Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: How Columbus found a...
 Chapter II: Followers in Columbus's...
 Chapter III: First attempts to...
 Chapter IV: The thirteen colon...
 Chapter V: The whites and...
 Chapter VI: The French and Indian...
 Chapter VII: Separation from...
 Chapter VIII: The minute-men at...
 Chapter IX: Washington in...
 Chapter X: The loss of Philadelphia...
 Chapter XI: Aid from France
 Chapter XII: The war in the South...
 Chapter XIII: The surrender of...
 Chapter XIV: Framing the const...
 Chapter XV: Formation of the new...
 Chapter XVI: The beginning of party...
 Chapter XVII: The administration...
 Chapter XVIII: The war of 1812
 Chapter XIX: The era of good feeling...
 Chapter XX: The "American system"...
 Chapter XXI: Van Buren, Harrison,...
 Chapter XXII: The Mexican War
 Chapter XXIII: The anti-slavery...
 Chapter XXIV: Outbreak of the Civil...
 Chapter XXV: Events of 1862
 Chapter XXVI: The third year of...
 Chapter XXVII: Nearing the end
 Chapter XXVIII: The return...
 Chapter XXIX: Reconstruction of...
 Chapter XXX: The presidency of...
 Chapter XXXI: Mr. Hayes's...
 Chapter XXXII: The civil service...
 Chapter XXXIII: The most recent...
 Table of the presidents
 Table of admission of states
 Chronological table
 Back Cover

Group Title: A history of the United States for young Americans : : from the landing of Columbus to the inauguration of Benjamin Harrison
Title: A history of the United States for young Americans
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065441/00001
 Material Information
Title: A history of the United States for young Americans from the landing of Columbus to the inauguration of Benjamin Harrison
Physical Description: viii, 152 p. : ill., ports ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Jones, Lynds E ( Lynds Eugene ), 1853-1902
George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: New York ;
London ;
Glasgow ;
Publication Date: c1889
Subject: Presidents -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Generals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Statesmen -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1889   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1889
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
England -- Manchester
Statement of Responsibility: by Lynds E. Jones ; with 230 illustrations.
General Note: Includes table of the Presidents, admission of the states, and a chronology.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements precede text.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065441
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223968
notis - ALG4224
oclc - 26814380

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Chapter I: How Columbus found a new world
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Chapter II: Followers in Columbus's track
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Chapter III: First attempts to settle North America and their failure
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Chapter IV: The thirteen colonies
        Page 11
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        New York
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Rhode Island
            Page 25
        New Hampshire
            Page 26
            Page 26
        New Jersey
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        North Carolina
            Page 30
        South Carolina
            Page 31
            Page 32
    Chapter V: The whites and the Indians
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Chapter VI: The French and Indian wars
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Chapter VII: Separation from England
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Chapter VIII: The minute-men at Lexington and at Bunker Hill
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Chapter IX: Washington in command
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Chapter X: The loss of Philadelphia and the victory at Saratoga
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Chapter XI: Aid from France
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Chapter XII: The war in the South and Arnold's treason
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Chapter XIII: The surrender of Cornwallis and the close of the war
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Chapter XIV: Framing the constitution
        Page 63
    Chapter XV: Formation of the new government under Washington
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Chapter XVI: The beginning of party politics
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Chapter XVII: The administration of Jefferson
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
    Chapter XVIII: The war of 1812
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Chapter XIX: The era of good feeling and the Missouri compromise
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Chapter XX: The "American system" and nullification
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Chapter XXI: Van Buren, Harrison, and Tyler
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Chapter XXII: The Mexican War
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Chapter XXIII: The anti-slavery struggle
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Chapter XXIV: Outbreak of the Civil War
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Chapter XXV: Events of 1862
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    Chapter XXVI: The third year of the war
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Chapter XXVII: Nearing the end
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Chapter XXVIII: The return of peace
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Chapter XXIX: Reconstruction of the South
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Chapter XXX: The presidency of general Grant
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Chapter XXXI: Mr. Hayes's administration
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
    Chapter XXXII: The civil service and the Mormons
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Chapter XXXIII: The most recent events
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Table of the presidents
        Page 147
    Table of admission of states
        Page 148
    Chronological table
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
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From the

Landing of Columbus to te Inauguration
of Benjamin Harrison





History of the United States.
History of England.
Great African Travellers.
Great Arctic Travellers.
Life of Nafoleon Bonaparte.
Out-Door Sports for Boys (and
Each 160 pages, quarto. With numerous
illustrations. Boards, lithographed double
cover, each, 75 cents.




LITTLE doubt now remains that, some five hundred years before Columbus set sail on his
famous voyage, this continent was visited by the Northmen, or people from Norway and Iceland.
They were a venturesome, sea-loving race, and on one of their many bold western expeditions they
chanced upon Greenland and then upon the mainland. They made, however, no permanent settle-
ment here, and the knowledge of their discovery does not appear to have travelled much beyond
their own country, and seems to have been soon forgotten even there. It became a lost discovery,
with little bearing upon the history of the New World and none whatever upon that of the United
States. Our history-the history of the American people-only dates'from the discovery, or redis-
covery, of a Western Hemisphere by Columbus.
This closing year of centennial celebrations seems a peculiarly fitting occasion to attempt
once more to excite in the youth of our country an interest in its past history. We are seeking in
these days to do honor in every way to the Fathers of the Republic. Surely we can pay them no
greater reverence than by retelling the story of their deeds as examples for our children to emulate.
And if from the reading of tnis volume, necessarily limited to a narrative of only the most notable
incidents which have marked the progress of the nation, a desire is awakened in the minds of young
Americans to learn more of the land to which it is their happy fortune to belong; if a purer
patriotism is aroused, and a stronger purpose formed to live a life worthy of the founders of the
Union, its object will be fully accomplished.
BROOKLYN, N. Y., 1889.









Virginia, .
New York,.
Rhode Island,
New Hampshire,
Maryland, .
New Jersey,
North Carolina,
South Carolina,.





S 30
* 32














































S 102













* 49



* 114

* 119

. 126

. 130



. 141


. 147


History of the United States.



ica or who even knew that there was such a coun-
try. But there was one man who thought there
ought to be such a country, and who was deter-
mined to find out for himself whether or not he
was right in thinking so. Even he did not dream
that America was a continent by itself. He
thought that the earth was smaller than it is; that
/ : Asia extended a greater distance around it than it
S does; and that by sailing westward out into the
ocean, further than any one had ever sailed before,
h he could reach India more easily than could those

T HERE are two dates in the history of their
country which no American boy or girl
should ever forget: one is the year 1492, in which
America was discovered by Columbus; the other is
the year 1776, in which it freed itself from the rule
of Great Britain and began to govern itself. There
are many other things which they ought to know
and which they will have to learn, but these are
the two which above everything else they should
know best of all.
Four hundred years ago there was no person liv-
ing, except the Indians, who had ever been in Amer- ISABELLA,


who had gone there by travelling towards the
No one believed him; every one laughed at him;
for in those days few people imagined that the
earth was round; they thought that it was flat;
and to attempt to get to India by sailing towards
the west seemed to them about as sensible as to try
to reach the centre of the earth by flying away from
it up in a balloon. But Columbus, for that was the
man's name, did not mind their laughter. He was
sure that the world was round, and that somewhere
beyond the great Atlantic Ocean there must be
land. And he was willing to face any possible dan-
ger in crossing this unexplored ocean to find this
unknown land if some one would only fit out for him
the ships which he was too poor to provide himself.

--9~I ---


It was many years before he could
get any one to do this. Those in his
own country, Italy, refused; so did
those in Portugal; and at first even
those in Spain. At last, after ten years'
constant begging, Queen Isabella of
Spain helped him in obtaining three
ships with which to make the attempt.
These ships were all sailing vessels, for
the use of steam was not at that time
known. They were called the Santa
Maria, the Pinta and the Nina, and
would be thought nowadays much too
small for a voyage across the Atlantic,
but they were fair-sized vessels for the
time, especially the Santa Maria, which
was -ninety feet long and had a deck
its entire length, an advantage which
the others did not share.
Columbus set sail from Spain, on
what was to prove the most wonder-
ful voyage ever made, with one hun-
dred and twenty men and with food
enough to last them all a year. The
men were not very anxious to go, and
some of them had to be driven on
board the ships by force. Nor is it
strange that they showed so little ea-
gerness in starting on a voyage of which
they could not know the end, and from
which the chances seemed so great that
they might never return. Like most
men, the sailors cared far more for their
own safety than they did for any pos-

I. r







men about him, who could
not be trusted but who must
be watched, with no one to
P 7 consult or to confide in or
SI to share anxiety with-who
j.1 l ..! 1 can imagine a loftier cour-
age than that now shown
by him in still holding fast
to the same firm belief-that
Island must lie to the west-

For two months and more
the little boats kept bravely
M: Jmq on their way across the
-' -ocean, and then at last, on
October 12, 1492, the pa-


sible glory they might win, and so their
fears did not lessen as time passed on
and the distance between them and "
their homes increased, and Columbus i .' .. --
had to exert all his powers, coaxing and ..-- .,
threatening by turns, to persuade them -..
to keep on. He dared not let them -
know the true distance they sailed from -
day to day, because he knew that if -
they did learn this they would insist
upon turning back. Once they did
plan to seize and throw him overboard
and then to return to Spain, but fort-
unately the plot was discovered and -
prevented. -- ,:'-
Surely, if ever a man displayed cour- -
age, and courage of the finest and rarest =_,.
kind, that man was Columbus. In spite
of the jeers and laughter that greeted 11
him he had clung steadily to his opin-
ion that the world was round and that
there was land beyond the water-and
did not that take courage? During the
weary years when he begged on foot .
from country to country for ships to
find this land, did it not take courage
to endure his voluntary poverty and,
the insults and scorn with which his
requests were refused, and to suffer -~-----
nothing to turn him from the path he
had marked out for himself ? And now,
far out at sea, many weeks' journey
from home, in daily danger from storm
and tempest, in greater danger from the COLUMBUS IN CHAINS.


tience and the facih of Columbus were rewarded by
a sight of the land he had come so far to seek.
Though it was but an island that he first saw he
was content for the time, knowing that the main
shore could not be far distant. With tears of thank-
fulness and a heart full of solemn joy he landed
with his men, and, kissing the earth, claimed the
island in the name of the King and Queen of Spain,
whose flag he carried in his hand. Supposing that
this island, which he named San Salvador (and
which is one of the Bahamas), was off the coast of
India, he called the natives, who had watched with
the greatest astonishment the Europeans approach
and land, Indians, the name which they have re-
tained to the present time, though it was known
long ago that their country was on the opposite
side of the world from India.
Before returning to Spain, Columbus visited
some of the West India islands but did not touch
the mainland. On his second voyage from Spain,
in which he had a fleet of seventeen vessels with
fifteen hundred men, he discovered the Windward
Islands and planted a colony on Hayti. It was not
until his third voyage, in 1498, that he reached the
continent, landing near the Orinoco River in South
America. Finally, on his fourth and last voyage,
he reached North'America. He still supposed that
these were the eastern shores of Asia, nor did it

become known until after his death that instead of
discovering a new passage to India he had discov-
ered what was of far greater importance, a New
Beyond his satisfaction in proving to the world
that he was right, and in adding to the world's
knowledge and future wealth, Columbus gained
nothing from his great discovery. On his return
from his first voyage he was received with great
honor. On his third voyage he returned home in
chains. His best friend, Queen Isabella, was dead,
and King Ferdinand, disappointed that the wealth
which he expected from the New World did not flow
into his treasury at once, was indifferent to him and
neglected him. Even the colony which he himself
had founded on Hayti, and whose governor it was
that had previously sent him to Spain in chains,
disowned him and would not allow him to land on
the island when he stopped there on his last voy-
age. Worn out and broken-hearted, he died in
1506, seventy years old. After his death King Fer-
dinand did him tardy justice by having a monu-
ment placed over his grave on which were these
GAVE A NEW WORLD. Two hundred years later
his body was brought from Spain and placed in the
cathedral at Havana, that it might rest in the New
World he had discovered.






COLUMBUS reached the mainland on his third
voyage in 1498, but he was not the first to do so.
When the news of his discovery became known on
his return from his first voyage it aroused great in-
terest and excitement throughout all
Europe, and other expeditions were im-
mediately sent out to make further dis-
coveries. Among these was one under
the direction of an Italian named
Americus Vespucius, who visited South
America in 1497, and another under
command of an Englishman named
John Cabot, who with his three sons
landed on Labrador a little later in the
same year. So that though the credit
and the glory of the discovery without
doubt belong to Columbus alone, others
were before him in actually reaching
both North and South America.
It would seem but just that if Colum-
bus was to receive neither riches nor
honors for his discovery that at least
his name might have been given to the
country that became known through
his untiring exertions. But even this
has been denied him, and the New
World has been called after the man
who was the first to land upon the
continent, Americus Vespucius. It is
only fair to add that Americus himself
had nothing to do with this, but that
the name was given to it by others.
Columbus, Americus and Cabot hav-
ing led Ine way, others soon followed
in theii steps. Among the first to do
so was a son of John Cabot, Sebastian
by name, who had accompanied his
father when he landed on Labrador in
1497. Sebastian made two voyages be-
sides the one with his father, during
which he explored Hudson's Bay and
followed the coast from Newfoundland
to Maryland. He was the first to suspect that
Columbus was wrong in thinking the eastern shores
of Asia had been reached; he believed, what was
soon found to be the fact, that the discovery was

that of a new continent. The voyages of the
Cabots are especially important, as they were the
chief ground for England's claim to the greater
part of North America, and were the reason why


so many more colonies from England settled there
than from any other country. For in those days it
was the custom to add any newly discovered land
to the country under whose flag the discoverer



sailed. This was done whether the natives liked
it or not; generally they did not like it, but that
made no difference to the white men, who seemed
to think that the natives had no rights to the land
although they and their fathers had owned it for
Sebastian Cabot received a very different wel-
come on his return home from that given to Co-
lumbus. The King of England gave him a pension
and every one made much of him. But this respect
does not seem to have extended beyond his life, for
history does not tell when or where he died, and
though "he gave England a continent, no one
knows his grave."
Among the wonderful stories told and believed
in Europe at this time was one of a magical foun-
tain, said to be somewhere in the New World,
though no one knew just where, the waters of
which, it was declared, would make forever young
whoever drank of them. It was in search of this
" fountain of youth that a Spaniard named Ponce
de Leon, who had been a companion of Columbus
on his second voyage, set sail not long after Cabot

9; --- -P

had made his discoveries. Though he
_-_ did not find this "elixir of life," he did
-- Tfind a land blossoming with beautiful
flowers, which, as the day on which he
landed was Easter (I512), called in
Spanish "Pascua Florida" (feast of
flowerss, he named Florida, and took
possession of in the name of the King
Y of Spain.
M IThe zeal of the early explorers for
their own country, and their desire
to add to its power and extent, some-
times caused them to do very queer
and absurd things. The yiar after
Ponce de Leon discovered "lorida,
another Spaniard, Balboa, crossed the
-X isthmus of Darien, and to his intense
surprise found there was another ocean
on the further side of it. Wading into
it up to his waist, he waved his sword
above his head and boldly proclaimed
the King of Spain the owner and
master of that vast body of water, and
swore to defend his rights to it against
all comers. Balboa gave to it the
name of the "Sea of the South," but
BALBOA DISCOVERING THE PACIFIC OCEAN. it was finally called the Pacific Ocean,


ander the mistaken belief that it was more p
ful and less stormy than the Atlantic.
Other Spaniards in the meantime explored
tral and South America, the West Indies and (
islands near the coast. Mexico was seized and
quered by Cortez and Peru by Pizarro, and
wealth added to the riches of the Spanish cr
The governor of the Spanish colony which
been founded on Cuba, Fer-
dinand de Soto, hoping to
find in Florida a country
as rich as Mexico, headed -
an expedition which land-
ed there in search of gold /
in 1539. After wandering
about for two years he
reached the Mississippi Riv- li11 .
er, but without finding the I.
gold he sought. Disap- -
pointed at his failure he i
turned homewards, but died
of fever on the way and
was buried by his follow-
ers in the waters of the
river he had discovered.
The southern part of the
continent received most at-
tention from the Spaniards,
as there was to be found
the gold which was their
great object in coming to America. This natu
led to their settlement there and to its grad
passing under their control. Sometimes this
done by fierce wars, as in the case of Peru
Mexico, and sometimes peaceably with little c
trouble from the natives. The final result was
all of Central and South America became Sp


excepting Brazil, which fell to Portugal, the only
possession of that country in the New World.
But all of the discoveries and explorations in
the early days of American history were not made
by the Spanish and English; France did her share,
and a very important share it was. As early as
1504, French fishing vessels visited the Gulf of St.
Lawrence, and two years later a rough map of the


Gulf was prepared for the use of these fishermen
by a Frenchman named Denys.
In 1524 an expedition was sent out from France
under command of Verrazzano, which explored
the coast from South Carolina to Nova Scotia, enter-
ing on the way the harbors both of New York and
Newport. Verrazzano wrote a very full description
of the Atlantic coast, the most complete of any
made at that time. It is still in existence and
sounds very strange now, but was remarkably accu-
rate for that period, when so little was known about
this country. Ten years after he made his voyage,
another Frenchman, Cartier, came here and sailed
up the St. Lawrence River (so called'from Cartier's
entering it on the day of that saint) a distance of
fifteen hundred miles. He gave the name of Mon-
treal to an Indian village he found on the banks.
of the river, and the name of New France to all of
the surrounding country. On these voyages and
discoveries of Verrazzano and Cartier was laid the
French claim to North America, as the English one
was based on those of the Cabots. For the present
these claims were of slight importance and little at-
tention was paid to them, but later on, when the:


country became settled, they clashed against each
other and finally led to war.
The other nations of Europe took no part in the
discovery or exploration of America, except Portu-
gal to a very small extent. No attempt was made
by the early voyagers to visit the interior of the
country; they devoted themselves entirely to study-

woods which they expected to take back to Europe.
None of these were found, and at first it seemed as
though the discovery would prove a barren one.
Then gold was discovered in South America, and
Spain eagerly seized it, and soon a rich stream was
flowing into her treasury that made her the wealthi-
est country in the Old World. But in what is now


ing tne coast, opening a trade with the Indians and
learning from them what they could about this New
World, especially its wealth, for it was that which
brought most of them here. In America they
hoped to find another India, and to enrich them-
selves and those who sent them with the pearls and
rubies, silks and shawls, spices, ivory and fragrant

the United States that kind of wealth was not
found in any quantity until the present century
was half gone, and her other riches were not known
or valued for a long period. There was not, there-
fore, the same inducement to hasten her settlement
that there was in South America, and so it was
deferred for many years.






WHEN we read
of the great age of
nmiany of the cities
in the Old World
I a i.ves us a strange
f..,:!ig to remem-
o i. that in the
1'. nr ed States we
ha. e buttwo towns
th ia can boast of
b'i Inr three hun-
dred years old,
Shi:hl to Rome,
y. c .r Paris, or Lon-
don, must seem
CHAMPLAIN. very young indeed.
And this feeling of
strangeness grows stronger when we further reflect
that neither of these two towns or cities was at first
American or became American (that is, belonged
to what is now the United States) for more than
two hundred and fifty years after each was founded.
Not until Columbus and Vespucius and Cabot
and all of their companions were dead, not until
their discovery was over a hundred years old was
any colony started in North America which man-
aged to live. The Spanish cities of St. Augustine in
Florida (1565) and Santa F6 in New Mexico (1582)
are the only exceptions, and they remained Spanish
until long after the Revolutionary War, and did
not become part of the United States until the
present century was out of its teens.
But it was not through want of trying that our
country was not settled sooner, for the attempt to
plant colonies was made time and time again dur-
ing these hundred years, but without success. The
French first tried about 1540 along the St. Law-
rence River, but the climate was too severe. Then
they tried (1562) in a -milder region, at Port
Royal in South Carolina., But here they grew
homesick, quarrelled among themselves, killed their
commander, and fled back to France. Two years
later they again made an attempt, choosing this
time as a site for their new home the St. John's
River in Florida. For awhile everything went
well: they got a good start and it looked as though
this colony might succeed. And perhaps it would

have done so had not the jealousy of the Spanish
governor of St. Augustine led him to attack this
French settlement and put nearly all of its inhabi-
tants, including the women and children, to death.
They were, however, soon revenged, for when the
news of this butchery reached France a private
soldier of fortune, named De Gourges, fitted out an
expedition at his own expense, which sailed secretly
to Fort Carolina (as the settlement on the St.
John's River had been called), surprised the Span-
ish garrison in charge, and hung two hundred of
them to neighboring trees.
At last, after many failures, in the early years of
the new century a French colony planted itself
(1605) in Acadia, the old name of Nova Scotia,
and shortly after (1608) Champlain, who discovered
the lake that bears his name, established another
colony at Quebec. Both of these colonies thrived
in spite of their wintry situation, and a start once
made in this region, other Frenchmen settled them-
selves along the St. Lawrence and gradually took




possession of what is now the Dominion of Canada.
By right of their settlement as well as of Cartier's
previous discovery and exploration, this became a
French province and remained so until the close of
the French and Indian War (1763), when it was
given to Great Britain, to whom it still belongs.
The English did not begin their attempts to col-
onize as early as the French, but they succeeded
more quickly when they did begin. No English
expedition of any kind, as far as is known, visited
America for eighty
years after the Cabots
had been here. Then
England's two great
sailors, Frobisher and
Drake, came-the first
in 1576 and the other
in 1579-but their ob-
ject was to explore
and not to settle. The
first attempt to plant
a colony was made in .
1583 by Sir Humphrey = ;
Gilbert, but it failed, ,
and on his way home .
Sir Humphrey lost his ., i l '
life. His half-brother,
Sir Walter Raleigh, a ,:,
favorite of Queen Eliz-
abeth, next tried, and
after first sending over
vessels to explore the
country and trade with
the Indians, he de-
spatched larger party r
in 1585 to settle on a
tract of land given
him by Elizabeth, and SIR WALTE:
which in her honor
(as she was a Virgin Queen) he called Virginia.
This party landed on Roanoke Island (now part
of North Carolina) and remained there for a
year, when it returned to England in a half-starved
and very unhappy condition. Two years later Ral-
eigh sent over another party, which also landed on
Roanoke Island. Here the first white child was
born in America. She was the granddaughter of
the governor of the colony and was named after


her birthplace, Virginia Dare. The ships which
brought these colonists over after a time sailed
back to England, intending to return shortly
with further supplies for the settlers. But one
thing and another detained them, and they did
not get back to Roanoke Island for three years.
When they did arrive the entire colony had disap-
peared and no trace of it has ever been found, so
that to this day the fate of little Virginia and of her
companions remains unknown. Sir Walter had now
had enough of Amer-
ica. Though he had
never been here him-
self, he had hoped
through the colonies
he had tried to start to
obtain a fortune out of
the land given him by
the Queen.' But in-
stead of making money
II he had lost all he had
in fitting out these un-
I lucky expeditions and
Sso he was glad to sell
the land in order to pay
his debts. It was
S bought by some Lon-
don merchants, who
V.; ,. had no wish to colo-
S.'nize, but who proposed
,.. to open a trade with
the Indians for tobac-
co and potatoes, two
things unknown in
Europe before Ameri-
ca was discovered, but
which now are to
RALEIGH. be found in almost
every town or village
throughout the world. Another unsuccessful Eng-
lish attempt to settle was made in 1602 at Buzzard's
Bay, Massachusetts, by Bartholomew Gosnold, but
his men would not remain and returned in the very
ship that brought them over. Had that succeeded,
France would not have secured the lead in coloniza-
tion as she did by her Acadian settlement in 1605. As
it is, both Spain and France had a foothold in Amer-
ica before England-but neither retained it as long.





