• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Notice
 Description of frontispiece
 Part I: Reproduction
 Part II: Diseases, malformations...
 New facts and cases






Title: Male generative organs in health and disease, from infancy to old age, being a complete practical theatre of the anatomy and physiology of the male system
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Title: Male generative organs in health and disease, from infancy to old age, being a complete practical theatre of the anatomy and physiology of the male system
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Language: English
Creator: Hollick, Frederick
Publisher: T.W. Strong
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Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Preface
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
    Notice
        Page 12
    Description of frontispiece
        Page 13
    Part I: Reproduction
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Chapter I: The female system
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Chapter II: The male system
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Chapter III: The semen
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
    Part II: Diseases, malformations and derangements of the male system
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Chapter IV: The diseases, deficiencies and malformations of the testes, their envelops, and the parts more immediately connected with them
            Page 56
            Plate
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Anomalies in the size and apparent number of the testes
                Page 60
                Page 61
                Page 62
                Page 63
                Page 64
                Page 65
            Hydrocele, or dropsy of the testicles
                Page 66
                Page 67
                Page 68
                Page 69
                Page 70
                Page 71
                Page 72
                Page 73
                Page 74
                Page 75
                Page 76
                Page 77
                Page 78
                Page 79
            Sarcocele, or chronic fleshy swelling of the testicle
                Page 80
                Page 81
                Page 82
                Page 83
            Fungus of the testicle
                Page 84
                Page 85
            Hernia humoralis, orchitis, or inflammation of the testicles
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
                Page 89
                Page 90
                Page 91
                Page 92
                Page 93
                Page 94
            Ossification of the testicle
                Page 95
            Arrest of development and wasting of the testes
                Page 96
                Page 97
                Page 98
                Page 99
                Page 100
                Page 101
                Page 102
            Tubercular disease, or consumption of the testicle
                Page 103
                Page 104
            Foreign bodies in the scrotum along with the testicles
                Page 105
            Nervous affections of the testicles
                Page 105
                Page 106
                Page 107
                Page 108
                Page 109
                Page 110
                Page 111
            Spermatocele, or swelling of the testes from engorgment of semen
                Page 112
            Scrotocele or rupture of the intestines or omentum into the scrotum
                Page 113
                Page 114
                Page 115
            Varicocele and circocele, or swelling of the veins of the scrotum and spermatic cord
                Page 116
                Page 117
                Page 118
                Page 119
            Haematocele, or swelling of the scrotum and spermatic cord from the effusion of blood
                Page 120
            Prurigo, or itching of the scrotum
                Page 121
                Page 122
            Elephantiasis scroti
                Page 123
                Page 124
            Falling of the spermatic cord
                Page 125
            Relaxation of the scrotum
                Page 126
            Diseases of the vasa deferentia
                Page 127
                Page 128
                Page 129
            Diseases of the seminal vesicles
                Page 130
        Chapter V: The structure, diseases and malformations of the penis and the parts immediately connected with it
            Plate
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Absence and malformation of the penis
                Page 137
                Page 138
                Page 139
                Page 140
            Hypospadias
                Page 141
                Page 142
                Page 143
                Page 144
            Epispadias
                Page 145
            Phymosia
                Page 145
            Paraphymosis
                Page 146
                Page 147
                Page 148
            Want of development, or congenital small size of the penis
                Page 149
                Page 150
                Page 151
                Page 152
                Page 153
                Page 154
                Page 155
                Page 156
                Page 157
                Page 158
                Page 159
                Page 160
                Page 161
                Page 162
                Page 163
            Paralysis of the muscles of the penis
                Page 164
            Priapism, or involuntary erection
                Page 164
                Page 165
                Page 166
                Page 167
                Page 168
                Page 169
                Page 170
            Diseases of the urethra and the parts contained therein
                Page 171
                Page 172
                Page 173
                Page 174
                Page 175
            The prostate gland
                Page 176
                Page 177
                Page 178
                Page 179
                Page 180
                Page 181
        Chapter VI: Functional and sympathetic diseases of the genital organs
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Influence of the brain on the generative powers
                Page 185
                Page 186
                Page 187
                Page 188
                Page 189
                Page 190
                Page 191
            Influence of the mind over the generative organs
                Page 192
                Page 193
                Page 194
                Page 195
                Page 196
                Page 197
                Page 198
                Page 199
                Page 200
            Excessive sensibility of the genital organs
                Page 201
                Page 202
                Page 203
        Chapter VII: Spermatorrhcea, or excessive loss of semen
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
            Causes of spermatorrhoea
                Page 211
                Page 212
                Page 213
                Page 214
                Page 215
            Particular effects of spermatorrhoea
                Page 216
                Page 217
                Page 218
                Page 219
                Page 220
                Page 221
                Page 222
                Page 223
                Page 224
                Page 225
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                Page 229
                Page 230
                Page 231
                Page 232
                Page 233
                Page 234
                Page 235
                Page 236
                Page 237
                Page 238
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                Page 240
                Page 241
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                Page 243
                Page 244
                Page 245
                Page 246
                Page 247
                Page 248
            Symptoms by which the spermatorrhoea may be detected
                Page 249
                Page 250
                Page 251
                Page 252
                Page 253
                Page 254
            Impotence from involuntary emission
                Page 255
                Page 256
                Page 257
                Page 258
                Page 259
                Page 260
                Page 261
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                Page 263
                Page 264
                Page 265
                Page 266
                Page 267
                Page 268
                Page 269
                Page 270
                Page 271
                Page 272
                Page 273
                Page 274
                Page 275
            Treatment of spermatorrhoea
                Page 276
                Page 277
                Page 278
                Page 279
                Page 280
                Page 281
                Page 282
                Page 283
                Page 284
                Page 285
                Page 286
        Chapter VIII: The influence of medicines in producing and curing impotence and spermatorrhoea
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
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            Page 296
            Page 297
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
        Chapter IX: Masturbation and other sexual abuses
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
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            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
        Chapter X: Erotomania and satyriasis
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
            Page 347
        Chapter XI: General remarks on the preservation and restoration of the sexual powers
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
            Page 352
            Page 353
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            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
    New facts and cases
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
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        Page 455-458
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Full Text


















































Section of the Miale Pelvis.
r










MAE GINERATlY EOo1AN

IN HEALTH AND DISEASE,

FROM INFANCY TO OLD AGE.

BEING A COMPLETE PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THB

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

OF THE MALE SYSTEM.

bdTB A DESCRIPTION OF TllE CAUSES, SYMPTOMS, AND TREAI,.HM
OF ALL TIIB INFIRITIFS" AND DISEASE TO WIlRCH
IT I LIAIL.

MDAPTkD FOU

EVERY MAN'S OWN PRIVATE. USE,.

BY FREDERICK HOLLICK, M. D,,
sIrtOR OF THE MARRIAGEE GUIDE," "THE MAEI. ORGANS," M E DISRAEU
OF WOILEN," AND MATRON'S MANUAL," IrT.


Illustrated by Namerous Engravings ani Colered FPlatas

120th EDITnoN, MUCH EINLARGuE AND IMPROlL D.

NEW YORK :
T. W. STBROG. 599 BROADWAY.
























amer d onoeorin tI Aet of congress, aa se year Wier
By FRBDIEIOK HOLLIOK, M. D..
io L Cark's Oeffl of the District Court of the Umted Staes t
the Southern District of New York














dtereotyped by Vincent Di J,.
No. 21 Ann otrmet N. T.
















PREFACE.


In the course of my practice, and more especially at the
termination of my Lectures to Gentlemen, I have been
repeatedly asked whether I could not refer them to some
book, that would give a plain and practical explanation of
the Male System, and its various derangements, adapted
for every man's own use and instruction ? In short a book
was wanted that should serve the same purposes for
Gentlemen that my "Diseases of Woman" did for
Ladies; explaining fully all those affections peculiar to
their own systems, and none others. No such work, how-
ever, was extant, and I saw that the only way to supply
what seemed a general want was to write one. It is true
there were works professing to treat on the Male System,
for popular use, but they were all, without exception,
principally devoted to Venereal diseases, and those who
made the enquiry of me were not persons at all liable to
such affections, nor feeling any particular interest in them.
My audience would frequently say, We are not subjects
of syphilis, and probably never shall be, but still we are
liable to many other diseases, most of which could doubt-
less be prevented if we knew their nature and causes; but
unfortunately for us, with the exception of your Lectures,
there is no source of information on such matters open to
us. We want a Book that will treat on these things in the
same style that your Lectures do, and it will be a public
service if you will write such a one." For a long time I








iv PREFACE.

was desirous of ccmplying with this request, but my time
was so incessantly occupied that I could not do so. The
materials I had in profusion, for I had consulted every
book on these subjects that was worth reading, both in the
English and other languages, and I had besides my own
notes of cases, as numerous and varied as perhaps any one
ractitioner ever met with, but still all these materials
required arranging and writing out I had besides to
make a number of direct experiments, with animals, and
of dissections of the human body, for the purpose of testing
the. new discoveries on Generation, announced by the
European Physiologists, which were so utterly opposed to
old notions and doctrines. In addition to these causes of
delay, I had dlso several peculiar and highly instructive
cases in hand, the termination of which 1 was desirous to
see, so that I could make use of the rvel experience they
gave.
Had it not been for all these causes combined I should
have published this book earlier. The delay, however, has
been necessary in order to have it complete, and I was
determined it should not be issued 'till it was so. It may
be advisable to state also, for the information of those not
acquainted with me or my previous publications, that my
course of study, and long practice, has been almost exclu-
sively devoted to the physiology and derangements of the
Reproductive System, in both sexes, respecting which I
have had unusual opportunities for obtaining information,
both in this country and in Europe. Whenever any new
discovery, or mode of treatment, has been announced, I
have immediately tested it thoroughly, and have further
made every allowable experiment suggested to myself.
There are certain difficulties connected with the Repro.
ductive System that are very important, as affecting
human health and happiness, but which are scarcely ever
made the subjects of study by medical men at all, at least
not in this c untry The consequence is, that the treat-







PREFACE.

sent they receive is mostly empirical, and as liable to do
harm as good. So evident is this, that many persons so
afflicted never apply for medical assistance, but prefer to
suffer on and not complain. This is particularly the case
with many difficulties experienced by young persons, and
with many' troubles incident to .Marriage, such as
Impotence and Sterility, aversion or indifference, and
physical or moral unsuatabilhty. In the old world there
are men of the greatest eminence who devote their sole
attention to those matters, and who are the alleviators of
misery, and the dispensers of unexpected happiness to
thousands. In this country I am not aware of any one,
besides myself, that has embraced this peculiar line of
practice, and I have found the greatest want of information
prevailing, even amongst medical men, respecting the
means of relief that are really at our command. In all
probability many of the modes of practice, and many of
the resources, pointed out in this work, will be entirely
new to thousands, and will give hope to many who had
previously been sunk in despair.
As far as my professional duties would allow, I have
endeavored to instruct the public on those matters by my
Lectures, which have been attended by thousands of both
sexes, and which I intend to continue, as far as possible, in
various parts of the Union These Lectures are devoted,
like the present work, to the Physiology of the Reproduo-
tive System, and to its derangements and diseases, except-
ing those of a Venereal character, which my audience
seldom enquire about. My Book on The Diseases of
Vooman," and my Lectures to them alone, treat on the
female system only. The present work, and my Lectures
to Gentlemen alone, treat on the male system only, so
that a source of interesting and useful study, and of prac-
tical advice, is olen to both.
I am aware that such an attempt as the present will
appear strange to some, and may meet with slight objec-







VI PREFACE.

*ion with the unreflecting and prejudiced; but I feel
%ssured that any reasonable person, on due reflection, will
approve of it. That such afflictions as those I have
described do exist is unfortunately too true, and it there-
fore becomes the duty of every one, as far as lies in his
power, to alleviate them. This I am persuaded can be
accomplished, to a great extent, by such information as
that I have here given, and I sincerely wish it may do aa
much good as I intended and desire it to do.
In addition to every subject relating directly and erela
lively to the Male System, I have thought it necessary to
aive a general description of the Female System also, and
of the process of Reproduction, in order to explain more
fully and clearly certain difficulties that could not be well
understood without such information. This description
will be found to include the most recent information on
these subjects, with several interesting discoveries of my
own, and will therefore supply every item of information
necessary to a full understanding of the Generative System
ant its functions in both sexes. A great part of this infor-
mation cannot be found in any other work in the English
language, and is now for the first time laid before the
public.
Many parts of this .ook will be found as useful to
Jedieal men as others, because there are few of them that
are fully acquainted with the subjects on which it treats,
ae who know where to seek for the requisite information.
F HOLLICK. M. D.
New York.

















CONTE TS.






DESCRIPTION OF FRONTISPIECE, 13

PART I.


REPRODUCTION, I
CHAPTER I.
TH FEMALE SYSTEM, II

CHAPTER II.
*In MALE SYSTEM, 43
CHAPTER III.
THr SEMEN, 46



/








viii CONTENTS.



PART II.




rag.
DISEASES, MALFORMATIONS AND DE-
RANGEMENTS OF THE MALE SYS-
TEM. 63

CHAPTER IV.
THe DISEASES, DEFICIENCIES AND MALFORMA-
TIONS OF THE TESTES, THEIR ENVELOPS,
AND THE PARTS MORE IMMEDIATELY CON-
NECTED WITH THEM, 69
Anomalies in the size and apparent number of the Testes. 72
Hydrocele, or Dropsy of the Testicles, 79
Sarcocele, or Chronic Fleshy Swelling of the Testicle, 94
Fungus of the Testicle, .. 98
Hernia Humoralis, Orchitis, or Inflammation of the Testicles, 100
Ossification of the Testicle, .109
Arrest of Development and Wastjig of the Testes, 110
Tubercular Disease, or Consumption of the Testicle, 117
Foreign Bodies in the Scrotum along with the Testicles, 119
Nervous Affections of the Testicles, .. ib.
Spermatocele, or Swelling of the Testes from engorgment
of Semen I
Scrotocele or Rupture of the Intestines or Omentum into
the Scrotum, 121
Varcocele and Circocele, or Swelling of the Veins of the
Scrotum and Spermatic Cord, ISO
flsmatocele, or Swelling of the Scrotum and Spermatie
Cord from the effusion of Blood, 14
Prurigo, or Itching of the Scrotum, I 1
Elephantiasis Scroti, 187
Falling of the Spermatic Cord, 139
Relaxation of the Scrotum, 140
Diseases of the Vasa Deferentia, 141
Diseases of the Seminal Vesicles 14"








CONTENTS. X


CHAPTER V. Page

*'t STRUCTURE, DISEASES AND MALFORMA-
TIONS OF THE PENIS AND THU PARTS IM-
MEDIATELY CONNECTED WITH IT, 14
Absence and Malformation of the Penis,
Hypospadias, 168
Fpispadias, 160
Phymosis, ib.
Paraphymosis, 181
Want of Development, or congenital small size of the Penis, 104
Paralysis of the Muscles of the Penis, .179
Priapism, or Involuntary Erection, ib.
Diseases of the Urethra and the parts contained therein, 188
The Prostate Gland, .191

CHAPTER VI.

