree with a mallet after soaking it in
water. Tappa enough for an entire dress can be made in a day, and
when it is done it will last five or six weeks. For a head-dress it is
made of a more open texture than for garments to cover the body.
The women wrap three or four yards of it around the waist to form a
skirt or petticoat, and then cover their shoulders with a mantle of the
same material. European cotton goods have partially replaced tappa,
and the old industry is dying out. It is a pity, too, as tappa is prettier
than cotton cloth, and the natives look better in it than in more civ-
ilized material.
"In another way civilization has destroyed the picturesqueness of
the Marquesas Islands. The natives formerly wore necklaces made of
hogs' and whales' teeth, and the men bored their ears, in which they







HOW THE FRENCH TOOK THE MARQUESAS. 19

'inserted ornaments of bone or teeth. These snow-white necklaces on
the skins of the Marquesas women had a very pretty effect, much pret-
tier than that of the cheap jewellery they wear nowadays, and which
comes from French or English. manufactories. The chief's daughter
whom I mentioned had one of these necklaces, but she wore it more as
the mark of her rank than because she admired-it. Above the necklace
she had a double string of common beads. She had a funny sort of ear-
ornament that we tried in vain to buy, as it was one of the insignia to
indicate her rank in life.





























When the French took possession of the islands they started to
make an extensive colony. They sent a fleet of four ships of war with
five hundred troops, and hoisted the French flag with a great deal of
ceremony. Fortifications were built, and there were some conflicts with
ceremony. Fortifications were built,, and there were some conflicts With







60 THE BOY. TRAVELLERS. IN AUSTRALASIA.

the natives; but of course the islanders, with their rude and primitive
weapons, were speedily conquered. The French built docks and jetties
in addition to their fortifications, but they have been of little practical
use. We found that the most of the jetties had rotted away, and in
place of the former garrison of five hundred men there are now about
sixty soldiers and a few policemen.
"The Governor treated us very kindly, and at our first call upon
him he invited us to dine with him, where we met his amiable wife and
the officers of his staff. Colonel Bush invited them to dine on the
yacht. As the cabin is limited, we had the Governor and his wife on
one day and the officers on another, and I am sure they all enjoyed
our visit. Strangers come here so rarely that our advent made an
agreeable break in the monotony of their lives.
"There are some fifty foreigners living here, and they include several
nationalities-English, American, Irish, Scotch, French, German, Portu-
guese, Spanish, and Peruvian. Some of them are engaged in business,
but there is not a great deal of it, as the colony has not been successful.
Cotton is the principal article of cultivation, and there is a small trade
in beche-de-mer, the famous sea-cucumber of which the Chinese are fond.
It brings a high price in the markets of Canton and Shanghai, some-
times selling as high as five hundred dollars a ton. One of the English-
men, who has a store in the little settlement, said that several of the cot-
ton plantations had been abandoned, owing to the difficulty of getting
laborers for them. The natives are disinclined to work, and laborers
from other islands cannot be had in sufficient numbers. Several hun-
dred Chinese have been imported, and also some laborers from the Gil-
bert and Loyalty Islands. The Chinese make very good colonists, and
many of them have plantations of their own, which they manage very
successfully.
"The same gentleman showed us a fungus that comes from the
valleys between the mountains; it looks very much like a scrap of
dried leather, and would not. be considered worth much to- one who
did not know about it. It brings a good price in China, where it is
used for making soup. We tried some of it at dinner one day, and
found it not at all disagreeable to the taste; in fact it was so good
that our steward bought nearly a barrel of it for future use.
There is a road around the head of the bay which was built by
the French soon after their arrival, but has been neglected and is not
in good repair. Our host took us on a ride along this road, from
which the view is delightful. In front is the deep blue water of the







CURIOUS FORMATION OF ISLANDS. 61

bay, while behind us the mountains rose very precipitously, and seem-
ed to shut us out altogether from the rest of the island. The bay is
nearly in the shape of a horseshoe, ending in two high headlands, and
to follow its shores requires a walk or ride of about nine miles. The
entrance is less than half a mile wide, and is guarded by two small
islands, each about five hundred feet high.
Cowper says:
o"'Mountains interpos'd
Make enemies of nations who had else,
Like kindred drops, been mingled into one.'