I. Virg inia.

,.' So much for the
-- English failures in

S-. '.. Now for their suc-
S' When King James
came to the English
..- throne on the death
":'', of Queen Elizabeth,
i.he paid no attention
-to the title which she
"- had given Raleigh,
-and which Raleigh
had in turn sold to
the London mer-
S'chants, but he made
a new disposition of
the land. He di-
'vided all of North
TOBACCO PT ANT. America, from Can-
ada on the north
(owned by the French) to Florida on the south
(owned by the Spanish), into two parts, and gave
the northern half to the Plymouth Company and
the southern half to the
London Company. And
to prevent any quarrel-
ling between the two,
the King forbade either
to make any settlement
within one hundred
miles of the other.
These companies con-
sisted each of a number
of Englishmen who had
the means to send out
parties better prepared
in every way to over-
come the difficulties
which had been too
much for those who had
tried before. Mexico
and South America were
yielding a great deal of
gold at this time to TI



Spain, and these companies were formed in the
hope of obtaining gold also from North America by
means of the colonies they intended to plant here.
Both companies despatched colonists about the
same time; the Plymouth Company to Maine and
the London Company to Virginia. The former
did not prosper and were soon forced to abandon
their settlement near the mouth of the Kennebec
River, but the latter were more fortunate. Intend-
ing to land where Raleigh's men had landed, on
Roanoke Island, they were driven out of their
course by a storm into Chesapeake Bay, where they
discovered a river, which they ascended for fifty
miles, and there, in May, 1607, they made a settle-
ment, which they loyally called Jamestown, in honor
of their King, whose name they also gave to the
James River. This was the beginning of the State
of Virginia ard of the United States of America.
At the start they had a hard struggle to live.
The settlers were not of the stuff that colonists
should be made of. There were no farmers, car-
penters, or other mechanics among them; but they
were mostly bankrupt gentlemen, who had come to
America, as had so many others before them, in
search of gold with'which to repair their ruined fort-
unes. They neither knew how to labor with their




I. Virg inia.

,.' So much for the
-- English failures in

S-. '.. Now for their suc-
S' When King James
came to the English
..- throne on the death
":'', of Queen Elizabeth,
i.he paid no attention
-to the title which she
"- had given Raleigh,
-and which Raleigh
had in turn sold to
the London mer-
S'chants, but he made
a new disposition of
the land. He di-
'vided all of North
TOBACCO PT ANT. America, from Can-
ada on the north
(owned by the French) to Florida on the south
(owned by the Spanish), into two parts, and gave
the northern half to the Plymouth Company and
the southern half to the
London Company. And
to prevent any quarrel-
ling between the two,
the King forbade either
to make any settlement
within one hundred
miles of the other.
These companies con-
sisted each of a number
of Englishmen who had
the means to send out
parties better prepared
in every way to over-
come the difficulties
which had been too
much for those who had
tried before. Mexico
and South America were
yielding a great deal of
gold at this time to TI



Spain, and these companies were formed in the
hope of obtaining gold also from North America by
means of the colonies they intended to plant here.
Both companies despatched colonists about the
same time; the Plymouth Company to Maine and
the London Company to Virginia. The former
did not prosper and were soon forced to abandon
their settlement near the mouth of the Kennebec
River, but the latter were more fortunate. Intend-
ing to land where Raleigh's men had landed, on
Roanoke Island, they were driven out of their
course by a storm into Chesapeake Bay, where they
discovered a river, which they ascended for fifty
miles, and there, in May, 1607, they made a settle-
ment, which they loyally called Jamestown, in honor
of their King, whose name they also gave to the
James River. This was the beginning of the State
of Virginia ard of the United States of America.
At the start they had a hard struggle to live.
The settlers were not of the stuff that colonists
should be made of. There were no farmers, car-
penters, or other mechanics among them; but they
were mostly bankrupt gentlemen, who had come to
America, as had so many others before them, in
search of gold with'which to repair their ruined fort-
unes. They neither knew how to labor with their


hands nor were willing to do so had they known
how, and were utterly unfitted for the rough work
which always has to be done in a new country.
But they had other troubles in addition to those
caused by their own ignorance and incapacity.


They had arrived too late in the season to plant
crops for that year and had used up most of their
food on the voyage, so that hunger soon stared
them in the face. Many of them became sick, and
ll suffered greatly from the cold during their first

winter, as the miserable huts they built could not
give them sufficient shelter. Disappointed at not
finding gold, and disheartened by the many priva-
tions they had to endure, they would quickly have
deserted their newly-made home and returned to
England, had it not been for one man,
Captain John Smith, who kept up their
courage, obtained food for them from
the Indians, induced them to work,
showed them how to build log-houses,
settled their quarrels, and in general
managed their affairs for them until
they picked up heart by the arrival of
further supplies of men and provisions
from England.
John Smith is one of the most strik-
ing men in early American history.
He had led a roving life and met with
a great many strange adventures, if we
are to believe the stories he tells of
himself. He explored the country
about Jamestown, and usually was on
good terms with the Indians, though
once he narrowly escaped losing his
life at their hands. Powhatan, a chief
not friendly to the Whites, captured
S him and condemned him to death, and
Sthe sentence was about to be carried
out when Powhatan's young daughter,
SPocahontas, threw herself in front of
S, Smith and begged his life from her
Father. She afterwards married a white
man named Rolfe, and went to Eng-
land, where she died.
In time the affairs of the little set-
tlement began to brighten. A more
industrious class of emigrants joined it,
and, giving up the useless search for
gold, the colonists turned their atten-
tion to raising tobacco, which they
sent to England in exchange for cloth-
ing and whatever else was needed.
OipLt Tobacco soon became the principal
Product of the colony and was used as
money in buying and selling, and we
read that when, later on, a number of
young women were sent over for the
planters to marry, their husbands paid
a hundred pounds of tobacco apiece
for them, some indeed as much as a hundred and
fifty pounds.
By the end of the first ten years, the colony had
become strong enough to take care of itself, and
soon after obtained from the King and the Com-



pany the right to make its own laws. Accordingly,
in 1619, the first legislature, or House of Burgesses
as it was called, ever elected in America met at
Jamestown. It is a curious fact that in the very
year the colonists began to govern themselves they
began to enslave others; for it was in 1619 that the
first negroes were brought to Virginia by
a Dutch trading vessel and sold there as
The London Company retained control
of Virginia until 1624, when the King took
away its charter, and she became what was
known as a royal colony, or colony whose
governor was appointed by the crown. He
did not, however, alter the constitution
previously given her, and generally the col-
onists were allowed to manage their own
affairs. They sided with the Stuarts dur-
ing the Civil War in England, and when
Charles II. regained his throne Virginia
proudly called herself his "ancient do-
minion," and this gave her the name of
"The Old Dominion," which she still
bears. But Charles showed no more grati-
tude to the Virginians for their loyalty
to him and to his father than he showed
to English cavaliers. He gave his assent

sive navigation
laws, which for-
bade the colon-
ists from trading
with any one but
the English or
from using any
but English ves-
sels to trade in,
and twice he
made a present
of the colony to
court favorites
-though each
time he after-
wards recalled ; "
the gift.
Virginia grew POCAHONTAS.
very rapidly,
after her early troubles were over, through emi-
gration from England, and was the most popu-
lous as well as the oldest of the colonies. The
fertility of the soil, which enabled her to raise
large crops of tobacco at but little expense, made
her the richest and most prosperous colony as
well. Her territory was then far larger that it

is now. In fact, at first it included pretty much
all of our present Southern States as far south as
South Carolina, and extended westward indefi-
nitely. New colonies and (after the Revolution)
new States were carved out of it, and so its area
was gradually reduced to its present size.


There were but few cities or towns, the people
living chiefly on large plantations some distance
apart. This caused the population to be so scat-
tered that schools were not as common as in the
New England colonies, and less attention was paid
to education. The wealthy planters sent their sons
to England to be educated and had their daughters
taught in their homes. But the children of the
less wealthy for the most part remained unschooled.
Eighty-five years passed after the settlement at
Jamestown before the first college was founded-
that of William and Mary, established at Williams-
burgh in 1692-though Massachusetts had had one
then for more than fifty years.



Most of the settlers in Virginia were members of
the Church of England, and that was therefore
made the religion of the colony. Though laws
were passed excluding those who held a different
belief, there was no active religious persecution,
and in that respect Virginia appears in a more fa-
vorable light than many of the other colonies, which
not only excluded those whose faith did not agree
with the prevailing one of the community, but
which imprisoned and punished them if found with-
in the colonial territory.
The relations of the Virginians with the Indians
were most of the time pleasant and friendly, but
there were occasional difficulties. The first oc-
curred in 1622, and was caused by Indian jealousy
at the growing size and number of the plantations,
which were slowly driving the Indians back from


Indians were so thoroughly beaten that they did
not rise against the whites again. But the Mary-
land Indians sometimes made raids over the borders
of Virginia, and this led in 1676 to trouble among
the colonists themselves. Sir William Berkeley

-V t "\ er, f.
A i- -... Ii.-
__ --

1----2_ -- 4 --- -

-- --- _
' --_ ....

(From Smith's Virginia.)

the settlements. Three hundred and fifty whites
lost their lives in this war, which was not ended
until after a long and bloody contest. A second
outbreak followed twenty years later, during which
five hundred settlers were killed, but in which the


' ,t',,. ,, :' :, '
, 'i " ". -r .-



was at the time Governor of Virginia, and was a
very unpopular one. He refused either to put
down the Indians himself or to supply the settlers
with arms to do so for themselves. A young
planter, named Bacon, thereupon raised a body of
troops, overcame the Indians, and then marched
against the governor and drove him out of James-
town, which during the struggle was burnt and has
never been rebuilt. The sudden death of Bacon
ended the rebellion, but Berkeley in revenge hung
twenty-two of Bacon's followers, a measure so cruel
that it caused good-natured King Charles to say,
" The old fool has hanged more men in that naked
country than I did in all England for the murder
of my father."

r--------- .-------~----_--- ---- ; 1


2. New York.
One of his own courtiers remarked of James I.,
that "he never said a foolish thing and never did a
wise one," and certainly his forbidding the London
and Plymouth Companies from making any settle-
ment within one hundred miles of the other showed
as little wisdom as any act of his reign. For instead
of preventing quarrels between colonies, as he in-
tended, it caused quarrels. And it caused them
in this way. By placing the.English settlements so
far apart, ample room was left for some other nation
to slip in and plant colonies between them, and
colonies of different nations near together are much
more apt to quarrel than when both speak the same
language and come from the same country.
And that was exactly what did happen. The
Dutch seized this unoccupied land, settled it, and
soon began to quarrel with the English and other
-olonists who established themselves in the neigh-
borhood not long after the Dutch.
In 1609 an association of merchants in Holland,
engaged in trade with the Indies, sent Hendrik Hud-

t ---

-- J


son to discover if there was not some passage
through America which would shorten the distance
to India-the great desire of all European traders
at that time, and indeed at the presenttime. While
trying to find such a passage he entered the Hudson
River (named after him), and sailed up it to what
is now the City of Hudson, which was as far as his
little vessel, the "Half-Moon," could go; though

one of his boats ascended it still further, to the site
of the present City of Albany. When he found that
he could not reach India by that route he returned
to Holland.
The Half-Moon" was the first European ship to
visit the waters of the great river, and, in virtue of
that fact, Holland claimed all the territory lying o-

.. I, i l
1, 1 , 1 ; r , i 1


both sides of it, and gave the name of the New
Netherlands to the whole region. Hudson report-
ed the natives as friendly and willing to trade with
the whites, and Dutch merchants at once sent out
vessels to open a traffic with the Indians. Trading-
posts were soon established at various points on the
river to help this traffic, which was a very profitable
one to the Hollanders. An accident to one of the
vessels detained its crew on Manhattan Island in
1614, and this was the beginning of the settlement
of the city, which the Dutch called New Amsterdam,
but which is now known to all the world as New
York. Ten years later the entire island was bought
from the Indians for the sum of twenty-four pounds
sterling, or one hundred and twenty.dollars in our



New Amsterdam and the New .Netherlands at
first grew slowly, only poorer emigrants coming over
from Holland. But after a little this changed.
The Dutch West India Company secured control of
all of the New Netherlands from the government of
Holland, and it induced a wealthier class to come and
settle along the Hudson by granting to each a tract
of land, sixteen miles along the banks of any stream
and extending back from the stream as far as each
colonist chose. They could not take land already
occupied, and they were obliged to pay the Indians
for what they took, as the Dutch wisely wished to
preserve the friendship of the Indians. These pro-
prietors were called "Patroons," and their tracts

after Hudson's voyage. To mark these claims as
well as to aid the fur-traders, forts were built, one at
Hartford and one near Camden. The English dis-
puted the claim to Connecticut (the settlement of
which they had by this time begun) as indeed they
had previously done the claim to the New Nether-
lands, and there was almost constant trouble be-
tween the two colonies, which was not ended until
the present boundary line was agreed upon in 1650.
On the southern side of the New Netherlands, diffi-
culties also arose with some Swedes who had settled
near Wilmington, Delaware, and which resulted in
their complete conquest (1655) by the Dutch under
Peter Stuyvesant, the last and the best of the four

E -3 -

.. .. .. ., :.- - " -, "-_,
1.- -. 7 7



"Manors.' Each had the right to found a colony
of fifty persons and had absolute power over his own
manor, without regard to the colonial government.
To aid them in tilling their land, the Company
agreed to supply them with negro slaves from
For the protection of those engaged in trading
with the Indians, several forts were erected, one of
which (Fort Orange) was the origin of the capital
city of the State, Albany. The Dutch claim in-
cluded not only the present limits of New York, but
also territory north and south of it, extending from
Cape Cod to Cape Henlopen. This claim had for
its basis explorations made by Dutch seamen soon

governors (or directors) who ruled over the New
Netherlands until it passed into the possession of
the English. By their just and wise treatment of
the natives, the Dutch for the most part escaped the
Indian wars, which were such a scourge to many of
the other colonies. Only one serious disturbance .
occurred (1643), and that was brought on by the .-:
cruelty of the Dutch governor, Sir William Kieft,
who in consequence was recalled by the West India
Company, and was succeeded by Stuyvesant, who
quickly made peace with the Indians.
As the colony grew in numbers and in wealth,
many English joined the Dutch in New Amsterdam
to share in the rich trade which had been established


between the Indians on the one side and Europe
on the other. This trade was largely in furs, though
they also exported other articles, as tobacco and
tar. Furs were sometimes used as money, much in
the same way that tobacco was used in Virginia,
and we hear of a minister receiving one hundred
and fifty beaver-skins for his year's salary. Besides
the English, many other nations had representatives
there, and it was said that one could hear eighteen
different languages spoken in the streets of New
Amsterdam while it was still a Dutch town.
But next to the Dutch, the number of Englishmen

much to the disgust of old Peter Stuyvesant, who
thought them great cowards for not preferring to
fight. This was in 1664, when Charles II. was on
the English throne. He made a present of the col-
ony to his brother James, the Duke of York, and
the names both of the New Netherlands and of
New Amsterdam were changed, in honor of the
royal owner, to New York.
Holland made one attempt to regain her lost
colony (1673) and for a brief time succeeded, but
was forced the next year to give it back again to


was the largest in the place, and they in time became
very much discontented with the Dutch government.
It was too strict to please them. They wanted great-
er freedom and a voice in the management of public
affairs. Many of the Dutch citizens sympathized
with them in this feeling, for they, too, felt that they
had much less liberty than the people in the other
colonies enjoyed. When, therefore, an English fleet
appeared before New Amsterdam and demanded
its surrender, all of.the inhabitants, the Dutch as
well as the English, insisted upon giving it up,

Its new owner, the Duke of York, was more lib-
eral than the West India Company had been. He
allowed the colonists to make their own laws and
granted them a charter. This he afterwards tried
to recall when he became King, but he did not suc-
ceed. The number of English settlers soon exceed-
ed the Dutch, and Dutch customs gradually dis-
appeared, though a few have remained to the pres-
ent day; for both Santa Claus and New Year's calls
have come down to us from the Knickerbockers.
Many years passed before the Dutch language en-



t'rely ceased to be spoken, and schools could be
found in New York for a long time where English
was taught like a foreign language, only as an
The history of New York from its conquest to the
Revolution, is chiefly the history of a succession of
bad governors sent by the English kings to rule
over the colony, and in this its experience was the

3. MassacLiuse ts.

About the time that the little colony at James-
town was making its start, a body of men had gone
to Holland from England to escape the persecutions
which religious differences had brought upon them
in Great Britain. In Holland they found men who
believed as they did, and with whom they could

A, the fort; B, the church C, the windmill; D, the flag which is hoisted when vessels arrive in port; E, the prison;
F, the house of the general; G, the place of execution; H, the place of expose, or pillory.

same as that of many of the other colonies. Though
some of these rulers were worse than others, none
of them were good or fit to govern. The colony,
while large in territory, was small in population,
with few settlements excepting those scattered
along the Hudson River, and it remained among
the less important colonies until after the indepen-
dence of the country had been for some time se-
The introduction of slavery into Virginia was fol-
lowed by its introduction into all of the colonies,
though it was never as extensive in the North as in
the South. In New York it was the cause of a most
remarkable excitement in 1740, when there was a
rumor that the negroes had made a plot to kill
all the whites, and before the furore could sub-
side thirty-two negroes had been put to death and
seventy-one banished. It is no longer believed,
now, that such a plot had been formed, or that the
slaves had in any way conspired against their mas-

therefore live in peace. But after spending twelve
years in Holland, they became desirous of having a
home of their own, where their children could grow
up in English and not in Dutch ways, and which
would also serve as an asylum for others, who, like
themselves, might wish to leave England for "con-
science' sake." So they turned their eyes to the New
World, hoping there they might find a country
large enough for all, and where they could worship
God in the only way that seemed to them right.
Obtaining from the London Company permission
to settle in Southern Virginia," as the half of the
country given that Company by King James was
called, a part of their number returned from Hol-
land to England, and being joined by others from
London, set sail from Southampton in September,
1620, in the Mayflower." They had already received
the name of Pilgrims when they first went to Hol-
land, and now the name was applied to them more
seriously than ever, when they started on that great-
er and much more dangerous journey to America.


_ ~ I-I- i ,", _ -__ --,- _- _:- -

L- i

:- --- -- -' 7 -_ -
- -.

---=--. iI -' -- --:


After a weary voyage of sixty-three days they
reached Cape Cod, and though this was north of
the limits of Southern Virginia," they were so worn
out by their confinement on the ship that they de-
cided to make their settlement there, and accord-
ingly on the 21st of December, 1620, they landed at
a spot which they named New Plymouth, and the
colonization of New England was begun.
One hundred and one sailed from Southampton
on the "Mayflower." One hundred and two landed
at New Plymouth; for on the voyage a little girl had
been born, Peregrine White, who received her name
on account of the peregrinations (or wanderings)
of her parents. Her fate was not as sad as was that
of Virginia Dare, for fortunately the Plymouth Col-
ony did not disappear like the one on Roanoke
Island, but survived its many hardships, and forms
to-day a part of the great State of Massachusetts.


It was a dreary and bleak shore on which they
landed that cold winter day; but they had stout
hearts ready to face every trial for .the sake of a
home for themselves and for their children. Unlike
the Virginia settlers, it was not gold or the desire
for riches that had tempted them to cross the At-
lantic, but a love of freedom and a religious im-
pulse, and this gave them greater courage to endure
the sufferings before them. Apart from the motive
which brought them to America, they were better




fitted in other ways for the task before them than
were the earliest Virginians. They had stronger bod-
ies, they were more used to hard work and were less
afraid of it, and they better understood in advance
what colonization really meant. And so, though
the climate was more severe and the soil less fertile
at Plymouth than at Jamestown, there was more
cheerfulness and less discontent in this northern
colony than there had been in the southern one.
Before leaving the "Mayflower," the Pilgrims
chose from among their number John Carver as
their governor and agreed upon a form of govern-

the cold weather. Then they divided themselves
into nineteen families, and gradually a house was
built for each. The houses were not very large, and
the beds had to be pretty close together, but the
colonists were much more comfortable in them
than they had been on shipboard, or when they
were all crowded together in the building they first
occupied. They were made of logs and mortar
with thatched roofs, and the windows had oiled
paper in place of glass. A shed was also put up to
cover their goods, and a small hospital and a church
were built. As it was winter, of course no crops


ment which gave each one an equal voice in the
management of the affairs of the colony. This was
necessary because they had no charter from the
(ing, and because their settlement was beyond the
limits of the land granted to the London Company
(which had sent them to this country), and therefore
outside of its authority. They also organized a
body of soldiers for protection against the Indians,
should it be necessary, and appointed Miles Stan-
dish its captain.
The first thing done on landing was to erect a
building large enough to give them all shelter in

could be raised, so they supported themselves by
hunting and fishing until the season came round
when they could grow corn. Fortunately the Ind-
ians in their neighborhood were friendly, and a
treaty was made with Massasoit, their chief, which
lasted over fifty years. Though that first winter
was a hard one and half of their number (including
Governor Carver) died before it was over, the Pil-
grims did not lose heart,. and not one of them re-
turned in the "Mayflower" when she sailed back to
England the following spring. All preferred to re-
main and share the fate of the rest.