FUNCTIONAL AND SYMPATHETIC DISEASES OF
THE GENITAL ORGANS, 197
Influence of the Brain on the Generative Powers, 200
Influence of the Mind over the Generative Organs, 207
Excessive Sensibility of the Genital Organs, 216

CHAPTER VII.

SPERMATORRH(EA, OR EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SEMEN, 219
Causes of Spermatorrhea, 22
Particular effects of Spermatorrhoea, 231
Symptoms by which the Spermatorrhmea may be detected, 264
Impotence from Involuntary Emission, 270
Treatment. of Spermatorrhma, 291

CHAPTER V1II.

rHE INFLUENCE OF MEDICINES IN PRODUCING
AND CURING IMPOTENCE AND SPERMA-
TORRHA, 302







X CONTENTS.


CHAPTER IX.
MASTURBATION AND OTHER SEXUAL ABUSES, 121

CHAPTER X.
EROTOMANIA AND SATYRIASIS, .399

CHAPTER XI.
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE PRESERVATION
AND RESTORATION OF THE SEXUAL POWEILS 398





*







ILLUSTRATIONS. xl




ILLUSTRATIONS.




PLATE I.
SECTION OF FEMALE PELVIS, .

PLATE II.
FRONT VIEW OP THE FEMALE PELVI, 5

PLATE III.
OVARIES AND VEHICLES, 81

PLATE IV.
UTERUS AND APPENDAGES LAID OPEN, 4.

PLATE V.
SEMINAL ANIIIALCULES, .
PLATE VI.
UTERUS AT FOUR MONTHS, 5

PLATE VII.
SECTION OF THE WOMB, NATURAL 0IX, 31
PLATE VIII.
ISMINAL TUBES OF THE TESTICLE, .

PLATE IX.
RYDROCELE, .

PLATE X
8ECTno OF PENIS AND BLADD.. 4











NOTICE.




ANY persons wishing to communicate with Dr. H. by
Letter. can address to
DR. F. HOLLICs,
Box, 3606, Post Office,
New York City, N. Y."
and they will be promptly replied to.
All Letters asking an opinion, or advice, must be full
and plain in their descriptions, so that a correct judgment
can be formed, and they must always contain the custom.
ory fee of Five Dollars, or they cannot be attended to.
N. B.-Persons visiting New York, can always hear
respecting Dr. H. by calling on T. W. STRONG, 599 Broad-
way, his publisher, who will know if he is then in town
or not, and will give the address of his office. In the
changes constantly occurring in New York, removals fro
quently occur, which makes this precaution advisable

F. n.










DEStRIPTION OF FRONTISPIECE

Section of the Male Pelvis to show the situations of the
different parts.
&. The Bladder.-B. The Rectum, or end of the large
Intestine.-C. The lower part of the back bone, or
Sacrum.-d. d. The small Intestines.-f. One of the Kid-
neys.-g. g. The Ureter, or Tube which conveys the
Urine from the Kidneys into the Bladder.-h. The Pubic
or Frontal Bone of the Pelvis.
1. The left Testicle.-2. 2. The Vas Deferens, or Tube
which conveys the Semen from the Testicle.-3. The left
Seminal Vesicle, with which the Vas Deferens is con.
nected.--4. The Ejaculatory Canal, into which the Semen
6ext passes.-5. The Prostate Gland, with which the
Ejaculatory Canal connects, and through which the Semen
passes into the Urethra, or Urinary passage from the
Bladder, (7).-6. Is the Veru Montanum, or small protu-
berance which partly closes the neck of the Bladder.-
7. 7. The Urethra, or passage by which the Urine escapes
from the Bladder doun the Penis.--. The upper part of
the Penis, or Corpus Cavernosum.-9. The lower part, or
Corpus Spongiosum.-10. The Glans, or head of the
Penis.-11. One of Cowper's Glands.
The course of, the Semen is from the Teste along the Van
Deferens to the Seminal Vesicle, then along the Ejacula-
tory Canal and through the Prostate Gland into the
Urethra, which it enters by the lower part of the YVeru
Montanum, at the part indicated by the two black dots
It then escapes from the body in the same way as the
Urine does.











PA RT I.






REPRODUCTION.

'li Reproductive process in the human being,
as in all other perfectly organized animals, requires
the concurrent action of two different organizations,
the male and the female, each performing a distinct
part, one as necessary as the other, Neither of these
organizations alone can effect the whole process of
reproducing a new being, though in certain cases
they may partly do so, in an imperfect manner. To
understand fully the action of each, which is re.
quisite before their derangements and diseases can
be understood, it is requisite to give a genera,
description of both, and also of Reproduction it
self. This description can now be given with
something like accuracy, owing to the valuable dis.
coveries of modern science, and a correct idea can
be obtained, of the main steps at least, of this won.
derful phenomenon, though "hitherto it has been
shrouded in such imperetrable mystery.

















PLATE I.

Section of the Female Pey!ik
A The Bladder.
B The Womb.
C. The Vagina.
D The Rectum, or end of the large Intestine
e. )ne of the Ovaries.
f. The Corresponding Fallopian Tube.
g. The Os Tineas, or Mouth of.the Womb, which opea
into the Vagina, or lower passage.
A the Meatus Urinarius, or Mouth of the Bladder, by
which the Urine escapes.
i. The Small Intestines.
j ;. The Sacrum, or lower part of the back bone.
k The Pubic, or Front Bone of the Pelvis
1. The Right External Lip.
m The Right Internal Lip, or Nympha
n The Hymen.
o. The Opening through the Hymea.
p The Clitoris.
Phe Perineum




































Plate I.
Section of Female Pelrvi













CHAPTER I.

THE FEMALE SYSTEM

THE office of the female system is twofold: it
has to produce in the first place one of the original!
principles, or primary parts, from which the new
being begins; and also to effect its development
into the perfect form. The female organs are
therefore much more complicated than those of the
male, and her part of the process is more extended.
The most essential parts of the female organize.
tion are two organs termed the Ovaries, which are
located in the abdomen, one on each side, just
above the groin. These organs have the power,
when their full development is attained, to produce
certain little bodies called Ova, or Eggs, essen-
tially the same as the eggs of birds, one of which is
always required in the commencement of a new
being.
These organs are small in early life, and com-
paratively inactive, but at a certain period, termed
puberty, they become larger, and commence a
series of curious and important physiological pro.
cesses, the object of which is to develop the egg and
to effect its expulsion from the body.
When the ripe Ovaries are dissected they are
found to contain a number of cells, or vesicles,
which may be compared to those of a honey-comb,







18 THE FEMAlE SYSTEM.

and in each of those cells is contained one of the
germs or eggs, surrounded by a white fluid like the
white of an egg. These cells are termed the
Graafjan Vesicles, after the Anatomist Graaf, who
first described them; they are about as large,
when fully developed, as a small pea, but are not
all of the same size at once, some being small or
merely rudimentary, and others approaching per.
fection. Before the age of puberty these cells and
the eggs they contain, are all undeveloped and
small, but at that time their gradual and successive
development commences. It is found, from recent
observations, that only one of them is perfected at a
time, and that it requires a certain period before
another can be produced. In the adult ovary
therefore we find them at every stage, some being
only in the rudimentary state, others just com-
mencing to grow, and others having a.cained a con-
siderable size, there being always one more ripe
than any of the others, and evidently approaching
to perfection.
When the egg is fully developed it is thrown out
of the Ovary, and after a time makes its escape
from the body, in a very curious manner only
recently discovered. There are therefore two
different actions performed by. the Ovaries, first
the forming or developing of the eggs in successive
order, and secondly, the expulsion of ,hem from
the Ovary, and ultimately from the body.
This development of the eggs it must be remem.
bered is entirely independent of sexual union or ex.
citement, and is totally unconnected with conception,
except as a preparation for it. In every f'ill.,le.
whether virgin or not, from the age of pubc it till
the turn of life in old age, this development of the






THE FE~IALo SYSTEM. 9 (

eggs is always going on, excepting in certain dis-
eases, and during gestation and nursing, when it is
usually suspended. It is also performed in certain
definite and regular periods, which are nearly the
same in all persons alike. This period is usually
one montl, or twenty-eight days, and most females
observe precisely that period with singular regu-
larity. During every month, therefore, after
puberty, with the exceptions above named, one of
the Graafian Vesicles, and its included egg, arrives
at perfection, and at the end of the month the egg is
expelled from the body.
The egg appears to be expelled from the Ovary
by a real inflammatory action, similar to what
nature establishes to effect the expulsion of an in;
jurious foreign substance in any other part of the
body. Towards the end of the month the Vesicle
begins to swell very much, and is filled with blood,
instead of the white fluid seen there at other times;
the egg, which was formerly at the bottom of the
Vesicle, is now lifted up to the top, by the fluid
underneath, and is at last pressed forcibly against
the envelop or skin of the Vesicle. This pressure
becomes eventually so great that the envelop
bursts and the egg escaping through the rent
reaches the outside of the Ovary. It is then taken
to a particular part of the body to remain for a cer-
tain number of days, during which it may be im-
pregnated, or receive the male principle, and if this
takes place, they both remain and develop into the
new being, but if no impregnation is effected then,
at the end of that time the egg is passed out of the
tpdy and lost. From this it is evident that impreg.
nation, or conception, can take place only during
those days after the egg is expelled from the Ovary























PLATE II.

Front View of the I emale Pelvis, with the External Walls
removed.
A. The Bladder.
B The Womb.
D. The Rectum, or Large Intestine.
e. e. The Ovaries.
f. f. The Fallopian Tubes.
i. i. The Small Intestines
r. r. The Round Ligaments.
This shows the situation of the Organs in the front 4a
the body, as they appear when it is first opened.
























,J,












i -








Plate II

Front view of the Female Pelvis.







22 THE FEMALE SYSTEM.

and while i yet remains in the body, as will be ex.
plained more fully further on.
The inflammatory action by which the Vesicle
is filled with blood, and the egg excelled from the
Ovary, is not altogether confined to those parts, nor
to that one process, but affects other parts, and ac.
complishes other purposes. The whole Ovary,
and also the neighboring organs, become at that
time singularly excited and congested with blood,
and at last, to relieve themselves, the blood mixed
with mucus is discharged, to subdue the inflamma-
tion. This discharge usually lasts about four
days, and is termed the Menstrual, or monthly Jlow.
This flow, therefore, about which so little has pre.
viously been known, is caused by the expulsion of
the Ovum or Egg from the Vesicle, and indicates
the period when that expulsion takes place. Con-
sequently in those who have- no Ovaries, or in
whom they are torpid, or destroyed by disease, no
menstruation takes place. And for the same rea-
son it is not seen before puberty, because the eggs
are not then ripened, nor after the turn of life,
because then they are all expelled. This discharge
is therefore an indication of the capability for con-
ception, and it is also, in all probability, a means of
removing much injurious matter from the system,
so that female health is materially dependent upon
it, and those in whom it does not appear, or becomes
irregular, are nearly certain to become diseased. It
is proper to remark, however, that it's sometime
nearly or quite colorless, and then the persons think
they have no menstruation, though it may never.
theless be perfectly regular.
When the egg is fully expelled it leaves behind
it the hollow Vesicle, filled with clotted blood, -L






THE FEMALE SYSTEM. 23

the top of which is a torn place, or rent, through
which the egg escaped. In a short time this blood
dries up and changes to a dull yellow color, while
the rent forms a scar on the surface of the Ovary,
and we thus have produced the yellow body called
a Corpus Luteum, which: was formerly thought to
result from conception only, but is now known to be
an old Vesicle from which an Ovum has been ex-
pelled. On the surface of the Ovary of an adult
female a number of these scars are always to be
seen, but as they gradually fade away and disappear,
only some few, and sometimes only the last one, can
be distinctly seen. The Vesicles are contained at
first, in their rudimentary state, in the body of the
Ovary, and appear to develop in succession, the
outer ones first, each one when fully ripe projecting
Dn the surface like a.small pimple or nipple till it
bursts. The egg itself, when fully developed, is
only about as large as the point of a pin, in fact it
can only just be seen by the naked eye. This may'
appear singular when corhpared with the large egg
of a bird, but it must be recollected that the bird's
egg is surrounded by the nutritious matter from
which the new being is to be made, because it is
totally separated from all other sources of nutrition,.
but the Human Ovum remains in the mother's body
and derives nourishment from her blood to effect its
development, it has therefore no need for any supply.
of.nourishment to be attached to it. The actual
arm is probably no larger in the bird than in the
htman female.
When the egg is fully ripe, if it receives the male
principle, it will develop, to a certain extent, into.
the human organization in any part of the body.:
But it cannot fully and perfectly develop except in





24 THE FEMALE SYSTEM.
a particular organ, called the Matrix, the Uterus, M
Womb. The position ofthis organ in the body may
be seen in the Plates. It is a small hollow organ in
its natural state with very thick walls, but capable
of undergoing astonishing changes, and possesses
every requisite both for the perfect development of
the new being, and also for its expulsion into the
world when fully grown.
The Ovaries are attached to the Uterus, mne on
each side, by ligaments or bands, but have no direct
connection with its cavity. The connection between
the Ovaries and Womb is by means of two organs,
one attached to each side of the Womb just above
the Ovaries, called the Fallrvian Tubes. A small
cavity leads from the inside of the Womb down
these Tubes to the end opposite the Ovaries, which
is expanded like a Trumpet, aod surrounded by a
number of fringes or Tentaculm like the fingers of
a hand;
The Womb is placed at the ton of the passage or
Tube called the Vagina, and opens into it by a
small mouth called the Os Tince. or mouth of the
Womb. The lower part of the Vagina opens ex-
ternally by the mouth called the Vulva. There is
therefore a direct passage from the Ovaries to the
outside of the body, by whiLth the Ova or Eggs ar
expelled.
After this description, the maturation and expul.
sion of the egg, and the process of conceDtion cv,
be readily understood by th,. following explanation
and by referring to the Plate,.
An egg becomes ripe at the end of every monthly
period in one or the other of the Ovaries, a.qd when
expelled in the manner above described i ;s tuken
into the Womb in the followiaws m anl A. tu t
3*a







25










PLATE III.