"There is nowhere in the world a better illustration of the truth
of this assertion than in the Marquesas. In each island the mountains
rise in ridges like the sections of a starfish; some of these ridges are
quite impassable, and all of them very difficult to- traverse. The re-
sult has been that there was formerly very little intercourse between
the tribes occupying the different valleys, and until the French came
here there was hardly a time when two or more tribes were not at war.




















A EUROPEAN'S RESIDENCE IN THE MARQUESAS.

Even at present they are not entirely at peace, and though the most
of them have abandoned cannibalism, it is occasionally practised.
"Our host told us that in many of the valleys there are old men







62 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
who have never been outside the limits of the mountain walls that
enclose their. homes, and others whose journeys have been wholly
confined to short excursions on the water a few miles from shore.
The ordinary mode of communication is by water, and in many cases
it is the only one possible.
"The gentleman invited us to go to one of the valleys where he has
a plantation; we made the excursion in a large sail-boat manned by
six or eight natives, but built after an English model and commanded
by an English sailor. Starting early one morning, we made the run
in about four hours, spent an afternoon and night in the valley, and
returned the next day. All these valleys in the Marquesas have a
wealth of tropical trees and smaller plants which is not surpassed any-
where else in the world. The cocoa and several other varieties of the
palm-tree abound here, and they have the bread-fruit, the banana and
taro plants, the sugar-cane, and, as before mentioned, the cotton-plant.
"Close by the landing-place we came to a village of a dozen or
twenty huts built of the yellow bamboo and thatched with palmetto-
leaves, which the sun had bleached to a whiteness that reminded us of
a newly shingled roof in temperate zones. Our guide called our atten-
tion to the platform of stones on which each house stood, and said it
was a protection against dampness. The rain falls frequently and
very heavily, and it is the abundant moisture that makes the vegeta-
tion so luxuriant. On the mountain ridges, in whatever direction you
look, there are streams tumbling down, and the steep cliffs are whit-
ened by numerous cascades. The moisture nourishes a great variety
of creeping plants, and in many places they completely cover the pre-
cipitous cliffs and give them the appearance of green water-falls.
"The natives in one respect resemble the Irish peasantry, their
chief wealth being in pigs. These animals were introduced by the
Spaniards, who were for a long time venerated as gods in consequence
of this inestimable gift to these simple-minded people. Before the
visit of the Spaniards the islands had absolutely no four-footed ani-
mals; hence it is easy to see how Mendana and his companions were
regarded as more than human.
"Now they have some horses and horned cattle, but not many;
they have dogs and cats, and unfortunately they have rats, which were
brought here in foreign ships, and have multiplied so fast that they
have become a great pest. There are only a few varieties of birds on
the islands; most of them have beautiful plumage, but none can be
properly called song-birds.















i..



,~: ',',.,,, ,,'