A few years after the landing of the Pilgrims, an-
other body of Englishmen came over and estab-
lished themselves (1628) at a point on the coast north
of Plymouth, which they named Salem. Others
followed them in the next year and settled at
Charlestown, and soon after Boston, Roxbury and
other places near by began their existence. These
were all under one government and formed the
Massachusetts Bay Colony. Its leading spirits were
John Winthrop, John Endicott, Sir Henry Vane
and John Cotton, who had obtained a charter from
King James before they left England, and a grant
of land from the Council of Plymouth (which had
succeeded to the rights of the Plymouth Company),
extending from three miles south of the Charles
River to three miles north of the Merrimack River.
Members of the Massachusetts Bay Colony were
known as Puritans, and, like the Pilgrims, had left
England to escape religious persecution. They
differed from the Pilgrims on some points of belief,
but in the main were men of very much the same
character-hardy, self-denying and austere. They
had greater wealth and they came over in larger num-
bers, but their sufferings and privations during
their first years in America were nearly as severe as
were those of the Plymouth settlers, notwithstand-
ing the greater comforts they had been able to pro-
vide themselves with. The two colonies maintained
a separate existence for many years after their
foundation, but their history and interests were the
same, though the Bay Colony received by far the
greater number of recruits from England, and was
always larger, stronger, and more prosperous than
Plymouth Colony. In 1691 the two were united
under the name of Massachusetts Colony; so called
from a tribe of Indians that lived close at hand-
the word Massachusetts" meaning "blue hills."
Pilgrims and Puritans both fled to this country
to obtain religious freedom, but it was freedom for
themselves and not for others that they sought.
We have seen in Virginia that the very year the
colonists began to govern themselves they began to
enslave others. So in Massachusetts, as soon as
the colonists escaped being persecuted themselves,
'they began to persecute others. In 1635 a minister
in Salem, named Roger Williams, was banished
from the colony because his opinions on religious
matters were not quite the same as those of the
others; and two years later a woman (Mrs. Hutchin-
son) was also driven into the wilderness for holding
meetings of her own sex, in which some new views
of theology were advocated. Many others fared as
badly and were forced to seek a home where best
;. they could beyond the limits of Massachusetts.

Fortunately one was soon ready for them in Rhode
Island, founded by Roger Williams when he was
expelled by the Puritans.
The Quakers (or Friends) were treated still more
harshly. Four of them were hanged and a number
of others were thrown into prison for neglecting to
obey the order to leave the colony and to keep
away from it. Such extreme measures and the pa-
tience and courage with which they were borne
soon, however, produced a reaction in public opin-
ion, which caused the persecution to cease and
allowed the Quakers to remain undisturbed.
The history of Massachusetts was stained with
yet one more persecution before religious tolera-
tion gained the day. At that time it was a com-
mon belief all over the world that there were witches


who had the power to harm man or animal, and
who could assume whatever shape they chose. In
1692 a craze broke out in Salem that there were
witches there and, before people recovered their
senses, twenty persons had been put to death who
were innocent of any offence.
But if there was less religious freedom in Massa-
chusetts in its earlier days than there was at the
same period in Virginia, there was a greater interest
in education. In all of the New England settle-
ments, as soon as the houses and churches were
built, schools were started and, before the Massa-
chusetts Bay- Colony was ten years old, Harvard
College was founded at what was then Newtown,
but is now Cambridge. It received its name from
John Harvard, who gave to it his library of books and



England, and for
,,,, ,," '''' ....three years M assa-
-.chusetts suffered un-
der his tyranny
(1686-i689), until the
English Revolution
gave the colonists an
opportunity to rid
themselves of An-
dros by sending him

ain. When the two
colonies of Plymouth
and Massachusetts
Bay were united by
William and Mary in
1691, a new charter
was granted in place
of the one recalled
by James. This did
not restore to the
S 'people the privilege
-I I :r ~I of choosing their
.own governor; that
was reserved for the
give religious free-
about four thousand
dollars in money. -A
Harvard University
(as it is now named)
is thus not only the
largest and richest
college in America
but is also the oldest. Q ,-
Both in Plymouth .
Colony and in Mas- '
sachusetts Bay Col-
ony the governors
were elected by the
people (church-
members only voting
in the latter) until
James II. ascended
the English throne.
He took away this
right and declared
that all charters pre-
viously granted to
the colonies were for-
feited. Sir Edmund
Andros was appoint-
ed by him governor


dom to all excepting Roman Catholics, and it ex-
tended the limits of the colony so as to include
Maine and Nova Scotia. The former remained part
of Massachusetts from this time until its admission
as a separate State into the Union, in 1820. The
latter was lost during the Revolutionary War.

4. Connecticdt.

Connecticut, like Massachusetts, had at first two
separate colonies within its borders, the govern-
ment of each being entirely distinct from the other.
There was indeed also
a third settlement, but
as that was small and
was soon united with
one of the others, it
scarcely need be
spoken of as an inde-
.pendent colony.
The first of the three
was settled by colo-
nists from Massachu-
setts who, in 1635 and
1636, forced their way
through the wilderness
and established them-
selves at Windsor,
Hartford and Wethers-
field, taking the name
of the Colony of Con-
necticut, which in the
Indian tongue means
"long river." Trouble
soon arose between
them and the Dutch
in the New Nether-
lands, who had previ-
ously (1633) built a fort
just below Hartford,
and who claimed a
right to all of the land
as far as Cape Cod,
through explorations made by their trading vessels
about the time New Amsterdam was founded.
Though it caused ill-feeling and was a serious an-
noyance to each side, this trouble fortunately did
not lead to any actual war, and it was finally settled
(1650) by a treaty which placed the boundaries very
much as they exist between the two States to-day.
These Connecticut colonists from Massachusetts
who were so emphatic in their denial of the Dutch
claim to the land they had taken possession of,
had really no right to it themselves, as they had ob-

trained no grant from the Council of Plymouth. In
fact the Council of Plymouth no longer owned it,
as it had previously disposed of it to the Earl of
Warwick, who in turn had transferred it to Lords
Say and Brook. The latter, however, made little
use of it, only one small settlement being started
by them, which, from their two names, was called
Saybrook. It was at the mouth of the Connecticut
River, and at first was only a fort, built to prevent
the Dutch from gaining control of the river. It
was the least important of the'three independent
settlements already referred to, and afterwards
(1644) became part of
the Colony of Connect-
Saybrook, Windsor
and Hartford were
founded about the
i t same time, and New
SHaven was not long in
Following, but, unlike
the others, it was set-
Stied (1638) by colonists
who came to it directly
from England and not
fro m Massachusetts.
They bought their land
from the Indians and
adopted the Bible as
the only law of the col-
ony, limiting the rights
to vote for governor
and other officers, as.
Massachusetts Bay had
done, to church mem-
bers (Puritans). This
was in contrast to the
Colony of Connecticut,
which gave the privi-
lege of voting to all
residents of good char-
acter. As a conse-
quence of this greater
liberality, the latter colony grew more rapidly than
New Haven, as new settlers who were not Puritans.
preferred to be under a government in which they
had a voice in the management of affairs.
Neither colony obtained a charter until after the
Restoration in England, when Gov. Winthrop, of the
Colony of Connecticut, obtained one from Charles
II. (1662), covering the territory of both and provid-
ing for their union. New Haven was not very will-
ing to give up her independence, but finally con-
sented, and in 1665 the two colonies became one-



under the name of Connecticut. The charter was a
liberal one, allowing the people to make their own
laws as well as to choose their own governor and to
elect their own assembly, and it was so well liked by
the people that they kept it in force for more than
forty years after the Declaration of Independence was
adopted. James II. attempted to revoke it, as he
revoked those of Massachusetts and the other colo-
nies when he tried to unite all New England into one
province with Sir Edmund Andros as its governor.
Andros went to Hartford in 1687 and demanded that

tree became known as the Charter Oak, and was
justly the pride of Hartford, until it was blown down
by a storm in 1856.
When the two colonies were united, New Haven
(city) and Hartford were both made capitals of Con-
necticut, the governor living part of the time in
one place and part of the time in the other, and
this was continued after the Colony became a State;
but since 1873 Hartford has been the only capital.
In 1701 Yale College was founded by the Assem-
bly of Connecticut, at Saybrook, as a school for



the charter be given up to him. The people ob-
jected. He insisted; a discussion followed, during
which the lights (it was in the evening) were sudden-
ly put out and in the confusion and darkness the
charter mysteriously disappeared and could not be
found when the lights were restored, so that Andros
was compelled to go back without it. When James
left the throne and the colonists felt safe once more
under William and Mary the charter was brought
from its hiding-place, a hollow oak tree, near at hand,
where it had lain concealed for two years. This

training young men to the ministry, and a few
years later (1717) it was removed to New Haven,
when it took its present name from Elihu Yale, the
governor of the colony and a warm friend of the
college. Yale was thus the third of the higher in-
stitutions of learning to be established in the
country, and is next to the oldest of those still in
existence, its only senior being Harvard. Next in
age came the College-of New Jersey (1746), the
University of Pennsylvania (1749), and Columbia,
formerly King's College (New York City, 1754).


5. Rhlode Island.
It was in the depth of winter when Roger Will-
iams, banished from his church in Salem, left the
Colony of Massachusetts to find a home where there
should be perfect religious freedom for all, whatever
their belief might be. Ignorant of the way and with-
out a guide, he wandered in the pathless woods for
fourteen weeks before he found a shelter or a ref-
uge, and when he did find it, it was among a tribe
of Indians called the Narragansetts. They werevery
kind to him and gave him a tract of land, which,
in remembrance of "God's merciful providence to
him in his distress," he named Providence (1636).
Others joined him there, and in the following year a
settlement was also made on the Island of Rhodes,
which was bought from the Indians for the purpose,
and the name of which was afterwards changed to
Rhode Island (or "red island," from the Dutch).
Though these two colonies were entirely separate
from each other, each having its own government,
they served alike as a home for all who had been
persecuted elsewhere, and it was said that any one
who had lost his religion would find it in Rhode
In 1644 a charter was obtained from the English
Parliament uniting the two colonies under the
name of "Rhode Island and Providence Planta-
tions," which is still their legal name to-day. New-
port (at the southern end of the Island of Rhodes)
and Providence were both made capitals of the
c alony and are now of the State. On the accession
cf Charles II. a new charter was granted, confirming
the colonists in all their liberties and giving them



kff/y V

ample powers of self-government. This charter
was suspended while Andros was governor of New
England (1686-1689), but afterwards resumed its
force and continued to be the basis of law until
There is little of interest or importance in the
early history of Rhode Island. The Indians gave
her scarcely any trouble, and her principal difficul-
ties were with Massachusetts, who, on account of
her religious toleration, tried
to prevent all trading and
other communications be-
tween the two colonies.
When Roger Williams went
to England to obtain a char-
ter Massachusetts would not
allow him to sail from Boston,
so that he was obliged to
start from New Amsterdam.
She also had disputes about
her boundaries with both
Massachusetts and Connecti-
cut, who between them
claimed pretty much all her
territory, excepting the isl-
ands in Narragansett Bay,
but she was firm and insisted
Supon her rights, and the mat-
ter was as last settled in 1741,



giving her the land she claimed and which she now
None of the other colonies had laws as gentle or
liberal as Rhode Island or granted as much freedom
to their inhabitants. Indeed they were so afraid of
tyranny that when Williams refused to be their gov-
ernor, they went without one for forty years to
avoid the danger of choosing one who might prove
a tyrant.

it grew very slowly and from its exposed position
suffered a great deal from Indian attacks, its inhab-
itants seemed to thrive, and at the outbreak of the
Revolution it was a strong and resolute colony.
During much of its early history the settlers were
engaged in disputes with Mason's heirs, who, though
they had a legal right to the land, found it impos-
sible to gain possession of it and were at length com-
pelled to give up their attempts to drive the settlers


6. New Hampshire.
Religion had nothing to do with the settlement
of New Hampshire, as it had with the other New
England colonies. Fishing was the attraction which
led to the starting in 1623 of little villages at Dover
and Portsmouth, which for fifty or sixty years re-
mained very small, being scarcely anything more
than mere fishing stations. It received its name
from the English county (Hampshire) in which lived
John Mason, to whom the Council of Plymouth had
granted the land in 1622.
Its history is closely connected with that of Massa-
chusetts, to which it was three times formally united
and from which it was as many times separated.
It was also once made part of New York. Though

off and were forced to allow them to remain on it in
7. Maryland.
As Massachusetts was settled by persecuted Pil-
grims and Puritans, so Maryland was settled by
persecuted Roman Catholics, whose sufferings, for
their religion in England were even greater than
those of the Pilgrims and Puritans.
At first they attempted to found a colony in New-
foundland, but climate and soil were both against
them and the attempt had to be abandoned. Next
they planned to join the settlement in Virginia,
but the sentiment there was too strongly opposed
to Roman Catholics to permit of it. So a tract of
land north of the Potomac was obtained for them



giving her the land she claimed and which she now
None of the other colonies had laws as gentle or
liberal as Rhode Island or granted as much freedom
to their inhabitants. Indeed they were so afraid of
tyranny that when Williams refused to be their gov-
ernor, they went without one for forty years to
avoid the danger of choosing one who might prove
a tyrant.

it grew very slowly and from its exposed position
suffered a great deal from Indian attacks, its inhab-
itants seemed to thrive, and at the outbreak of the
Revolution it was a strong and resolute colony.
During much of its early history the settlers were
engaged in disputes with Mason's heirs, who, though
they had a legal right to the land, found it impos-
sible to gain possession of it and were at length com-
pelled to give up their attempts to drive the settlers


6. New Hampshire.
Religion had nothing to do with the settlement
of New Hampshire, as it had with the other New
England colonies. Fishing was the attraction which
led to the starting in 1623 of little villages at Dover
and Portsmouth, which for fifty or sixty years re-
mained very small, being scarcely anything more
than mere fishing stations. It received its name
from the English county (Hampshire) in which lived
John Mason, to whom the Council of Plymouth had
granted the land in 1622.
Its history is closely connected with that of Massa-
chusetts, to which it was three times formally united
and from which it was as many times separated.
It was also once made part of New York. Though

off and were forced to allow them to remain on it in
7. Maryland.
As Massachusetts was settled by persecuted Pil-
grims and Puritans, so Maryland was settled by
persecuted Roman Catholics, whose sufferings, for
their religion in England were even greater than
those of the Pilgrims and Puritans.
At first they attempted to found a colony in New-
foundland, but climate and soil were both against
them and the attempt had to be abandoned. Next
they planned to join the settlement in Virginia,
but the sentiment there was too strongly opposed
to Roman Catholics to permit of it. So a tract of
land north of the Potomac was obtained for them



from Charles I. and in honor of his wife (Henrietta
Maria) was named Maryland.
This land was actually given to Lord Baltimore
(Sir George Calvert), a prominent Catholic and
formerly a member of the London Company. He
had greatly interested himself in finding a home
for his fellow-Catholics in America, had started the
Newfoundland colony and had endeavored to ob-
tain their admittance to Virginia. Before the patent
(or title-deed) was signed by the King, Calvert died,
and the name of his son, Cecil Calvert, who by his
father's death had become Lord Baltimore, was
thereupon inserted in the deed in place of his
father's. This patent gave Maryland to Lord Balti-
more and to his descendents forever, and they did
remain its proprietors until the Revolution.
The first settlement in Maryland was made near
the mouth of the Potomac in 1634, and was called
St. Mary's. Annapolis, now the capital of the State
and the place where the United States Naval Acad-
emy is situated, was founded in 1683, and Baltimore
in 1729. Virginia was very jealous of the new colony
and made her all the trouble she could. The tract
given Calvert had been part of her own territory
and had been taken away by Charles without her
consent or knowledge just as she was about coloniz-
ing it. But though her opposition created difficul-
ties and even caused some bloodshed, Lord Balti-
more retained his rights and the colony prospered.
Though founded for and by Roman Catholics,
Maryland gladly welcomed all Christians by what-
ever name they called themselves to her settle-
ments. In this respect she was more liberal than
any of the other early colonies, excepting only
Rhode Island, who did not limit her welcome to
Christians, but who received Jew and sceptic as
freely as Baptist or Churchman. Maryland was
equally liberal in political matters, giving every
settler an equal vote in making laws for the colony.
This liberality the Catholics afterwards had reason
to regret, for it caused so many Protestants who
had been persecuted elsewhere to take refuge in
Maryland that in time they outnumbered the Catho-
lics and then ungratefully deprived the latter of the
right to vote in the very colony founded especially
for them.
Maryland had no trouble with the Indians, and,
excepting the early difficulties with Virginia, lived
at peace with all the world. When Pennsylvania
was colonized a difference of opinion arose between
her and Maryland regarding the boundary line
between the two colonies, which was not settled till
the year in which the French and Indian war was
ended (1763). The division line then agreed upon

was called, from the names of the two surveyors
who ran it, "Mason and Dixon's line," and served


not only to separate Pennsylvania and Maryland
but for a hundred years marked in popular speech
the boundary between the free and the slave States.

8. New Jersey.
New Jersey had been part of the New Nether-
lands, and, on the surrender of the latter to the
English in 1664, passed with the other possessions
of the Dutch into the ownership of the Duke of
York, who sold it the same year to Lord Berkeley
and Sir George Carteret. The latter gave it its
name from the Island of Jersey, in the English
Channel, of which he had once been governor.
Though the Swedes and Dutch had begun some
small settlements there soon after New Amsterdam
was founded, they were of little account, and the
real colonization of New Jersey may be said to
have started with Elizabeth, settled in 1664 by
Puritans from Long Island. Connecticut emigrants
settled Newark in 1666, and the Quakers Burling-
ton in 1677. In 1676 Berkeley and Carteret divided
the tract between them, East Jersey falling to the
latter and West Jersey to the former. Gradually



the Quakers bought up most of the land, and with
some Scottish Presbyterians became the principal
settlers. There was perfect liberty of conscience
throughout the colony, which in this respect resem-
bled Rhode Island and Maryland. It passed out
of the possession of the proprietors in 1702 and
became a royal colony. For a time it was made
part of New York, though with a separate assembly,
but in 1738 it became an independent colony and
remained one until the Revolution made it a State.
Though the people in New Jersey at no time in
its colonial history were allowed to choose their
own governors, they were permitted to make their
own laws and they received from Berkeley and
Carteret many privileges which really amounted to
a charter, though they were not one in name. Un-
der royal governors the colony did not fare so well,
still it prospered, and the liberal laws attracted
many settlers from New York and other colonies
who added to its wealth. The large manufactories
for which New Jersey is now famed were at that
time unknown, and most of the community then
were farmers.
In 1746 the College of New Jersey was founded
at Elizabeth, but was removed in 1757 to Princeton.
It was the fourth American college to be established,
following Yale and preceding the University of

9. Pennsylvania.
Like so many of the other colonies, Pennsylvania
was founded as a refuge for those who had been


persecuted for their religion in England, only this
time it was neither Pilgrims nor Puritans, Baptists
nor Roman Catholics who sought a home in the
New World, but Quakers or members of the Society
of Friends.
Their leader was William Penn. He was one of
the most eminent Quakers in England, and was the
son of a distinguished admiral in the British Navy,
who had loaned a large sum of money to Charles II.
to aid him in regaining his father's throne. Penn
proposed to the King that in payment of this debt
he should be given some land in America. This
Charles was very willing to do, and in 1681 granted
him the tract which now forms the State of Penn-
sylvania, a Latin word meaning Penn's Woods."
Penn came over with a large body of settlers in
1682, and his first act was to buy the land needed
for his colony from the Indians and to make a
friendly treaty with them, which he took care
should not afterwards be broken by the whites.
His treatment of them was so just and so kind that
the Indians always were on the best of terms with
the Quakers, and would trust any one wearing their
dress. The year after his arrival (1683) Penn laid
out Philadelphia (" the city of brotherly love "),
which soon became the largest city in this country
and remained the largest until New York gained
the lead in 1820.




In addition to the land obtained from King
Charles, Penn bought (1682) from the Duke of York
what is now the State of Delaware and which had
been, like New Jersey, part of the New Netherlands.
Settlements had already been made there and in
some parts of Pennsylvania proper by the Swedes
and Dutch as early as 1635, and by some English
a little later. Penn did not disturb these settlers
in their possessions; he even paid them for land
occupied by them, which he desired as a site for
Though the colony was intended as an asylum
for Quakers, others were received into it as freely

the attempts of the latter to again become King of
England. But it was soon restored to him and
remained in the possession of his family for nearly
a hundred years, until in 1779 their rights were
bought by the State for six hundred and fifty thou-
sand dollars.
ro. Delaware.
Delaware was first settled by the Swedes near
the present city of Wilmington in 1638, and the
name of New Sweden was given by them to the
surrounding country, which they bought from the
Indians. The Dutch considered it a part of the

r. ........- ? ----'|

- -=-- ---- --


as were the Friends, and no one believing in
Almighty God was excluded or questioned further
as to his faith. The governor was appointed by
Penn, but the people elected the law-makers and
chose most of their other officers. So excellent
was the form of government adopted at the start,
that scarcely any change was made in it until the
colony became an independent State at the out-
break of the Revolution in 1776.
In 1692 Pennsylvania was for a short time taken
away from Penn by William and Mary, because he
was suspected of sympathizing with James II. in

New Netherlands, and in 1655 compelled the Swedes
to submit to their authority. When King Charles
seized all the Dutch possessions in 1664 and gave
them to his brother, the Duke of York, the latter
soon sold (1682) Delaware to William Penn. From
that time until the Revolution it formed part of
Pennsylvania, though after 1703 it had a separate
assembly, but not a separate governor. During its
colonial history, it was known as "the Territories "
or "the three lower counties on the Delaware," so
called from the river on which they were situated and
which took its name from Lord Delaware. When



the colonies separated from Great Britain in 1776
it organized a government independent of Penn-
sylvania and so became one of the thirteen original
Under the rule of Penn and of his descendants it
shared the mild, liberal government of the people
of Pennsylvania. The occupation (farming) of the
inhabitants of the two colonies was the same, and
their history was uneventful but prosperous.

planted in 1664 by emigrants from Virginia on the
Chowan River and named Albemarle, and the fol-
lowing year another settlement was established near
Wilmington and called the Clarendon County col-
ony. Both of these names were those of prominent
proprietors of the grant.
The form of government adopted for Carolina
was a peculiar one and unlike that of any of the
other colonies. It was drawn up for the proprietors


iI. North Carolina.

A hundred years passed after the failure of the
French to settle at Port Royal before another at-
tempt was make to colonize that part of our country.
Then the English tried and succeeded.
In 1663 the territory now included in both Caro-
linas, Georgia and the northern half of Florida was
given by the English sovereign to eight proprietors
who retained the name of Carolina previously given
it by the French as it honored their present King,
Charles II., as much as it had the former French one,
Charles IX. (The Latin word for Charles is Caro-
lus; hence, "Carolina.")
Under these eight joint-owners a colony was

by the celebrated English philosopher, John Locke,
and created a nobility of various degrees of rank
(called barons, landgraves and caziques), who were
to possess all the authority, leaving the people with-
out any share in the government. This the settlers
naturally did not like, so that the scheme, after a
trial of twenty years, had to be abandoned.
Besides the colonies in Albemarle and Clarendon
counties, other settlements were made, chiefly in
the southern part of the grant. For a considerable
time these were all under one government, but the
distance between the northern and southern settle-
ments was so great that it was finally thought best
to separate them into two counties of the same
province-North and South Carolina. Though


these had different governors, they were still both
under control of the same proprietors and were
properly regarded as one colony until 1729, when a
final separation was made and they became inde-
pendent of each other. They then became royal
colonies, the proprietors giving back the territory to
the King on account of their inability to collect
their rents from the settlers.
In none of the colonies was the population so


scattered as in North
Carolina, and few of
them were so poor.
But though it grew
oowvly it grew surely and soon became firmly estab-
lished, and the people showed great independence
and liberality. No religious persecution was allowed,
and the attempt to adopt the Church of England as
a state (or colonial) church was defeated in North
Carolina while it succeeded in South Carolina. The
governors sent from England to rule over North
Carolina were among the worst that any of the colo-
nies were afflicted with, and its colonial history con-
sists almost entirely of a series of conflicts on the
part of the people to defend their rights against the
tyranny of the King's representatives.