Ovaries, Graafian Vesicles, and Ova
1 One of the Ovaries just before the Crisis.-a. Is the
Graafian Vesicle that is nearly ripe, and preparing to
burst, the Ovum projecting upon it like a small
pimple.
2. The same Ovary cut through, to show the Interior.-
a. Is the Vesicle as seen within; the dark centre
denoting the clot of blood which throws out the Egg.-
b. Is an old Vesicle, from which an Egg has been ejected
at some former crisis. It is now drying up, and forms a
Corpus Luteum
8 Is the Graafian Vesicle removed and magnified.-a. Is
the Ovum, or Egg, just breaking through the rent in
the Vesicle.
4. Is the Egg itself itagnified, showing its granular strao-
tare.-a. Is the G irmihal Vesicle












"4


































Plate III.

Ovaries and Vessicles.







rllg FEMALE SYSTEM.

precise time when the egg is fairly loose from the
Vesicle, the expanded end of the Fallopian Tube
grasps the Ovary over the spot where it is, and the
fringes or fingers at the end of the Tube take hold
of and carry it into the passage. The Tube then
contracts and the egg is gradually forced down its
interior till it reaches the Womb.
When the egg arrives in the Womb it would of
course pass immediately out, by way of the Vagina,
if there were not some contrivance to prevent it,
which of course there is, and of a very simple and
perfect character. While the egg is passing down
the Tube there is formed in the interior of the
Womb a thin membrane, or skin, which lines its
walls ant closes the passage at its mouth. While
the egg passes out at the Uterine end of the Tube it
presses on this membrane and makes a depression
or nest in which it lies.
As long therefore as this membrane remains
attached the egg is retained in the Womb, and con-
ception is possible, because the male principle can
penetrate through it without obstruction, but at the
end of a certain time the membrane looses away and
parts from the body, taking the egg along with it,
after which, of course, there can be no conception
till another such period comes round and another
egg is lodged there in the same. :anniI.-r. ? Conse.
sequently there is only a part of each month during
which conception can take place, and during the
rest of the month it is impossible The precise
period during which conception can occur varies in
different persons, being in some only one or two days,
and in others much longer, but it probably never
extends beyond half the month, or fourteen days.
This statement I arr aware will surprise many ner







28 THE FEMALE SYSTEM.

sons, it being generally thought that co,hceprw n may
take place at anlost any time bui tnero is no
question that this is an error.
As near as can be ascertained, the flow occurs
while the expulsion is taking place from the Ovary
and the egg does not reach the womb until the first
or second day after the discharge has ceased,it isa
therefore from the second day after the cessation of
the period that the time during which conception
can take place is reckoned. 'This time, I think it
necessary to state again, is so various in different
females that no general rule can be laid down, and
there are so many causes which make its com-
mencement and duration uncertain, that it cannot
be calculated upon practically, except by ex. '
perienced persons. There are signs by which the
period during which conception is impossible can be
told in every female, with perhaps a few exceptions,
but they can only be detected by those who "have
been long in the habit of observing them. The
Membrane and Egg together are so small, and so
delicate in their structure, that no female perhaps
ever observed them, though passing from her body
every month. I have, however, obtained them, and
have pointed them out to persons, by the aid of the
microscope.
A knowledge of the above mentioned facts en- .
ables us to explain many cases of barrenness, the
causes of which were previously unknown. In some
females the Ovary has not power to perfect the egg,.
and it is constantly expelled before its development
is complete, and therefore is not capable of being
impregnated. In others the Womb does not form
the Membrane, so that the egg instead of being re.
tatned ini the Womb passes immediately out, and







THE FEMALE SYSTEM. 29

conception has no chance to occur. Some females
can only retain the egg a few hours, or perhaps for
a day, and if not impregnated during that short
time they cannot be so during the rest of the month.
The most probable time for conception is from the
first to the fifth day after the cessation of the men-
strual flow.
SThe actual process of conception is in itself very
Simple, and may be explained in a few words The
semen, or male principle, is deposited, during as-
sociation, in the Vagina, and from thence conveyed
upwards through the Os Tinc-e, into the cavity of
the womb. If it reaches the upper part, and the
egg be there, conception may occur ; but there are
many causes operating both to prevent its transit
and also to destroy its power. The upward passage
of the semen is accomplished by a peculiar vital
power in itself, which will. be explained when we
describe the male system. The place of union of
the two principles is therefore usually in the upper
part of the womb, or possibly also at the uterine end
of the Fallopian Tube.
Immediately after impregnation has.been effected
the egg attaches. itself permanently to the walls of
the womb and begins to develop into a human
being, the womb expanding to allow of its doing so.
When fully grown the walls of the womb begin to
contract and eventually expel it from the body, by
way of the vagina. During its growth the nutri-
ment required is obtained, in some way not very
well understood, from the mother's blood, the com-
munication between the Foetus and its parent being
of the most wonderful and mysterious character.
Instances have been known of the egg, after its im-
pregnation, being taken back again, by a reverse







30 THE FEMALE SYSTEM.

action of the Tube, to the outside of the womb, and
partly developing there; such cases are called extra
uterine conceptions, and they are supposed to result
from fright or other sudden and powerful emotions.
The natural action of the Tube is such that it can
nly convey anything from the Ovaries towards the
omb, but sudden and strong excitement of the
ervous system may, for a short time, reverse this
natural action, and if there should then be an im.
pregnated egg at the uterine end of the Tube it may
be brought to the outside, and thus produce an extra
uterine conception. These, however, are always
imperfect, and of course can never be born. Some-
limes they form into tumors which may be carried
for years, or even for life, but more frequently they
decay after a time and pass away by an abscess,
often with little injury or risk to the patient.
The old notion about one Ovary producing males
and the other females, is incorrect, either one pro
iucing both sexes. It is also an error to suppose,
as some persons do, that sexual feeling is requisite
in the female for conception to take place. There
is no question whatever that it can occur in certain.
cases, not only without sexual feeling, but also
during sleep, or in a state of perfect unconsciousness,
though it is not so likely to do so. This will be
better understood, however, after the male system
has been described,(when it will be shown that it
may be even effected ARTIFICIALLY, without any
intercourse of the sexes at all.J
This explanation, it will be observed, establishes
a perfect correspondence between the action of the
reproductive system in the hilman female and in all
others, such as reason and analogy would lead us to
expect.







THE FEMALE SYSTEM. 31

The constant production of Ova, or Eggs, at
regular periods, as a part of the proper action of
the female system, independently of sexual unioi.
or excitement, is what universally occurs. In
those animals that bring forth their young alive, it
ts true, we do not ordinarily see them, unless they
are closely looked for, owing to their small size and
to their remaining within the body to develop
when impregnated. But in those who produce
their young externally, as birds for instance, the
eggs are larger and easily seen, and it is well
known that they are regularly produced without
any concurrence of the male bird. These eggs
so produced, however, are infecund, that is, they
cannot develop, because they have not the male
principle. This is what we have shown occurs in
the human female; the eggs are regularly pro.
duced, but when not impregnated are thrown off
and lost.
SThe use of impregnation therefore is to vzvfy or
perfect the egg, and not to produce it as the old
theories supposed.
In like manner we see that in all animals a crisis
is produced when the eggs are ripened and cast off,
strictly analogous to the monthly crisis in the
human female. The period, however, varies very
much, though always constant in the same being.
Thus some animals produce their Ova only cnce in
two or three years, as the Lion and Elephant for
instance, while others do so every year, usually in
the spring, as the Deer and wild cattle for instance.
When this occurs there is a peculiar excitement
engendered in the system, called the Rut, or heat,
which is accompanied by a flow, and is strictly
analogous to the monthly crisis in the human being.
/







S2 THE FEMALE SYSTEM.

It is of course only at that period when the eggs
are ripened that impregnation can be effected, as ie
well known with domestic animals, who conceive
only in the season of rut, or heat, which usually
occurs in the spring. They will not admit the male
at any other time, because there is not the ,requisite
excitement to create the desire to do so; but even
if they were there could be no conception, simply
because there is no egg to be impregnated. In the
the human being the ovarian development is
monthly, and therefore conception can occur at
almost any period of the year, though only at a
particular part of each month. In some domestic
animals, as Fowls and Rabbits for instance, the
ovarian development is almost incessant, so that
they produce eggs, or conceive almost without
intermission.
On dissecting the ovaries of any animal at the
proper period, all the appearances can be noted
that we have described in the human being. The
vesicles may be seen at various stages of develop.
ment, the Corpora Lutca may be detected where
ova have formerly been expelled, and, in birds, the
eggs themselves may be seen, some merely rudi.
mentary, others larger, and some nearly ready to
be expelled. In the human being there is usually
Jut one vesicle, and its egg, ripened at each period,
but occasionally there are two or more, when we
may have twins, and so forth. So that in those
animals who have always several young at a birth,
there are, of course, always as many vesicles
ripened, and a Corpus. Luteum is formed for each.
The structure of the egg is the same in all
animals, being precisely like that of the bird
The main part is a mass of yellow granules, called







THE FEMALE SYSTEM, 3

Lhe yea, in which is found a small greenish
vesicle, called the germinal vesicle. The white por.
tion seen so large in birds, is, like the shell, an
accidental addition, and not strictly a part of the
ovum; it is not needed in those Ova that are
developed in the body. In its passage down the
Tube the egg is broken open by the germinal
vesicle bursting through its outer envelop and
escaping. This breaking open of the egg is, as
will be shown when the male principle is described,
a necessary preparation for conception, and is in
itself a very curious phenomenon.
I am aware that the facts I have stated, and the
conclusions drawn from them, are totally at vari.
ance with many old theories and popular notions,
'ad will seem very strange to those who hear them
for the first time. It is, therefore, necessary for me
to state that they are not advanced without the
fullest authority. It is only very recently that a
knowledge of these curious and important facts has
been obtained, and they have not yet had time to fine
their way even into standard scientific works, in this
country, though well known to practical Physiolo.
gists. They are the results of actual experiment
and investigation, and are placed beyond the possi.
ability of doubt. These explanations have a very
different foundation, therefore, from the mere theories
and suppositions contained in most physiological
works, which are generally supported only by
questionable statements or loosely observed facts





















PLATE IV.

The Uterus and its appendages removed, to show their
connections
B. The Womo.
C. The Vagina
e. e. The Ovaries
f. f. The Fallopian Tubes.
g. The Neck of the Womb.
r. r. The Round Ligaments.
s. The Left Broad Ligament.
This view represents the Organs disconnected from all
the other parts. The passage of the Ovum, from the
Ovary down the Fallopian Tube to the Womb can be
readily understood by this plate.









I I/ I n q
I". "i i











Plate IV
Uterus and appendages laid open






36



CHAPTER II.

THE MALE SYSTEM.

THE most essential organs in the male systern
ire two glandular bodies, called the Testes or Tes.
ticles, which are placed, after birth, outside of the
body, in an external envelop, called the scrotum.
hanging from the pubic bone. The use of these
organs is to produce the male principle, o. semen,
as ;he ovaries produce the female ova or egg.
Tlhe Testes, like the Ovaries, are not capable of per-
forming their proper .functions till a certain period
of life, called puberty, but unlike them, they are
not liable to lose their powers at any particular age,
but may preserve them indefinitely. In the early
stages of existence in the womb the testes are con.
stained in the abdomen, and only descend to the
scrotum just before birth.
On dissecting one of the testicles, it isfound to
be chiefly composed of blood-vessels and numerous
small tubes containing semen. A branch of the
spermatic artery is sent from the abdomen down to
each testis, in which it divides and subdivides into
thousands of little branches, many of which are
too small to be seen by the naked eye. It is this
artery that brings to the testes the pure blood from
which probably the semen is formed. The extreme
ends of' the minute arterial branches are appa.
rently continuous with the commencements of the
seminal tubes, so that in examining them we grad-
ually lose sight of the blood and begin to find






THE MALE SYSTEM. 37

semen. The seminal tubes are at first exceedingly
minute, but.very numerous, and they gradually
unite together to form larger branches, and trunks,
till eventually the whole form but one tube, called
the Vas Deferens, by which the semen is conveyed
to the Urethra. The number of these little tubes
has been estimated at over sixty thousand in one
testicle, and it has been shown, that, if they were put
in a straight line, they would measure many hun-
dreds, if not thousands of feet. There is also a
branch of the spermatic vein connected with each
testis, which ramifies in its substance similarly to
the artery. This vein is to take away the impure
and refuse blood when no longer needed.
The Testicles are therefore mainly composed of
three kinds of tubes, or vessels, namely, Arteries,
Veins, and Seminal Tubes. In addition to which
.here are also numerous nerves, and Lymphatics, or
absorbents, the whole being connected together by a
cellular substance or tissue. Each one is connected
with the body by what is termed the spermatic cord,
which is a kind of sheath, or tube, about half an
inch in diameter, containing the main branches of
the Artery, Nerves, and Lym;hatics, going to the
Testis, with the main branch of the vein; and the
Vas Deferens, coming from it. This spermatic
cord ascends into the Abdomen, when the different
vessels composing it are distributed to their res-
pective places. Each testis is also surrounded by
a distinct coat, or tunic, beside the scrotum, or outer
skin, in which both are enclosed.
The manner in which the semen is actually made
is of course unknown to us; we can only point out
the place where it originates and explain its pro-
gress towards the exterior of the body.







g THE MALE SYSTEM.

The Vas Dcfeiens from each Testis, into which
all its seminal tubes have poured their contents,
ascends into the Abdomen through the spermatic
cord, and rises nearly as hig'i as the top of. the
bladder, behind which it turns, and then begins to
descend till it meets over its lower part with two
small organs called the Seminal Vesicles, with which
it becomes connected. From the seminal vesicles
;the semen passes down a small tube called the
Ejaculatory Canal, which is attached to the bladder,
and which joins immediately under it, an organ
,called the 1"rostate Gland. Finally, by means of
some curious openings through the prostate gland,
the seminal fluid is passed into the Urethra, or pas.
sage down the Penis, by which the urine escapes
from the bladder, and is thus ejected from the
'body.
'These several parts comprise the whole male
generative system, and in the act of impregnation
,each one has a special function to perform. The
Testis secrete the semen, the Vas Deferens and
ejaculatoryy canal convey it to the Urethra, and the
penis deposits it in the Female Organs, while the
seminal vesicless and prostate gland either secrete
some necessary addition, or effect some modification
in it.
This general description will be sufficient fbr our
present purpose., A full account of each organ,
and of all their different diseases, will be given
'further on.' After the nature and properties of the
.Seminal Fluid have been treated upon.
(A reference to the Frontispiece and its explana.
tion, will give a clear idea of the description here
given, and will also make any of the subsequent
articles be readily understood.)