ir













A MA-RQLESAN VILLAGE.
_.. -- .. - "-

r -, _: ,~ ~ ..-..
-- - ._-
A MARQESAN VLLAGE







64 THE BOY. TRAVELLERS IN. AUSTRALASIA.

"Near the village is a well-built church of stone; it is in charge
of a Catholic priest, and we were told that there is an average of one
church to every two hundred inhabitants all over the islands. The
first missionaries to the Marquesas came in the London Mission ship
Dnf near the end of the last century, but after
a short residence they became disheartened and
abandoned the effort to convert and civilize the
people. Several attempts were made in the first
quarter of the present century, but with a simi-
lar result. In 1833 some American missionaries
Tried the experiment, and in 1834 the London
Mission Society sent a fresh party of missiona-
ries, but all to little purpose.
In 1853 an English missionary named Bick-
nell and four Hawaiian teachers, accompanied by-
CATHOLIC MISSIONARY. their wives, went to the Marquesas at the re-
quest of a Marquesan chief, who had gone to
the Sandwich Islands in a whale-ship to present the invitation. The
French priests opposed the coming of these missionaries, but the chiefs
refused to give them up, and so the teachers remained, but they made
little progress in converting the natives to Christianity.
"The Catholic mission supports quite a number of priests and a
bishop at the Marquesas. The mission has had very poor success in
securing adherents to its faith, but it has done much good in the way
of showing the natives the result of industry. Around each mission
station there is a well-cultivated garden, and some of the finest cotton-
fields on the islands may be found there. I have never seen anywhere
a prettier cotton-field than at the mission we visited.
"There is a convent at Nookaheeva, where the French Sisters are
educating about sixty Marquesan girls, whose ages vary from four to
sixteen years. There is a similar school for boys, which is under the
charge of the mission; and the bishop hopes that these boys and girls
will be of service in educating and converting their people to the relig-
ion and civilization of the foreigner. But from all we can learn it will
be a long time before his hopes are realized. The Queen is a devout
Catholic, while the King is a nominal one, and each missionary has a
small flock of followers; but the great majority are as much heathen as
ever, and cling firmly to their old superstitions.
One of the curious customs of the South Sea Islands is the tabu,
and it prevails much more strongly at the Marquesas at the present time







THE TABU AND ITS PECULIARITIES. 65

than anywhere else. The word is Polynesian, and singularly resem-
bles in sound and meaning the to ebah of the ancient Hebrews. It
has a good and a bad meaning, or rather it may apply to a sacred thing
or to a wicked one. A cemetery, being consecrated ground, would be
tabu, or sacred, and to fight there would be tabu, or wicked. Our Eng-
lish word tabooed' (forbidden) comes from the Polynesian one.
"It would take too long to describe all the operations of tabu as it
formerly prevailed through Polynesia and still exists in some of the
islands, and especially in the Marquesas. There were two kinds of tabu,
one of them permanent, the other temporary. The permanent tabu
was a sort of traditional or social rule, and applied to everybody. All
grounds and buildings dedicated to any idol or god were tabu, and





















IN A GALE NEAR THE MARQUESAS.

therefore became places of refuge to men fleeing from an enemy, ex-
actly like the Cities of Refuge mentioned in the Bible. It was tabu to
touch the person of a chief or any article belonging to him, or eat any-
thing he had touched. In the Tonga Islands it was tabu to speak the
name of father or mother or of father-in-law or mother-in-law, to touch
them, or to eat in their presence except with the back turned, when they
were constructively supposed to be absent.
5








66 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.











I-1 ___1
--_=__.--__ = .---- :. .---~-_.-__ _









TFIX

















COMMODORE PORTER'S FLEET IN OOKAIHEEVA BAY.

"In the Feejee Islands it was tab for brother and sister and first-
cousins to speak together or eat from the same dish. Husband and
wife could not eat from the same dish, and a father could not speak
to his son if the latter was more than fifteen. years old !
'The tabu was a very convenient police system, as any exposed
property could be made safe by being tabooed. The chiefs and priests
could tabu anything they chose; when a feast was about to come off







ORIGIN OF THE MERMAID MYTH. 67

the chief would previously tabu certain articles of food, and thus insure
an abundance on the day of the festival. Violation of certain kinds of
tabu was punished with death; other and smaller.violations had various
penalties affixed, and they generally included sacrifices or presents to
the gods, or the payment of fines to the chiefs.
Well, here in the Marquesas, among other prohibitions, it was tabu
for a woman to enter a canoe or boat. Men had a monopoly of all pad-
dling and sailing, and the only sea-voyage a woman could make was by
swimming. I have read about women in the South Seas swimming out
to ships anchored a long distance from shore, and never understood till
now how it was. It is no wonder that sailors used to mistake these
Marquesan nymphs for mermaids as they dashed through the waves
with their long black hair trailing behind them in the water."
















r'EASTER ISLAND HOUSE AND '.'ILN.
/___. _? '1



EASTER ISLAND HOUSE AND CHILDREN.

Fred's account of what they saw in the Marquesas pauses abruptly
at this point. Perhaps he was interrupted by just such a scene as he
describes in the last sentence, but he could hardly fall into the old error
of the sailors. The women of the iMarquesas are fine swimmers, but no
better, perhaps, than those of the Feejee, Samoan, and other tropical or
semi-tropical groups.