12. South Carolina.
The first settlement in what is now South Caro-
lina was made in 1670 on the Ashley River and be-
came afterwards known as Old Charleston. Ten

rrru ILII~~~I~CS


.V ,L V I -L.3 31

years later the settlement was removed to where
the Cooper River unites with the Ashley and the
foundations laid of the present city of Charleston.
The colonists who in 1665 had settled in Clarendon
County (North Carolina), but who had not prospered
there, removed in a body to this new settlement,
which also received a number of Huguenots (French
Protestants), as well as some Dutch from New York
who were discontented with the changes which
followed its transfer to the
S-English. Other settle-
ments sprang up in South
Carolina in addition to
the one about Charleston,
f but that for a long time
was the only town of any
importance in the colony.
Farming and hunting
and the extraction of tar
and turpentine from trees
were the principal occupa-
tions of the North Caro-
linians. In South Caro-
lina the production of rice
wVas at first the great in-
dustry of its people, and
iike furs in New York and
tobacco in Maryland and
w- u Virginia, rice in South
HE DELAWARE RI Carolina was used in place
HE DELAWARE R of money. Later on, the
cultivation of indigo was
introduced and became even more important than
rice. The raising and export to England of these
two articles made South Carolina one of the richest
of the thirteen colonies. Cotton, which afterwards
became king" throughout the South, was raised
very little before the Revolutionary War, as there
was no machinery then for cleaning it or separating
the seeds from the fibre.
Until Georgit was settled South Carolina was
exposed on her southern side to attacks from the
Spaniards in Florida, and between 1702 and 1706
there was warfare between the settlements of the
two different nations, during which St. Augustine
was captured, but it did not remain long in the
English hands, the Spaniards soon retaking it.
SoVth Carolina also had trouble with Indian allies
of Florida, but with the aid of Virginia and Mary-
land she defeated them and finally broke their power
so that they left her in peace.
Though the people of South Carolina in 1706
made the Church of England the religion of the
colony, there was no persecution of those of a differ-


ent belief. There was the same opposition in South
Carolina on the part of the settlers to the payment
of rents to the proprietors that there was in North
Carolina, and it was this which caused the two Caro-
linas to be given back by their joint-owners to the
King in 1729, and to their becoming from that time
until 1776 separate royal colonies.

13. Georgia.
Georgia, the last of the thirteen colonies to be
settled, had been part of the tract given to the
proprietors of Carolina, and which they gave back
to the English crown in 1729. No attempt to col-
onize it was made during the ownership of the
proprietors, nor did South Carolina, after she be-
came a separate royal colony, look upon it as a
very valuable part of her territory. She was there-
fore quite willing to part with it when George II.
in 1732 granted this land to James Oglethorpe and
others as a home for poor people.
Oglethorpe was an officer in the English army who
had become very much interested in the miserable
state of the English poor, and who had devoted his
life to doing whatever was in his power to raise
their condition. Among his plans was founding a
colony for them in America, where he thought they
might succeed better than they had done in Eng-
land. So he obtained a grant of this land from the
King, and secured from Parliament a sum of money
with which to start the enterprise.
The new colony was named Georgia in honor of

King George, and the first settlement in it was made
at Savannah in 1733 under the personal direction
of Oglethorpe himself. Like the earliest Virginia
settlers, the Savannah colonists were poor material
for pioneers, comprising chiefly London tradesmen,
who had failed in the effort to make a living in the
Old World, and who were in every way unsuited to
the task before them in the New World. A better
class afterwards joined them, who somewhat im-
proved and strengthened the colony, but it grew
very slowly and remained the weakest, if not the
poorest of the original colonies.
The government at first was placed by the Ki-ng
in the hands of twenty-one trustees, whose power
was to last twenty-one years, but before that time
expired, they gave back their authority to the King
(1752), and Georgia, like most of the others, became
a royal colony.
Oglethorpe followed Penn's policy in paying the
Indians for the land used by his colonists, and this
secured him the friendship of the Indians, who
therefore gave the Georgia settlers very little trouble.
Their nearness to Florida, however, often brought
them into conflict with the Spaniards settled there,
and for many years the two nations were almost at
constant war# neither side gaining much advantage
over the other.
After spending ten years in Georgia, Oglethorpe
returned to England, where he lived long enough
to see the independence of the colony he had es-
tablished acknowledged by Great Britain.



BETWEEN the beginning of the settlement of the
country at Jamestown in 1607 and the outbreak of
the Revolutionary War in 1776 the number of white
people in America had increased from one hundred
to two and a half millions. By far the largest
part of these were English, but by no means all.
For besides the Dutch in New York, the Swedes in
Delaware and in New Jersey, the French Huguenots
in South Carolina, who have already been spoken
of, there were scattered throughout the thirteen
colonies many Germans, Scotch, Irish and people
from other European countries, who, like the Eng-
lish, had come here to secure for themselves and
for their children, greater freedom and better homes
than they could have any hope of ever obtaining in
crowded Europe.

The discomforts and sufferings of those wno first
came were very great. Only a few could afford to
build any but the plainest and cheapest houses.
Most of them had to be content with log-cabins,
without floors. Many had only bark huts, like the
wigwams made by the Indians, and some had to
live in holes dug in the ground. Their furniture
was of the simplest kind, benches, stools, tables and
bedsteads being all home-made; for the number of
colonists who were able to bring these things with
them across the ocean was very small. Carpets
were unknown and their place supplied with sand
sprinkled upon the floor.
At first the settlements were all scattered along
the coast, and were quite a distance apart. There
were no roads between them, only bridle-paths and



ent belief. There was the same opposition in South
Carolina on the part of the settlers to the payment
of rents to the proprietors that there was in North
Carolina, and it was this which caused the two Caro-
linas to be given back by their joint-owners to the
King in 1729, and to their becoming from that time
until 1776 separate royal colonies.

13. Georgia.
Georgia, the last of the thirteen colonies to be
settled, had been part of the tract given to the
proprietors of Carolina, and which they gave back
to the English crown in 1729. No attempt to col-
onize it was made during the ownership of the
proprietors, nor did South Carolina, after she be-
came a separate royal colony, look upon it as a
very valuable part of her territory. She was there-
fore quite willing to part with it when George II.
in 1732 granted this land to James Oglethorpe and
others as a home for poor people.
Oglethorpe was an officer in the English army who
had become very much interested in the miserable
state of the English poor, and who had devoted his
life to doing whatever was in his power to raise
their condition. Among his plans was founding a
colony for them in America, where he thought they
might succeed better than they had done in Eng-
land. So he obtained a grant of this land from the
King, and secured from Parliament a sum of money
with which to start the enterprise.
The new colony was named Georgia in honor of

King George, and the first settlement in it was made
at Savannah in 1733 under the personal direction
of Oglethorpe himself. Like the earliest Virginia
settlers, the Savannah colonists were poor material
for pioneers, comprising chiefly London tradesmen,
who had failed in the effort to make a living in the
Old World, and who were in every way unsuited to
the task before them in the New World. A better
class afterwards joined them, who somewhat im-
proved and strengthened the colony, but it grew
very slowly and remained the weakest, if not the
poorest of the original colonies.
The government at first was placed by the Ki-ng
in the hands of twenty-one trustees, whose power
was to last twenty-one years, but before that time
expired, they gave back their authority to the King
(1752), and Georgia, like most of the others, became
a royal colony.
Oglethorpe followed Penn's policy in paying the
Indians for the land used by his colonists, and this
secured him the friendship of the Indians, who
therefore gave the Georgia settlers very little trouble.
Their nearness to Florida, however, often brought
them into conflict with the Spaniards settled there,
and for many years the two nations were almost at
constant war# neither side gaining much advantage
over the other.
After spending ten years in Georgia, Oglethorpe
returned to England, where he lived long enough
to see the independence of the colony he had es-
tablished acknowledged by Great Britain.



BETWEEN the beginning of the settlement of the
country at Jamestown in 1607 and the outbreak of
the Revolutionary War in 1776 the number of white
people in America had increased from one hundred
to two and a half millions. By far the largest
part of these were English, but by no means all.
For besides the Dutch in New York, the Swedes in
Delaware and in New Jersey, the French Huguenots
in South Carolina, who have already been spoken
of, there were scattered throughout the thirteen
colonies many Germans, Scotch, Irish and people
from other European countries, who, like the Eng-
lish, had come here to secure for themselves and
for their children, greater freedom and better homes
than they could have any hope of ever obtaining in
crowded Europe.

The discomforts and sufferings of those wno first
came were very great. Only a few could afford to
build any but the plainest and cheapest houses.
Most of them had to be content with log-cabins,
without floors. Many had only bark huts, like the
wigwams made by the Indians, and some had to
live in holes dug in the ground. Their furniture
was of the simplest kind, benches, stools, tables and
bedsteads being all home-made; for the number of
colonists who were able to bring these things with
them across the ocean was very small. Carpets
were unknown and their place supplied with sand
sprinkled upon the floor.
At first the settlements were all scattered along
the coast, and were quite a distance apart. There
were no roads between them, only bridle-paths and



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Indian trails, and travelling from one to another
was extremely difficult and dangerous. Journeys
which we can now make in a few hours then took
days and even weeks, and it was easier and safer to
cross the ocean from America to England than to
travel from New York to Boston.
All of this, however, gradually improved. As the
settlements increased in number and in size, the
distance between them grew smaller. Roads were
made and bridges built, so that regular intercourse
could be held between towns and villages and
between the different colonies. And by the time
the war of independence began, it was .possible to
journey through the entire range of settlements
with some degree of comfort, if not with any great
degree of speed.
With the growth in population and lapse of time,
tne wealth of the colonists also increased. They
were able to build better houses than they first
occupied; to give up the clothes made of leather
which they first wore, for garments of cloth; and
to surround themselves with many comforts and
luxuries which at first they had been compelled to
do without.
Though the colonists were still dependent upon
England for the supply of many articles needed by
them, and which could not be obtained in America,
they amply paid for whatever they received with
the tobacco, rice, indigo, furs and other valuable
products raised by them. They became not only
able to support themselves, to accumulate wealth
and to pay the expenses of their town and colonial
governments, but were also able to give money and
ships to the King of England to aid him in carrying
on his wars. All the colonies were not equally
prosperous, nor were all the settlers in each colony
equally well off, but they were on the whole all
improving and constantly bettering their condition.
Much of their wealth came from the labor of slaves,
who, before the Revolution began, were to be found
in all of the colonies.
During a considerable part of the one hundred
and seventy years of colonial history, the whites
and Indians were on terms of friendship. Some of
the colonies, as Georgia, New Jersey and Pennsyl-
vania, by their just and kind treatment of the
natives, remained at peace with them throughout
all this time. Others were less wise or less fortu-
nate and suffered cruelly at their hands. The early
settlers in these colonies did not dare to attend
church unarmed. They carried their weapons to
the cornfield and kept them within reach when
they went to bed at night. Block-houses were built
large enough to contain all the people in the settle-

ment, to be used in case of an Indian rising, and
sometimes an entire village would be enclosed with
a stockade or wall, to shut out the common enemy.
The fault in these disturbances was sometimes on
one side and sometimes on the other, but it was
oftener with the whites than with the Indians. The
earliest explorers and colonists found the natives
peaceable, generous and friendly, but when they
were ill-treated or thought themselves wrongly used,
they became revengeful and horribly cruel. And
many of the whites did ill-treat them. They seemed
to think the Indians had no right to the land they
were occupying when the whites came, or to their
other property, and they did not scruple to seize
whatever they wished. In revenge the Indians
would kill the first colonists they met, whether they
were the wrong-doers or not, and this would bring
on a general Indian outbreak. The wise foresight
of Penn, Oglethorpe and the founders of some of
the other colonies, in strictly insisting at the outset
that neither land nor anything else must be taken
from the Indians without their consent or without
full payment, saved their settlements from much
suffering, which other colonies brought on them-
selves by showing less care for the rights of their
Indian neighbors. Humanity and honesty proved
the best policy with the Indians, as they have with
other people.
Few of the Indian outbreaks deserve the name of
wars or need to be even mentioned. They were
usually very brief, and only a single village or. a
single colony would be concerned in them. Vir-
ginia, New York, Georgia and most of the other
colonies suffered more or less from such risings,
and there are few towns or cities in the United
States, two hundred years old, whose history does
not contain some account of Indian troubles.
Of the really serious difficulties with the Indians,
by far the most important was the long series of
wars in which the French settlers in Canada as well
as the Indians were opposed to the English col-
onists. But before coming to this there were two
purely Indian wars which require some mention:
the Pequot War and King Philip's War.
The Pequots were a race of Indians living on
the shores of Long Island Sound east of the Con-
necticut River. They had had some disagreement
with Massachusetts, and to revenge themselves at-
tacked and killed a number of Connecticut settlers.
Connecticut, aided by Massachusetts, sent a body
of soldiers against them, who, though at first un-
successful, by the end of the year (1637) entirely
destroyed the tribe, killing nearly nine hundred of
their number in battle. Had it not been for the



influence of Roger Williams in dissuading the Nar-
ragansetts from joining the Pequots, the result of the
war might not have been so favorable to the whites.
In King Philip's War all of the New England colo-
nies were concerned. It was brought about by a
younger son of Massasoit, who had made the treaty
with the Plymouth Pilgrims when they first landed,
and who faithfully kept it during his long life. But
he died in 1659, and his son (named by the whites
King Philip), who then became chief of the Wam-

former was found drowned. Thereupon the colo-
nists seized three Wampanoag Indians and hung
them upon suspicion of having committed the mur-
der. This caused a war, for which the Indians had
been already secretly preparing, to at once break
out, and a number of towns in western Massachu-
setts were attacked at almost the same moment and
their inhabitants killed.
All of the colonies in New England promptly
united in defence, and the war thus begun lasted


panoags, was of different temper from his father,
and looked upon the growing settlements of the
English with a jealous eye, fearing that in time they
would entirely drive out the Indians. He visited
the various tribes from Maine to the Hudson, and
persuaded them all to unite in a league against the
This scheme or plot of Philip's was discovered by
a converted native missionary and told to the mag-
istrates of Plymouth. Not long afterwards the in-

for two years (1675-1677), during which six hun-
dred settlers lost their lives in open battle and an un-
known but probably much larger number in mas-
sacre and by starvation. Thirteen towns were de-
stroyed and many more attacked and injured. The
superior arms and better discipline of the whites
at length proved too much for the Indians, who
were driven back from point to point and finally
were completely and overwhelmingly defeated. King
Philip was killed and his son sold into slavery.





THE French and Indian wars had their origin in
difficulties and jealousies between the English and
French settlers along the Mississippi River and in the
Northwest, as Ohio and the region about it were then
called. For while the English were busy in plant-
ing their colonies on the Atlantic coast, the French
were not only extending their settlements along
the St. Lawrence in Canada, but were also estab-
lishing themselves on the Mississippi River, and

But as their colonies grew stronger and their pop-
ulation larger, they began to push into the wil-
derness, and this brought them into conflict with
the French. The first difficulty between the two
nationalities arose as early as 1689, and was followed
by others at frequent intervals, until the final strug-
gle was ended in favor of the English in 1763. These
little wars usually had for their pretext European
conflicts in progress at the time between France


in northern New York, in Michigan, and at other
points near the Canadian border in what is now
the United States. They had obtained a grant of
Louisiana (so named by them in honor of their King,
Louis XIV.), and in 1718 founded the city of New
Orleans, which soon became the most important
point on the Mississippi. To secure the safety of
these settlements they built a chain of forts, sixty
in number, from New Orleans to Montreal.
All of this mattered very little to the English at
first, for while their settlements were few and small
they did not venture very far back from the coast.

and England, and the names given to them are
generally those of the English king or queen during
whose reign they broke out. They really form but
parts of one long war which had for its object the
determination of the question which nation, the
English or the French, was to rule North America.
These earlier struggles, known as King William's
War, Queen Anne's War, King George's War, etc.,
though they scarcely deserve such dignified names,
resulted in no decided gain to either side, the
French perhaps profiting a little more than the
English. They were of slight importance in them-



selves, but they gradual-
ly led up to something
which was of real im-
portance and which is
.known in American his-
tory as the French and
Indian War.
Unlike the minor wars
which preceded this '
final contest between
the settlers of these two
nations, the French and
Indian War originated i
on this continent and
at a time when the par-
ent countries in Europe
were at peace with each
other. Its cause may be
found in the attempt t-
which was made by the
English to open up and UNLOADING
settle the western lands
on a larger scale than had ever before been tried.
About the middle of the last century some Lon-
don merchants united with a number of Virginia
planters to form the Ohio Company, which bought
a large tract of land west of the Alleghany Moun-
tains with a view to inducing settlers to move
As soon as this Company began operations by
sending out surveyors and traders and by making
roads for emigrants, the French colonists became
alarmed, justly fearing if the English succeeded in


settling-that region as extensively as they planned
that the French would soon be obliged to entirely
withdraw from the interior of the continent and to
content themselves with their Canadian possessions.
To prevent this and to secure for themselves the
land desired by the Ohio Company, the French in
1753 put up a strong fort where the city of Erie
now stands, and prepared to build other forts extend-
ing from that point to the Ohio River. Virginia
claimed this land as part of her territory and the
governor of the colony sent George Washington,
then only twenty-two years old, but who
had already acquired distinction on the
frontier as a surveyor, to protest against
this action or the French. Though he was
received with civility and courtesy, Wash-
ington did not succeed in his mission and
had to return with the refusal of the
French commander to either give up the
fort or to leave the disputed territory.
During Washington's absence Virginia
had raised a body of four hundred soldiers,
and she promptly replied to this message
by sending him back at the head of this
force to protect a fort which the Ohio
Company was building on the site of the
city of Pittsburg. But the French were
before him and had seized and strength-
ened the fort, which they then named Fort
Du Quesne, before he could get there.
SThey then hastened on to attack Wash-
ington, who defeated their advance guard,



but who thought it wiser to fall back before the
main body of the French, as it greatly exceeded in
numbers his force. He retired to a small fort
(named by him Fort Necessity) near Fort Du
Quesne, and there (on July 4, 1754) he surrendered
to the French on the condition that he and his sol-
diers might return to Virginia.
In the contest that followed, the French received
very valuable aid from their Indian allies, as indeed

they had all acted together, but they knew that this
western land was necessary for the growth of their
country and that all were equally interested in keep-
ing out the French. England and France were at
first disposed to let the colonists fight it out by
themselves, but they soon became involved in one
of their frequent wars with each other in Europe
and so in self-defence sent troops to the aid of their
settlers in America.

a< =- -

---"'--=- _._=_, _- : ,- .. __5



they had in their earlier difficulties with the Eng-
lish. It was this which gave it the name of the
French and Indian War. The French treatment of
the Indians had been much more friendly than that
of the English; they had regarded them more as
equals, had shown them greater kindness in every
way, and so the Indians were far more willing to as-
sist the French than they were to help the English.
All the colonies rallied to the assistance of Vir-
ginia and voted arms, money and men to fight the
French. It was the first time in their history that

At first the English were unsuccessful, for though
they drove the French out of Nova Scotia and de-
feated a body of French and Indians in northern
New York near Lake George, they were badly beat-
en in an attempt to capture Fort Du Quesne, and
their commander, General Braddock, and half his
force were killed. Washington served as an aide to
Braddock in this campaign, and by his skill and
coolness checked the pursuit of the enemy after the
defeat and brought the survivors back to Virginia.
This was in 1755, and for two years more the Eng-



lish did not do much better, for though they kept ment to lead the colonial troops. The French sol-
attacking the French at many points they did not diers were a smaller body of men, but they were bet-
succeed in gaining possession of the coveted coun- ter organized and had for their commander a brill-


try, but even lost the few forts they had built along iant general (Montcalm), who with his few soldiers
the border between Canada and New York. was more than a match for his opponents with their
The chief cause of these disasters was the poor larger forces. In time England realized her mis-
quality of the officers sent by the British Govern- take, and by 1758 matters improved. More able



commanders were sent to America, who, instead of
frittering away their strength in a multitude of lit-
tle and trifling engagements, attacked three points
that were of real importance, and two of these they
captured. These were Louisburg on Cape Breton
Island and Fort Du Quesne, which was then re-
named Fort Pitt in honor of the Prime Minister of
Great Britain, William Pitt. Ticonderoga (in New
York), the third point of attack, was defended by
Montcalm in person, and here the English were less
fortunate, for though they tried again and again,'
Montcalm each time drove them back, and at length
they had to retire, leaving fifteen hundred of their
men dead behind them. Though they did not take
Ticonderoga, the English did capture Fort Fronte-
nac (where the Canadian city of Kingston now
stands) and drove the French out of northwestern
New York.
From this time on the successes of the English
were almost continuous, and the capture of Quebec
in 1759 virtually ended the war, for after that the
French forts surrendered as fast as the English ap-
peared before them to demand it. Montcalm lost
his life in battle on the Plains of Abraham before
Quebec, as did also his English opponent, General
Wolfe. The dying words of each showed the char-
acters of the two men. When Montcalm was told

that he must die, he said: So much the better; I
shall not live to see the surrender of Quebec."
Wolfe was mortally wounded when word was
brought to him that the battle was won: Then I
die happy," he said.
By the close of 176o Montreal and all the other
American possessions of the French were in the
hands of the English, and the French troops had
returned to France. But though hostilities had
ceased in this country, they did not end in Europe
until 1763, when a treaty of peace was signed by the
three countries (Spain had assisted France in Eu-
rope) by which France gave up to Great Britain all
of her territory in America east of the Mississippi
and to Spain what lay west of that river. From
Spain England obtained Florida, in exchange for
Havana. The district granted Spain extended from
the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, and the
name of Louisiana given it by the French was re-
tained by Spain. France bought it back from Spain
in 18oo and in 1803 sold it to the United States.
The French and Indian War did this great service
for the colonists: it taught them to act together
and in unison. It also gave them experience in
warfare and in military matters. The colonial sol-
diers fighting by the side of British troops gained
both knowledge and confidence in themselves, and
they and their officers learnt many a valuable lesson
which a dozen years later they put to good use in
the Revolutionary War.