CHAPTER III

THE SEMEN.

THE vivifying principle secreted by the inai,
testes is a yellowish white semi-fluid substance,
having a peculiar odor. It is slightly viscid and
of a saltish flavor, when fresh. On examiination it
is found to consist of two distinct parts, one nearly
fluid and the other like globules of half-dissolved
starch, which, however, both melt together when it
is exposed some time to the air. The peculiar
odor of the Semen appears to be derived from some
of the parts through which it passes, for when taken
from the testes it has scarcely any smell at all.
Chemical analysis shows us that the semen dif.
fers but little in its composition from other sub.
stances found in the body. In 1000 parts there are
about 900 water; 60 animal nmlcilage; 10 soda;
and 30 of phosphate of lime, with a peculiar animal
principle, the composition of which is unknown.
This analysis it must be recollected is that of the
semen, as it leaves the body, that is the secretion
of the Testes, Vesicles, Prostate Gland, and other
parts, united together. How far the pure semen
from the testis alone differs from this is not known
By some the starchy portion only is supposed to be
produced by the Testes.
The Seminal Animalcuke.-The most curious
peculiarity of the semen, and in many respects the
most important, is that there always exists in it,
wheit perfect, a number of remarkable living







40 THE MALE SYSTEM.

beings, called the Zoospermes, or Seminal Animal
Scule. TLese beings were discovered many years
ago, but have not been accurately studied and
described till very recently. The representations
and descriptions given of them in old works are
mostly incorrect, and sometimes very extravagant,
nd calculated to mislead rather than inform.
Some physiologists, who saw them imperfectly,
even doubted if they were living beings. The per.
fiction of that magical instrument, the microscope,
however, and the patient investigation of such men
as Pouchet and his coadjutors have not only cor.
reacted these old errors, but also disclosed to us nlw
%:uths, more wonderful even 'i.lan the wild dreams
of former times.
As far as yet investigated these Animalcules exist
universally, in the Semen of all animals whatever,
but have a peculiar form and development in each.
It is also ascertained that they are developed
from a species of egg, or ovum, called the seminal
granules, or vesicles. Under the microscope a
number of these can always be detected, like little
globules of mucus, and they are observed to
undergo a regular series of changes similar to those
of the female ovary. When first observed they
are round and merely contain a number of small
granules, which are the Animalcules, in a rudimen.
tary state. At a further stage these granules are
found to be developed into small Animacules, while
the containing vesicles have expanded and become
elongated, or egg-shaped. Finally the vesicle I reaks
open at one end, and the Animacules escape, being
at first very small and gradually growing after.
wards to the size we ordinarily see them.
The figures in the accompanying plate represent























PLATE V.
T~h t6minal Animalcula in the Human Subjoot.
I pOne of cne-Vesicles, containing the Ani:alcules in a
rudimentary state, coiled up.
2 The Vesicle broken open, and the Animalcules escaping.
I and 4. Perfect Animalcules.-a. Is the stomach and in-
testines. The two round white spots at the top, indicate
the mouth and the sucker by which it attaches itelf
These are magnified many thousand times
















i I




'i l











Plate V.
Seminal Animalcules







THE MALE SYSTEM. 43

the form of the Zoospermes and the changes in
the vesicles, as seen under the microscope, in the
human being.
In different beings the form both of the Vesicle
and the Animacule varies much, and occasionally
the Zoospermes undergo some remarkable meta.
rnorphoses before assuming their final form.
In the human being there are about thirty Zoo.
spermes in each vesicle, but in some beings there
are more, and in others not so many. The number
of vesicles varies very much, at different times,
even in the same individual.
The precise size of the Zoospermes is of course
difficult to ascertain, but Mr. Ruchet estimates
their length at about the ten thousandth part of an
ordinary hair, and their weight at about the hundred
and forty thousand millionth part of a grain!
A spot as large as a mustard seed, he remarks,
will sometimes contain fifty thousand of them, or
more.
Notwithstanding this extreme minuteness we are
now tolerably well acquainted with their peculiari.
ties of structure, and even with many of their habits ;
nor need this excite much surprise when it is recol-
lected that there are beings still smaller that have
been studied with even greater success. In Fig.
8 and 4 of the last plate, the form of the human
Zoospermes is given correctly, and their internal
organization is also partly shown by the part marked
a. a. Fig. 4, which is supposed to be the stomach.
(n the perfect state each one has a sucker at tho
larger end, represented oy the white dot in Fig,
8 and 4, by which they can attach themselves to
any object. They are observed to change their
txr.s at certain periods, like snakes, and we some.







44 *, ,df,> L.,,.

times find tne rlooso skAi hanging about t,.1 in
shreds; or ean oft quite whole. In some aari,-ls
they have a nuinner of hairs, or cilia, by the motion
of which trine move in the fluid, and some even have
perfect fins. One Physiologist assures us that he
distinctly saw they were sexual, and that he could
readily distinguish the male and ienmale! They
are usually lively and active, with peculiar
motion, some of which are performed in concert
and others singly, with great perseverance and regu.
larity thus a number of them will sometimes form
into a ring, with their heads all one way, and run
round and round in a circle for a considerable
time ; or one may be seen by itself pushing before
it a large globule of mucus, or blood, many times
heavier than itself, for several minutes together.
One peculiarity is observable in all of them, and
that is an almost i'.erihl d tendency to move only
straightforward, and they will seldom turn to go
back even though they meet with an obstruction,
but often attach themselves to it by the sucker and
remain till they die. Very often they are seen to
enter into combats, and a number of them will fight
till only one is left alive. They will live for some
hours out of the body, particularly if put in warm
water, in which their motions may be readily seen.
The Zoospermes are not found before Puberty,
nor usually iti extreme old age. Many diseases
also destroy them, and several drugs have the same
power. In all cases where they are absent or
destroyed, from whatever cause it may be, the
semen cannot impregnate, though in every other
respect it may be quite perfect, and the vigor of the
patient seem not in the least impaired. This hao
been proved by filtering Ihem away, ani by destroy







THE MALX SYSTEM. 45

a.4 them. The development of the Zoospeimes i.
will be observed is strictly analogous to that of the
ova or eggs in the females. Thus they arc first
found in the form of little granules, enclosed in a
Vesicle which bursts as they become more perfect
and allows them to escape. In some animals there
is even a periodical development of them, similar to
that of the ova in the female, with which it usually
corresponds. In such animals the Testes are small
at other times, and increase in size at these periods
because the Vesicles only attain their full, growth
then.
In tracing the semen from its source we find tha,
the annimalcules are not developed till it reaches
the Seminal Vesicles, and are sometimes not perfect
till it has reached the Prostate Gland. In the Tea.
tides we never find the Zoospermes themselves, but
only the Vesicles containing the granules, which
gradually develop as it proceeds further on.
The Testes may therefore be compared to the
Ovaries, the Seminal Vesicles to the Graafian
Vesicles, and the Seminal Granules to the ova.
Some Physiologists consider the granules to be the
ova of the animalcules themselves, but this we can.
not yet decide, though it is certain the animalcules
originate from them.
The importance of these facts, in giving us a cor.
Tect knowledge of the nature and proper treatment
of many diseases of these organs, will be seen as
we proceed, particularly when treating on Impe,
tence and Seminal losses.
The actual process of conception is also madb
more clear from some of these details. For in.
stance the tendency which the Animalcules have to
move only straight forward, is in all probability the
5*




















PLATE VI.

Section of the Uterus at four months of Pregnaney
a a. a. The Thick Walls of the Womb.
b b. The Fcetus.
c. The Umbilical Cord.
d. d. The Placenta.
e. The Vitellus.
f. f. f. The Decidua.
g. The Chorion.
h. The Amnion.
i. i. Vessels of Placenta.
k. k. The inner openings of the Fallopian Tubes, which are
here cut off.
1. The Mouth of the Womb, opening into the Vagina
m. The Vagina.









































Plate VI.
Uterus at four month







48 THE MALE SYSTEM.

reason way they make their way up into ine womb
from the vagina, and impregnate the egg. If it
were not for this tendency, combined with their great
motive power, the two principles could not be
brought together. Their power of living out of the
body for some time is also necessary to impregna.
tion, because they may not reach their destination
immediately. It is found that they will live in the
female organs, when these are healthy, as long as
twenty-six hours, and of course during any part of
that time conception may take place. Sometimes
conception may take place in a few minutes, and at
other times not till as many hours after the associa-
tion of the two sexes. It has been found on dissect.
ing an animal killed ten hours after connexion, that
the semen had not even then reached the ovum,
though it usually passes into the womb almost im-
mediately.
It is evident from this how incorrect it is to
speak of the moment of conception as if it were a
period certainly known. No greater mistake -,.uld
be made than to suppose that it always co-:esponds
with the moment of connexion, because it may be as
much as twenty hours after, or movie. It is also
evident from these facts why it is that conception is
possible without actual connexion. If the semen is
merely deposited in the external lips it may impreg.
nate, because the animalcules may make their way
from thence up to the womb. It is also of little
consequence how the semen is deposited in the
female organs, providing it be perfect, and this
explains why it is that conception can be effected
artificially, by merely injecting the semen in the
female organs with a syringe, or otherwise, which
has often been done. The mere presence of the






THE MALE SYSTEM. 49

male organ is in no way essential; which is the
reason why a certain mode of attempting to prevent
conception often fails. It was also remarked, in a
previous part, that sexual feeling in the female was
not necessary to conception, and this will now be
evident when it is recollected that the Animalcule
move up into the womb by their own vital power.
It is probable, however, that this feeling often con-
duces to conception, by establishing certain favor-
able conditions of the parts, and therefore that
event is not so likely to occur during sleep or un.
consciousness, though it is possible for it to do so.
The old idea that it was only the odor or aura of
the semen that ascended into the female organs and
impregnated the ovum, is too unfounded and ob-
viously incorrect'to need refutation.
The presence or absence of the Zoospermes in
the Fermale Organs, and other parts, is the chief
evidence sought for in cases of alleged violation,
because in such cases they may certainly be found,
if the act has been committed, for as long as
twenty-six hours after alive, and dead for almost
any period if the fluids be dried.
It is now generally considered that the Animal.
cule is the true rudiment or germ of the future
human being, which is supposed to be developed
from it in the same way as the plant is developed
from the seed; or rather the human being is
thought to be one of these Zoospermes developed to
a more perfect form by the power of the egg in
which it is placed. In proof of this we have the
fact, attested by several observers, that when the
egg breaks open, during its passage down the tube,
from the escape of the germinal vesicle, one of the
Animalcule if then present, always creeps in. Ir







50 TUE MALE SYSTEM.

fac. it has been seen to do so, and we thus have a
probable explanation of the origin of human life,
if we suppose this minute being is the origin of the
future human being. If they are truly sexual we
may also have an explanation of the cause of the
difference in sex in ourselves, as this may be
dependent upon the sex of the Animalcules from
which we originate




















PLATE VII.

.rtion of the Uterus in the animpregnated state, and do
the Natural size
1 a. Are its Thick Walls.
5. Is the Cavity in its upper part or body.
c. is the Cavity in the lower part, or .N'eckc.
d. Is the Vagina.
e. e. The edges of the Walls of the Vagina, cut through
f. f. Two Threads, passing through the openings of the
Fallopian Tubes, and appearing in the inside.
g. Is the Mouth of the Womb, or Os Tinew opening into
the Vagina.
This view being of the full size, will give an idea of the
astonishing change this organ has to undergo in the pro-
less of Gestation





































Plate VII.
Section of the Womb, natural ize,






53





PART 11






DISEASES, MALFORMATIONS AND DERANGE-
MENTS OF THE MALE SYSTEM

IT is of the greatest importance that every man
,iould know sufficient of himself to be able to detect
the various derangements of his system at the
earliest possible moment, and that he should also
know the proper steps to take for their prevention
and removal. He who knows nothing of this kind,
and goes to a physician only when he feels pain or
inconvenience, will often find that he then cannot be
benefited, the favorable moment having gone by,
unknown to him through his ignorance. Some of
the most severe and dangerous diseases of the
Testes, for instance, cause neither pain nor incon.
'vnience till they are considerably advanced.
hall therefore give all the indications, that -an oe
relied upon, of each disease, and also the treatment
to be pursued, making it in every case, as far as
possible, such as may be practised by the person
himself.







54






PLATE Vi.

Seminal Tunes of the Testicle, with tle Epididymis and
Vas Deferens.
a a. a Lobules of the small Seminiferous Tubes, similar
to the Convolutions of the Brain.
b. The Rete Testis, a number'of nearly straight Tubes intc
which the smaller ones enter.
c The Vasa efferentia, or larger Tubes, 12 or 18 in num
ber, into which the semen passes from the Rete Testis.
d. Plexuses, or conglomerations of the Vasa efferentia,
which form a kind of head, almost like a small Testicle,
called the Epididymis.
e. e. The head of the Epididymis
f. f. The body of the Epididymis
g. An appendix of the Epididymis, called the aberans
It is not always met with.
h. The Tail, or Cauda of the Epididymis.
i. i. The Vas Deferens, which is at first very much
twisted, but becomes finally straight.
From this view it will be seen that the small Seminal
Tubes gradually verge into the large straight ones, called
the Rete Testis, then into the still larger called the Vasa
iffe entia, and finally they all coalesce into o-'e Tube, the
Vas Deferens
















a; r


j"yrli \ :!i

K ,. ., '4_ ,,,'
L,~ ,,,t" r,, i i, ,l / ,'
/t < ..*. / ,-' -, ; -,, -
,* --..i r.l .,.

. : ..

"'-- ,i:-- %rf


/ 4
i;-)



Plate VIII.
Semaasl Tibes 3f thl Tes:icl,







58



CHAPTER IV.

TIIE PTSEASES, ~i'FICIENCIES AND MALFORMA
TIONS OF THE TESTES, THEIR ENVELOPS,
AND THE PARTS MORE IMMEDIATELY
CONNECTED WITH THEM.