68 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

The Pera remained several days at the Marquesas, and then pro-
ceeded to Tahiti, in the Society group. Before they left Nookaheeva
one of the officers of the Governor's staff pointed out the hill where
Commodore Porter hoisted the
r.. r American flag when he anchored
with his prizes in the bay during
the war of 1812. "That was a
.;. long time ago," said the officer;
"but the incident is vividly pre-
S'served in the traditions of the
-' people. And it was that incident
that greatly aided the French in
'- ." ,. .". getting their foothold here.".
:*" '*. 4 i "How was that ?" Frank in-
t quired.
'"At the time of Commodore
SPorter's visit," replied the officer,
- '~~"~-'".: the Nookaheevans were at war
'"ii -., with a neighboring tribe. The
'': hostile tribe made an incursion
one night and destroyed about
i A .
Stwo hundred bread-fruit trees
.' I'<;, ,i close to Porter's camp; the next
S day they sent a messenger to tell
'y'him he was a coward, and they
would come soon and attack his
Scamp.
S. Porter thereupon concluded
to teach them a lesson, and so
he sent a small detachment un-
','' '' i der Lieutenant Downs to aid the
SNookaheevans to punish their
I /. enemies.
S" "This was accomplished, and
Sthe hostile tribe was completely
LAVA ROOK IMAGE, EASTER ISLAND. subdued. As soon as he had
completed the repairs to his ships
Porter sailed away, but he was long revered in Nookaheeva. When
the French came here, thirty years afterwards, the natives thought the
performance of Porter would be repeated, and the Frenchmen would







THE MUTINEERS OF THE BOUNTY. 69

aid the Nookaheevans to defeat their enemies. They were received
with open arms, and the natives were not undeceived until the French
had completed their forts and were fully able to defend themselves."
Continuing his reference to the natives, Frank's informant said that
great numbers of them were at one time kidnapped and carried away
by labor-vessels, of which more will be said in a later chapter. In 1863
small-pox was introduced by foreign ships, and killed nearly one-half of
the population. Altogether the people of the Marquesas have no special
occasion to be grateful to
the white man. t
During thePera's voy-
age to Tahiti our young -
friends devoted their time

the Pacific Ocean and the
islands it contained. Fred
called their attention to
Pitcairn Island, which has r
been long famous as the Do
home of the mutineers of
the Bounty; both the
youths regretted that
they were not to pass in
its vicinity, but consoled
themselves by reading an
account of a visit to it,
and a description of the
inhabitants.*
One day while they
were busy with their EASTER ISLAND MAN.
studies of the Pacific,
Doctor Bronson called their attention to Easter Island, which he pro
nounced one of the most remarkable islands in the great ocean,
Frank eagerly asked why it-was so, and the Doctor kindly explained
as follows:
"It is remarkable," said he, "on account of the mysterious origin
and history of its former inhabitants, and the sculptured rocks and

"The Young Nimrods Around the World," chapter xv, Published by Harper &
Brothers.







70 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.
stone images which they have left scattered in great numbers over the
island. It has been known since 1722, when the navigator Roggewein
discovered it on Easter Sunday of that year, and named it Easter Island
in commemoration of the discovery. Some authorities say it was dis-
covered in 1686 by Davis, an English buccaneer, and it was known as
Davis Land until Rogge-
S ---1- wein's visit. Captain Cook
visited it about 1772, and it
is said he found twenty thou-
Ssand inhabitants there. The
.. island is about thirty miles
in circumference, and is sit-
uated in latitude 27 10'
south, and 109' 26' west lon-
...... gitude. It has a remarkable
isolation, being two thou-
Secsand miles from the coast
of Chili, and one thousand
five hundred from any other
inhabited island except Pit-
2 cairn, and that, as you know,
r is a small island, about two
-is e 'e miles long and not more
than a mile broad in its
i widest part.
.- Easter Island is called
Rapa Nui by the natives of
Tahiti, and is of unmistaka-
bly volcanic origin. There
EASTER ISLAND WOMAN. is a large extinct crater on
each end of the island, and
numerous small ones between, the ground being thickly covered with
black volcanic rock and obsidian in the western portion. The largest
of these volcanoes is named Rauo Kao; it is over one thousand three
hundred feet high, enclosing a fresh-water lake nearly three miles in
circumference, the surface of which is partially covered with vegetable
matter, over which a man may walk in places. The second one in size
is extremely interesting on account of its being the place where the
stone images were made from lava rock, a great number of which still
remain, some unfinished and attached to the precipitous cliffs. An