How many boys and girls have ever noticed in
looking at the American flag that it always has
just thirteen stripes? And how many know that
these stripes repre-
sent the thirteen
colonies whose set-
tlement you have
been reading about?
These were the first
States, and though
others have since
come into the Un-
ion whose territory
is larger, whose pop-
ulation is greater,
and which are rich-
er and perhaps more
enterprising than
were some of these
original colonies,
yet the names of
these thirteen
should always be
gratefully remem-
bered by every
American, for
it was their self-
denial, courage and
perseverance which
in the first place
colonized the coun-
try, and in the sec-
ond place freed it
and made of it the
We have seen that
each of these col-
onies had some-
thing different
about it from the
others. New York
was Dutch, Penn-
sylvania was Qua- ANDROS A PRIS(
ker, Maryland was (From Buttersworth's "Young Fol
Catholic, New Jer-
sey Swedish, Massachusetts Puritan, and Virginia
Cavalier. Even where the nationality and the re-
ligion were the same a difference in the wealth of
the settlers or in their character soon made itself


apparent in differences in the laws and customs
of the colonies, and Massachusetts was not the
same as Connecticut or North Carolina the same
as South Carolina.
But whatever
their differences
might be they were
alike in one respect:
they were all jeal-
ous of their rights;
none of them liked
English inter-
ference in their af-
fairs; and each of
them preferred to
make its own laws
and to govern itself
rather than to be
ruiled by the British
King or by the Brit-
ish Parliament.
This showed itself
very early in their
history when King
James II., who
seemed to believe
that the people nei-
ther in England nor
America had any
rights which he was
b6und to respect,
attempted to take
away the charters
which had already
been given the col-
onies and sent over
Sir Edmond An-
dros to govern New
England and New
York without re-
gard to law. For
three years (1686-
NER IN BOSTON. 1689) the people op-
ks' History of the United States.") posed and resisted
him every way they
could, and at length seized him by force and sent
him back to London. Some of the other governors
in New York and North Carolina fared no better;
the people rose in arms and compelled them to



leave the country. In Virginia as well there was
open rebellion, and the colonies were few in num-
ber where there was not more or less resistance at
times to the royal authority.
From the outset the British government showed
but little sympathy with the colonists, and seemed
more disposed to hinder than to help them. They
had scarcely got a start when the Navigation Laws
were passed (1651) which forbade the settlers from
trading with any other country than England or
from permitting the vessels of any other nation to
enter American ports. The colonists found these
laws very oppressive and they were a constant
source of griev-
ance against their _
mother country. -- --
They were not, -.
however, always -- --
strictly enforced, =- /
and the colonists --
managed by -- -
bribery and -'-.
smuggling for ,,
the most part to 'i..
evade them. ,
Other laws pro- ,
hibiting the lil
manufacture of .'
certain articles -.
in America were -k- ,
almost as bur- .
densome as the
Laws, and were
disregarded in
much the same
way. THE ST
Still, notwith-
standing the tyrannical governors who at times
were sent over to rule them, and notwithstanding
what they felt to be the injustice of the Naviga-
tion and Manufacturing Laws, the colonists on the
whole were loyal to England and would probably
have had no thought of revolting when they did,
had not Great Britain begun to apply these laws
with a vigor never before displayed, besides adopt-
ing other measures even more distasteful to the
For after the French and Indian Wars England
seemed to suddenly wake to the growing size,
wealth and importance of the settlements and to
become uneasy at the liberty and freedom allowed
them. She seemed to fear that unless steps were
taken to check their progress towards self-rule

they would soon wish to be entirely independent of
her and to set up a separate government of their
own. The feeling of indifference she had shown
before disappeared, and in its place appeared a lively
anxiety to restrain and control them while there was
yet time. With this end in view she determined to
carry out the Navigation Laws to the letter and also
to obtain money from the colonists by taxation.
Heretofore, while the colonies had very willingly
taxed themselves to support the governors sent to
them and for the administration of their own laws,
they had not been called upon to pay any money to
England, and they received with indignation this
demand that
they should help
bear the expen-
--ses of a distant
government in
S, which they had
S' no voice either
Sas to how the
-. P,-R :' 'money was to be
Raised or how it
was to be spent.
The cry of "no
S taxation without
representation '
was at once
S.) i raised, and the
:colonists re-
S- solved to pay no
tax levied by
~ Great Britain.
The first test
of their resolu-
---_ tion came in
AMP ACT. 1765, when Par-
liament passed
the Stamp Act, which required that all newspapers,
almanacs, marriage certificates and legal docu-
ments of every description should have on them
stamps furnished by the English government and
which must be bought from agents appointed to
sell them in the colonies. The Americans acted
quickly. As soon as the stamps arrived they were
seized by mobs and burned, the stamp-officers were
forced to resign their positions, and on the day ap-
pointed for the law to go into effect not a stamp
could be found in the colonies. The Stamp Act
was a failure and in the following year it was re-
But in abandoning this particular tax the British
government had no thought of giving up its claim
to the right to tax, and soon duties (as they are



called) were imposed upon a number of articles im-
ported to the colonies, as tea, glass, paper, paints
and other things. These duties the colonists re-
fused to pay, and agreed among themselves to
purchase nothing from England while
she continued her attempt to tax
them. In the meantime the Naviga-
tion and Manufacturing Laws were
enforced with the greatest severity,
and soldiers were sent from England
to aid the civil authorities in detect-
ing and arresting smugglers and other
violators of these laws, and these sol-
diers the colonists were required to
shelter and feed. New York and Bos-
ton, to their credit be it said, refused
to do this, and in those places other
provision had to be made for these
The colonists had now entered upon i
a struggle with Great Britain which l01 ,
they meant to be peaceable, and Il
which was peaceable at first, but which
tended all the time towards warfare. The attempts
of revenue officers to seize smuggled goods and ves-
sels in which the goods had been brought were re-,
sisted and often led to street fights. The vast

as many of them delighted to call themselves.
As the contest went on, each side grew more bitter
and exasperated, Parliament in its determination
to find some way by which the colonists would be
forced to pay a tax, and the Amer-
icans in their resolution that nothing
Should induce them to pay one penny.
SIn 1770 Parliament changed its
tactics and tried to obtain by a trick
what it had before been unable to se-
S cure openly. It took off the tax from
everything but tea, and on that it re-
duced the duty to three pence (six
S cents) a pound. Then it arranged
i'ji 1 with London merchants to sell the
i tea in the colonies at three pence a
pound less than it was sold for in
I l England. By this device the tea with
the tax added to its price would cost
the colonists no more than they would
I'! fll,'0 have to pay for it in England. But it
was the principle of taxation, not the
amount, that the Americans were
struggling against, and they met this move as
promptly as they had the attempt to impose stamps
upon them. At Philadelphia and some other
places they sent the ships back to London with


majority of the Americans were united in their
resolution to oppose by every means in their power
foreign taxation; but there were a few adherents of
the mother-country. They were called Tories; their
opponents were named Whigs, or" Sons of Liberty,"

all the tea on board. At Charleston the tea was
placed (the chests unopened) in cellars, where the
dampness soon ruined it. At Boston a number of
citizens dressed themselves as Indians and in an
orderly but resolute way proceeded to the ships in



the harbor and threw all the tea overboard. By
one means or other the tea was gotten rid of at
every place it had been sent to, and Parliament was
once more thwarted in its plans to obtain money
from the colonies.
The action of the Boston Tea-Party especially
angered the English government and in punishment
it closed the port of Boston by forbidding all vessels
either to enter it or to leave it. Parliament also took
away from the people of Massachusetts their right
to make their own laws. The other colonies all
sided with Massachusetts in her opposition to Eng-
land, and the effect of these measures was only to
strengthen still more the bond of colonial union.
This sentiment was further increased by the pas-
sage of other laws by Parliament at the same time
that those affecting Boston and Massachusetts were

adopted, one of which ordered that all Americans
accused of murder in resisting English laws should
be sent to Great Britain for trial. The execution
of these and other hateful acts was given to the
British troops already in the colonies and the num-
ber of which was now considerably increased.
The Americans by this time had become thorough-
ly roused and the excitement ran high. Each town
felt that it might receive the same treatment as
Boston, each colony knew that its liberties were no
more safe than those of Massachusetts. There was
a general demand for a Continental Congress, and
one accordingly was chosen by the people and met
in Philadelphia in September, 1774. Georgia was
the only colony which did not send delegates, and
she was only prevented from doing so by her gov-



THREE things of importance were done by this
first Continental Congress, and the chief of these
three was the preparation of two addresses, one to
the people of Great Britain and one to King George,
in which were recited the manywrongs which Parlia-
ment had inflicted (or had attempted to inflict) upon
the Americans, and which again asserted the right
of the colonists to govern themselves and not to be
taxed without their own consent. Next it drew up
an agreement neither to buy anything from Eng-
land nor to sell anything to her, nor to transact
business of any kind with her until Parliament re-
pealed the laws which had been passed against the
colonies. Copies of this agreement were sent into
every town and village in America and were signed
by the people everywhere. Lastly it promised to
aid Massachusetts with troops from the other col-
onies if they should be needed in her resistance to
Great Britain's attempt to force her into submission.
Important as these three acts were, what was of far
more importance was the evidence furnished by the
meeting of the Congress itself that the colonies
were thoroughly united in their determination to do
everything in their power to maintain what they
knew to be their rights.
Though the language of the Continental Congress
was mild, its attitude was firm and unyielding, and
every one felt that open war must soon come, and




1, A k-3


every one began to prepare for it.
Massachusetts, it was plan, would
be the first battle-ground, and
there was the greatest activity-
the people collecting and storing
weapons, powder and shot, and the
English governor (Gage) increas-
ing the number of his soldiers and
defending his position by erecting
fortifications around Boston.
The first blow was soon struck.
Gage learned from spies, employed
by him to find out what the colo-
nists were doing, that about twenty
miles from Boston, at Concord, the
Americans had gathered together
a quantity of ammunition and sup-
plies. He determined to destroy
these and sent for the purpose a
body of eight hundred soldiers
with orders to proceed as secretly
as possible in order to surprise
those in charge of the stores.
But friends in Boston discov-
ered the plan just before the party started and sent
word by Paul Revere to the patriots, so that when
at daybreak on the morning of April 19, 1775, the
British soldiers entered Lexington on the road to
Concord they were met by some seventy minute-




men," as the colonial militia were called from theii
being always ready on an instant's notice to take
up their arms. The English opened fire and the
Americans returned it, but after exchanging a few
shots the Americans retired with eight of their men
dead and a number of others wounded. The British
then proceeded to Concord, destroyed the supplies
collected there and started back towards Boston.
But the Americans had not been idle while the
English were accomplishing their work of destruc-
tion. Warned by church-bell and messenger the
whole country round about had become ablaze, and
minute-men hurried from every quarter to meet the
enemy on its return. At first the British march
was orderly and the fire from the patriots was steadily
and coolly returned, but as the number of the min-
ute-men increased and from every point on the
road affording the least shelter there was poured
upon the English a constant stream of deadly shot,
they lost their nerve and were chased by the colo-
nists into Lexington on a run. There they were re-
inforced by a fresh body of nine hundred soldiers
whom Gage had sent to their relief and who were
provided with cannon, and under their protection
they at last reached Boston, pursued the whole dis-
tance by the minute-men. The total number- of
Americans engaged was but four hundred, of whom
they lost eighty-eight. The killed, wounded and
missing among-the English numbered two hundred
and seventy odd.



The die was cast. The war was begun. From it
a nation was to emerge destined to become the
freest, wealthiest and probably in time the largest
and most powerful on the face of the globe. An
experiment in self-government was to be tried on a
scale never before attempted and with results for
good no man could have imagined possible. Could


they who laid down their lives at Lexington have
foreseen the rich harvests their children were to
reap they would have counted their own sacrifice as
The minute-men who had pursued the English
from Concord and from Lexington were speedily
joined by others from the several New England col-
onies, and soon twenty
thousand surrounded
Boston and were besieg-
ing it on every side ex-
cepting that towards the
sea. Within the city the
British forces were also
increased until there were
ten thousand men under
command of Generals
Howe, Clinton and Bur-
goyne, who had come to
the assistance of Governor
Gage. The ten thousand
English soldiers were
well-armed, disciplined,
experienced veterans;
their twenty thousand op-
ponents were for the most
part raw farmers, with no
knowledge of the art of
war, untrained, poorly
supplied with weapons,
with no cannon and with
little food. The greater
number of the Americans
was thus offset by the
greater efficiency of their
North of Boston are two
hills, Bunker and Breed's,
the first of which the
Americans decided to for-
tify. By mistake the par-
ty sent under Colonel
Prescott to do this select-
ed Breed's Hill, which was
nearer to Boston than
Bunker Hill. They
worked at night as silently
and as rapidly as possible
and by daybreak, when
the British discovered
what was going on, had
thrown up a long line of
entrenchments fac-
ing Boston. The English




men-of-war in the harbor at once began to bombard the place. The fifteen hundred minute-men, with-
these fortifications, but without preventing the out offering to fire a shot, calmly watched their as-
Americans from continuing their work of strength- sailants march up the Hill, while from every house-
ening their position. Then three thousand soldiers top in the city multitudes anxiously looked on,
were sent to dislodge the workmen and to capture wondering if the undisciplined Yankee farmers




would stand a single round
from their seasoned and
battle tried opponents.
Not until the British were
within one hundred and
fifty feet of the breast-
works was this question
answered, and then there
was a flash of fire from the
entrenchments, part of the
attacking column fell, and
the rest, routed, were fly-
ing back.
Urged on by their offi-
cers they turned at the foot
of the Hill to renew the
assault. The Americans
waited in the same silence
as before until the Eng-
lish were close at hand
and again with their fatal
fire drove them down the
Hill. Once more the Brit-
ish re-formed and for the
third time ascended the
Hill to attempt the cap-
ture. This time they suc-
ceeded, for the Americans


had exhausted their am-
munition and, although
they fought desperately
with stones and used their
guns as clubs, the British
bayonets were too much
for them and they were
obliged to retreat, leaving
the fortifications they had
so gallantly defended in
--= the hands of the enemy.
S This Battle of Bunker
-- Hill, as it has always been
called and probably al-
ways will be, was fought
---- : --- on June 17, 1775, and was
of the greatest service
-i- to the colonial cause in
showing that Continental
.- -r- troops, unused to war as
they were, could stand fire
and were not afraid to
KlITL meet veterans in battle.
2 It gave the Americans a
confidence in themselves
at the start which even in
their worst reverses they
LL. never afterwards lost.



: -- -






WHILE the siege of Boston was in progress and
before the Battle of Bunker Hill took place, Con-
gress met again (May o1, 1775) at Philadelphia and,
still asserting its loyalty to the King, declared that
as Parliament had begun the war upon the colo-
nies they would defend themselves until their rights
and liberties were respected. Provision was made
for raising troops in addition to those around Bos-
ton, the whole to form a Continental Army of
which George Washington was appointed Com-
mander-in-Chief. A system of taxation was also
adopted and laws passed for the government of the
country as long as the trouble with England lasted.
Two weeks after the Battle of Bunker Hill Wash-
ington arrived at the camp before Boston and be-
gan his task of drilling the besiegers into an effec-
tive body of soldiers. While he was thus busy other
Americans were planning an invasion of Canada.
Shortly after the Lexington fight, Ticonderoga had
been captured by some Connecticut militia under
Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, and a day or
two later. Crown Point also fell into their hands

I r




and with it a large number of cannon and a quan-
tity of powder-two things greatly needed by the
young colonial army. The possession of these two
places left the way clear through New York to Can-
ada. Accordingly, in the latter part of the sum-
mer of 1775 two parties set out, one under Generals
Montgomery and Schuyler by way of Lake Cham-
plain, and the other under Benedict Arnold which
was to force its way through the Maine wilderness
and join the first division in front of Quebec.
The expedition was a failure, for though Montreal
was taken, Quebec was too strong for the American
attack, and after spending the winter in a fruitless
effort to capture the city, Arnold, who by the illness
of Schuyler and death of Montgomery had risen
to the chief command, was forced in the spring of
1776 to abandon the attempt and to leave Canada,
what it has since remained, an English possession.
By March, 1776, Washington had got his army
into better shape than he found it when he was made
its general, and was ready to repeat the attempt
which had failed the previous June. He had kept
the British closely confined to Boston all winter
and now thought it time to drive them out. Select-
ing a hill to the south of the. city, called Dorchester
Heights, he took possession of it at night and, aid-



ed by a storm, had
English commander
able to attack it.
As the guns from
Heights complete-
ly commanded the
city, Howe con-
cluded it best to
leave, and on
March 17, 1776, set
sail for Halifax,
and the Ameri-
cans entered Bos-
ton. No further
events of impor-
tance occurred in
during the Revo-
lution, and in fact
all of New Eng-
land was from this
time forth com-
paratively free
from the British.
Thus far the
colonies had been

it strongly fortified before the against them
in Boston, General Howe, was the news of
_-- _-

fighting the Eng-
lish Parliament /
and not the King.
But matters could
not go on in that

Sand early in 1776
the question of
separation from
SGreat Britain be-
gan to be more
generally consid-
ered and discuss-
ed than it had
been before.
Throughout the
quarrel King
George III. had
constantly sided
with Parliament
and had approved
all its measures
aimed at the in-
.ury of the Ameri-
cans. He dis-
played as much
bitter feeling
as did any of his subjects. When
the battle of Bunker Hill reached


1 ,'-. --

H- -


- -_--QUEB- --C, -





England, he at once arranged to send
twenty-five thousand more troops to
conquer the rebels as he called them,
among whom were a large number of
Hessians, said to be the most cruel and
inhuman of hireling soldiers. He or-
dered that all trade with the colonies
be stopped and authorized their mer-
chant ships to be seized and destroyed
by any one wherever found. With his.
assent a number of towns on the coast
were bombarded and ruined.
These actions at length had their
natural effect in destroying the feelings
of personal loyalty which had hitherto
influenced the Americans, and caused
them to regard the King as no less
their enemy than were his ministers.
They were forced to abandon all hope
of obtaining redress from him, as they
had before given up hope of securing
it from Parliament. Their thoughts
thereupon turned towards a complete
separation from the mother-country.
The first step towards independence
was taken by the colonies themselves
on the advice of the Continental Con-
gress, and consisted of the formation of
State governments in place of the colo-
nial ones which had already been overturned by the
disagreement with Great Britain. This was done in



nd June, 1776, and after that date the word
ly" was no longer used, the word "State"
taking its place. The next
step followed immediately;
Virginia took the lead in
directing her delegates in
SCongress to vote for inde-
Spendence and the other
-ii 'I States were not slow in
seconding her action. A
committee was appointed
by Congress to draw up
suitable resolutions and the
Declaration of Independ-
ence prepared by that Com-
mittee was adopted on July
4, 1776, and the United
States became one of the
nations of the world.
Immediately after the
S British sailed from Boston
Washington hastened to
New York and began to
collect an army and to
fortify the city. He suc-



ceedcd in getting together some twenty thousand August 27, 1776, attacked a post of five thousand
men, but like those he found at Boston they were Americans whom Washington had stationed near
poorly armed and without experience in war. Gen. Brooklyn, then a small village. The Americans



Howe had come from Halifax to Staten Island and
his force had been increased to thirty thousand prac-
tised soldiers. Taking with him about half of his
men, Howe crossed over to Long Island and on

were utterly defeated and nearly half of their num-
ber slain and taken prisoners. The remainder took
refuge in a fort which had been erected in Brooklyn,
and two days later, under cover of a fog, were


"; I"~li ;.~ij~p~j~-p~
Ij i)
F''I '~ ~

-- _-L__~~- i lili~-i--l ~qr
I-i -'i
1; .- -""'


____~_~~_I _~ ___~__ ~___ ___~_ _~~

_~ ~

--~~~~~-~~ ~~-


' brought by Washington to New York. Howe fol-
lowed him, and Washington, making only a show
of resistance, retreated to the hills near Peekskill.