As before remarked, the Testes are usually two
in number, the. one on the left side being lower and
larger than that on the ri.ht. But sometimes
more than two appear to exisi, and at other times
only one, or perhaps none. The arrangement of
one being higher than the other, when there are
two, prevents them from being crushed together
when the limbs are crossed, by allowing one to slide
over the other. The internal structure of them
having already been explained, it is only requisite
further to describe their envelops and attachments.
Immediately around each one is an envelop or
membrane, called the Tunioa Albuginea or Peri-
testis, which surrounds every part, and also sends
branches, or leaves, into the substance of the Testi.
cle, so as to divide it to a certain depth, into lobe,
or sections, similar to the lobes of the brain, only
of a triangular snap.
The outside inclosure is called the Scrotum, ot
purse, and is the same as the skin of the thighs. It
is divided vertically into two parts by a small
ridge, called the Raphw, and is usually covered
with hairs at puberty. Underneath the Scrotum
we next find a reddish cellular membrane, called
the Dartos, w lich makes a separate sack for each of







Muscles of the Male Organs, and Envel.
hopes of the Testicles.
















F;g.2.










Fig. 1.-1, 2, 3, The muscles of the root of the Penis.
, 5. Muscles of the Anus, which are concerned in erection.
Fig. 2. The Different coats, or envelopes of the Testicles,
with the Vas deferens and Blood Vessels, forming the Sper-
matic Cord, which ascends through the inguinal ring at 11.
7 The Testicle. 8. The Epididymns. 12. Shows the Vas
Deferens ascending in the body.







DISEASES OF THE TESTrS. 57

L1e two Testicles, which are separated Loin eacl,
other by a vertical membrane placed between them,
called the Septum Scroll, which acts as a partition,
and thus the two organs are perfectly unconnected
with each other. The nature of the Dartos has
beer. a subject of dispute among anatomists, some
considering it to be merely a cellular tissue, and
others i-il.i,.A it to be a muscle. It is undoubted.
ly partly muscular, and consists mainly of long
fibres, which cross and interlace each other in every
direction. It is the contraction of these fibres of
the Dartos that corrugates or wrinkles the Scro-
tum, as is well seen when sudden cold is applied to
the external parts. Next under the Dartos comes a
true muscular coat, called the Cremaster Muscle,
or Tunica Erythoides, the use of which is to draw
the Testicle upwards. This is derived from one of
the muscles of the abdomen, and comes down
through the abdominal ring, forming part of the
sheath of the spermatic cord. The la.; coat is
called the Tunica Vaginalis, which is a true serious
membrane interlaced with blood-vessels, and comes
next to the Tunica Albuginea.
In a healthy state the muscular fibres of the
Scrotum are usually contracted, so as to draw the
skin into folds and brace the Testes up against the
Abdomen; but during a state of debility, or from
great fatigue, they become relaxed, so that the testes
ang low, and pull upon the cord. It is an almost
certain sign of ill health when this relaxation of the
Scrntum occurs, at any period of life, and often
its removal is the first indication of improvement
In oH people, and in those of a bad habit of body.
this relaxed state becomes permanent.
By inspecting antique statuary, it will be seen







58 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

that the ancients were practically acquainted with
this physiological fact, and they have accordingly
accurately represented it in their worxs of art.
The figures of all their men in health and vigor
have the Scrotum invariably drawn up to the abdo-
men, while those of old men, or sufferers, hang
pendant.
As a general rule the muscles of the scrotum are
independent of the will, or act involuntarily, but
instances have been known of men who could make
them act as they pleased. Some boys exhibit this
power before puberty, being able to draw the Testes
up to the abdominal ring, and let them fall again,
but it is seldom this command over them continues,
though one instance is on record. This man drew
the Testes up into the groin, so as to form apparent
ruptures, in order to escape being impressed intc
the service. Being detected, however, he confessed
the trick, and made an exhibition of his extraordi.
nary power to the examining physicians. He
could pull up either one alone or both together, and
could also make one go up while the other was
coining down; in short, he had the same command
over them as over his arms, and could move them
as quickly. In another instance a man, who was
charged with being the father of an illegitimate
child, endeavored to evade the responsibility by
alleging he had no Testicles, and, therefore, could
iot be the father, but it was discovered that he
3ould draw them up into the groin at pleasure. In
a healthy state the scrofal mutlscgea bl'Oghtl
powerfully into action during coition, so as to brace
the Testes tightly against the Pelvis, and one cause
of partial impotence in very weak or old people, is
the lass of thls power, owing t' 1 w l. th .semen is







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 59

t-u expelled with sufficient force. In children this
relaxed or firm condition of these muscles is often a
valuable indication of the state of their health.
The form of the Testis is that of a somewhat
flattened oval, with one end a little larger than the
other. The average weight is about one ounce.
Tho Vas Deferens, or common Tube into which
all the small ones are emptied, commences at the
globus minor, or lower end of the epididymis, and
then passes into the spermatio cord by which it
enrtrs the Abdomen, where its course has already
been traced. It is altogether about thirty-two feet
long. The sheath of the spermatic cord is com.
posed of two coats, the outer one of which is very
firm, like cartilage, so that the fube is not easily.
compressed ; the inner coat is a mucous membrane,
similar to that inside the Urethra. This cord can
be readily felt externally.
This description of the Testes and their envelops,
combined with that before given, will be sufficient
to give a clear understanding of the various diseases
and derangements to which they are liable, and also
of the reasons for the line of treatment laid down.
(t will be seen that they are so placed, without the
body, as to have no direct connection with any
other organs, and they may, therefore, be removed,
without any other part being interfered with. This
operation, termed Castration, is sometimes necessary
in certain diseases, and sometimes it is the effect of
accident, or in some parts of the world of design.
The removal of the Testes, however, in whatever
way it may be effected, not only destroys the power
"f procreation, but also interferes in a remarkable
manner with the growth and functious of various
otihr parts of the system., iiom which it is evident







60 DISEASES OP THE TElTES,

that diey are necessary for the perfection of the
ind, vidual's own system, as well as for the purpose
Lt bringing new beings into teistence.

4t1OMALIES IN THE SIZE AND APPARENT NUMBER
OF THE TESTES. /

The usual size of the Testes is about that of an
ordinaryy pigeon's egg, and their weight, as before
stated, is about one ounce. Occasionally, however,
they are seen much larger, and sometimes much
smaller, and their weight may be also considera-
bly greater or less than the average. I have
seen them as large as a full size hen's egg, yet per.
fectly healthy, and as small as marbles without
being in any way deficient in power. This is im-
portant to bear in mind in many cases that may
come under the physician's notice. I have known
men hesitate about marrying when the Testes were
very small, from fear that they would be deficient in
power, and it was with difficulty they could be con-
vinced to the contrary. fn one instance of a young
man aged twenty-six, they were no larger than those
of a child of nine years old, yet his powers were
but little, if any, inferior to those of persons gene.
rally. After a great deal of hesitation, and much
persuasion, he married and became the father of a
large family. It is necessary to remark, however,
that in these cases all the other organs were of
proper size, and that the sma'lness of the Testes had
existed from childhood, and was therefore a natural
state. If they had decreased in size, after having
been properly developed, it would have been very
different. The falling away or wasting of the
Testes, which i,0ow k many diseases, and sometimes







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 61

takes place without any assignable cause, is usually
a serious matter, and is nearly certain to be followed
by a loss of power The injudicious use of certain
drugs, particularly of.Iodine, will frequently cause
the Testes to u aste, and so will the exhalations
from, some metals, as lead for instance, many work.
men in whi-'' I have known so affected. In giving
an opinion in such cases therefore, their previous
history must always be known, as well as the con.
edition of the other parts, and the physician will then
nave but little difficulty in coming to a proper deci.
sion. Sometimes one only will be small, and the
other of average size, or one only may waste away,
without injuring the other.
An unusually large size of the Testes should
always excite suspicion of its being the result of
disease, and a most careful examination and inquiry
should therefore be made. If they have always
been of that size, or nearly so, from Puberty, and
especially if the other organs are large also, there
may be nothing to excite apprehension. The
symptoms of the different diseases hereafter de-
scribed should however be carefully studied, par.
ticularly those that cause enlargement, as Hydrocele
and Hernia Humoralis, for instance. I have
known the Testes of a youth of fourteen to be much
larger than those of most men, and yet perfectly
healthy; such cases of unusual development are
net necessarily accompanied by extra power.
In some instances the development of all th
genital organs is very tardy, owing to the slow
growth of the Testes. I have seen a youth of nine.
teen that was in every respect in the same state of
these parts, as when about seven years old. He
was also but very little grown in Dther parts of the







62 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

body, having the appearance of one about twelve
years old. In this case, there were perfect ovi
dences of sexual power, though slight, and all. the
parts were evidently healthy. It was therefore a
case of torpid action, or retarded development, and
I thought that in all probability nature could he
aroused. I accordingly.gave him directions to use
stimulating lotions, with frictions and shampooing,
and to have a stimulating diet, with regular warm
bathing and plenty of out-door exercise. The effects
of this practice was soon evident; in less than six
months an evident increase had taken place, both in
the size of the parts and in the intensity of the sexual
feeling. The external parts, which had previously
been perfectly bare and smooth, like those of a
child, became covered; the voice assumed a more
manly tone, the muscles were more solid, the mind
more active, and manhood began to dawn. This
improvement continued going on till he was twenty.
one, when there was but little difference between
him and other young men of that age. If this case
had not been promptly and properly attended to, in
all probability no further development would ever
have taken place, and an early death would have
terminated his imperfect existence. To what age
an improvement of this kind is possible we cannot
of course tell, though I feel sure it may be effected
in older persons than is generally supposed, perhaps
till nearly thirty. The younger, of course, the
better. Several cases have been known of the
Testes growing after twenty-six years old.
Sometimes there appear to be Three Testicles,
and possibly in some of these cases there may really
be three, but more frequently one of the three
bodies is either the epididymis, somewhat enlarged







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 63

and much separated from the Testis, or else it is a
small tumor. Most of those that have been observe.
ed in dissection have been small harmless tumors,
existing from birth. Three perfect Testicles, how-
ever, are occasionally found, but they are not
always accompanied by any unusual sexual power.
At other times there appears but one Testicle, or
perhaps none, and I have known young men in the
deepest distress from this cause. In some of these
instances there is really but one organ, as has been
proved after birth, and yet the individual has had
full average powers. It is more often the case,
however, that these deficiencies are apparent rather
than real. Before birth the Testes are contained in
the Abdomen, and they usually descend into the
Scrotum in the last month. It sometimes happens,
however, that the descent of one or both does not take
place, and the individual then appears so far deficit
ent. In these cases the power of the Testes is no.
impaired by their unusual position, but perhaps is
often increased, and this has led uninformed persons
to think that men sometimes had procreative
powers without Testicles, because they could not be
found. A man once died in one of the London
Hospitals who had long been noted as having no
Testicles, and yet having all the usual powers. On
dissection two perfect ones were found in the Abdo-
men that had never come down, and thus the won-
der was solved. These cases, however, are but
rare. Dr. Marshall examined Ten Thousand eight
Hundred young recruits, among whom he found five
in whom the right Testicle had not come down, and
six in whom the left had not; there being but one
man in whom both were not descended.
It is nuch better for the Testes to remain totally







64 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

in the Abdomen than to descend only to the grow
as they sometimes do, because in the last position
they are apt to be compressed, by the other parts
crowding about them in the ring, and thus waste
away. The imperfect or non-descent of the
Testes must, however, always be considered an
imperfection, and though it may not cause incon.
venience, or loss of power, it .is nevertheless
always to be feared. The Testis itself is as liable
.to all its different diseases while in these unusual
positions as when in the Scrotum, and unfortunately
cannot then be reached. The neighboring parts also
become affected from it, and thus life may be lost
from a simple affection which could have been
completely removed, if the Testis had been in its
natural position.
In some instances the retained Testes descend
late in life, and if they then become fast in the
ring great swelling and severe inflammation may
result, with ultimate wasting away of the organs.
Such cases have been mistaken for ruptures, and
some men, from want of information, have thought
that the Testicles really growed at that time, all at
once.
When there are really no Testicle from birth,
there is always an -imperfect development of the
whole system, and a total absence of sexual power
or feeling.
In some animals it is natural for the Testes
never to descend, but always to remain in the Ab.
domen, and in others they descend only at certain
seasons, that is, when they attain their periodical
development, owing to the full growth of the ani-
malcules.
It is stated on the authority of several travellers.
"t*







DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

that there is a tribe of Hottentots at the Cape of
Good Hope that never have but one Testicle ; but
many naturalists think that more likely it is a cus-
tom among them to remove one in youth. ft is
quite possible, however, that this deficiency may be
natural, and it is not in any way more'singular
than many peculiarities observed in the genital
organs of the females of those tribes. I have known
two brothers, twins, one of whom had three Testes
and the other but one.
In some instances the two Testes have been found
grown together, so as apparently to form but one,
owing to absence of the usual septum.
The Testicles are sometimes drawn so close up
against the abdomen, owing to a contraction of the
cremaster muscle, that they cannot be discovered
without close examination, and are then often
thought to be absent, though they are quite perfect,
and even outside of the body. Medical men have
even testified that there were no Testicles, in such
eases as these, which .shows the necessity for a
close and thorough examination of such apparent
monstrosities.
This state of things is not dangero'ls in itself, but
i ad better be removed if possible, because the Testes
are likely to adhere to the neighboring parts and
waste away, so as to cause perfect impotence. A
surgical operation is necessary to liberate them,
which is both difficult and somewhat dangerous.
In some few dissections the Testes have been found
completely absent, and without any trace of their
having existed. Sometimes the Vas Deferens ex.
ists by itself, and sometimes with the Epididymis,
though at other times there are no traces of either.
These cases of total cc.ngeni'al absence are, how







66 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

ever, very rare, and are always indicated by defl
ciencies in other parts of the system.
In some rare instances the Testes have descend-
ed into the Perineum, instead of the- Scrotum, but
most probably from some imperfection in the parts
bout the Perineum and Scrotum.
In the course of my practice I have been con-
ulted in many of these cases of Testicular anoma.
lies, and have often had the pleasure of removing
unfounded apprehensions, and of giving happiness
and confidence to those who had previously been
the victims of hopeless despair.

HYDROCELE, OR DROPSY OF THE TESTICLES.

This is sometimes called a swelled or watery
Testicle. Properly speaking, this is but seldom an
affection of the Testicles themselves, but of the
Scrotum in which they are contained. There are
three kinds of Hydrocele; first, that in which the
fluid collects in the substance or tissue of the Scro.
turn; secondly, that in which it is secreted by one
of the coats of the Scrotum ; and thirdly, that
in which it collects in the spermatic cord.

First Variely of Hydrocele.-This is scien.
tifically called Hydrocele (Edematodes, and it is
usually connected with general dropsy, or arises
from the treatment of some of the other varieties.
It is, however, but seldom met with, and rarely
arises of itself. In some cases it has been brought
on by wearing an improperly-constructed truss, by
blows, or even by tight clothing, but much more
frequently it is only a consequence of some other







67













PLATE IX,

A case of Hydrocel laid open.
Fig 1 a. The Penis much contracted.-b. The Scroman.-
c. The Testicle.-d. The Vas Defercna.--e. The cat
edges of the Scrotum and the different coats.-f. The
Tunica Vaginalis, which it will be seen is double, from
being reflected over the Testicle, which is on the outside
of it.-g. Is the water, which is between the two folds
of the Tunic.-h. The Spermatic cord.
Fig. 2. External appearance of the Hydrocele, showing
the Veins also in a case of Varicooele -1 The dia
tended Vein.




































r. rIG. a
Plato Im.
Hydroooel.







DISEASES OF THE rESTES. 0S

disease, particularly dropsy of the abdomen, which
is likely to extend to the Scrotum. In this form of
disease the Testicle is usually softish at first, and
when pressed the mark of the finger remains of a
white color for some time after. As it progresses,
however, the Scrotum becomes harder, and perfect.
ly smooth, the Penis enlarges, particularly at the
prepuce, and in very had cases the skin inflames
and sloughs away.
The treatment of this form of Hydrocele must
vary somewhat according to the conditions under
which we find it. If it results from general dropsy
it can be cured only by the removal of that, and
will require but little local treatment. If there he
any injurious pressure it must be immediately
taken away, and frequently the doing so will effect
an immediate improvement without anything further
being done.
SThe local treatment, after attending to the above
directions, must consist of frequent bathing with
cold alum water, one ounce to a pint, or of simple
cold waier. A suspensory bandage must also be
worn constantly, except when the patient can
remain perfectly still, without standing too long.
The bowels must be kept free, and but little fluid
drunk. The following mixture may be taken for
tbur days, and then omitted four days, and so on
alternately till it has been taken twelve days in all,
illess the swelling is obviously going down aftet
the first four days, which it will often do, in which
case it need not be continued. R. Hydriodate
of Potassa, thirty-six grains, Distilled water, one
ounce. Dose, ten drops, morning and night, in
half a tumbler of water.







TO DISEASES OF THE TESTES

Second Variety of Hydrocele.-This is usually
called Hydrocele of the Tunica Vaginalis, the fluid
being secreted by the inner coat of the Testicle,
and, hercfore, contained in the cavity of the Scro-
tum. The swelling is observed on one side only,
in most cases, like a smooth egg or pear-shaped
tumor, of a natural color. It begins at the bottom
of the Scrotum, and gradually progresses upwards.
until it sometimes reaches the top and presses
against the abdomen. It is quite soft to the touch
at first, and the fluid may be distinctly felt to fluc-
tuate or shift its position as the tumor is moved.
As the disease progresses, however, it becomes
harder, and does not fluctuate, and in form it
becomes more decidedly oblong.
From the above description, it will be seen that
this form of Hydrocele is easily distinguished from
that previously described, because in this the swell-
ing is observed on one side, and commences at the
bottom, while in the other it is diffused more or less
over the whole Scrotum at once, and is evidently in
the skin, or cellular tissue. Sometimes, it is true,
both halves of the Scrotum may begin to fill up
with fluid, but even then each one is sufficiently
distinct from the other for both to be distinguished,
and for the nature of the affection to be readily
Bcen.
A very good way to examine a Hydrocele is to
place a candle behind it and look in front,, when
it will usually appear semi-transparent, and scmeo
times so perfectly so that the Testicle may be dis.
tinctly seen in the middle of the water, like the yelk
of an egg in the midst of the white. When the
Testicle cannot be seen in this way, it is often dit
ficult to find it, and its position can only be ascer-






DISEASES OF THE TESTES 71

raised by *a hardish feeling in the back part of the
swelling near the top.
The quantity of fluid secreted in some of these
cases is very great, as much as six quarts having
been removed by Mr. Cline, from Gibbon the great
Historian. There may, however, be but a small
portion, and it may remain for many years, or even
during a person's life, without increasing, though
the probability is against this, and in some cases it
increases very rapidly.
It is singular also that even in some very bad
cases there is but little distress, and, except from
the inconvenience of its weight and size, many
patients suffer but little annoyance from it.
Sometimes, however it causes an annoying sense
of uneasiness and pressure in the Testes and groin,
and occasionally even produces numbness of the
limbs. When very large the Penis is drawn into
the si selling, so that it appears smaller, and its
erection becomes difficult and painful; the sperma-
tie cord is also pulled down, and becomes tender,
and the motion of the limbs is much interfered
with.
There is not much to be feared from a Hydrocele
of this kind, if the general health be good, unless it
be complicated with a real swelling of the Testicle,
the case then becomes very difficult, and nothing
can be done till the Testicle itself is cured. I
have known a man of sixty years of age who had a
Hydrocele from the time he was fourteen; it was
of a considerable size, but had never much in.
commoded him, nor in any way interfered with his
health or functions. The difference in the symp.
toms of a Hydrocele and a swelled Testicle will be
pointed out in the article on Sarcocele.
8






72 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

The causes of this form of Hydrocele are but little
known. It is undoubtedly brought about in some
cases by injuries, such as blows, pressure upon the
saddle in horse.riding, and by badly made trusses.
Too much standing will also dispose to it, par
ticularly in those with a relaxed state of the muscles
In general, however, it results f )m some constitu.
tional tendency, the nature of which is unknown,
and which cannot be ascertained before the effect is
produced. In most instances, its beginning is
altogether unknown to the patient, and it progresses
so slowly and insiduously, that an advanced stage
may be reached before anything wrong is suspect-
ed. I have known young men suppose it was
merely a natural increased growth of the parts.
The Treatment.-In the early stages it is some.
times sufficient to use cold lotions two or three times
a day, as prescribed for the first variety, particular.
ly that of alum. Frequent cold bathing, in addi-
tion, will assist, and, if the bowels be kept free and
but little fluid be drunk, the Hydrocele will occa-
sionally go down considerably, or even disappear
altogether. I would advise any one to continue this
simple treatment even if it only arrested the disease,
for though it might not positively cure, at first, still,
if it keeps matters from becoming worse, nature her.
self may work a cure in time. A suspensory band.
age should be worn form the very first, and as much
rest should be taken as circumstances will allow,
After using the simple alum-wash for some time, if
the swelling still continues, the following lotion may
be applied instead, night and morning.
R. Powdered Peruvian Bark, one ounce; boiling
water, one pint. Boil these for ten minutes and then
add, when cold, half a pint of spirits of Camplol.






DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 3

This is, perhaps, the best lotion that ever was
based for this purpose, and has done more good than
all others put together. The parts should be batted
with it for about ten minutes before the suspensory
bandage is put on in the morning, and for the same
time after it is removed at night.
In some cases the following wash has been found
to succeed even where the other did not.
J. Sugar of Lead, one ounce; Laudanum, a
tea-spoonful ; Water, one pint.
This is to be used as a lotion, the same as the
other, and both must be applied cold.
Very little can be done by internal medication,
except to keep the bowels free, though occasionally
the following recipe may assist.
R. Vinegar of Colchicum; Vinegar of Squills;
and Nitric Ether, of each half an ounce-to be
mixed. Of this mixture a tea-spoonful may be
taken in a drink of water, three or four times a
day. Frequent bathing, and clothing the body
warmly are also beneficial.
When all these means fail, however, as they too
often do, some kind of operation must be resorted
to, either to give temporary relief or with a view to
cure. It is customary, for the first purpose, to
puncture the sac of the Scrotum with a sharp
instrument and let out the water. If nothing more
be done than simply letting out the fluid, it will
usually fill again, though occasionally it does not.
To effect a perfect cure the Scrotum is injected'
through the same wound, after the fluid has all
escaped, with some astringent solution. Cold watex
only is used by some practitioners, but more fre.
quently a mixture of two parts port wine to one of
water. Solutions of lodini, and of Iydriodato of






74 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

Iotassa have also been used, and in some cases the
same fluid that was discharged, but the port wine
and water appear to act the best of any.
The manner in which this injection appears to
effect the cure is this, it excites a considerable
degree of inflammation in the Testicle, and also in
the coats of the Tunics, so that they grow together,
and in this way the cavity in which the water accu
mulated is entirely obliterated.
In most cases, if properly performed, this opera
tion is quite successful, causes but little pain, ana
is perfectly free from danger. In some instances,
however, it is unsuccessful, owing to the fluid not
being well injected, and occasionally there is much
more inflammation caused by it than what is desi.
able, attended by serious constitutional irritation.
The puncturing instrument, and the tube to convey
the fluid, must be very carefully introduced, so.as
not to injure the Testicle, but they must also be
,carried sufficiently far to ensure all the water being
.discharged. The proper place to make the punch.
iture is nearly at the bottom of the Tumor, behind;
ithe fluid may remain in about five minutes, and
;about as much must be injected as was drawn out.
Sometimes a difficulty occurs in this way; after
*the fluid has escaped the Tunica Vaginalis draws
'together, so that the opening into it does not corres-
!pond with the opening outside, and if the instrument
ihas become displaced, before the injection is thrown
iin, it is difficult again to introduce it. In fact, it is
better, if this occurs, to leave ofi till another day,
,and operate again, for the attempt, if too often
made, may cause serious and useless inflammation.
'There is also danger, if the instrument is put in
,again, that it may not go into the cavity, but merely







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 75

ltn. the substance of the skin, and the fluid is then
thrown into the cellular tissue, and not only does no
good, but may even remain, and produce a real
dropsy of the Scrotum, or Hydrocele (Edematodes,
the. same as described under the head of the first
variety.
In fact, some Surgeons purposely perform the
operation in such a way as to change the Hy-
drocele into a simple dropsy of the Scrotum, by
letting the fluid into the cellular tissue, by simply
introducing a needle. The new disease is certainly
more easily cured than the former one, and the
pressure of the water on the Scrotum often prevents
any more being secreted in the Tunic, but still in
many cases a cure is not effected, and sometimes is
made more difficult. [ would much rather advise
the total discharge and injection.
This operation is very simple and successful in
skilful hands, but often fails from want of skill or
proper care. If too much inflammation follows,
poultices must be applied and other simple mean.
used to subdue it, and the patient must keep still.
It must be borne in mind, however, that con-
siderable inflammation is necessary, to effect a cure.
I once knew a man who operated upon himself
with a common penknife and a small catheter. He
effectually discharged all the water, but knew
nothing about injecting anything in return. At the
end of two years there was but little accumulated
again, and he thought so little of what he had done,
that he said he should always repeat the operation
himself, as often as might be necessary.
It is sometimes necessary to do this to young
children, and it must be remembered that in
them the Testicle is much lower than in adults,







16 DISEASE# OF THE TESTES.

and greater care is, therefore, needed Aot to
wound it.
A simple dressing of mild ointment, (r even of
wet cloths is all that is needed after the infection is
withdrawn.
Some practio-.,rs have used Setons, and others
Galvanism, to cure Hydrocele, but though each
method has been successful in some cases, yet they
are not more so than the injection, which is much
more simple, and causes much less pain. Either of
these methods may, however, be tried, if that fails.
After the water is drawn off, the Testicle should
be carefully examined, as it can then be readily
felt, because if there be any swelling of it, or any
indications of cancer, the injection must not be
thrown in till that has been benefically treated.
In some persons the water will accumulate in
spite of all, and it is necessary to discharge it fre-
quently. In infants it will often disappear spon.
taneously, without any treatment, but it rarely does
so in adults, though I have known some in whom
brisk exercise alor.a would disperse it.
Sometimes this form of Hvdrocele is congenial,
or exists from birth. In these cases the fluid
descends from the Abdomen, the opening between
It and the Scrotum, by which the Testicle descend.
ed, not having closed. Many persons have been
deceived by this affection, and have taken it for 6
rupture, but a little careful examination will sooD
disclose the truth. By gently compressing the
tumor the fluid will rise into the Abdomen, through
the ring, and return again when the pressure is
withdrawn. To a certain extent this trou-ole is
more general than is supposed, and is frequently
ascribed to wrong causes. It is advisable to hawe







DISEASES OF THE TESTE~. 71

it attendAd to as early as possible, because there is
danger, if .eft over the first month, of its continuing
during fhe whole of childhood, or perhaps even till
adult age, and leading to other derangements.
1' the early stages, and sometimes even after it
ha* existed long, it is possible to cure it in a very
simple manner. The water must be gently pressed
oack into the abdomen, and then a truss or bandage
of some kind must be worn, so constructed that the
pad will press exactly on the ring, and thus prevent
the fluid from returning. In a short time the pas.
sage grows up, and there is then no further danger.
The period required to effect a cure varies much in
different cases; thus in some it will be complete in
two or three weeks, while in others it requires as
many months, or even much longer. Cold lotions
must be used in these cases as with adults.
In case of failure, with these means, which will
sometimes happen, the only other remedy is the
injection, the same as already described. The
operation is precisely the same as for an adult,'but
must be conducted with more care, there being
more risk of serious inflammation. It must be
recollected also that while the injection.is being
made the upper part of the Scrotum must be held
firmly together, just by the ring, to prevent the
injected fluid from passing up into the Abdomen.
which it would otherwise do, and perhaps cause
serious trouble. A truss or bandage must be worn
for some time after the operation, to prevent any
more fluid coming down, and also to retain the
bowels in their place.

Third Variety of Hydr:cele.-In this form of Ily.
drocelo, as already explained, the seat of the watery







78 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

effusion is not in the Scrotum, but in the Spermati&
Cord. It may occur in two ways, first in the sub.
stance, or cellular tissue of the cord ; and secondly,
within certain cavities in the sheath or tube itself.
The first form of Spermatic Hydrocele is very
rare, and is but seldom of much account. It is of
similar in its nature to the first form of Hydrocele
in the Scrotum, or Hydrocele (Edematodes; in fact,
it is the same disease only confined to the sheath of
the spermatic cord. Its causes are also in all
probability the same, and it requires the same
treatment. When it results from general dropsy,
which is usually the case, no cure can be expected
until that is remedied.
The palliative treatment must consist in wearing
a bandage and using cold astringent lotions, and it
is but seldom that anything more is required.
Occasionally, however, the swelling becomes so
great as to cause serious inconvenience, and the
patient insists upon having relief immediately.
Under such circumstances the only mode of pro.
ceeding is to open the swelling, and so let the fluid
escape. There is, however, some danger in this,
and in most cases it is better not to perform the
operation. .Many persons have mistaken this affect.
tion for a small hernia, or a swelled vein.
The other form of Spermatic Hydroccle is
usually trnmed Encysted Hydrocele of the Spermatis
Cord, because the fluid is contained in one or more
sacs. The swelling in this case is in the form of
an egg, and situated between the Testicle and the
groin. It is usually firm to the touch, with no
fluctuation, and perfectly distinct from the Testicle,
which may be felt below it. Sometimes the sao
of fluid is near to the ring and can be pressed up







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 79

into tLe Abdomen, so that it will disappear, but
only to return immediately the pressure is with-
drawn. In such cases it may easily be mistaken
for a hernia or rupture, unless s proper care be
taken. On examination, however, it will be found
that the vessels of the spermatic cord can be dis-
tinctly felt even when the tumor is down, by merely
pressing it on one side, which is not the case ir
rupture. The functions of the bowels also are not
interfered with in Hydrocele, while they are very
much so in Hernia, when it is down.
Occasionally the watery tumor descends much
lower than usual, and may then be taken for
Hydrocele of the Tunica Vaginalis. It is only
requisite, however, to remember that when the fluid
is contained in the Scrotum it surrounds the Testicle,
which can scarcely be felt through it, but when it
is contained in a sac, in the sheath of the cord, it
is always either above or on one side of the Testicle,
which is quite separate from it.
The treatment should consist at first in fomenta.
tions, as directed for the other varieties, and in
keeping the bowels perfectly free. This plan is
the best one with children, who are often afflicted in
this way. A mixture of two parts alcohol and one
of water, is very good to use night and morning, or
either of the recipes already given. With regard
to internal medicines, they are perhaps less proper
in this variety than in either of the others, but if
thought necessary there are none better than those
before advised.
Sometimes, especially in children, a small punch.
ture may be made and the fluid let out, but in
adults this is often of little use, as the sac fills up
again. To prevent this the port wine injection







8O -DISEASES OF THE TEST

must be used, or the sac must be fa;riy cut ut.
Some practitioners merely lance it open the whole
length, and Sir Astley Cooper was accustomed to
insert a Seton, a plan which I have known to suc-
ceed frequently, both in children and adults. The
particular plan to be pursued must, however, de.
pend upon the circumstances of the case, and I
should advise every one to hesitate about submitting
to any operation, if they can keep tolerably com.
fortable, and get no worse without it, which they
nearly always can if they will persevere with the
simple directions given, and wear a suspensory
bandage.
In children the following lotion, applied freely
two or three times a day, will in most cases cause
the water to disperse without any further treatment.
R. Hydrochlorate of Ammonia, one ounce; Dis-
tilled Vinegar, four ounces; water, six ounces.
The same lotion, with half the water, will also
be excellent for adults.

BARCOCELE, OR CHRONIC FLESHY SWELLING OF THE
TESTICLE.

This affection is the real swelled Testicle, or
chronic fleshy enlargement of the substance of that
organ.
The causes that lead to this enlargement are
various, and some of them not yet understood. Can-
cer and Scrofula are perhaps the two most frequent
causes, but it often arises when they do not exist,
and when no other immediate agency can be
detected. Sometimes a chronic swelling will take
place in the Testicle, and after existing for a con-
siderable time, entirely disappear without an'- vil







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 81

consequences. More frequently, however, the re.
sult is more serious and a malignant tumor is even-
tually developed, either Cancerous, Scrofulous, or
Sarcomatous.
Sarcomatous Tumors are of various kinds, and
are the sa ie in the Testicle as in other parts of the
body. The most frequent kind, is that called
31r.lI, '.lr, because it resembles the substance of the
brain. It is a most dangerous affection, and unless
attended to at the very earliest moment is nearly
sure to be fatal. The whole substance of the Tes-
ticle is converted into a kind of white pulp, similar
in appearance to the brain, and in a short time the
disease is propagated along the absorbents till it
attacks all the neighboring parts. The glands in
the groin soon swell to an enormous size, and
slough and bleed, and eventually the lower part of
*the abdomen becomes affected in the same way till
the parts are all destroyed and the patient sinks.
This is thought by some to be the same disease as
fungus Icematodes, and in many respects it closely
resembles Cancer. There is, however, sufficient
difference between them to enable the surgeon to
distinguish with ease, but to the patient the distinc-
tion is of little consequence, each being equally
dangerous, and the treatment being the same for
both.
Sometimes the mistake may be made of con.
founding Sarcoma with Hydrocele, unless a strict
examination be made. In Hydrocele it must be
recollected the swelling begins at the bottom, and
gradually extends upwards to the abdominal ring,
hut no farther; it is also semi-transparent, and
fluctuating. In Sarcoma, on the contrary, the
swelling is evidently in the whole substance of the







82' DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

Testicle at once, and extends upwards into tD
spermatic cord; it is also not in the least transpa.
rent, and is much heavier than water. From want
of attention to these points of difference the swelled
Testicle has often been punctured, to let out the
water.
Cancer in the Testicle is precisely the same ;n its
origin and progress as in any other part of the
body. The Testicle becomes the seat of a hard
tumor, through which dart deep-seated lancinating
pains, which shoot up to the loins, and down the
limbs. Eventually this becomes an open sloughing
ulcer which destroys the substance of the organ and
gradually extends to the abdomen, causing a pro.
fuse offensive discharge and a rapid impairing of
the general health.
Scrofula of the Testicle.-This disease is scarcely
ever met with except in those who plainly exhibit
a scrofulous habit of body. It causes a swelling
of the Testes similar to that of Cancer in its feel
and appearance, but unaccompanied by any of the
lancinating pains. When the tumor is cut into, it
seems filled with a whitish or yellow substance like
curds or soft cheese, along with a small quantity of
pus. The commencement of this affection may be
very slow and insidious, and for a long time, even
after it has become fully established, nothing seri.
ous may be indicated. There is nothing to alarm
the patient much till the tumor breaks open and
becomes an ulcer, its progress then is often very
rapid, and all the neighboring parts speedily become
diseased and destroyed. -
The causes of that peculiar tendency to Scrofula
and Cancer which many persons exhibit are as yet
unknown to us, they are, however, in all probability







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 83

what is termed Constitutional, and not produced by
any accidental agency after birth,. though there
may be many causes that will excite or call out
these diseases, when they would otherwise have
remained dormant, either for a longer time or per
haps altogether.
The Treatment of the various forms of Sarcocele
above described may be given in a few words, for
unfortunately but little can be done with them.
In some few cases of simple swelling, of the
Medullary or fatty character, it may perhaps be
dispersed, in the very earliest stages, by using
Leeches and cold lotions or mercurial ointment
externally, with mercury and iodine internally, but
this can seldom be depended upon. Unless such
means evidently decrease the swelling immediately,
no further time should be lost with' them or the
chance may go by of doing good by other means.
The removal of the Testicle, by an operation, offers
the only chance of effecting a certain cure, and
this is of no use either unless performed at first, for
if the disease has progressed till the neighboring
parts are attacked the removal of the Testicle will
not check it. Unfortunately many patients delay
having this necessary operation performed till it is
too late, and they then conclude it is in itself of no
use. It must be borne in mind that some of these
cases are very rapid in their extension, and that the
surrounding parts may be deeply affected without
giving any sign of it. In Cancer especially it is
necessary to operate as early as possible, for even
when the Testicle itself shows but slight signs of
the disease, it may have extended to the loins and
abdomen. There have undoubtedly been many
oases of Sarcocele, of all the above kinds, that have






84 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

been entirely cured by removing the Testicle, and
have never appeared again
In general only one Testicle is diseased, and tha
only needs removing, though there is danger of
both becoming affected by delay. The operation
itself is comparatively simple, and not attended
with so much pain or danger as many might sup.
pose it to be.
It is very common, as before remarked, to find
Salcocele accompanied by Hydrocele, and fre.
quently on evacuating the water in Hydrocele the
Testis is found enlarged, though there were prev
iously no signs of it.
It is generally conceded that blows or other
violence may produce simple induration or hardness
of the Testicles, leading to medullary or fatty
tumors, but not to Cancer or Scrofula, though they
may excite such diseases to break out. The too
frequent irritation of bougies and injections is also
suspected of injuring in the same way.

FUNGUS OF THE TESTICLE.

This affection is different from either of those
previously described, though it has some resem.
balance, at certain stages, to Cancer. It is for.
tunately more capable of being beneficially treated,
however, and is not so likely to extend to other parts.
It is supposed to be caused by bruises or other
violence, or by Gonorrhea and Gleet, particularly
where injections have been used. The first indica.
tion is a simple swelling without pain, which bursts
and forms an abscess discharging pus, and from
the opening a Fungus begins to protrude. This
Fungus may attain an immense size, if not remove







DISEASES 3F THE TESTES. 85

ed, extending to the abdomen and becoming very
virulent. The discharge also may become so pro.
fuse as to cause much general debility and con.
stitutional irritation.
In the first stages of the swelling, when it is
known to arise from external violence, it may some-
times be reduced by Leeches, warm fomentations,
and poultices, with purgatives used internally, and
even after the abscess. has opened fomentations and
poultices may be sufficient to prevent any extension
of the mischief. When the Fungus has appeared
these, simple means become useless, and resort-must
be had either to caustic or the knife to remove it..
In my opinion the caustic is the best remedy, and
seldom fails to remove the diseased growth without
any injury to other parts. If the disease has not
progressed too far it may often be cured without
injuring the Testicle at all, though it was formerly
thought necessary to castrate in every case. and
some practitioners even do so now.
I once knew a man who had one of these Fungous
growths, arising from a bruise, who was cured by
the daily use of powdered burnt alum, dusted over
the Fungus, and followed by a warm Linseed poul-
tice. This was done morning and night, and by
these means only, combined with the use of simple
purgatives, and the solution of hydriodate of potassa
internally, as directed for HyIdrocele, he fully
recovered in about six weeks. Fhe Testicle, how.
ever, remained hard, and in all probability its power
was lost.
':i all cases of bruising, or other violence, the
time.y use of. rest, poultices, and warm fomenta.
tions, may prevent many ofthese evils.
There are several other kinds of tumors and







86 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

swellings of tie Testicles occasionally met with,
besides t-.ese mentioned, but they do not differ essen.
tiallv either in their nature or treatment, and often
it is scarcely possible to distinguish between them.
One peculiar form of Cancer is frequently met with
in England amongst chimney-sweeps, and is caused
by the irritation of the soot lodged in the furrows
of the Scrotum. It is met with sometimes, but
rarely, on the hand, or foot. It is commonly termed
the Sweeps' Cancer.

HERNIA HUMORALIS, ORCHITIS, OR INFLAMMATION
OF THE TESTICLES.

This sometimes appears to arise from some un-
known constitutional cause, and conies on very
slowly, but more usually it is from sme obvious
agency, and assumes from the first an acute form.
It arises frequently from blows, falls, nard riding,
and strains, but most generally from the use of injec.
tions and bougies, in Gonorrhcea, ana stricture, or
from the performing of operations like those for
Hydrocele. I have also known it to follow intense
sexual excitement, where gratification was impossible
and the semen had no tendency to escape involun.
tarily. In children it very frequently follows, or
accompanies the Mumps.
Inflammation of the Testicle usually commence
with slight pain and soreness in the part, attended,
by swelling, which is at first soft and yielding, but
gradually becomes hard, and sometimes hot and
very painful. The Scrotum loses all its roughness
by swelling so much, becoming smooth and red,
and occasionally so tenter that it can scarcely be
touched. As the inflammation "progresses the






DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 81

swelling extends up the spermatic cord, and severe
pains may be felt in the loins, and sometimes even
in the limbs, till the patient suffers the most ex.
cruciating agony.
In many, even of the most severe cases, but little
pain is experienced and the inflammation will sub-
side, under proper treatment, leaving no evil effects
whatever behind. There is danger, however, of its
being followed by abscess, or hydrocele, if neglect.
ed, even if it does not excite tumor or Fungus. A
loss of sexual power is also apt to follow inflamma-
tion of the Testicle, either from its deranging the
structure of the organ or from its obliterating the
passage in the Vas Deferens, and thus preventing
ever after the passage of the Semen from the Tes-
ticles to the Urethra.
Orchitis arises much oftener from Gonorrhoea than
any other cause, the inflammation extending from
the Urethra, along the Vas Deferens, till it reaches
the Epididymis, and finally the Testicle. The
Epididymis is always first attacked in these cases,
and very frequently the disease extends no further,
when it is called an Epididymilis. If it reaches the
Testicle it is then called Hernia Humoralis.
When the inflammation accompanies Gonorrhcea
.t will generally be found to arise whenever the
1Ischargl is suddenly checked, and immediately
the discharge is allowed to return the inflammation
ceases. This shows the close sympathy there is
between the Urethra and the Testes, and what
danger there is in irritating the Urethra in any
way. I have known inflammation of the Testes
arise in one hour after using a strong injection.
The treatment of this severe affliction must con.
sist, in the first place, in perfect rest, on the back







8S DISEASES- PF rHE TESTES.

the Scrotum being supported by a suspensory ban.
dage, or truss. Cold lotions must be freely and
frequently used, a.d the bowels opened freely with
salts or castor oil. No stimulating food or drink
must be taken, and the mind must not be agitated,
nor the feelings excited in any way. The best
lotion is a mixture of half a pint of water to half a
pint of alcohol, with a large spoonful of laudanum
added. If the pain be very severe this lotion may
be made hot, or a hot linseed or bread poultice may
be applied. A hot bath is also frequently of service.
A perseverance in these means will usually
reduce the inflammation and pain in one or two days,
unless the exciting cause continues to operate. In
very severe cases, however, particularly those from
bruises, it may be necessary to apply Leeches, or
to open some of the veins of the Scrotum, which
nearly always gives relief if the blood flows freely.
If the pain be so bad that the patient cannot rest he
may take twenty or thirty drops of Laudanum at
bed-time, in a little flax-seed tea or barley.water,
or in simple water alone, if these are not to be
obtained conveniently.. The following pills are the
best for this purpose, however, when they do not
disagree with the stomach, which unfortunately
they are apt to do, but they may be tried.
R. Opium, with soap, twenty grains; Camphor,
half a drachm ; to be made up into twelve pills, with
as much simple mucilage as may be requisite. One
of these may be taken every six hours if requisite.
The following ointment, applied externally, may
also give great relief from pain when the lotion
tails to do so.
R. Belladonna Ointment, two ounces; Camphor,
one drachm ; Paregorc' Elixir, one drachm.







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 89

This must be mixed into an Ointment, and a
0-rtion rubbed carefully over the tender parts, as
often as the pain becomes severe.
When the inflammation has been fully subdued
there is danger of the Testicle being left perma.
nently hardened, or indurated, which is nearly sure
to destroy its power, if it does not originate other
diseases. To prevent this, if the slightest hardness
remains, it must be frequently bathed with hot water,
and poulticed, or if these fail it must be rubbed
with the Camphorated Mercurial Ointment. Galva.
nism has been used with success when the hard-
ness resisted all other means, and as it is a safe
remedy, it may. be readily tried. The only internal
medicine' likely to be of use is the solution of
Hydriodate of Potassa, before directed, and even this
should be but seldom taken. The regular use of
the Camphorated Mercurial Ointment, followed by
hot fomentations, is the most generally successful
treatment.
The best remedy in some cases of acute Orchitis,
particularly when arising from the sudden stoppage
of a Gonorrhoeal dischargeo,is compression. This is
effected by means of strips of sticking plaster,
which are stuck firmly around the organ, and also
passed underneath, the pieces being about a quarter
of an inch wide, and long enough to go round and
meet. These of cou-se cross each other, and when
drawn pretty tight, and made to adhere fast, they
press considerably, and draw the whole organ
together. The parts require to be shaved to apply
them, and they must be re-applied as often as they
work loose, or as fast as the swelling shrinks. In
must cases the pati mt experiences great and im-
mrediate relief from this application, owing to the






90 DISEASES OP 7HE TESTES.

support it gives; it must always be used, however
with the suspensory bandage.
Compression is, in general, only appropriate in
cases of acute Orchitis arising from Gonorrhoea,
though it may be advantageously resorted to, in
some few instances, when it originates from other:
causes. 1 have used it when the swelling arose
from intense sexual excitement, and also in one or
two instances from blows, and with advantage, but
generally the treatment before given will obviate
the necessity for compression, if it be persevered in.
Latterly the compression has been effected by
means of Collodion, a substance made by dissolving
gun cotton in ether, which sticks much more forci-
bly, and is applied more readily.
The symptoms of Epididymitis are the same,
and so is the treatment, as when the whole organ is
attacked, which it is nearly sure to be eventually,
if the Epididymitis continues.
There is always reason to fear that a severe
attack of Orchitis will permanently injure the Tes.
tide, more or less, by obliterating some of the
Seminal Tubes, even jf it does not close the Vas
Deferens, or harden the Epididymis. One Tes-
tilule may, however, be inflamed, and suffer, while
the other remains perfectly sound. After having
been once inflamed the Testicle appears more sus-
ceptible of the same misfortune again, so that
those who have suffered from :t should be as careful
as possible to avoid subsequent attacks, or the evil
effects will probably increase each time. Impotence
not unfrequently follows Orchitis.
Sometimes the inflammation ends in suppuration,
the matter escaping by numerous little sinuses or
openings, which eventually close and heal when all







DISEASES c R S TESTES. 91

a discharged. In all these cases, however, the
T'sticle is more or less wasted, and sometimes
entirely destroyed. At other times the pus will not
discharge at first, but assume the form of a firmisb
curdy mass, similar to the substance of the brain
and remain for a long time. The ofgan is then
much more liable than before to infiammation, and
its internal structure gradually undergoes a change
by which its secreting powers are totally lost. In
some of these instances the Testicle becomes nearly
as hard as a stone, and on being dissected appears
much like cartilage or bone.
In some persons Acute Orchitis much resembles
Rheumatism, being affected by the changes of the
weather or by exposure, and coming, and going
again in a short time. Indeed, some writers speak
of it then as Rheumatism of the Testicle, and treat it
the same as that affection in other parts of the body.
I have known some men so extremely sensitive in
this organ that an attack of Orchitis was sure tu
follow if they merely pressed the Testicles on
crossing the limbs, and especially if they rode on
horseback. In fact, many.a severe case has arisen
from being thrown forward upon the pommel of the
saddle.
Inflammation of the Testicle sometimes appeals
in very young infants, not more than a few days
old, and without our being able to assign any
cause. I have thought sometimes that it arose from
Teething, and at other times from an improper
mode of carrying the child, by which these organs
were bruised. I. saw one instance wherein the in.
flammation appeared on tbe day of birth, which waa
very severe. In general, these infantile cases can
so cured by simrln f6mentations, or cold lotions,







90 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.
with a dose or two of castor oil. When ver reere
a Leech may be applied, and three or fou grains
of the Powder of Mercury 2nd Chalk given. When
arising from Mumps it usually subsides wi en the
primary cause is removed, though it may remain
afterwards, and must then be treated as above
advised_.
It is somewhat disputed among medical men
whether these inflammations in infants ever perma.
nently injure the Testicle or not, but I am persuade.
ed they often do so, and, in all probability, many a
man has beet made impotent for life ny this affect.
tion when a child. It is, therefore, of the first
importance not to neglect this trouble, though it
may be but slight, as the after effects may be
serious.
It is proper to remark here that the Mumps arise
in adults as well as in children, and that they may
affect the Testicles, and cause impotence, as well
at one period as at another. Such cases as these
afford a singular proof of that remarkable sympa.
thy which exists between distant parts of the body,
.but the nature of which we cannot explain.
Either of the following Recipes give excellent
cooling lotions, applicable to all cases.
B. Lime-water, one ounce ; Alcohol, seven
ounces; mixed together.
R. Hydrochlorate of Ammonia, one drachm; Cold
Spring-water, five ounces; Alcohol, one ounce
mix together.
The last lotion is an excellent one toapply to the
Scrotum and Perineum. In many .persons, how.
ever, hot fomentations succeed much better than
cold lotions.
It is often very beneficial, particularly when the







DISEASES OF THE TESTES. 93

pair Is severe, to cause a little nausea or vomiting.
or which purpose a quarter cf a grain of Tartar
Emetic may be given every three or four hours, till
the effect is produced. This frequently gives great
relief, and in a short time, when all other means
fail.
In very obstinate cases, attended with pain, two
or three grains of Calomel should be given, at bed-
time, mixed with eight or ten grains of Dover's
Powder. This may be given two or three times a
week.
It is sometimes a good plan to use the Plaster of
Ammonia and Mercury to strap the Testicle with,
in the manner before described, so as to gain the
advantages of Compression and the effects of Mer.
cury together.
If the inflammation and tenderness al' subsides,
but the swelling a.id hardness continues, the follow-
ing solution may be rubbed over the Scrotum every
three or four days.
R. Iodine, one drachm; Iodide of Potassium, half
a drachm ; Alcohol, one ounce ; dissolve all together.
In many persons, particularly those of a Scrof.
ulous habit, Acute Orchitis has a tendency to
assume the Chronic form, after the first severe
symptoms have subsided, and this is perhaps a
worse state than the other. In Chronic Orchitis a
deposit of yellowish matter takes place, in different
parts of the Testicle, at first soft but gradually
becoming harder, till at last the organ feels like
a stone. This matter blocks up the Semrriferous
Tubes and destroys their power of secretion, so
that impotence ensues. It was formerly the custom
to call such cases Schirrhus, but this is improper, as
tt might lead to the idea that they assume a malig.







94 1ISEA3SS OF THE TESTES.

nant form, which is not the case. Chi onic Orchi.
tis may either follow from the acute form, or it
may arise spontaneously, like Scrofulous affections
of other parts; and it also frequently follows a
long course of intemperance or licentious indui.
gcnce, and may even be produced by the long con.
tinued and injudicious use of Mercury.
This form of the disease may give rise to but
little inconvenience for a long time, though the
swelling may be of considerable size, unless a
blow, or strain be experienced, when the symptoms
become immediately acute, and relief is sought for.
Usually in a few weeks the swelling is observed to
point in some particular part of the Scrotum, and
eventually it breaks, discharging some pus, together
with a Fungus-looking body, which appears rough
and bleeding. In a short time the opening enlarges
and more or less of the Testicle itself passes
through, the whole forming a granulated tumor of a
yellowish white 'color, studded with pale red or
black patches. This tumor is tightly embraced
round its neck by the edges of the opening through
which it passed, and which become very thick and
red. A thin watery discharge flows from it, often
mixed with semen, but rarely with blood.
As soon as this break occurs, and the parts pass
through, great relief.is felt, and the disease may
remain for a long time without undergoing any
further change. The tumor itself is rarely tender,
but may be handled, cut, or burnt with caustic,
with but little inconvenience. It is not unusual to
find this singular protrusion in Scrofulous children
who have had inflammation of the Testicle.
It was formerly the custom always to remove the
whole Testicle when afflicted with this Fangou*







DISEASES OF THE TESTES Jb

growth, ,ut now the practice is seldom resorted to.
The protruding part is cut off with the knife, or
burnt off with caustic, and the skin of the Scrotum
being then brought over it the wound is healed and
no further trouble is experienced. In many cases
a cure is even effected spontaneously, or by means
of a simple wash of six grains of Nitiate of Silver
to one ounce of water, with some internal alterative
medicine.
The best medicine in Chronic Orchitis is Blue
Pill, five grains of which should be given every
night, with one grain of Opium, till the gums feel a
little sore.
In some cases a better treatment is to administer
the Compound Extract of Sarsaparilla internally,
and sprinkle the Fungus itself with equal parts or0
powdered savin and sulphate of copper. Occasion.
ally varying the medicine by giving a little of the
Wine of Iron, particularly if the patient be weakly
and sinking.
It must be admitted, however, that Inflammation
of the Testicle is, in any form and under any.mode
of treatment, a disease extremely dangerous to the
patient's sexual powers, though it may not com.
promise -is life, nor interfere much with his general
health

OSSIFICATION OF THE TESTICLE.

in some few cases the Testicle has been known
1o Ossify or become more or less converted into
Bone. The causes of this degeneration are un.
Known, and unfortunately we know of no remedy.
I have thought, in some few cases I have seen,
that it was more likely owing to excessive con.
if'







96 DISEASES OF 'IHE TESTES.

tinence than anything else, but it is impossible to
decide.
The Ossification generally commences in the
middle, and may be felt like a hard kernel, which
gradually extends till the whole organ is affected.
In all cases when a hardness of this kind is felt im-
mediate resort should be had to fomentations and
poultices, because it may be but a simple indura.
tion which they will remove.
It is propable that Ossification and induration
most frequently arise from Orchitis, particularly
when there has been many consecutive attacks.

ARREST OF DEVELOPMENT AND WASTING OF THE
TESTES.

The Testes, like other parts of the body, are
liable to be arrested in their development, from
causes unknown to ui, and this arrest may either
be permanent or the development may be comple-
ted at some after period of life. I have known
instances of men, at various ages, with Testes
remarkably small, and passions nearly dormant, in
whom a sudden development took place from the
sight of some female who excited their desires to
an unusual degree. In all probability these per.
sons would always have remained as they were,
but for this occurrence, as many others similarly
circumstanced do ; and we have thus a proof of the
decided influence that the awakened feelings may
have on physical development.
In one instance where I was consulted, in a case
of this kind, the left Testis was about the size of a
small hazel-nut, and the other still smaller, the per.
son being aboutt twenty-eight, and possessing the







DISEA ES OF ThE TESTES. 97

tsaal feelings of his sex, though in a slight degree.
Many circumstances induced me to thtnk that the
organs were healthy, and that in all probability
their further growth would ensue, undei proper
treatment, and from the new impetus given to his
desires by his wish to marry. I, therefore, advised
a stimulant plan of treatment, similar to that which
will be directed in a subsequent article, and advised
him to wait patiently. The result justified my
opinion, the organs began to enlarge very soon, and
in two years' time were of full average size, so that
he had no misgivings whatever about marrying.
It is very often the case that persons who had
Scrotal Hernia in childhood have the Test"- small,
owing to the pressure on the cord of the instrument
worn to cure it, and with some who have had
Mumps their full growth is never attained.
Any causes that prevent the full supply of blood
from going to the Testes will prevent their growth,
or cause them to waste, and it is from this cause
that many such cases arise. If the spermatic
arteries be small, which supply them with blood,
they do not receive sufficient nutriment, and, there-
fore, cannot grow nor secrete much semen. These
arteries are very long, and exposed to several
causes of injury as they proceed through the abdo-
men, so that they frequently become more or less
injured, and the Testicles' suffer in consequence.
Bometimes they are pressed upon by the other parts,
;n passing through the ring, and at other times they
ire affected by aneurism or their walls thicken
and partly close up the passages. In old people
the spermatic arteries are very apt to become more
or less obliterated, and this is the chief cause of
thai wAsting cf tha Testes so often seen at that






98 DISEASES OF THE TESTES.

period of life. To fully prove this the spermanti
artery of a.dog has been tied, leading to one of the
Testes, and that in a short time was completely
wasted away, while the other remained perfect. It
has even been proposed to perform this operation.
which is comparatively simple, instead of castration,
when we wish to destroy the procreative power in
animals. Such facts make it evident that the power
of the Testes, and consequently the amative propen-
sity of any man, depends materially upon the size of
the spermatic arteries, probably much more so than
upon any peculiar structure of the brain. It is cer.
tain that if these arteries be destroyed in early life
no amativeness can ever be felt, nor any procreative
power be established. A knowledge of this fact
teaches us that the extent, both of the power and
the propensity is very much, if not entirely, under
our control, if the supply of blood admitted to the
Testes can be duly regulated. This is a point never
before attended to in medical practice, that 1 am
aware of, but I have satisfied myself of its correct.
ness by repeated experiments, and I look upon it as
being of the greatest value. There are many
means by which the amount of blood flowing to the
Testes may be regulated to a great extent, some of
them increasing and others decreasing it, as I have
shown in many of the cases described. It is often
the case that badly fitted.Trusses, by pressing on the
arteries, will cause the Testes to waste, while, on
the contrary, an ill-made suspensory bandage or
even tight clothing, by chafing the parts, will draw
the blood to them till they are intensely excited.
or even till inflammation ensues. This shows u;
what principle to act upon in practice, adopting the
appliances to the peculiar circumstances r i the casp,




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