WONDERS OF EASTER ISLAND. 71

enormous number of these im-
ages is scattered all over the
island, while there are ninety-
three inside and one hundred
and fifty-five immediately out-
side of the crater. They are in
solid pieces, varying from five
to seventy feet in height; some
of the figures lying prostrate
are twenty-seven feet long, and
measure eight feet across the
breast."
"Very much like the great
statues at Thebes and Karnak
in Egypt," said Fred.
"Yes," replied the Doctor,
" and one of these statues meas-
ures twenty feet from the shoul-
der to the crown of the head.,
The sculpture is extremely rude,
and as works of art the Easter
Island statues bear no compari-
son to the Egyptian ones. The
human body is 1.p-.:::.iI'1 ter-
minating at the hips, the head
is fiat, the top of the forehead
cut level so as to support a
crown which was cut from red
tufa found in one of the smaller
craters. They were transported
to villages near the sea, and
placed upon stone platforms
constructed in various heights
and different lengths, facing the
water. One of these platforms
supported thirteen immense im-
ages, and all of those examined
contained human bones, show-
ing it to be a place of burial.
Of these platforms one hun-







.72 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

dred and thirteen have been counted. On a precipice overlooking the
sea is a village of ancient stone huts, where, it is said, the natives lived
only during a portion of the year. Near by are also sculptured rocks,
covered with curious and extremely interesting carvings.
The platforms are from two to three hundred feet long, and about
thirty feet high, built of hewn stones five or six feet long, and accurate-
ly joined without cement. The platforms are at intervals all around
the coast, and some of the headlands were levelled off to form similar
resting-places for the images.







*S ''1"

se x .: s i .-. .. ...fi.. .




qu1-rJe. Abku, thirt, rown, are ,yn ih u e n o,




-e are fully ten ee, indiamet r, .d ofl < proporion.e' 't. ,
STONE PLATFORM FOR IMAGES.

"All of the principal images have the top of the head cut flat and
crowned with a circular mass of red lava hewn perfectly round; some
of these crowns are sixty-six inches in diameter, and fifty-two inches
thick, aid were brought eight miles from the spot where they were
quarried. About thirty crowns are lying in the quarries, and some of
them are fully ten feet in diameter, and of proportionate height."
Frank asked if the present inhabitants had any tradition concerning
these statues.
"None whatever," was the reply. "At present there are less than
two hundred people living there; they seem to be the degenerate re-







INHABITANTS OF EASTER ISLAND. 73

mains of a race something like the Maoris of New Zealand, and they
speak a language similar to those people. Although undoubtedly a can-
nibal race-in fact, one old man speaks with enthusiasm when asked
regarding the custom-they are at present quiet and enlightened, but
retain many superstitious ideas which they have received by transmis-
sion. They venerate a small sea-bird, the egg of which is sacred to
them, and their season of feast begins in August, when the first eggs of
these birds are taken from two barren rocks near the cliffs. Men and
youths swim to these rocks, and the one who first secures an egg is held
in high esteem; he lords it over the others for twelve months, his food
being furnished for him, and he is not permitted to bathe for three
months. A recent visitor says the people are so dirty that you could
suppose every man, woman, and child had performed the successful feat
the last feast-time. The last king was Kai Makor, who died about 1864,
when Peruvian ships visited Rapa Nui, and a number of the natives
were seized and taken to work the guano on the Chincha Islands, where
the greater number died. A few were finally sent back, and they
brought with them small-pox, which caused great havoc and nearly de-
populated the island. Water is scarce, but the climate is equable, and
one of the most delightful in the world, the thermometer seldom regis-
tering higher than 750 to 800 during the warmest season.
"An image and some other curiosities were brought away in 1886
by the United States steamer Mohican, which visited the island in that
year. They are now in the Naval Museum at Washington, and it is
hoped that some one will be able to decipher the hieroglyphics, which
thus far have remained without an interpreter."