S ,,' ..
i-- >.-i r'". -!
'" ----. .. ... -- .. ".

l~ --- -.. -., f0., .-

But Washington had a surprise in store for them.
Selecting twenty-five hundred of his best men, on
the night of Christmas, 1776, he secretly recrossed
the Delaware and by daylight had surrounded the
city of Trenton, whose entire garrison consisting of
a thousand Hessians were captured with the loss of
only four Americans. Hurrying with his prisoners
to Philadelphia he left them there and at once re-
turned to Trenton. The British forces from all
parts of New Jersey quickly gathered at Trenton,
and for the moment it looked as though Washington
had allowed himself to be entrapped between the
enemy on the one side and the river on the other.
But he was equal to the emergency. Breaking
camp at the dead of night he skirted the English
encampment and marching to Princeton attacked
and defeated three regiments stationed there and
escaped to the mountains about Morristown in


Leaving General Charles Lee in command at that
point, Washington crossed the Hudson with five
thousand of his men and was followed by the Brit-
ish under Lord Cornwallis, who gradually drove
the Americans across New Jersey to the Delaware
River. This they crossed in open boats among
cakes of floating ice (it was now December), but the
exposure, the rapid retreat and the privations they
suffered reduced the number of Washington's sol-
diers to three thousand, and the English felt confi-
dent that, as soon. as the river froze over so that
they could cross in safety, they could overtake
Washington and by again defeating him end the


northern New Jersey, where Cornwallis, who had
started in pursuit, did not think it best to follow


~i~-~-~ii=~;;;;=;;;;;-~;~_il~-~;-- -._
---- ~-~-~I ------~-'-~---~r
~5~ ~__--




DURING the third year of the war, 1777, the two
events of most importance were the capture of Phila-
delphia by the British and the defeat of Burgoyne
by the Americans. Scarcely less notable was the
addition to the Revolutionary army of a number of

of Baron von Steuben, who was of great service in
improving the tactics of the republican army.
The opening of 1777 found t4e Americans
strongly entrenched at Morristown in New Jersey
and at Peekskill on the Hudson, from both of


European officers, who volunteered their services to
Washington through sympathy with the American
cause. Of these the most distinguished were the
Marquis de la Fayette, who secretly fitted out a
ship and sailed to America against the orders of
the French government; Baron de Kalb, a German
nobleman of distinction, and two Polish patriots,
Kosciusko and Pulaski. Another very valuable ac-
cession was made the following year in the person

which positions the British were anxious to dis-
lodge them, as well as to seize Philadelphia, then
the largest city in the country. Fearing to attack
Philadelphia directly by marching his soldiers across
New Jersey in face of the American army, Howe
sailed in July with eighteen thousand men from
Staten Island without letting it be known where he
was bound, and Washington was compelled to wait
in New Jersey until he learned that the vessels had


- - - -~----


been seen in Chesapeake Bay. As this showed
without doubt that Philadelphia was the object of
the expedition, Washington hastened to the de-
fence of the city, but only to be twice defeated, at
Brandywine and Germantown (September and Oc-
tober, I777), and Philadelphia fell into the hands
of the British.
Congress had fled from Philadelphia before it
was captured by Howe, and after his defeats Wash-
ington moved his army to Valley Forge, a small
place on the Schuylkill, where he was near enough


to Philadelphia to attack the English if they left
the city. Here the Americans passed the winter of
1777-78, suffering every manner of hardship from
the cold, poorly housed, badly clad, with scanty
food, and many of them with no boots or shoes to
protect their bare feet from the snow and ice. But
through all the horrors of that dismal season Wash-
ington did not despair. Patient, hopeful and confi-
dent in their final success, he held up the courage
of his men, and was firm in his refusal to leave the

point from which in the end he thought he could
most injure the enemy. And despite the miseries
of Washington's army, the American prospects
were much brighter than they had been a year be-
fore-thanks to Schuyler and Gates in New York,
whose victories over Burgoyne were far more im-
portant than Washington's ill-success in Pennsyl-
The English greatly desired to gain control of the
Hudson River, both because it would shut off New
England from the rest of the country and because
it was the easiest and most direct road to
Canada. As the American position at Peek-
skill was too strong to be taken from the
south, they determined to attempt it from
the north ; and so about the time that Wash-
ington was hastening to the defence of
Philadelphia a British army of ten thou-
sand men was moving from Canada under
command of Sir Edward Burgoyne. Op-
posed to him was Gen. Schuyler with some
five thousand men.
Ticonderoga was easily captured by Bur-
goyne, and Schuyler fell back before him
towards Albany, destroying bridges and
blocking up the road behind him as he
proceeded. At the mouth of the Mohawk
River, where it unites with the Hudson,
S' both armies came to a halt, Schuyler await-
S ing the aid of more troops, and Burgoyne
hesitating to attack the Americans in their
strong position on the river islands where
they had camped.
During the pause which followed, meant
by Burgoyne to be a very brief one, but
which proved in the end a fatal one to him,
S he sent out two expeditions, one to the
west to take Fort Schuyler on the site of
the present city of Rome (New York), and
one to the east to attack Bennington (Ver-
mont). The first was defeated by Benedict
Arnold and driven into Canada. The other
suffered as severely at the hands of Col.
Stark, whose short and famous speech to his men

before the battle: There they are, boys; we must
beat them to-day or this night Mollie Stark's a
widow," will not soon be forgotten.
The British loss in these two engagements weak-
ened Burgoyne most seriously, while the Ameri-
can force against him had in the mean time been
strengthened by the arrival of fresh troops sent to
its assistance by Congress. Prevented from re-
treating by the militia which had now closed up his



rear, he crossed to the west bank of the Hudson
with the intention of descending the river and
pushing his way through the American lines. In
this he was checked by Gates, to whom Congress
had given the command in place of Schuyler, and
who, though he did not in the two battles of Bemis
Heights and Stillwater succeed in driving the
English from the field, yet so hemmed them in that
they soon could neither advance nor recede. Bur-
goyne tried to hold his men together until Clinton,
who he knew was on his way from New York,
could arrive with reinforcements, but he was with-
out provisions, his force had become reduced to six
thousand men who were worn out with hunger and
fatigue, and at last, on October 17, 1777, he sur-
rendered to Gates at Saratoga,
Gates not only reaped the fruit of Schuyler's well-
planned campaign, but he took all the credit of
the result, and was the hero of the hour. The
gloom which had rested upon the country in conse-
quence of the loss of Philadelphia and Washing-
ton's reverses in Pennsylvania lifted, and so great
was the exultation and so popular was the victor
that an effort was even made in Congress to deprive
Washington of the chief command of the Conti-
nental Army and to give it to Gates. Happily for
the republic it failed. Washington retained the
command that he alone in the difficulties of the

.. .

.. .-! 1^ ,
,, .


time was fitted to hold, and in the course of a few
years more brought the war to a successful close.



BESIDES increasing the confidence of the patriots
in their cause and removing the danger of any
further attempt at an invasion from Canada, Bur-
goyne's defeat was of especial value to the Ameri-
cans in securing for them the open aid of France in
continuing the war. Her long enmity with Eng-
land had already insured them her private sympa-
thy and some secret help. But though she rejoiced
when by the adoption of the Declaration of Inde-
pendence the United States separated themselves
from Great Britain, she feared at first that they
would not be equal to the task they had assumed,
and that if she became their ally the chief burden
of the contest would fall upon her. The Saratoga
victory lessened this fear and proved that the
Americans would bear their full share in any war
to which they were a party. She was, therefore,
now willing to become publicly known as their

friend, and to enter into an alliance with them.
Thanks mainly to Benjamin Franklin, who was the
American agent in Paris throughout the Revolu-
tion, and who did much to shape public opinion
there favorably to his country, a treaty was signed
early in 1778 by which France agreed to send four
thousand soldiers and sixteen ships of war to the
assistance of the Americans.
This put a different face upon the war, and Eng-
land became quite willing to grant to the United
States all that she had previously refused them, and
offered them freedom from taxation and representa-
tion in Parliament if they would give up the French
alliance and join her in a war upon her old enemy.
This the Americans declined to do. They neither
wished to throw off their new friends nor to connect
themselves again with Great Britain. Nothing but
absolute independence would now content them.



The benefits from the French treaty proved to
be less in the troops and ships sent to this country,
which until the closing acts of the war were of little
real aid, than in the money and supplies loaned by
France to Congress. For these were the great
needs of the time. The government, hastily formed
when the war first broke out, and which consisted
only of the Continental Congress, was a very im-
perfect one and with very indefinite powers, and it
had great difficulty in obtaining money to pay the
soldiers and to buy necessary supplies, so that the
loans from France were of the greatest service to the
Americans in aiding them to carry on the war.
Another important result of the treaty was the
European war it caused between France and Spain
on the one side and Great Britain on the other,
and this helped the Americans by preventing Eng-
land from devoting so much attention to this
country. All of these things combined made the
assistance of France at this time extremely valu-
able to the Revolutionists, for without it the war
would undoubtedly have lasted many more years
than it did.
When the news of the formation of the French
alliance reached Philadelphia, General Clinton, who
had succeeded Howe in the command, decided to




-= 'II.




withdraw to New York in order to strengthen the
British forces there as much as possible before
the arrival of the expected French fleet. Wash-
ington, still encamped at Valley Forge, await-
ing this opportunity, hastened after him in the hope
of detaining him in New Jersey until the French
should come. At Monmouth the two armies met
and fought, but darkness came upon them before
any decisive result was reached, and during the
night Clinton succeeded in drawing off his men to
New York. Had it not been for what was after-
wards thought to be treachery on the part of Gen.
Charles Lee in retreating when he had been ordered
to attack, Washington might have won the battle.
Lee was second in command, and at the outbreak
of the war was regarded as one of the most brilliant
officers on our side. For his conduct at Monmouth,
followed by insolence to Washington, he was dis-
missed from the service.
Clinton transferred his forces from Philadelphia
to New York in June, 1778. In July the French
arrived, but their larger vessels were unable to en-
ter the harbor of New York, so that the attack
upon that city was abandoned, and the French
sailed to the West Indies to defend their possessions
among those islands. Washington, after the battle
of Monmouth, resumed his old position on the
Hudson near Peekskill, with a line extending

- ~ ~-, :NI
i .


across to Morristown, ready to meet the British if
they ventured towards New England, Philadelphia,
or Camden-the three points most likely to be the
objects ot any land-attack front New York. This
position he maintained for three years, carefully

watching every sign of movement of the enemy,
and by his vigilance preventing their doing any-
thing of moment either in the Middle States or in
New England. During the remainder of the war
the principal events took place in the South.



THE close of the year 1778 saw the first of the
operations in the South, when an expedition sent
by Clinton (by sea) captured. Savannah. Augusta
soon followed, and before long all of Georgia was
overrun by British troops from New York and
Florida. As yet the United States had practically
no navy, and the French war vessels were rarely at
hand when needed, so that no matter how strong
Washington's land-blockade around New York
might be, he was without any means of preventing
Clinton from shipping his men to whatever port in
the country he desired.
Congress had built a few naval vessels, but they
had either been captured by the English or were
too small to contend against the British frigates.
A little later on a few ships were obtained from
France, and fitted out as American men-of-war.
One of these, named the "Bonhomme Richard,"
under command of Paul Jones, met two frigates off
the northeastern coast of England (Sept., 1779), and
there was fought one of the most notable battles in
naval history. Jones lashed his ship to the Serapis "
(one of the frigates), and a hand-to-hand struggle
followed, in which the-loss of life on both sides
was something enormous. The" Serapis" finally sur-
rendered, but the Richard was so badly damaged
that she sank the next day. The other frigate was
captured by two smaller vessels, consorts of the
" Bonhamme Richard," and this was the only part
they took in the fight. No other engagement of
any great consequence occurred on the ocean dur-
ing the war.
But though the American navy during the Revo-
lution was little more than a name (if it was even
that), American privateersmen were something much
more real, and the destruction inflicted by them
upon British commerce-was so very serious that it
formed an important element in the war, and caused
the English trading-classes to become very desirous
of bringing the contest to a speedy end. Some of
the privateersmen acted under the authority of

Congress, and some under that of the separate
States. The smaller war-ships built by Congress,
which were not powerful enough to attack men-of-
war, also employed themselves in worrying mer-
chantmen of the enemy, and at one time for a
brief period almost put an entire stop to England's
foreign commerce.


The British having gained control of Georgia, and
kept it despite a vigorous attempt of Gen. Lincoln
(the American commander in the South) to retake
Savannah (Sept., 1779), they next turned their at-
tention to South Carolina, and early in 1780 a large
force sailed from New York under command of
Clinton himself and, aided by troops from Georgia,
laid siege to Charleston. Lincoln defended it to
the best of his ability, but was at length compelled
to surrender it (May, 1780), and with it his army of



six thousand men. The whole State was then knowing the country as only those born and brought
overrun as Georgia had been, and Clinton, satisfied up in it could, were able, from their hiding-places in
with his work, returned to New York, leaving Corn- forest and in swamp, to suddenly surprise the enemy
wallis in command. with most unexpected attacks, to inflict the in-
But though South Carolina and Georgia had been jury they had planned, and to depart as quickly as
conquered, they did not lead their masters a very they had appeared.
easy life. Gates, on whom the halo of Saratoga still While the attention of the people was fixed
rested, was first sent by Congress to take Lincoln's upon the South as the principal theatre of war,
place, but his failure in his first Southern battle an event occurred in the North which produced a
(Camden, N. C., August, 1780), notwithstanding profound sensation throughout all the country and



his soldiers twice outnumbered the enemy, caused
him quickly to give way to Gen. Nathanael Greene,
who proved himself to be the one man for the
work. Cautious, brave and alert, he kept the en-
emy constantly busy in long pursuits and in numer-
ous battles, in which he was almost uniformly
beaten, but in which the British losses were so
much heavier than his own that his defeats were
almost as valuable as victories would have been. He
was ably seconded by Marion, Sumter, Morgan
and other brilliant Southern cavalry officers, who,

which might have been disastrous to the American
cause. This was the treason of Benedict Arnold.
When the British left Philadelphia Arnold was
given charge of the city, and there, tempted to spend
more than he could afford, he used public money
for his own purposes. For this, at the direction of
Congress, he was reprimanded by Washington.
Smarting with mortification and burning with re-
venge, he yet concealed his. real purposes and after
a time applied for the command of West Point.
This was granted by Washington, who still had



confidence in him on account of his earlier services
in the war. No sooner had he reached his new


post than he wrote to Clinton at New York, offer-
ing to turn the place over to the English for a sum

of money and the position of brigadier-general in
the British army. The offer was accepted and a
young English officer, Major Andre, was sent to
West Point to com-
plete the arrange-
ments. On his way
back to New York he
was taken prisoner
near Tarrytown by
three militiamen, who,
on searching him, dis-
covered plans of the
fortifications at West
Point hidden in his
boots. Unfortunately,
the officer in whose "
custody he was placed ,
gave him an oppor-
tunity to write to MAJOR ANDRE.
Arnold, who, thus
warned, escaped into the British lines before he
could be captured. As Andr6 had been taken in
disguise within the American lines, Washington
reluctantly felt that there was no choice but to
have him hung as a spy that others might be
warned by his fate, and this was done (Oct., 1780),
though the sympathy with him was almost universal.



CLINTON was as desirous of subduing Virginia as
he had been of overcoming Georgia and South
Carolina, and the first task set Arnold on his re-
ceiving the reward of his villainy, was to lead an
expedition from New York to the Old Dominion "
(January, 1781). Lafayette was sent by Washing-
ton to stop him, but could do nothing, as the French
ships which were to help him were driven off by
English men-of-war, so that Arnold plundered the
State at will. Cornwallis, who in the course of his
struggle with Greene had shifted his ground from
Charleston to Wilmington (in North Carolina), de-
termined to join the British forces in Virginia and
try to complete its conquest. This he did, and sta-
tioned himself at Yorktown, which from its position
on a peninsula he thought could be easily defended,'
and which also could readily be reached by British
vessels. His combined army numbered eight thou-
sand men, fully double as many as Lafayette's.
Cornwallis had scarcely got settled at Yorktown

when Washington, still at Peekskill, received word
that a large French force was on its way to the
Chesapeake to cut off the British in Virginia from
any assistance from the North. This was the chance
for which he had been waiting, and his plans were
quickly formed. Concealing his purpose from every
one, he made a great show of preparation about
New Yoi'k to lead Clinton into thinking that that
city was to be attacked, urn-, under cover of the
confusion began a rapid march to the South, hop-
ing to arrive at Yorktown and capture Cornwallis
before the British in New York could send relief to
their countrymen.
His plan was successful. Clinton did not discover
Washington's departure for several days, and when
he learned the object of the movement and sent a
British fleet to the aid of Cornwallis it was too late.
The French had arrived at the Chesapeake and pre-
vented the English from landing.
Before the arrival of Washington, Lafayette had




been reinforced with soldiers from the French fleet, was signed till two years afterwards, there were
and Washington also had with him a large body of no more battles fought, and both sides, tired of
soldiers which General De Rochambeau had brought the struggle, were quite content to cease all war-
over from France during the fare while the two countries
summer. Altogether there were settling upon the terms
were sixteen thousand men of peace. As finally agreed
who on the 3oth of September, upon, the treaty placed the
1781,began the siege of York- 'boundaries of the United
town, a force amply large to -. States at Canada on the north,
shut the British completely the Mississippi River on the
off on the land side, while the west, and Florida on the south,
French fleet under Admiral and by it Great Britain fully
De Grasse as securely closed recognized the independence
them in from the ocean., of the country. Without wait-
Cornwallis was fairly trap- ing for its formal signing, the
ped, and knew it. For three .' British gave up Savannah and
weeks he fought desperately -.'r._ Charleston in July and De-
to escape, but the line around member, i782, retaining posses-
him was too strong, and at sion only of New York and a
last he had to give in, and on unimportant forts in the
October 19, 1781, he laid down Northwest. New York re-
his arms and surrendered his mained in their hands a year
army of eight thousand men longer, until news was received
to Washington. Had he held that the treaty had been rati-
out a few days longer he might fied, and then that city also
have been relieved, for an ex- passed again to the control of
petition of seven thousand CORNWALLIS. the Americans-the last Brit-
men was on its way to him from ish soldier leaving it on
New York, but this sailed back on learning his fate. November 25, 1783, a day whose anniversary is still
This ended the Revolution, for though no treaty observed in New York as "Evacuation Day."






THE war was over, the army was disbanded, the
Tories had left the country with their friends the
British, and Washington had given back to Con-
gress the commission of Commander-in-Chief which
he had received from Congress. Peace had come,
a peace which brought with it all that the country
for nearly ten years had been striving for, absolute
freedom and the right of self-government.
But it had also brought some other things with
it: among them great discontent among the offi-
cers and men, who after enduring the most cruel
sufferings and privations in the war received for
their pay at its close only empty promises from
Congress; paper money, which Congress had no
means of redeeming and which soon became ut-
terly worthless; and a weak general government
which had very little authority and no power to
enforce what little it had.
At the beginning of the war when the colonies
became States they all adopted constitutions and
formed governments which served excellently for
their own separate needs. But they did nothing of
the kind for the country at large. All that they
did was to send delegates to the Continental Con-
gress without giving them any real power to make
laws or to tax the people. When Congress re-
quired money it was obliged to ask the States for it,
and they gave it or not as they saw fit. In the
early days of the conflict when there was great fear
of England, the States were willing to do, and did
do, pretty much everything requested of them, but
after Burgoyne's surrender, when their confidence in
themselves grew stronger, Congress had great diffi-
culty in obtaining from them even a small part of
what was actually needed to carry on the war, and
at times the supply of food and clothing furnished
the troops was so scanty that the soldiers rose in
open rebellion, and Washington had the utmost
trouble in pacifying them.
What had been bad during the Revolution grew
much worse in the peace that followed, and soon
there was the utmost disorder throughout the
whole country. The States quarrelled among them-
selves about their boundaries; the larger onespassed
laws which pressed heavily upon the smaller ones;
the wishes and advice of Congress were disre-
garded more and more, so that it soon became the
laughing-stock of the people. As a consequence

of this condition of affairs there was distress every-
where, and for a time it looked as though the free-
dom which had been so dearly bought would prove
a curse instead of a blessing.
This could not go on. The leading men saw
that, if the country was to prosper and the newly
won independence be of any benefit, the States
must be united under some form of general govern-
ment that had power both to make laws and to en-
force them, a government that the people would
respect because they would be compelled to obey it.
A call was therefore issued for a convention of
delegates from all the States to draw up a plan for
the remedy of the evils under which the country
was suffering.
In May, 1787, this Federal Convention met at
Philadelphia, Rhode Island alone refusing to be
represented. The States sent their ablest men,
many of them young in years, but with unusual ex-
perience in public affairs gained during the Rev-
olutionary War and the troubles which led to it.
Washington was chosen its president. No one was
admitted to its meetings but the delegates, and they
pledged themselves to say nothing of its proceed-
ings until its work was completed and published to
the whole country.
Four months were spent by the Convention in
settling upon a form of union that would suit all.
Many times it seemed as if the delegates would be
unable to agree and would have to give up the at-
tempt and return to their homes. Most of the
difficulty was with the smaller States, who were
afraid that the larger States, on account of greater
population and wealth, would have more power
and influence than they, and that they would suffer
in consequence. This fear was finally removed by
providing that in the Senate every State should
have an equal vote, and that the Senate's con-
sent should be necessary for the passage of any
law. The desire of the South to continue the
slave trade was granted for twenty years on con-
dition that after 1808 it was to cease forever.
Other disagreements were arranged more or less'
readily by concessions on both sides and at last
the Constitution as we now have it (without the
Amendments) was perfected and submitted to the
people for their approval.
The new Constitution proposed to replace the



former Confederation (as it had been called) with a
government that could act and that could make its
acts felt. The old government by Continental Con-
gress had power only to recommend measures to
the States. The new government was itself to have
the power to make laws and to see that the laws
which it made were duly carried into effect. It was
to comprise three branches: a Congress to make
laws, a President to enforce them, and courts of
judges to explain them and to decide all questions
that might arise under them. To accomplish this
certain rights and privileges which they had
previously possessed were taken away from the
States and given to the new government. All
their other powers the States were permitted to
Its adoption by two-thirds of the States was nec-
essary before it could go into operation, and near-

ly a year passed before this was secured, during
which time it was eagerly debated throughout the
length and breadth of the land. There was some
opposition to it, chiefly on account of the powers
of which it deprived the separate States, but the
vast body of the people and nearly all of their lead-
ers strongly favored it. New Hampshire was the
ninth State to ratify it, and, as this completed the
necessary number, arrangements were at once made
to carry out its provisions by choosing a President
and Vice-President and electing Members of Con-
gress, and March 4, 1789, was set as the date for
the beginning of the new government. Before
that day arrived Virginia and New York had also
adopted the Constitution, so that out of the thir-
teen States all but two took part in the first elec-
tion, and these two were North Carolina and
Rhode Island.



THERE was but one voice as to who should be the and it was not until April 30, 1789, that the inaugu-
first President of the young republic and that voice ration of Washington took place, with great pomp
was for George Washington, the only President of and ceremony, in the city of New York. The spot
Sin Wall Street where he took
L the oath of office is now
marked by his statue.
o v Washington immediately
S e a called to his assistance in
days of, raia d, t r conducting the government
Sdela. Thomas Jefferson, whom he
t.I'I,.;r'I appointed to be Secretary of
-'"1 4,10 11Stat. 1. !1 State; Alexander Hamilton,
FTII whom he made Secretary of
the Treasury; Gen. Knox, who
i became Secretary of War, and
3 IEdmund Randolph, as At-
it a storney- General. These offi-
cers were to be the confiden-
tial advisers of the President
and formed his Cabinet. Their
RAI- positions were created by the
WASHINGTON MADE PRESIDENT. new Congress, which was al-
ready in session when Wash-
the United States who has ever been chosen by a ington began his administration. A few years
unanimous vote. Communication between the later (1798) the Navy Department, which at first
States was not as rapid at that time as it is in these formed part of the War Department, was made a
days of railroad and telegraph, so that there was separate branch of the government and its Secre-
some delay in learning the results of the election, tary added to the Cabinet. The Post-Office and In-





terior Departments were not created until 1829
and 849 respectively, and the Department of Agri-
culture not until 1889. The most important of
Washington's other appointments was that of John
Jay as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
The wisdom of Washington's choice of his ad-
visers soon showed itself in the organization of the
machinery of government, whose running from the
first was as smooth as though it had long been in
operation. Under advice from the Cabinet, Con-
gress passed the necessary laws to give full effect to
the Constitution, and so great a care was taken to
start everything in the right way that during the
hundred years that have since passed few changes
have been made in the methods then adopted ex-
cepting such as were required by the growing size
of the public business. The strong and firm hand
of the government quickly restored order to the
disturbed country and afforded an opportunity for
laying the foundations of the wonderful prosperity
that has since marked the progress of the nation.
The invention of the cotton-gin by Whitney in 1793

became a great source of wealth to the country, as
it enabled one person to separate the seeds from a
thousand pounds of cotton in the same time that it
had previously taken him to clean six pounds.
Unfortunately it also caused an increased demand
for slave labor, and made it less probable that
slavery would die out in the South, as it was already
doing in the North. The boundary disputes had
been partly settled shortly before Washington be-
came President, and soon were all arranged, the
States giving up the western lands they had claimed
.to the new government, which thus became pos-
sessed of a large and rich tract of territory out of
which some of the richest and most populous States
have since been formed.
One of the earliest acts of Congress was to
choose a capital for the United States, and a site
was accordingly selected on the banks of the Poto-
mac, to which it was decided that the government
should be removed in 1800. Until then it was to
meet at Philadelphia. A system of taxation to pro-
vide for the public expenses and for the payment
of the debt incurred during the Revolution was
prepared by Hamilton and adopted, and twelve
amendments to the Constitution were proposed by
which the rights of the States were more expressly
guarded than in the Constitution itself. Ten of
these amendments were ratified by the people, and
in 1791 became part of the Constitution.
In the meantime North Carolina (in 1789) and
Rhode Island (in 1790) had given their assent to
the new form of government, and the thirteen States
that had struggled together through the war were



posed its colonization very stubbornly, and the
whites had to fight their way for possession foot
by foot. She had Virginia's full consent in seeking
and obtaining the privileges of statehood. The
third State to be admitted during Washington's
presidency was Tennessee. Until 1784 she was part
of North Carolina, but in that year she revolted and
tried to form an independent government under
the name of Franklin. In this she failed, and in
1790 was given by North Carolina to the United
States. She was known as the Southwest Terri-
tory from that date until 1796, when under her pres-
ent name she became the sixteenth State. Both
Kentucky and Tennessee are the Indian names of
rivers that flow through the two States.


once more united. Other States soon began to
ask admittance to the Union, and the first to be
received was Vermont. She originally had been
part of the grant made by King Charles to the Duke 7
of York, but was claimed also by New Hampshire.
While New York was disputing this claim and the
two colonies were quarrelling over her, the "Green
Mountain boys" (Vermont is the French for "green
mountain") set up a government for themselves !
which they kept up during the Revolution (in which
they did good service) and until her entrance into
the sisterhood of States in 1791. Kentucky fol-
lowed the next year. She had been part of Vir-
ginia, and her settlement was begun in 1769 by .-
Daniel Boone, one of the boldest and bravest fron- -.. .
tiersmen in American history. The Indians op- '


----- The Constitution placed the terms of President
S-=- -and Vice-President at four years, but the senti-
,ment in favor of Washington's re-election in 1792
_- ..-.- -. was as strong as it had been when he was first cho-
.-. sen in 1788. When his second term expired in
1797 the people would gladly have elected him for
-- 'a third time had he not positively refused to accept
.. the office again. Before retiring to his home at
.Mount Vernon (in Virginia) he issued a Farewell
11 2Address, intended not only for the Americans of
That day, but for those that came after them as
-- -- ell, in which he counselled his countrymen how
MOUNT VERNON. they could best preserve the freedom they had



gained. This paper ranks with the Declaration of he died (Dec. 14, 1799), his loss was mourned by
Independence and the Constitution of the United the entire nation as one man. The greatest of all
States as one of our three priceless charters of lib- Americans, no one before his time nor since it has
erty. The love and veneration of the whole coun- for one moment rivalled the affection which he holds
try accompanied Washington in his retirement, in the hearts of the people to whom he gave inde-
and when two years later, in his sixty-eighth year, pendence.



Switch it, though he took no side and was strictly im-
partial in conducting his administration.
With a vivid recollection of the discomforts and
evils caused by the weak government of the Conti-
e e ;.e mental Congress and of the Confederation, the Fed-
eralists held that the only safety for the people, the
only way in which they could prosper, was in a strong
Central government with the most ample powers for
ruling the country. Otherwise, they said, the jeal-
ousies and dissensions among the States would for-
ever hinder the progress of the nation and finally
Spring it to ruin.
Opposed to the Federalists were the Republicans,
led by Thomas Jefferson. They too looked to the
experience of the past to guide them in the present,
but it was in the troubles before the Revolution that
they found their lesson. Appealing to the memory



THE second President of the United States was not
elected with the unanimity with which the first had
been chosen; on the contrary he met with consider-
able opposition. For when the time came (1796) to
select a successor to Washington it found the people
divided into two political parties, each of which had
a candidate in the field whom it was urging for the
presidency. .
The first of these parties, called the Federalist,
was the party which had done most to secure the
adoption of the Constitution, which had organized _NM
the new government, and which carried it through -''.
the first eight years of its existence. Its two most "" .-
eminent leaders were John Adams and Alexander
Hamilton. Washington's sympathies were really JOHN ADAMS.



of men to recall how the
liberties of the colonies had
once suffered under the
strong arm of a great pow-
er, they besought their fel-
low-citizens not to again
endanger them by trans-
ferring to this new general
government any of the
rights belonging to the
States excepting those ab-
solutely necessary to give
effect to the Constitution.
They feared that the new
government might become
so strong as to crush the
States, and they felt that
each State best knew the
needs of its own people
and could best advance
their interests. In brief,
the difference between the


, -- ;'
.- I



two parties was this: the
Federalists would strength-
en the general government
at the expense, if needful,
of the States; while the
Republicans would main-
tain State rights even if it
left the general govern-
ment weak. It should be
noted that the Republicans
of that day were an entire-
ly distinct party from the
Republicans of the present
Adams and Jefferson
were the candidates of their
parties, and after a sharp
contest the former won,
the latter becoming Vice-
President. The new Presi-
dent was well experienced
in public affairs, having



been Vice-President during both of Washing-
ton's terms and prior to that United States
Minister to England, being, in fact, the first
representative sent to Great Britain by this
country after its independence was acknowl-
edged. A native of Massachusetts, he was fore-
most among her sons in defending her rights
during the struggle which preceded the Revolu-
tion, and was equally zealous while the war
lasted in advocating the cause-of the young re-
public in Europe. On the conclusion of the
conflict he was one of those appointed to draw
up and sign in behalf of the United States the
treaty of peace with Great Britain.
The administration of Adams cannot be said
to have been a remarkably successful one for the
country, and it proved a fatal one to his party.


Trouble with France, then in a very unsettled con-
dition resulting from the French Revolution, occu-
pied most of its attention and nearly led to
war. Indeed there was some actual fighting
on the sea, but nothing of any importance ex-
cepting the defeat and capture of "L'Insur-
gente by the Constellation under Commo-
dore Truxton off the West Indies (1799). Con-
gress had made preparations for war and was
about to declare it when a change in the
French government by which Napoleon Bona-
parte became its head removed the difficul-
ties between the two nations and assured
peace between them once more.
It was not the threatened war with France
which wrecked the Federalists. That was pop-
ular. But it was the passage of two laws by


their party in Congress during the excitement of
the period that cost them the confidence of the
people; and these were the Alien and
Sedition Laws, permitting the arrest of any
S foreigner (alien) regarded as dangerous
and of any person who spoke evil of the
government. These were both intended
to strengthen the hands of the President
and of the executive government and
were in accord with the policy of the Fed-
S eralists, but they were bitterly opposed
S by the Republicans, who declared that no
S man ought to be imprisoned unless con-
victed by a jury of some crime, and that
it was one of the rights of the citizen to
criticise the government, for without such
Criticism true freedom could not exist.
In this a majority of the people agreed
with them, and at the election in 1800
Adams was defeated and Jefferson was
chosen President in his stead. Jefferson
did not obtain the coveted prize, how-
ever, until after a rather peculiar contest with his
political friend, Aaron Burr, the candidate of the





Republicans for Vice-
President, which
showed a curious de-
fect in the Constitu-
The presiden-
tial electors, at that
time, in choosing the
President and Vice-
President simply
voted for two men
without specifying on
their ballots which of-


curred to them that
the electors might be
divided into political
parties, the members
of each casting ballots
all having on them the
same two names. But
this was what did hap-
pen in 800o. All the
Republicans voted for
both Jefferson and
Burr, who thus had an
equal number of votes.



fice each was to hold,
and the one who re-
ceived the most votes .
became President and
he who had the next
highest number be-
came Vice-President.
By this method, the
framers of the Con-
stitution thought, the
best man would be se-
lected President and
the next best Vice-
President. It does
not seem to have oc-

S---- --- .------- Every one knew, of
S course, which the elec-
tors meant should be
President and which
:.. Vice-President, but
i-- -~-.. there was nothing on
the ballots to indicate
it. The decision be-
tween the two there-
upon fell to the House
of Representatives (or
S lower branch of Con-
gress), which, after
some little delay and
JRY BUILDING. trouble caused by the




friends of Burr, gave the presidency, as it was in- had ordered should be laid out as a permanent
tended to go, to Jefferson. Before another elec- home for the federal government, and which in
tion came round an amendment to the Constitu- honor of the Father of his Country had been named
tion was adopted which prevented the recurrence Washington, was then a city only in name; in appear-
of such a difficulty by directing the electors to vote ance it was more like a small country village, with
for the two offices separately. muddy and unpaved streets, mean-looking houses
The year which witnessed the defeat of Adams and small population. It is only within a short
and the expulsion from power of the Federalists saw number of years that the stately buildings, which
also the removal of the seat of government from now render it one of the most beautiful of Ameri-
Philadelphia to the banks of the Potomac. The can cities, have been erected and that it has assumed
new city which the First Congress, ten years before, something of the dignity of a national capital.



As Governor of Virginia, Minister to France, Sec- had once quarrelled and which fifteen years or more
retary of State under Washington and Vice-Presi- before they had given to the general government.
dent under Adams, Thomas Jefferson had already In accepting the gift of this Northwest Territory
shown himself to be -.r. (as it was called) the
one of the wisest 'Congress of the
statesmen of his Confederation had,
time before he was by what is known
called to the high as the Ordinance of
office of President. 1787, thrown it open
The Declaration of to general settle-
Independence was ment and had
the work of his agreed that as the
hand, the Republi- population in it in-
can (soon to be creased five States
known as the Dem- should in turn be
ocratic) party the formed from it and
fruit of his politi- admitted to the Un-
cal teachings. Few ion. TheOrdi-
men have been able nance also prohibit-
to impress their be- ed slavery from for-
liefs more durably ever being tolerated
on the history and within the borders
laws of their coun- ?. -' of this Territory,
try than did the and it guaranteed
third President of -- to all who should
the United States. -- settle in it equal
He served for two ''" political rights and
terms, taking office perfect relig-
in 18oi and leaving ious freedom. This
it in 1809. During THOMAS JEFFERSON. agreement or Or-
these eight years the dinance was after-
number of States was increased by one and the area wards confirmed by the new government formed
of the United States was more than doubled. The under the Constitution.
new State was Ohio, and it had been part of that large The first settlement by Americans in Ohio was at.
western tract of land about which the older States Marietta in 1788, followed by another in the same-


year at Losantiville, now Cincinnati. The Indians
at once opened war upon the immigrants and for a
time held them in check, but in 1794 General Wayne


was sent by President Washington to Ohio, and he
defeated the Indians so completely that they gave
up the State to the whites. Wayne was one of the
heroes of the Revolution, where for his great daring

--.i v -- --
he was nicknamed "Mad Anthony." Like Ken-
tucky and Tennessee, Ohio took its name from that


given by the Indians to its principal river, but un-
like those two States its soil (as provided in the
Ordinance of 1787) was free. Of the four new

States which thus far had entered the Union, an
equal number were free (Vermont and Ohio) and an
equal number were slave (Kentucky and Tennessee).
- Ohio was admitted in 1802. In the following
year the t-rritory of Louisiana, which shortly before
had been sold by Spain to France, was bought by
the United States from Napoleon Bonaparte for
fifteen millions of dollars. This territory embraced
far more than the present State of that name, and
added over a million square miles to the eight
hundred thousand which had previously comprised
the area of the country. The next year (1804) the
foundation was laid for still another enlargement of
the boundaries of the United States by an exploring

-' .
." '',-
,," ,, I;- :W ',,


expedition under Lewis and Clarke through Oregon,
Idaho and Washington (State), a region hitherto
unvisited by Americans. Great Britain afterwards
disputed the claim which this exploration gave us
to that part of America, and the question of owner-
ship remained unsettled for over forty years.
But the occurrence of this period which is of the
most importance, by the side of which the purchase
of Louisiana and the exploration of the Oregon
country seem of trifling value, was the invention by
Robert Fulton of the steamboat. Since Watt had
invented the steam-engine forty years before, the
effort had repeatedly been made to apply it to vessels,
but without much success until Fulton's boat, the



"Clermont," made the journey
to Albany, driven by steam, in -.
18o7. Steamships were soon --
seen on the waters of all the
inhabited parts of the country,
and were of the greatest pos- ...
sible service in developing and
building up the districts which
as yet had not been settled.
When Jefferson was re-elect-
ed President in 1804, Burr,
who had lost much of his pop- _
ularity, was not continued as
Vice-President. Disappointed
at his political failure, he or-
ganized an expedition in 1807
to go to the southwest, and
there to set up a government
of his own separate from the
United States. Before he
could carry out his plans he
was arrested and tried for
treason, but as he had not a.ctr.allv borne arms
against the United States he could not be con-



_- ---- -2 -- A "'-- "'' '' -

--_--: -_Z -- --- --:2 . 4-,-,' -.-..- -
-:-: -----:--'-:-- -;'--=' : -Z 5 2"- --. -
, :---s_.--..----_ :, ---_-- - '
...... .. .. -_ ,. ._ .

-. . ., -. -- -



victed. This, together with his having killed Ham-
ilton in a duel, which he had forced upon Hamilton
(1804), filled the measure
of his public disgrace and
the rest of his life was
passed in the closest re-
tirement. Hamil-
ton, strong partisan as he
: was, had been especially
esteemed by the people,
-- and his early death in
such a manner gave the
S country a shock that soon
-s put an end to the prac-
S tice of duelling.
S -Fulton's invention was
not used in sending ships
across the Atlantic for a
number of years after it
had been successfully ap-
--- plied to river boats. But
our foreign commerce had
not waited for the com-
pletion of that invention
to become an important
element in our prosper-
5 ity. Securing a good start
7yfi under Washington, it had
grown very rapidly until
under Jefferson Ameri-
can vessels were carrying
a large part of the freight






of the world. This good fortune was mainly due
to the wars in which nearly all of Europe was at
the time engaged, and which made the ships of a
neutral like ourselves the safest for the transporta-
tion of goods.
An annoying hindrance to this commerce had for
a long time existed in the tribute which the Bar-
bary States on the northern shores of Africa com-
pelled Christian nations to pay to prevent their
ships from being captured and their sailors from
being sold into slavery by these Mohammedan

face of a constant fire from the enemy burned her.
The damage done to her forts and shipping by
frequent bombardments finally brought Tripoli to
terms, and in 1805 she yielded and made peace
with the United States. The example thus set by
America in resisting the Mediterranean pirates was
followed by other nations, and in the course of a
few years a complete stop was put to their exac-
But before Jefferson's presidency ended American
commerce suffered from a much more serious inter-


pirates. The United States, like the nations of
Europe, submitted to this extortion until Tripoli
(one of these Barbary States) in 1801 increased the
amount of money demanded. This the United
States refused to pay and sent her little navy to the
Mediterranean to protect American ships. The
" Philadelphia," one of her frigates, having stranded
in the harbor of Tripoli, was captured (1803), but
before the Mohammedans had any chance to make
use of her, a boat-load of sailors, pluckily led by
Lieutenant Decatur, ran into the harbor, and in

ference than from the Barbary tax. This was from
the blockades which England and France declared
against the ports of each other and of their allies.
Not content with these blockades, Great Britain
went further, and in 1807 issued Orders in Council
forbidding any American ship from entering any
European harbor excepting her own and those of
her friend, Sweden. Bonaparte replied with his
Milan Decree directing that every American vessel
which entered a British port should, if captured by
the French, be sold.


THE WAR OF 1812.

Between these two cross-fires our foreign trade
was soon in a sorry plight. The people felt these
acts to be intolerable, but were reluctant to go to
war, as the weakness of the American navy offered
but a poor chance of any redress from fighting.
Moreover the Republicans were more desirous of
paying off the debt already incurred than of burden-
ing the country with a new one, as a war would
do. It was therefore decided to stop all trade for a
time with Europe in the hope that the injury thus
inflicted upon foreign commerce would bring the
two countries to terms. Accordingly in 1807 Con-
gress passed the Embargo Act, prohibiting any ves-
sel from leaving the United States for any European

Instead of helping matters this only made them
worse. Great Britain profited by it in getting back
some of the carrying trade she had previously lost,
and New England, whose foreign business was
large, suffered severely from the paralysis caused it
by this step. All of the country was affected more
or less from the measure, and in 1809 it was found
necessary to replace the Embargo Act by the Non-
Intercourse Act, which, while still forbidding trade
with France and England, permitted it with other
countries. This made the situation a little better,
but not a great deal, and the feeling became very
bitter against France and Great Britain, particularly
against the latter, as she had been the more hostile
of the two.


THE WAR OF 1812.

THOUGH the troubles with France and England
had lost to the Republicans some of their popu-
larity with the people, they yet succeeded in elect-
ing one of their number President when Jefferson's
second term expired in 1809. This was James Mad-
ison, also a Virginian, and, like his predecessors,
of public experience derived from services in his
State legislature, the Constitutional Convention and
Congress. He had been Secretary of State under
The foreign difficulties under Madison did not im-
prove; they rather grew worse. France, indeed, did
agree to repeal her decrees if the Non-Intercourse
Act was not applied against her, but England en-
forced the Orders in Council with greater vigor
than ever, and stationed war ships along the Ameri-
can coast ready to pounce upon any vessel that
ventured forth. What was particularly hateful to
the Americans was the right claimed and continu-
ally exercised by her of stopping the ships of any na-
tion upon the high seas and taking away any sailors
whom the officer making the search chose to think
had been born in Great Britain or Ireland. In this
way many American citizens, both native and
naturalized, were forced into the British navy and
compelled to serve against their own country. Not
content with these injuries, the British attempted
also to inflict one of a different kind by aiding some
Indians under Tecumseh in an attack upon the
whites in the Northwest. General W. H. Harrison
defeated these Indians (1811) at Tippecanoe, and

Tecumseh with his men afterwards entered the
British army.
At length the patience of the Americans became
exhausted, and on June 18, 1812, Congress, after
making what preparations it could, formally declared
war against Great Britain. The government had

h. i~





but little money at its command and these prepara-
tions were not very formidable. The navy consisted
of only twelve vessels, and the army was an undis-
ciplined body of troops officered by Revolutionary
soldiers, now too old to be really efficient, or by
politicians ignorant of the first principles of military

science. Among the Federalists and throughout
New England the war was not regarded with much
favor, but the Republicans strongly supported it,
and they formed a decided majority of the people.
Most of the honors in the naval part of the con-
flict fell to the Americans. On the land they were
more evenly divided. The naval results were a sur-
prise to the United States as well as to England
and to Europe generally, for hitherto the British
had been considered almost invincible on the ocean
even by a first-class power, which America at that
time certainly was not. Out of the seventeen sea-
fights which occurred during the two and a half
years that the war lasted, the Americans won thir-
teen and lost four, and this surely was a creditable
showing for a nation which at the beginning of the
contest had only a handful of war ships to oppose
to the thousand belonging to the enemy. The dis-
parity between the sea forces of the two countries,
however, did not long continue to be quite as great
as this, for the United States soon very materially
increased its navy by the purchase and building of
more vessels.
The reason for this was very largely in the care-
lessness of the English commanders and in the vigi-
lance of their opponents. The very success which
Great Britain had so uniformly met with hitherto



THE WAR OF 1812.

on the ocean made her now more lax, especially
when she had a nation so much her inferior in
power as the United States to contend against. The
Americans, on the contrary, were all the more alert
because they felt their weakness. Whatever they
were to accomplish must be done by discipline and
skill, for of strength they had but little as compared
with that against them.
The first of these sea-victories was the capture of
the "Alert" by the Essex commanded by Captain
Porter, followed in a few days by the capture of
the Guerriere by the Constitution under Cap-
tain Hull. This was in August, 1812. In the fol-
lowing October the "Frolic" was taken by the
"Wasp" (Captain Jacob Jones), and the "Macedo-
nian" by the "United States" (Captain Decatur).
Still a fifth conquest was made the same year (De-
cember)-that of the Java by the Constitution,"
now under command of Captain William Bain-
bridge. Against these five victories was one loss,
the Wasp," which was so badly injured in its fight
with the "Frolic" that it fell an easy prey to tlie
"Poictiers," a larger British vessel, which overtook
and captured it with its prize a few hours afterwards.
During 1813 the American navy was not quite as
successful as it had been in the preceding year, its
defeats equalling in number its victories. Of its
losses, that of the Chesapeake (June) was the most
serious. The "Chesapeake" was commanded by
Captain Lawrence, who earlier in the season (Febru-
ary), while in command of the Hornet," had gained
one of the two victories of the year by defeating and
capturing the Peacock." For this service he had
been transferred to the larger ship, the "Chesa-
peake," but had scarcely assumed charge before he
was engaged in battle with the "Shannon." Law-
rence fought gallantly, but in this case British dis-
cipline was better than American and prevailed.
Lawrence lost his life before the struggle was de-
cided, so that he was spared the pain of defeat. His
last words-" Don't give up the ship "-became for
the rest of the war the battle-cry of the American
Of the other ocean reverses the capture of the
"Essex" (March, 1814) was the most important.
She had been cruising in the Pacific for about a year
when she was attacked, while crippled from an ac-
cident, by the Phoebe" and "Cherub," and after
the fiercest fight of the war, during which more than
half of her men were killed, she was forced to sur-
render. Another loss to the Americans occurred
in the following January when the President" was
taken by a British fleet near Long Island.
But against these disasters was a long series of

splendid successes: the Peacock" over the Eper-
vier" (April, 1814); the "Wasp" over the "Rein-
deer" (June, 1814); the "Wasp" over the "Avon"
(Sept., 1814); the Constitution over the Cyane "
and the Levant" (Feb., 1815); the Hornet" over
the "Penguin (March, 1815); and the "Peacock"
over the "Nautilus" (June, 1815). The three capt-
ures (all under different commanders) made by the
" Constitution earned her the reputation of a lucky
ship with her officers and men and they gave her
the name of "Old Ironsides," by which she was
known as long as she was kept afloat.


Not only on the ocean was the United States.
successful. Two of its greatest naval victories were
won on the lakes. Captain Perry had command
on Lake Erie, his fleet consisting of five small ves-
sels and two larger ones, the Lawrence and the
" Niagara," the former named after the hero of the
"Chesapeake," whose dying words were inscribed
on the flag flying from her mast. In September,
1813, Perry met the British fleet and engaged it in
battle. He was in the Lawrence," and against her
the English at first directed the whole of their fire
until she became hopelessly disabled. Quickly shift-
ing himself to the Niagara," Perry turned at once



upon the British, exhausted from their attack on the
" Lawrence," and breaking through their line poured
upon them so heavy a fire in all directions that in
a quarter of an hour the entire fleet surrendered.
Perry used few words to announce his victory:
"We have met the enemy and they are ours: two
ships, two brigs, one schooner, and one sloop."
The victory on Lake Erie gave the American
army an opportunity to invade Canada. Exactly
a year later (Sept. ii, 1814) a similar success on

^-. ,.
_ -.,- *.


o- -


Lake Champlain prevented an English army from
invading New York by way of Canada. Commo-
dore Macdonough was at the head of the Ameri-
can fleet on this lake which opposed the progress
of the British, and the result of the battle was the
capture of the four larger vessels of the enemy, the
flight of the smaller ones and the retreat of the
army. In neither of these lake engagements did
the Americans have quite as many guns or men as
the English. Indeed there were few naval battles

in the war in which whatever advantage there
might be in these respects did not rest with the
Turning now to land operations the picture is
not as flattering to American pride, for there we
did not have it nearly so much our own way as on
the water. At the outset of the war several attempts
were made to invade Canada, but they only resulted
in the loss of Detroit (Aug., 1812),then the largest
town on the northwestern frontier. General W.
H. Harrison was then
given command of the
West and he tried many
times to retake Detroit,
but his troops at first
were too raw to accom-
plish much. It was while
ie was striving to drive
the enemy from Michigan
that the battle of the
Raisin River occurred
(Jan., 1813), long remem-
bered for the bloody mas-
sacre of the wounded by
the Indians which fol-
lowed it and which was
-inhumanly permitted by
Sthe British commander,
General Proctor. The
victory of Perry finally
S afforded Harrison
-..*- the chance to enter Cana-
.: da, where he defeated
Proctor at the Thames
S River (Oct., 1813), killed
p. Tecumseh and put an end
'.'. 7 to the war in that region.
Detroit and other captur-
ed forts were easily retak-
en and Michigan passed
back again to American
In northern New York
there was the same ill-
success for the first year or two that there was in
the West, and the same improvement in the latter
part of the war. The most important engagement
in this section of the country was the battle of
Lundy's Lane (July, 1814), fought on the Canadian
side of the Niagara River, which resulted in driv-
ing the British from the field, but also in weakening
the Americans so seriously that they thought it
prudent to themselves retire as well the next day.
The improved discipline in this northern army was


THE WAR OF 1812.

principally due to the efforts of Winfield Scott, one
of the younger officers lately put in command, and
who, with Ripley and Jacob Brown, led our soldiers
in the battle of Lundy's Lane.
In the East the American cause suffered even
more than in the West and North. The British
vessels stationed along the Atlantic coast not only
blockaded all the ports but they bombarded many
towns and sent parties on shore who did much in-
jury to public and private property. Lewes, Havre

This work of destruction accomplished, the British
turned to Baltimore, but here some preparations for
defence had been made and the attack was deter-
minedly resisted and finally repulsed.
The Indians on the frontier, who were generally
hostile to the settlers, nearly everywhere seized the
occasion of the outbreak of the war to attack the
whites. Of these attacks by far the most serious was
that made by the Creeks, the principal tribe in the
Southwest Territory consisting of the present States


de Grace, Hampton and Stonington were among
the places thus attacked, and New York only es-
caped through British fear of the torpedoes in the
harbor. But the greatest disaster in this region, in
fact of the war, was the burning of Washington.
That city had been left entirely unprotected, and
when an English army of five thousand men landed
at Chesapeake Bay and marched to the seat of gov-
ernment (Aug., j814) there were no soldiers there
to defend it and the city was pillaged at will.

of Alabama and Mississippi. In August, 1813, they
surprised Fort Mims (near Mobile) and put to death
nearly all of the five hundred men, women anc
children who had taken refuge there.
Such an act called for immediate '.eng.eance.
The Tennessee militia hastened to the field and
under command of Andrew Jackson pursued the
Indians, and at the battle of Tohopeka, on the Tal-
lapoosa River (Alabama), overwhelmingly routed
them, killing eight hundred of their number and



compelling them to give up most of their land
to the Americans (March, 1814). From this time
the Creeks, who before had been a power in the
Southwest, gave the settlers but little trouble.
The battle of Tohopeka, or Horseshoe Bend (as it
is also called), made Jackson's reputation for leader-
ship and the command in the Southwest was given
to him. It was known that an army was on its way
from England to attack New Orleans, and Jackson
at once made the most energetic arrangements for
its defence. Entrenchments were thrown up on
marshy land a few miles below New Orleans and
expert riflemen stationed behind them to prevent
the enemy on landing from reaching the city.
In December, 1814, the British arrived. They
comprised twelve thousand veteran troops led by
Sir Edward Packenham, and opposed to them were
six thousand Americans as inexperienced in war as
were the minute-men at Lexington and Concord.
The first week or two was spent in minor skir-
mishes, and then, on January 8, 1815, Packenham
threw his entire army against Jackson's works.
Profiting by the example of their fathers at Bunker
Hill, the Americans held back their fire until the
English were close at hand and then poured it up-
on them with such deadly effect-that the whole line
of the enemy broke and fled, leaving their command-
er and over twenty-five hundred of their number
dead behind them, while of Jackson's men but seven
were killed and thirteen wounded.
The battle of New Orleans was a more gratifying
close to the war than Hull's surrender of Detroit
had been a beginning of it. Before this last bat-
tle was fought peace had been concluded by Ameri-
can and British representatives at the Belgian city
of Ghent (Dec. 24, 1814), but the news of it did not
reach this country until after Jackson's victory. It
is curious that the very things which caused the

two countries to begin the war were neither of them
mentioned in the treaty of peace. The reason for
their omission is that they had ceased to be of impor-
tance. England and France were no longer at war
and hence there was no occasion for the former to en-
force her Orders in Council. As to the British claim
to the right of search and imprisonment of seamen,
the United States no longer feared she would attempt
to exercise it, as the American navy had shown itself
fully able to protect our commerce on the ocean.
Tidings of peace were never more gladly received
than was the news of the treaty of Ghent. Though
it left matters very much as they were before, it
was everywhere hailed with delight and celebrated
by the ringing of bells and firing of cannon. For by
the close of the war business of all kinds was nearly
at a standstill. The people had become too poor to
buy anything but the barest necessities of life, and
sometimes they could hardly buy those. Money
was scarce, creditors could not collect their debts,
farmers could not sell their crops. New England
suffered especially from the stoppage put to her
commerce by the war. From the first she had op-
posed it, and the many land reverses met with by the
Americans during its progress did not tend to de-
crease her opposition. This opposition grew still
stronger after the burning of Washington, and in
the latter part of 1814 a secret convention of New
England Federalists was held at Hartford, to take
steps, the Republicans said, to withdraw from the
Union. There is no proof to support this charge,
for all the convention did was to draw up a report
on the condition of the country, suggest that New
England be allowed to defend herself against the
English without waiting for Federal aid and propose
some changes in the Constitution. Peace so quick-
ly followed the meetings of the convention that
nothing came of its recommendations.

12 .. ... -.I. . -

V_- .


Aj-_=. _Z

"- < :: -- --






THE close of the war opened again the ocean
roads for merchant ships to Europe, and with the
resumption of foreign commerce came a revival of
business throughout the land. The country was
growing. The war itself had stimulated the settle-
ment of western New York, which previously had
been a rarely visited wilderness. Steamboats were
carrying emigrants to the West and Jackson's crush-
ipg defeat of the Creeks had removed all fear of
the Indians in Alabama and Mississippi and thrown
them open to white colonists. New States were
also coming into the Union. In 1812 Louisiana
was separated from the rest of the territory bought
from France and given statehood, followed four
years later (1816) by Indiana, formed, as Ohio had
been, from the Northwest Territory. Slavery was
already in existence in Louisiana before it became
a State, while the Ordinance of 1787 insured free soil
in Indiana and the rest of the Northwest Territory.
The admission of these two States therefore did
not affect the balance of power between the slave-
holding and non-slaveholding States.
The opposition of the Federalists to the war and
particularly their calling the Hartford Convention
destroyed what little influence they still had. They
had been unable to prevent the re-election of Mad-
ison in 1812; they were able to do yet less in 1816
when Madison's successor was to be chosen. Out
of two hundred and twenty-one electoral votes
cast, the Republican candidate, Monroe, received all
but thirty-four. This ended the Federalist party.
It now completely disappeared from politics and at
no future election did it make even a nomination
for office. After a few years a new party was formed,
called the Whig, and this was joined by many of
those who were formerly Federalists. But in the
meantime there was little or no organized opposi-
tion to the Republicans, who in consequence were
able to conduct the government pretty much as
they liked.
James Monroe, the fifth President of the United
States and the fourth furnished by Virginia, had
had perhaps even a wider experience in public
office than any of the Presidents before him. He
had served as captain in the Revolution, as mem-
ber of the Continental Congress, and (on the adop-
tion of the Constitution) as United States Senator.
Then he became Minister in succession to France,

England and Spain, and afterwards Governor of
Virginia and (under Madison) Secretary of State.
He held the presidency for eight years, only one
electoral vote being cast against him at the end
of his first term in 1820, and that was thrown
simply that no one should share with Washington
the honor of a unanimous election.
The administration of Monroe was the "era of


good feeling." Parties and politics for the time
were over. The country was at peace and was pros-
perous, and its increasing population was forming
settlements in every direction and rapidly developing
its marvellous resources. The three millions of peo-
ple contained in the United States at the end of
the War for Independence had by 1820 become over
nine and a half millions, and these figures were con-
stantly enlarging by a vast emigration from Europe
which spread itself over the country, clearing away
forests, building villages and towns, and turning the
wilderness into a garden.


Railroads were as yet unknown. The only means
of travel were by boat or carriage. The importance
therefore of good roads and waterways was mani-
fest. Recognizing this, Congress and the various


States, in order to aid in the development of the
country, began at this time to build a better system
of roads and canals than any that had hitherto ex-
isted. Of these by far
the most extensive and = -
important was the Erie -
Canal, constructed by
the State of New York,
and which, by connect-
ing Lake Erie at Buffalo
with the Hudson at Al- *~i- _
bany, afforded a new
outlet from the Great ""
Lakes to the Atlantic
and made travel and j' F, i i
trafficbetween NewYork \ ;,.
and what was then the J 1', '''
extreme West immense- *' i
ly easier. Eight years
were occupied in its ,
building (1817-825), and ',
the credit of the enter-
prise is due to the un- -,
tiring efforts of Govern- l1i115
or De Witt Clinton, but
for whom it never would -
have been begun or THE FIRST B
pushed to a conclusion.
It is undoubtedly to the Erie Canal that New York
owes the commercial supremacy she has so long
enjoyed and which has made her to-day the largest
and wealthiest of the States.

Once before had the United States added to its
territory. Now it did so again by buying (1821),
for five millions of dollars, Florida from Spain, to
whom it had been given by England at the close of
the Revolution. This purchase was rendered nec-
essary, or at least desirable, by the trouble which
both the Indians and Spanish settlers in Florida
continually gave to the neighboring Americans in
Georgia and Alabama, and which could not readily
be checked until our government obtained control
of the territory.
Not only was the area of the United States en-
larged during this period, but the number of States
was increased and five more stars added to the
American flag. The first to be admitted was Mis-
sissippi (1817), originally claimed by Georgia, but
given up in 1802 to Congress. Next followed Illi-
nois (in 1818), the third State taken from the North-
west Territory. Alabama, which like Mississippi had
once belonged to Georgia, came in 1819, and a year
later Maine was divided off from Massachusetts and
made a State by itself. The last of these five was
Missouri, admitted in 1821. The names of all these
States, excepting Maine, were taken from the In-
dians, Illinois being the name of a tribe and the

\rlp-y^ '*". K^ ^^-----
-.U ,- iilw,- f,, f --. Jg -



others the names of rivers. Maine received its
name from the French possessions of Henrietta
Maria, wife of Charles the First, during whose reign
it was first settled.



Missouri was part of the Territory of Missouri,
the name given to the rest of the French purchase
when Louisiana was cut off from it and made a
State in 1812. Its admission raised the slavery
question and marks the beginning of the anti-slave-
ry struggle, which was not brought to a final close
till nearly half a century later. Though negroes
were at first held in bondage in all of the original
thirteen colonies, they were never as numerous in
the North as in the South, and the idea of slavery
was never as well liked in the one region as in the
other. Before the end of the last cen-
tury it had nearly died out in the North
and public sentiment there was becom-
ing decidedly averse to it, while in the
South, on the other hand, it was con-
stantly increasing as negro labor became
more profitable in the production of cot-
ton, rice and tobacco. But however
much the North might be opposed to the
principle of slavery there was no thought
at first of attempting to abolish it in the
Southern States where it already existed.
There was, however, a strong feeling
against its extension to new parts of the .
country, and it was this feeling which T
had secured (by the Ordinance of 1787)
its prohibition from the Northwest Ter-
ritory. V
Of the ten States admitted into the
Union after the adoption of the Consti-
tution, and up to the time that Missouri
came in, five (Vermont, Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois and Maine) had been free and
five (Kentucky, Tennessee,. Louisiana,
Alabama and Mississippi) slave. In the
latter five slavery had been introduced
before they passed under control of the
national government either by gift from the older
States or (as in the case of Louisiana) by purchase.
There was therefore but little objection to their
admission as slave States. The case of Missouri
was thought to be different. In position she was
nearer to the Northern States than to the South-
ern ones, and her interests, the North claimed,
would lie more with the former than with the latter,
and like them, therefore, she should be free. She
was west of the Mississippi, and the North held
that the founders of the government had never in-
tended that slavery should extend beyond that
river. When bought from France there had been
scarcely any settlement within her boundaries, so
that her soil was then virtually free, and only as a
free State were the opponents of slavery willing

she should enter the Union. But during her terri-
torial days many slave-owners had moved into Mis-
souri and they had become a majority of her popu-
lation. They naturally wished to retain their slave
property, and in this they were supported by the
other Southern States, who argued that the Consti-
tution had left the matter to the States, and that if
Missouri chose to permit slavery she was entitled to
do so. Congress debated the question long and
earnestly, public feeling in both sections of the
country becoming thoroughly roused and excited.


Finally, after a discussion which lasted two years,
the dispute was arranged by admitting Missouri as
a slave State on condition that all other territories
and future States north of her southern boundary
should be free. It was hoped at the time that this
"Missouri Compromise," as it was called, would
end forever the slavery contest, but as will be seen
later on it only postponed the day of settlement.
Monroe's administration saw also the opening of
another great public question which, unlike that of
slavery, has not yet reached a final settlement.
This was the tariff question. Many manufactories
had been established in this country since the Rev-
olutionary times, but their owners found it difficult
to compete with foreign (especially English) goods,
which were offered for sale in the American mar-



kets more cheaply than they could be profitably
made for here. At the request of American manu-
facturers, Congress in 1824 increased the taxes (or
duties) on goods imported into this country so as

to'raise the price at which they must be sold, and
thus protect home wares. This protective policy
was (and is) opposed by those who believe that the
government ought not to do anything to restrict
trade, that every one should have the right to buy
where he can buy at the least cost, and that a high

tariff compels the many to support the few. From
that time to the present this question of free trade
or protection has often come up for discussion and
action, and the people have sometimes inclined to
one side and sometimes to the
; other, but they have never yet
spoken so decisively for either
.--. policy as to cause its opponents
to abandon the contest.
\ The Monroe Doctrine," which
has ever since been our great
guide in determining the rela-
tions we should hold with foreign
countries, also originated in this
period. It was set forth in a
'-----message sent to Congress by the
President in the year preceding
r. ". the adoption of the protective
Tariff, and declared that while the
United States would take no part
in any quarrel or war between the
,' nations of Europe or disturb any
.. colony already established in this
country, we would not permit any
European interference with the
affairs of this continent, any at-
tempt to plant new colonies or to
subject any independent state to
the condition of a colony in either
7 North or South America. The
; message was called forth by a sus-
";,. picion that some of the powers of
Europe were seeking to gain con-
S"trol over the South American
states which had recently freed
themselves from Spanish rule and
become independent.
In the closing year of Monroe's
term of office La Fayette on in-
vitation from the government vis-
ited once more the United States.
He was received everywhere with
the honors he so richly merited from the great
services he had rendered the country fifty years
before, and when his year's stay was over he re-
turned to France in a frigate which bore his name
and with a present' from Congress of two hundred
thousand dollars and a township of public land.


F6 7

c ^' ..: "--ii,




THERE were four candidates for the presidency in
1824, all of them Republicans (Democrats), for the
Federalist party had ceased to exist and the Whig
party had not yet come into being. Of these An-
drew Jackson received the most electoral votes, but
not a majority, and so for a second time the House
of Representatives was called upon to choose the
President. There the friends of two of the other
candidates combined against Jackson and secured
the election of John Quincy Adams.
John Quincy Adams was the first President who
had had no part in either the Revolutionary War or in
framing the Constitution. He had come into pub-
lic life after the Constitution was adopted and the
new government organized under it. A son of
John Adams, he had first served his country as
Minister to the Netherlands and to Prussia, then as
United States Senator, then as Minister to Russia
and then as Monroe's Secretary of State. It is a
curious fact that four of the first six Presidents
should have been Secretaries of State under some
of their predecessors, the last three in fact going
direct from that office to the executive chair.
The elder Adams was still living when his son
became President, but the latter had beeh in office
only a little more than a year when his father died.
By a remarkable coincidence both he and Jefferson
died on the same day, and that day (July 4, 1826)
was the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the
Declaration of Independence, of which one had
been the author and the other the principal sup-
porter. The two had been life-long friends except
for a brief interval at the beginning of Jefferson's
presidency, and each died in the belief that the
other was still living.
The administration of Monroe had witnessed the
introduction into the United States from Great
Britain of lighting by gas (1822); that of the younger
Adams saw another invention brought from over the
Atlantic which proved of infinitely more value and
which rivalled in importance even Fulton's steam-
boat. This was the railroad, first tried in England
in 1825, and in America, at Quincy (Mass.) and at
Albany, in 1827. In the course of a few years rail-
roads were built through most of the settled parts
of the United States and proved a most powerful
help in enabling us to make use of the natural wealth
of the country and in enlarging its settlements.

Without question, the locomotive steam-engine has
done more for the prosperity of America than any
other one thing that can be named. It has.hastened
by at least a quarter of a century the development
of the vast region northwest of the Mississippi. It
has made it possible for the people in every section
of the country to obtain quickly and cheaply the
products of every other section. More than all, it
has so encouraged the inhabitants of one State to
travel and mingle among those of other States that


it has knit the whole people into one nation as
probably nothing else would have done.
Though the benefits which were to be derived
from the railroad were not felt immediately, the
country was in a very prosperous condition, and this
the protectionists claimed was the effect of the tariff
of 1824. They therefore became urgent to have the
duties made still higher, on the ground that such a
course would result in even greater wealth to the
country. This policy was advocated by Adams and



his Secretary of State, Henry 0 X
Clay, and they induced Congress --
in 1828 to pass a bill raising the
imposts (or taxes on imports).
The revenues which came from .6I
these increased duties were de- :"' -I
voted to continuing the improve-
ments of roads, canals and har- ''
bors previously begun under
This "American system," as '
the combination of a protective A
tariff with internal improvements '-,
came to be called, proved the .
ruin of Adams as the "Alien
and Sedition Laws" had of his I
father before him. It broke up
the Republican party into two i
sections, one believing as did
Adams and Clay, and the other
opposed to their policy. In the
latter division, which took the
name of the Democratic party,
was found nearly the entire
South, which having no manu-
factories, favored free trade or
at least a low tariff. The other
division of the Republicans -
(which soon took the name of
Whigs) obtained its support at
the North, especially in New HENRY CLAY
England, where nearly all of the manu-
-- facturing of the country was done and
i ._i- which accordingly desired the protec-
tion afforded by a high tariff. The
-i -_ _- North and South thus became divided
"- -_--. to some extent on another subject be-
sides that of the right or wrong of
1 slavery.
Other things as well as the tariff and
internal improvements entered into
P- the party feeling of the time and helped
---- to destroy the political quiet which had
Sso long rested upon the nation. Adams
personally was not a popular man with
1 0 the people, though he was respected
"- and even feared. Trained in politics
-- sa !-~ by his father, he was felt to belong to
the old school of statesmen and not
to be in sufficient sympathy with the
S ---changed conditions of the country to
properly be its head. But the great
S-.-- thing against him, that which chiefly
THE FIRSlT ~STAM-ENGINE led to his overthrow, was the sentiment




that the presidency had not been fairly awarded to
him in 1824, and that the man who had then re-
ceived the most votes should have been President.
This it was that, when he stood for re-election in
1828, caused him to be hopelessly defeated by the
same candidate who had outvoted him four years
before, but whom the House of Representatives had
then set aside in his favor, General Andrew Jackson.
Andrew Jackson, the hero of New Orleans, Old
Hickory as his party associates loved to call him,
was not without political experience when he en-
tered upon the presidency, though his experience
had not been as extensive as that of most
of his predecessors. He had been a mem-
ber of both branches of Congress as well
as of the Supreme Court of Tennessee, the
State of his adoption though not of his
birth. It was as a soldier, however, in the
second war with England that he had won
his distinction and shown his fitness as a
natural leader of men. Honest, fearless,
bold and energetic, he allowed no obstacle
to prevent his doing what he thought was
right or necessary.
The administration of Jackson was a
stormy one. There were foreign difficul-
ties with France. There were wars with
the Indians. There was trouble with the
States. There were disagreements with
Congress. From'the beginning to the end
of his eight years' presidency Jackson was
engaged almost constantly in some contest,
small or great, and from every one of them
he came out the victor.. -
His first attack was upon office-holders '-
whose politics differed from his own, all of
whom he swept from office as no Presi-
dent before him had done, and thus estab-
lished a custom which has been followed
almost without exception by each of his successors.
Then he turned against the Bank of the United
States, in which, since the early days of the Re-
public, the public money had been kept, vetoed
the bill passed by Congress to renew its charter
(1832), and forcibly removed the government de-
posits to State banks. Opposed to the American
system" of high tariff and internal improvements,
he showed his disapproval by refusing to sign any
of the many harbor, canal and river bills sent him
by Congress.
These acts were all directed against his political
opponents. But he was not afraid to proceed
against his political friends, as well, when his views
differed from theirs. He himself believed in a

low tariff, but while a high tariff was the law he
thought it should be obeyed. South Carolina, like
all of the South, was opposed to protective duties.
But her opposition took a more violent form than
did that of other States. When Congress in 1832
again raised the tariff, South Carolina refused to
obey the new law, declared it null (of no effect),
forbade her citizens to pay the duties, and threat-
ened to secede if the national government should try
to enforce it. Such a defiance of federal authority
Jackson was not the kind of man to tolerate. He
at once sent a naval force to Charleston harbor to

( --._ -.,

collect duties from every incoming ship. He or-
\ -.

peril of their lives. This brought South Carolina.

collet dutisenses from every incoming ship. He or
quitdered troops to the interior of the Statermined to waitkeep
order. He issued a proclamation notifying the peo-

little thatefore giving effect to carried out, whation,"ever hap-
pened, and that Congrif they resisted it would do. What Congress didat the
peril of their lives. This brought South Carolina
to her senses. She had not been prepared for
quite so much energy. She determined to wait a
little before giving effect to her nullification," and
see what Congress would do. What Congress did
was to adopt a "compromise tariff" (1833), pro-
viding for a steady annual decrease in the duties,
and so quieted the troubled waters.
He was equally decisive in foreign matters.
Americans had long been seeking payment for the:



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