74 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.







CHAPTER IV.
FROM THE MARQUESAS TO THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.-THE GREAT BARRIER REEF.-
THE CORAL INSECT AND HIS WORK.-ATOLLS AND THEIR PECULIARITIES.-ORI-
GIN OF THE POLYNESIAN PEOPLE.-ARRIVAL AT PAPEITI.-ON SHORE IN TAHITI.
-A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ISLANDS. WORK OF THE MISSIONARIES. THE
FRENCH OCCUPATION.-VICTIMS FOR SACRIFICE.-OLD-TIME CUSTOMS.-PROD-
UCTS OF THE SOCIETY ISLANDS.-BECHE-DE-MER FISHING.-VISIT TO THE
REEF.-CURIOUS THINGS SEEN THERE.-ADVENTURES WITH SHARKS, STINGA-
REES, AND OTHER MONSTERS.- GIGANTIC CLAMS.- VISITING THE MARKET.-
EATING LIVE FISHES.-A NATIVE FEAST.-EXCURSION TO POINT VENUS.

W HEN well clear of the Marquesas the Pera turned her prow to
the south-west, in the direction of Tahiti, which lay about nine
hundred miles away. The strong trade-wind bore her swiftly on her
course, and on the fourth day of the voyage the lofty peaks of Ota-
heite's isle rose into view. The
summits of the mountains seemed
S to pierce the sky, so sharp and steep
.I wr- were they,-and almost to their very
tops they were covered with verd-
ure. Luxuriant forests were every-
where visible, and the shore was
._ fringed with a dense growth of
Spalms that seemed to rise from the
water itself.
The central peak of Tahiti has
COAST SCENERY, TAHITI. an elevation of something more than
seven thousand feet, and from this
peak there is a series of ridges radiating towards the sea like the spokes
of a wheel. Many of these ridges are so steep on their sides that they
cannot be ascended, and so narrow that there is not room for an ordi-
nary path. A man standing on one of these ridges could with his right
hand throw a stone into one valley, and with his left a stone into an-
other, whose inhabitants could communicate only by descending to the
coast, or.to the lowland which borders it. The valleys are luxuriant,
and even the ridges are covered with vines and bushes.







THE GREAT BARRIER REEF OF TAHITI. 5

As the youths, with their glasses, eagerly scanned the coast they
were approaching, one of them called out that he could see a strip of
calm water close to the shore.
We are coming to the great barrier-reef of coral," said Doctor Bron-
son, "and the calm water that you see is between the reef and the shore.
Tahiti is one of the best examples of an island surrounded by a
coral reef," the Doctor continued. "It extends quite around the island,
sometimes only a few yards from it, and sometimes four or five miles
distant. There are occasional openings through the reef, some wide
and deep enough to permit the passage of large ships, and others prac-
ticable only for small boats. Inside the reef the water is calm, and a
vessel once within it has a secure harbor."
The boys could see the surf breaking on the reef with great vio-
lence, and throwing spray high into the air. Outside was the ever-
restless sea; inside lay the placid lagoon, which reflected the sunlight
as in a mirror.
Just think of it," said Frank; "that great reef, which resists the
waves of the ocean, and could destroy the largest ship that floats, is
built up by a tiny worm which we could crush between our fingers
with the greatest ease. The pa-
7 tienre of the honey-bee iq nothing
l ,l41 .,,' ,> 0 i 'f.-. l tI' thlat ':A t11 ,-1.,,l in-

SI : .l t ,i ; tle -..epth
I"' I t W t:,' .-'il:, t 1e L ,-e'. lthl in side



I O __ -ORAL


7, %

-A-






ST'ECIMEN OF CORAL.







76 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

Doctor Bronson answered that it varied greatly, the inner lagoon
being sometimes only a few feet, or perhaps inches, in depth, and
sometimes two, three, or five hundred feet. Outside there is generally
a great depth of water, sometimes so much that the sounding-lead fails
to find bottom at a distance of
S... only a few yards. "This consti-
tutes," he added, one of the dan-
S.,,gers of navigation, as a ship may
be close upon a reef without being
aware of it until too late.
'- .. "The coral insect," he contin-
ued, "does not work at a greater
S.. 'depth than two hundred feet, and
he ceases operations when he reach-
S' ..--- es the surface. When these reefs
are more than two hundred feet
.~ S 1 deep it is supposed that the bottom
THE CORAL WORM has slowly receded and carried the
reef with it; as the recession went
on, the -coral insect continued his work of building. It reminds me of
what happens sometimes to a railway in a swampy region; the em-
bankment for the track sinks from time to time, and a new one is
built above it. After a while sufficient earth has been thrown in to
make a solid foundation, and then the sinking ceases.
"The atoll is another curious form of the work of the coral insect,"
said the Doctor, continuing. It is circular or oval in shape, the island
forming a rim that encloses a lake or lagoon. There is always an
opening from the sea to the lagoon, and it is generally on the leeward
side. Sometimes there are two, or even three or more openings, but
this is unusual; the island rises only a few feet above the water, and
is the work of the coral insect upon what was once the crater of a vol-
cano; at least that is the general belief.
"The atoll is not a desirable place for residence, as the ocean during
severe storms is liable to break across the narrow strip of land and
sweep away whatever may be standing there. Many atolls are unin-
habited, and none of them has a large population; cocoa-palms, bread-
fruit, and other tropical trees are generally found on the inhabited
atolls, and partially or wholly supply the natives with food. In some
instances, the people support themselves by fishing either in the lagoon
or in the ocean outside. The lagoon forms a fairly good harbor for







THE HARBOR AT PAPeIT. 77

ships and canoes, but sometimes the water in it is too deep for anchor-
ing."
As the minutes rolled on, the outlines of the mountains and ridges,
the valleys and forests, grew more and more distinct. Frank and Fred
strained their eyes to discover an opening in the reef, but for some time
their earnest gaze was unrewarded. At length, however, Frank saw a
spot where the long line of spray appeared to be broken; gradually
it enlarged, and revealed a passage into the great encircling moat of
Tahiti. It was the entrance to the harbor of Papeiti, the capital of the
French possessions in this part of the Pacific.
The yacht glided safely through the channel and anchored in front
of Papeiti, or Papaete, as some writers have it. Two French war-ships
were lying there, and several schooners and other sailing-craft en-
gaged in trade among the islands. Then there were some half-dozen
ships and barks from various parts of the world, bringing cargoes of
miscellaneous goods for the Tahitian market and carrying away the
produce of the islands. Frank looked in vain for an ocean-going mer-
chant steamer, and found, on inquiry, that the Society Islands are not
visited by any of the steamships engaged in the navigation of the
Pacific.




---r .-- -
-_ ;- _-: __ i- _-- .





ON THE SHORE OF THE LAGOON.

The Society Islands are a group, consisting of two clusters about
seventy miles apart. Some geographers apply the name to the north-
western cluster only, while the other is known as the Tahiti or Geor-
gian group. The latter is the larger and more populous, and is a French
colony, while the former is independent. The Spaniards claim to have
discovered Tahiti in 1606, and it was visited in 1767 by Captain Wallis,
who named it King George's Island. Two years later Captain Cook
discovered the north-western cluster, called the whole group the Society
Islands in honor of the Royal Geographical Society, and restored to
Tahiti its native name.







78 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

"Why is Tahiti sometimes called Otaheite, and why is Hawaii, in
the Sandwich Islands, sometimes called Owyhee ?" Fred inquired.
"Thereby hangs a tale," replied the Doctor, "or rather a great deal
of conjecture. Some ethnographers think the islands of Polynesia were
peopled from the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, while others think
they were peopled from Japan. Advocates of either theory have a
great number of arguments in its support. We haven't time to go over
the list; and even if we did we should not be able to settle the question.
























A CABIN IN THE SUBURBS.

The theory that the inhabitants of the Sandwich and Society islands
came originally from Japan is supported by the use in their languages
of the prefix 0 (signifying honorable ") exactly as it is used in Japan.
As the Japanese say O-yama (honorable mountain), so the Hawaiians
say 0-wyhee, and the Tahitians 0-taheite.
Many Japanese sports, such as archery, wrestling, boxing, spear-
throwing, and slinging stones, were in vogue in some of the islands at
the time of their discovery; they are rapidly passing away as the peo-
ple become civilized, and in another generation or two will hardly be







ON SHORE IN TAHITI. 79

heard of. In their language they are nearer like the Malay than the
Japanese; that they are of Malay origin is very clearly proven, but
exactly how they came here it is not likely we shall ever know."
While this conversation was going on the yacht was visited by
a custom-house official, who took the declaration of the captain as to
her nationality and name, and her object in visiting Tahiti, and then
returned to shore. Our friends followed him, and in a very short time
were pressing their feet against the solid earth of Pap6iti. For an
account of what they saw we will again refer to Fred's journal.
"You cannot see much of Papeiti from anywhere," said Fred, "be-
cause of the great numbers of trees that grow in and around the place.
Here they are: bread-fruit, hibiscus, cocoa-palms, and half a dozen other
varieties, so that nearly every house is hid from view until you are close
upon it. The row of shops and cafes near the water is an exception to
the rule; they are like the same kind of establishments everywhere in
a French colony, and reveal the nationality of the place at a glance.










THE COAST IN A STORM.

"There are mountains in every direction excepting towards the sea,
and through a gorge at the back of the town a particularly fine mount-
ain is visible. Most of the houses are only one story in height, espe-
cially in the outskirts, where the well-to-do residents have their villas.
In the town there are a few two or three storied buildings, belonging to
the foreign merchants or used for Government purposes; but these are
exceptions to the general aversion to stair-ways. Land is so cheap here
that everybody ought to have plenty of room.
"The names of the streets make us think of Paris. The principal
one is the Rue de Rivoli, and there we find the hotels, shops, and caf6s,
or rather the most of them. On the Rue de Commerce are the ware-
houses, where goods and provisions are- stored; and the Rue de Po-
logne, which is the widest and best shaded of all, is mainly given up







80 THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN AUSTRALASIA.

to the Chinese for shops and tea-houses. The Chinaman has taken
root here, and flourishes; every year the Chinese hold upon business
increases, and some of the French residents advocate the expulsion of
the Mongolians, through fear that they will soon have a monopoly of
the commerce of the islands.
"In the resident part of the town nearly every house stands in its
own garden, and the most of these gardens are prettily laid out. There
are good roads in and around the place, and we have had some charm-
ing drives, sometimes in carriages, which we hired at one of the hotels,
and sometimes by invitation of the residents. We have had a most
hospitable reception, and everybody from the Governor down has tried
to make us enjoy our visit.
The English consul invited us to dine at his country residence, and
afterwards treated us to a moonlight excursion on the water. It was
very pretty, as the lagoon was as calm as a mirror, and there were
many boats out at the same time. The natives seem to be a careless,
fun-loving people. Wherever there is a group of them there is always
more or less laughter going on, and they seem to be constantly playing
harmless little jokes on one another. The evenings here are delightful,
and it is the custom to go out after dinner. The favorite resort is the
lawn near the Government-house; a band from one of the ships-of-war
plays there every evening, and always has a large audience. The
natives are very fond of music, and when it is lively they fall to danc-
ing on the green turf.
"The population of the two clusters that form the Society group is
said to be a little less than twenty thousand, three-fourths of them
belonging to the Tahitian cluster and one-fourth to the north-western.
The native population of this island is about eight thousand. There are
about one thousand Chinese on the islands, eight hundred French, two
hundred and fifty British subjects, and one hundred and fifty Americans,
and perhaps one hundred of other nationalities.
"They tell us that we can drive in a carriage all the way around
Tahiti, a distance of one hundred and sixty miles, and that we can hard-
ly go a mile of this distance without coming to a stream of clear water
rolling or rippling down from the mountains. Most of these streams
are simply rivulets or brooks, but some of them are rivers too large and
deep to be forded. Some of these rivers have been bridged, but where
this has not been done they must be crossed by 'ferry-boats. Villages
are scattered at intervals of a few miles, and any one who undertakes
the journey can be comfortably lodged every night, especially if he




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs