• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Mammalian fauna of Parc National...
 Mammalian fauna of Parc National...
 Discussion
 Conclusions
 Summary
 Five most important actions
 Acknowledgments
 Literature cited
 List of tables and figures
 Tables
 Figures






Title: Mammals of parc national La Visite and parc national Pic Macaya, Haiti
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065377/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mammals of parc national La Visite and parc national Pic Macaya, Haiti
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Woods, Charles A.
Publisher: USAID/Haiti
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Hispaniola
Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065377
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Mammalian fauna of Parc National La Visite
        Introduction
            Page 7
        Habitats surveyed
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Recent land mammals
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Summary
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Extinct land mammals
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Bats of Parc National La Visite
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Mammalian fauna of Parc National Pic Macaya
        Introduction
            Page 26
        Habitats surveyed
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Recent land mammals
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
        Extinct land mammals
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Bats of Parc National Pic Macaya
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
    Discussion
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Conclusions
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Summary
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Five most important actions
        Page 56
    Acknowledgments
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Literature cited
        Page 59
        Page 60
    List of tables and figures
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Tables
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Figures
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
Full Text




Mammals

of


The National Parks of Haiti


by

Charles A. Woods






















OK
228.1
.W663
1986





OK


J. 63

/!g6




The Mammals
of
Parc National La Visite
and
Parc National Pic Macaya
Haiti






By

Charles A. Woods
Curator of Mammals
Florida State Museum
Gainesville, Florida
32611

January 1986



















Prepared for USAID/Haiti under Contract Number
521-0169-C-00-3083-00



/1~i '












Table of Contents

Page

1. Introduction 1

2. Materials and Methods 2

3. Mammalian Fauna of Parc National La Visite 7

A. Introduction 7

B. Habitats Surveyed 8

C. Recent Land Mammals 10

Summary 17

D. Extinct Land Mammals 19

E. Bats of Parc National La Visite 21

4. Mammalian Fauna of Parc National Pic Macaya 26

A. Introduction 26

B. Habitats Surveyed 27

C. Recent Land Mammals 29

D. Extinct Land Mammals 38

E. Bats of Parc National Pic Macaya 41

5. Discussion 47

6. Conclusions 50

7. Summary 54

8. Five Most Important Actions 56

9. Acknowledgements 56

10. Literature Cited 59

11. List of Tables and Figures 61

12. Tables 63

13. Figures 74








Introduction


The current mammalian fauna of the mountains of Haiti

differs from the much more diverse assemblage of mammals

that existed at the time indians first arrived on the island

4500-7000 years ago (Rouse and Allaire, 1978), or even at

the dawn of the colonial era when Columbus discovered

Hispaniola in 1492 (Miller, 1929; Woods et al., 1986). A

journey through either of the national parks today reveals

few signs or sightings of mammals other than domestic

species. The most common indigenous mammals of Haiti today

are bats. The endemic terrestrial mammals of the parks that

still survive are secretive and predominantly nocturnal,

which further leads to the impression of a landscape largely

devoid of native mammals. The purpose of this report is to

document the kinds of mammals that were present in the

region of the parks before the arrival of indians as well as

to discuss the composition of the present day mammalian

fauna in and around Parc National La Visite of the Massif de

La Selle and Parc National Pic Macaya of the Massif de La

Hotte. The exact locations and characteristics of each park

are described in Woods and Harris (1986), and are

illustrated in figures 1-3 at the end of this report.











1








2


Materials and Methods


The composition of the mammalian fauna present in the

region of the national parks before historical times (before

1492) was determined by the analysis of fossil and subfossil

specimens collected in sinkholes and caves within the

boundaries of the parks. Specimens were identified as bones

or bone fragments found in complete sections of matrix that

were dug from the floor of caves or sinkholes floors. For

each site a grid system was established and all collections

were recorded as to the exact and relative positions of the

material within the overall grid. Larger bones were

collected directly, with the important data such as to

location and associated material recorded on the label.

Small specimens, fragments and isolated teeth were recovered

by sifting the matrix through screens. If the matrix was

wet or contained significant amounts of clay the material

was washed through the screen. In all cases the data

associated with each unit (part of a collection measuring

meter x 1 meter x 6 centimeters) remained associated with

each fragment or specimen. Identifications were made on the

specimens collected by comparing them with known taxa within

the collections of the Florida State Museum. Dates were

obtained on important specimens by determining the C14 ratio

in bone fragments found at the same level and in close

association with the specimen in question. The radiometric








3


dates were done at Beta Analytic Laboratory in Miami,

Florida.

Recent land mammals were surveyed along a transect

utilizing traps of various designs. The designs were: 1)

"Museum Special" snap trap (kill trap); 2) standard rat trap

(kill trap); 3) Sherman folding trap 3"x3"x 9" (live

trap); 4) Tomahawk folding wire trap 6"x6"x 19" (live

trap); and 5) Tomahawk folding wire trap 9"x9"x 26" (live

trap). These traps were used in combinations to sample a

habitat in such a way that it would be possible to capture

small mammals from the size of a mouse (Mus musculus; 10

grams) to a "Zagouti" (Plagiodontia aedium; 1500 grams).

The traps were baited with a variety of substances

including: 1) sardines; 2) squashed bananas; 3) rolled oats

and peanut butter; 4) tuna fish; 5) various combinations of

items 1-4. Traps were set along transects that were

established in each national park. Each trap was marked

with orange surveyors tape placed far enough away from the

trap not to be noticed. Traps were set in habitats

representing all of the major habitat types in each national

park. For each habitat approximately 100 traps were set on

two successive nights and throughout the intervening day.

For each specimen collected the following information was

recorded: 1) species; 2) sex and reproductive status; 3)

special morphological features (i.e. color, pelage

condition, parasite damage). The trapping data were used to








4


calculate: 1) the total number of species present for each

habitat; 2) the total number of individuals of each species

present in each habitat; 3) the percent capture rate for

each habitat (number of traps divided by the number of

individuals captured); 4) the number of "trap nights"

associated with each habitat (trap night = number of traps

set x number of nights).


The habitats analyzed were specifically chosen to

represent each of the major habitat types in the parks (see

description of habitats in Woods and Harris, 1986). For

Parc National La Visite I selected the following habitats:

1) mature pine forest ("Bwapen"); 2) successional pine

forest ("Bwapen Raje"); -3) mesic broad-leaved forest in

large stands ("Rak Bwa"); 4) broad-leaved forest broken

into small patches surrounded by open lands ("Bwa Raje");

5) open areas with small shrubs, ferns or grass ( "Raje");

6) areas along the sides of streams (no creole name).

Following each habitat is the Haitian Creole name in quotes

with the spelling based on usage in Valdman (1981).


In Parc National Pic Macaya the same six types of

habitat were sampled. These habitats form dominant units in

the park above 1350 meters. Below 1350 meters the

topography of the park is less steep and is characterized by

deeply cut plains and exposed limestone. These areas were

also sampled. The lowland areas (950-1350 meters) sampled








5


included: 1) the extensive broad-leaved forests found in

association with karst domes or extensive exposures of karst

topography (Rak Bwa Woch"); 2) fragments of lowland

broad-leaved forest that are associated with small karst

domes surrounded by open land ("Bwa Raje Woch"). These

areas, along with extensive areas of open pasture and

cleared, cultivated fields (which were not sampled), form

the dominant habitats of Parc National Pic Macaya on the

Plain of Formon and adjacent karst hills. Photographs and

maps of all of these habitats are available in Woods and

Harris (1986).


The presence, absence and relative abundance of land

mammals for each of the habitats discussed above were also

established by searching for characteristic mammal signs and

remains. Signs and remains that can be used to identify a

species of terrestrial mammal are: 1) fecal pellets; 2)

indications of feeding activity such as chewed plant or

animal parts; 3) nests, burrows or shelters in rock

crevices; 4) remains of small mammals in the feces of

larger predators such as dogs, cats or mongoose; 5) remains

(usually partial skeletons) of mammals collected at the site

where the animals died or were killed (i.e. in rock

crevices, small sinkholes or in or near gardens where

peasants may have killed the animal); 6) remains of small








6


mammals collected from owl pellets recovered from caves

within the boundaries of the park.


The other major group of mammals surveyed in each park

are bats. The presence of some species of bats in a region

can be known by analyzing owl pellets from roosting barn

owls (Tyto alba). However, barn owls feed over a wide range

of habitats sometimes several kilometers from their roost

site in a cave and so it is important to demonstrate the

presence of bats in a specific region. This can be done by

identifying bones of bats found on the floor of caves

beneath their roost site. Another, and more precise method

is to sample with mist nets set in specific habitats. It is

possible to associate a bat species with a precise habitat

type using the techniques outlined above. In this study

mist nets were set in all of the major habitat types of each

park. Nets were left set day and night during the sampling

period, and were used to analyze the avian fauna as well as

the bat fauna.








7



Mammalian fauna

of

Parc National La Visite


A. Introduction


The survey of the mammals of the Parc National La

Visite was concentrated in the core of the park between the

summits of Morne La Visite (2170 meters elevation) in the

west and Morne Cabaio (2282 meters elevation) in the east

and in the regions north and south of the La Selle

Escarpment down to 1650 meters elevation (Figure 2). The

region has steep cliffs covered with broad-leaved forest

north of the ridge (La Selle Escarpment). Pine forest grows

in a broad basin of relatively flat habitat south of the

ridge. A narrow zone of exposed limestone habitat caps the

ridge on which a scrub broad-leaved forest grows. Shallow

soils cover Eocene limestone bedrock in most areas of the

park. Pine forests (often savannah-like) dominate in

exposed regions while a thick broad-leaved forest (sometimes

mixed with tall pines) grow in ravines and sinkholes. Deep

ravines are associated with streams draining into the

Riviere Blanche. These ravines, and the ravine of the river

itself with its occasional waterfalls, are covered with

dense broad-leaved forests on north facing slopes. Pine

forests grow on the south facing slopes of these ravines.









8



The area of the Parc National La Visite south of the La

Selle Escarpment is relatively flat and forms a basin.

Water from the region drains centrally into the Riviere

Blanche. There are many sinkholes, caves and areas of

exposed limestone, often forming craggy zones referred to

locally as "kase dans" (broken teeth). The parks are

inhabited by peasant farmers who have planted corn in open

dry areas, and cleared small garden patches in mesic areas

which have been planted in vegetable crops. The La Visite

area was logged up until the late 1970s, and many large

pines were removed from the plateau at that time. The

stumps of these pines are scattered about the region

indicating the extent of the deforestation. In some of

these areas dense pine stands indicate areas of natural

regeneration of the pine forest. The base and bark of most

large pines are charred, as is the deep leaf layer just

above the soil surface. Fires may have been a major feature

in the ecology of the region of the park.


Within the above area, transects were set in each of

the locations described below.


B. Habitats surveyed in Parc National La Visite


1. The undisturbed broad-leaved forest on the steep

north slope 100 meters east of Morne La Visite at 2160

meters elevation ("Rak Bwa").








9



2. The disturbed broad-leaved forest on the steep

north slope 500 meters east of Morne La Visite at 2120

meters elevation ("Bwa Raje -1").


3. The destroyed (cut and burned) broad-leaved

forest north of the ridge just below the karst

limestone cap 550 meters east of Morne La Visite at

2160 meters elevation ("Bwa Raje -2").


4. The upper plateau of open pastures

and ruinate scrubby vegetation located

near the ridge at 2150 meters elevation

900 meters east of Morne La Visite and

100 meters SW of Tete 2187 ("Raje").


5. The pine forest in a ravine 500 meters

south of the ridge and Tete 2187. The

pine forest has a stream located in the bottom

of the ravine and the elevation averages 2100 meters

("Bwapen").


6. The broad-leaved forest patches along a ravine of

the Riviere Blanche 3.2 km south of Morne La Visite at

an elevation of 1730 meters ("Riviere Rak Bwa").


7. A successional pine forest near a stream north

of the old sawmill ("La Scierie") at 1940 meters

elevation. The area is near the road through the







10


park, and several houses ("Bwapen Raje").



C. Recent Land Mammals of Parc National La Visite


A. The mongoose, Herpestes auropunctatus, occurs in all

areas of the national park up to the ridge of the massif at

2187 meters elevation in open Raje areas. One mongoose was

captured near the ridge in a Tomahawk live trap set at the

edge of a pasture near a patch of brush. Previous sightings

of the mongoose in Parc National La Visite are: 1) near

Morne La Visite at 2000 meters in May 1982 in a brushy

stream bed ("Riviere Rak Bwa"); 2) in the pine forest

("Bwapen") near La Scierie (1920 meters elevation) in

September 1983; 3) near a sinkhole named Trou Jean Paul

(1800 meters elevation) in May 1983 and; 4) in a

successional pine forest ("Bwapen Raje") near Morne La

Visite (2000 meters elevation) in January 1984. These

observations indicate that the mongoose can be found in both

open and forested areas throughout the park. Few mongoose

were captured or seen during the course of the study. In

January 1985 a team of 15 biologists worked in an open

"Raje" area of the park for 1 week and did not see any

mongoose. The density of the mongoose in Parc La Visite is

assumed to be low, and it appears as if the mongoose is in

the process of expanding its range into the park as a result

of habitat modification and the presence of artificial food








11


supplies such as domestic fowl that are associated with

human presence in the area. It is not clear what the effect

of increased numbers of mongoose in the parks will be on the

fauna. Birds such as the Greater Antillean Bullfinch and

Killdeer which nest on or near the ground are especially

vulnerable to predation by the mongoose, as are small ground

dwelling reptiles. The mongoose is also capable of

disturbing breeding Black-capped Petrels if the increased

number of gardens on the north face of the ridge of La

Visite allow the mongoose to gain access to the burrows of

these birds. An active program of mongoose control is now

underway in Hawaii in an effort to reduce the numbers of

these mammals in critical habitats for nesting birds (Keith,

et al., 1985).


B. The House mouse, Mus musculus is found in areas of

the park that are near water and where pine forest provides

cover and a deep layer of pine needles on the forest floor.

The mice captured during the study came from one area of the

park in the pine forest near a stream that was far away from

the nearest house and agricultural area. A possible

explanation for the presence of mice in this well forested

habitat is that the forest was previously cut and burned,

and the mice became established in the region when more

ruinate conditions prevailed. Pines in the immediate area

where the mice were captured were two to five meters in







12


height and the forest was at an early successional state.

Mice were also found near a stream adjacent to the old

sawmill (La Scierie) in an area of mature pine forest.

House mice are often seen in ajupas and around houses in the

park, but are generally not found in areas of natural

vegetation, unlike rats which are found in all of the

habitats sampled in the park.

C. Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, were not collected

in the La Visite area during the sampling period, in spite

of trapping in several areas of heavy forest cover and deep

leaf litter as well as around houses.

D. Black rats, Rattus rattus are abundant in all

regions of the park during the inventory period no matter

what the local conditions were. Four distinct morphotypes

are present in the park (Table 1):

1) uniformly brown; 2) brown with a white belly; 3) black

with a grey belly; 4) black or grey with a white belly.

Areas of pine habitat have a higher incidence of brown and

brown and white morphotypes. Rattus rattus is now abundant

in the Bwa Rage habitat near the crest of the ridge which

two years ago was populated with Plagiodontia aedium, and

which had a more substantial forest cover at that time. Two

years ago few rats were collected in the area, so rats

appear to have moved into the habitat previously occupied by

Plagiodontia. Several rats were trapped at the mouth of

rock crevices previously occupied by P. aedium.








13


It is not clear why no Norway rats were found in the

park, and why Black rats dominate. Where Norway and Black

rats are found together the more aggressive Norway rat will

usually replace the Black rat, especially in mesic habitats.

The more arboreal Black rat is most likely to be found in

drier areas, and in areas with tree cover (especially palm

trees and in the thatch of houses, where its common name,

"Roof rat", indicates it is frequently observed. Both

species of rat are abundant in lowland areas to the north

and south of the park. Black rats are reported to damage

coconuts and cacao pods in the Barahona region to the east

and at Fond des Negres Experiment Station to the west.

Norway rats are common in the Port-au-Prince area as well as

the Plain of Cayes and is the dominant species in the rice

fields of the Artibonite Valley. Norway rats are known to

feed on corn in the Port-au-Prince area (Bruggers and

Valvano, 1983). In one study sponsored by USAID and

conducted by MARNDR in 1983 1.9 percent of the corn crop was

damaged in April while damage increased to 18 percent in

December (Keith, personal communication). These figures

indicate that Norway rats were abundant in lowland areas

where corn was grown during the same period as the present

study was underway. Since the region around Parc National

La Visite is now widely planted in corn, it is possible that

the habitat in the La Visite region is being made more

attractive to Norway rats, and that both rat species will be








14


found in the park in the future. Since Norway rats favor

more mesic areas and are more terrestrial in habit, it is

likely that this species will have a more negative impact

than the Black rat on the Black-capped Petrels breeding on

the north facing cliffs of the park.

E. The "Zagouti", Plagiodontia aedium, is no longer

abundant within the park. No specimens or signs (pellets,

scent markings, chewed bark) of P. aedium were found in the

pine forest or in open disturbed areas near the ridge

(Raje). In 1985 only one P. aedium was found in the area of

the cool wet forest north of the ridge (Rak Bwa). This is

especially disturbing since I estimate that twenty five P.

aedium were found in this same area along the ridge (2150

meters elevation) in 1980-1982. The forest there has been

largely cut in the last three years to make gardens. The

P. aedium have steadily disappeared. In January 1985 the

only sign of P. aedium found along the north face of the

ridge was a single freshly chewed tree branch. The apparent

reasons for the reduction in numbers of the "Zagouti" are:

1. Loss of habitat by burning and cutting

to make space for temporary gardens.


2. Animals killed by peasants working

in their gardens (one specimen was found dead

with its head cut off at the edge of a new garden

on 29 May 1982).








15



3. Animals killed by dogs (bones of P. aedium

were found in feces of two dogs).


The increase in the number of rats in the above areas

appears to be associated with the decline in the number of

P. aedium, but it is not clear if the phenomenon is a cause

or an effect. It is therefore not possible to conclude that

the increase in the number of Black rats caused the

reduction in numbers of P. aedium or whether habitat loss

and predation reduced the number of P. aedium and made the

habitat more available to rats.


Plagiodontia aedium is still present in low numbers

within the boundaries of the park along the margins of the

Ravine de la Riviere Blanche (1730 meters). Numerous signs

(pellets, chewed bark or pine trees) of P. aedium were found

within the ravine near areas of exposed limestone and in

crevices suitable as shelter.

F. Solenodon paradoxus, which does not have a common

name but is sometimes called "Zagouti" or "Nez Longe ", does

not appear to occur in the park. No specimens were found,

and no feces of the species were located. Cone shaped

diggings similar to those made by Solenodon were observed in

Bwa Raje habitats near the ridge, but appear to have been

made by Rattus rattus, which was abundant in the habitat.

An analysis of bony remains collected in sinkholes within

the boundaries of Parc La Visite (Table 3) indicates that S.








16


paradoxus was common in the area until recent times. I

believe that feral dogs have killed all of the Solenodon

that once lived in the area. The one area close to the park

where the density of feral dogs and cats is low and where an

extensive area of wet broad-leaved forest still exists is

Morne d'Enfer. I recommend that Morne d'Enfer be included

in the park.

G. The domestic cat, Felis catus, is feral within the

boundaries of the park where it is known as "chat mawon". No

cats were seen hunting within Parc La Visite. However,

peasants indicate that there are many feral cats in the

area. It is common to find cat feces along the trails of

the park. I examined the contents of all feces collected in

Parc La Visite, and the results of these analysis indicate

that cats are feeding primarily on rats, with some birds,

mice and lizards being consumed.

H. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is common

within the boundaries of Parc La Visite. Most dogs appear

to stay near houses and to be associated with human

activities. No packs of dogs were observed during the

survey period. Examination of dog feces collected within

the park indicates that dogs do eat Plagiodontia. Remains

of P. aedium were found in two collections of feces from

areas a kilometer apart. One dog was observed late at night

hunting along the north face of the massif near Tete Opaque

at 2200 meters elevation. One knowledgeable peasant from








17


near Tete Opaque (Lucien Derville) observed dogs killing

"Zagouties", as well as digging Black-capped Pet'rels from

their burrows and eating them. It is likely that dogs have

a negative impact on other endemic birds and mammals as

well. Dogs kill many S. paradoxus in the Dominican Republic

(Jose Ottenwalder, personal communication) and I have a

documented case of a dog killing a S. paradoxus near Duchity

in the Departement de la Grande Anse. The large number of

dogs in the Parc National La Visite region appear to have

eliminated S. paradoxus from the area. Whenever possible,

therefore, dogs should be removed from the park, and

peasants living in or near the park should be prohibited

from keeping dogs.



Summary (Tables 1, 2, 3, 8, 9)


The terrestrial mammals found within the park include,

in order of abundance: 1) the Black rat (Rattus rattus); 2)

the House mouse (Mus musculus); 3) the mongoose (Herpestes

auropunctatus); 4) the "Zagouti" (Plagiodontia aedium).

The cat and to some extent the dog are also functioning as

"wild" mammals because they are living in a feral state.

The habitats within Parc National La Visite are highly

disturbed in terms of the mammalian fauna. Based on

trapping data collected during the course of the survey I

estimate that 75 percent of the species and 98 percent of








18


individual terrestrial mammals present in the park are

introduced non-endemics associated with habitat alteration

and the effects of human activities. The altered state of

the park is also indicated by an examination of the habitats

where mammals are most abundant. The average trapping

success within the park for small mammals is 9 percent (see

Table 2). The trapping success for the undisturbed

broad-leaved forest (Rak Bwa) was 13 percent, slightly above

the average for the park and very similar to average

trapping success in natural habitats in eastern North

America (10 percent). The trapping success in the mature

pine forest is 5 percent, which is less than half that for

the mesic broad-leaved forest but consistent with data from

natural pine habitats elsewhere. However, success in the

disturbed broad-leaved forest (Bwa Raje) was 30 percent and

in the open disturbed areas (Raje) it was 26 percent,

indicating that introduced species in disturbed habitats

form the dominant component of the mammal fauna of Parc

National La Visite.

It is clear from these data that all possible measures

should be taken to protect the mesic broad-leaved forest of

the region and to promote conservation activities that will

encourage the preservation of Plagiodontia aedium. Some

measure of controled forestry in the region around the park

is compatible with this goal. However, agriculture and

human habitation within or near the boundaries of the park







19


are not compatible with the continued survival of the

remaining endemic land mammals of the area.



D. Extinct Land Mammals of Parc National La Visite


The land mammals known to have existed in the area of

the Parc National La Visite based on an analysis of remains

collected in sinkholes and caves are listed in Tables 3, 8.

All of these except the "Zagouti", (Plagiodontia aedium)

have become extinct. Some of these extinctions occurred

within historical times (after the arrival of Columbus in

1492 and sometime after the observations of Oviedo who

discussed the natural history of the island in about 1540).

Some biologists considered it possible that two species

might continue to exist in remote areas of the Massif de la

Selle (Miller, 1930; Woods et al., 1986). These mammals are

the Hispaniolan Spiny Rat (Brotomys voratus) and the

Hispaniolan Island Shrew (Nesophontes paramicrus). Careful

analysis of a variety of habitats in the La Visite area over

the last three years, however, indicates that it is unlikely

that any endemic land mammals other than Plagiodontia aedium

continue to exist in the Morne La Visite region (Woods et

al, 1986). The reasons for the loss of the endemic land

mammals ranked in order of importance are: 1) habitat

destruction; 2) introduction of commensal predators (dogs,

cats and the mongoose); 3) introduction of commensal








20


competitors (rats and mice); 4) hunting by indians and

peasants. Hunting surely had the greatest impact on the

larger endemics, such as the ground sloth, the primate and

the large zagouti Plagiodontia velozi. Indians are also

known to have kept large numbers of the smaller zagouti-like

rodent Isolobodon portoricensis in captivity, and the

remains of this rodent and the spiny rat, Brotomys voratus,

are common in indian kitchen middens.








21



E. Bats of Parc National La Visite (Tables 5, 7)


Parc National La Visite is above 1600 meters elevation

(5280 feet). The climate is cool and few fruit bearing

trees grow in most areas of the park except in the

broad-leaved forest on the north side of the La Selle

Escarpment and in ravines, around sinkholes and on karst

domes. The number of potential species of bats that might

occur in the region therefore is limited to insectivorous

forms and bats with mixed food habits, and is far less than

the 18 species and subspecies of bats known to exist in

Hispaniola. Table 4 lists the name and distribution of all

species of bats known to exist in Haiti at the present time.

An examination of fossil and sub-recent material from

several caves within the boundaries of the park indicate

that eight bat taxa occurred in a sample that accumulated

within the past 10,000 years (and probably largely

accumulated in the last 2000 years since most remains were

on the surface of the cave deposit). The eight taxa are

listed in Table 5 and represent my best estimation as to the

natural composition of the bat fauna of the Parc National La

Visite region before it was altered by man.


The bats collected or observed within the

boundaries of Parc National La Visite during the period of








22


investigation are listed below with comments about the

biology of each species.



Eptesicus fuscus hispaniolae Big Brown Bat

Observed in a cave at 2100 meters elevation south

of Pic La Visite, and over the Riviere Blanche at several

locations.

This bat feeds on insects, and possibly changes

elevations depending upon the season. The bats were not

present in a cave near the ridge of Morne La Visite in

January/February 1983, 1984 or 1985, but were observed in

that cave in March 1982, and many were flying over the

Riviere Blanche on 27 May 1982 during the first hour after

dark.

Number of individuals: 12

Date: March 1982, May 1982


Monophyllus redmani clinedaphus -Leach's Long-tongued
Bat
Captured in a mist-net at 2100 meters elevation

set across a small stream with thick riparian scrub cover.

The stream flows downhill into a large cave and is

surrounded by open habitat.

This small bat has the ability to feed on nectar

of flowers as well as fruits and insects. It is well suited

to survive at higher elevations where fruit and insects are

limited in number.








23


Number of individuals: 3

Date: 26 May 1982, 14 January 1985



Phyllops haitiensis Dominican Fig-eating Bat

Captured in a mist-net set at 2150 meters

elevation set in a Rage area near the ridge of the Massif de

La Selle 1 kilometer E. of Morne La Visite.

This bat feeds on fairly hard fruit, and has well

developed dentition and strong jaw muscles. The bat has a

white patch on its shoulder and a nearly clear section in

the membrane of its wing.

Number of individuals: 1 female

Date: 14 January 1985



Tadarida brasiliensis constanzae Haitian Free-tailed
Bat
Captured in a mist-net set across the upper

Riviere Blanche near the waterfall at 1900 meters elevation.

This species of fast flying bat hunts over a wide

area and feeds on insects. It does not appear to be present

in the park during winter months.

Number of individuals: 3

Date: 27 May 1982



Discussion of La Visite bat fauna (Tables 5, 8)








24


The four species of bats recorded from the La Visite

region in various periods between 1982 and 1985 represent a

sample that is only 50% of the bat fauna known to exist in

the La Visite region during the past 10,000 years. Most of

the sample is from the surface of a sinkhole, Trouing Jean

Paul, and is less than 10,000 years old. The eight species

recorded from the surface of Trouing Jean Paul include all

of the species known to still occur in the La Visite region.

Four taxa are all or mostly insectivorous (50%), two taxa

are mostly frugivorous (25%) and two taxa have mixed food

habits that include insects, fruits, pollen and nectar

(25%). Of the four taxa that are still present in Parc La

Visite, two are insectivorous (50%), one is a mixed feeder

(25%) and one is a fruit feeder (25%). The proportions of

taxa in each feeding niche remains the same for the present

day bat fauna of four species as it was for the larger group

of eight species found in the last several thousand years.

Of the four missing bat taxa, all are difficult to net and

are normally less abundant than are the species encountered

during the course of the survey. A more intensive

collecting effect over a longer period might produce all

eight taxa.


As a general statement, the bat fauna of Parc National

La Visite does not appear to be very different in

composition from the known bat fauna that existed before the







25


habitat was altered by forest destruction and habitat

alteration. The data collected during the course of the

survey suggest that the bat fauna within the park changes

seasonally and that more species are present between March

and November (the warm and wet period) than between December

and February (the cool and dry period). The current known

bat fauna of Parc La Visite is half the total known bat

fauna for the region, however, and less than half the

current known bat fauna of Parc National Pic Macaya. I

believe that this is the result of extreme habitat

degradation within the boundaries of the park. An important

first step to restoring the species diversity of bats to the

park would be to include Morne d'Enfer into the boundaries

of Parc National La Visite. This addition would add

significant areas of mesic broad-leaved forest habitat to

the protected zone of the park and increase the percentage

of suitable feeding areas for bats.








26




Mammalian Fauna

of

Parc National Pic Macaya


A. Introduction


The survey of the mammals of Parc National Pic Macaya

sampled most regions of the park between the karst hills on

the Plain of Formon at 950 meters elevation and the pine

forests of the top of Pic Macaya at 2347 meters elevation

(Map 3). Parc National Pic Macaya differs from Parc

National La Visite in having more habitat diversity because

of the dramatic elevational gradients associated with the

peaks of Formon and Macaya and the deep ravines of the

Riviere Ravine du Sud, R. de Port-a-Piment, R. L'Acule, R.

des Roseaux and R. de la Guinadee (sometimes called the R.

Tardieu). The main areas sampled for mammals were: 1) the

broad-leaved forest in the area of exposed karst topography

on the Plain of Formon at 1000 meters elevation; 2) the

mixed broad-leaved and pine forests at 1650 meters elevation

on the north slope of the Ridge of Formon; 3) the extensive

broad-leaved forest on the north ridge of Pic Formon (2219

meters elevation); 4) the mature pine forests (with a dense

understory of broad-leaved vegetation in depressions) on

the top of Pic Macaya; 5) the diverse habitats located

along the valley of the Riviere Ravine du Sud between 1050








27


and 1650 meters elevation. The natural forest cover on the

Plain of Formon has been altered since Eric Ekman visited

Formon in 1917 and 1924, and reported dense forest down to a

level of 1000 meters elevation (Ekman, 1926). The forest is

now cut throughout the Plain of Formon except for patches of

broad-leaved forest that cover exposed areas of karst

topography in the karst hills at the southern edge of the

Plain of Formon. These regions are known locally as "Bwa

Formon" and "Bwa Deron". The steep mountain slopes north of

the Plain of Formon are now deforested to an elevation of

1500 meters, and patches of forest have been cut on both Pic

Formon and Pic Macaya up to an elevation of 2000 meters.

The forest cover in the Grande Ravine du Sud is extremely

altered by cutting, burning, overgrazing and agriculture.

The largest remaining areas of natural habitat are the wet

broad-leaved forests of Pic Formon and the mixed

broad-leaved and pine forests of Pic Macaya. Both forests

stretch along the ridges of two separate ranges which

parallel each other in an east-west direction.



B. Habitats surveyed


1.Bwa Formon is on the upper Plain of

Formon at 1100 meters elevation

SSE of Pic Formon ("Rak Bwa Woch").


2. Kay Ogile at the ridge of the Formon mountains is








28


at 1680 meters elevation and 2 km SE of Pic

Formon. The habitat includes the pine

and scrub forests in the adjacent ravine down to 1540

meters elevation ("Bwa Raje").


3. Pic Le Ciel is located adjacent to a meadow on the

east ridge of Formon between 2100 and 2170 meters

elevation .6 km SE of Pic Formon ("Rak Bwa Le Ciel").


4. Pic Formon is located on the east ridge of the

Formon mountains west of Pic Le Ciel (2170 meters). The

elevation of Pic Formon is 2219 meters. The habitat

extends northward down the ridge to 2095 meters

elevation ("Rak Bwa Formon").


5. The south shoulder of Pic Macaya at 2200 meters

elevation on an isolated pine forest covered ridge .5 km

south of the highest point of (2347 meters) of the

mountain ("Bwapen Raje").


6. The pine forest along the ridge of Pic Macaya above

2330 meters elevation ("Bwapen").


7. De Glace in the Ravine du Sud is 2 km SE of Pic

Macaya beside the Riviere Ravine du Sud at 1040 meters

elevation ("Bwa Raje").








29



C. Recent Land Mammals of Parc National Pic Macaya

The data on the terrestrial mammals of Pic Macaya are

summarized in Tables 6, 9 and 10. The results indicate that

for each habitat more individuals were present in the Pic

Macaya area than in the area of Morne La Visite. During the

period of investigation 59% more mammals were encountered

during the Macaya survey, and the average trapping success

at Parc National Macaya was 14% as opposed to 9% for Parc

National La Visite. Specific observations on the status of

each species are listed below.


A. The mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) is known to

occur at the base of Pic Formon on the Plain of Formon near

"Portal Formon" at 1000 meters elevation where I observed

one in 1983. During eight weeks of work in the area between

"Portal Formon" and Pic Macaya over a three year period no

additional mongoose were seen. Two mongoose were trapped in

Tomahawk live traps near disturbed areas in February of

1985. One was trapped in the successional pine forest on

the south shoulder of Pic Macaya at 2200 meters elevation.

The area is surrounded by deforested and ruinate (Raje)

habitat that extends into the lowlands. The second mongoose

was trapped in the bottom of the Grande Ravine du Sud at

1040 meters elevation in a disturbed habitat surrounded by

Bwa Raje forest. The area is near a main trail and several

agricultural areas. Scat (feces) of a mongoose were








30


collected in the pine forest on the top of Pic Macaya at

2330 elevation in 1984. The area where the mongoose scat

was collected is near a ridge of the mountain that was

deforested by a forest fire in 1982.

B. The House mouse (Mus musculus) is only found in

highly disturbed areas in Parc Macaya. It was collected in

the basin below the eastern Ridge of Formon at "Kay Ogile"

(Bwa Raje conditions) where the forest has been cut, gardens

planted and a house built. This basin has been badly

exploited during the past three years, with much additional

forest destruction in the past year. As of February 1985

the forest was cut at the southeastern margin of the basin

resulting in continual ruinate (Raje) conditions from the

ravine of the Riviere de L'Acul upward into the basin below

Kay Ogile. The house is a permanent structure with a metal

roof and is located in the bottom of the basin. The presence

of House mice in this otherwise mesic basin just below the

virgin forest on the ridge of the Formon range appears to be

associated with the recent modifications of the habitat.

House mice were also collected in the upper area of the

Riviere Ravine du Sud at 1900 meters directly below the

highest peak on Macaya. The area is deforested. Numerous

garden houses (ajupas) are located in the ravine and

wandering flocks of goats and sheep graze on the nearby

mountain sides. The mice were trapped near ajupas and'on

overgrazed hillsides.







31


C. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is abundant in

several habitats within Parc National Pic Macaya. This rat

is brown and white in coloration, and lives close to the

ground. The Black rat, Rattus rattus, on the other hand

climbs trees and lives in rocky areas, open ruinate habitats

and in the thatch of ajupas and kays. Norway rats inhabit

wetter habitats than Black rats. Where the two species have

been studied, the Norway rat is more aggressive and usually

replaces the Black rat. Within the Parc National Pic

Macaya, Norway rats occur in: 1) the wet broad-leaved and

pine forests on Pic Formon above 2100 meters elevation; 2)

on the south shoulder of Pic Macaya in the successional pine

forest; 3) on the top of Pic Macaya in the pine forest and;

4) in mesic habitats in the Grande Ravine du Sud at 1040

meters elevation in disturbed areas of broad-leaved and pine

forest. The common ecological conditions associated with

the areas where Norway rats were captured during the

inventory period are: 1) a deep (15 100 cm) layer of pine

needles, leaves and logs; 2) pine forest or a mixed forest

of pines and broad-leaved vegetation; and 3) abundant

rainfall (in excess of 3000 mm per year). Black rats can

also exist in these same habitats. On Pic Macaya a Black

rat was captured in the same trap that caught a Norway rat

the previous night.

The Norway rat constructs subsurface runways in the

deep litter of the forest floor. This species would be a








32


major competitor for any endemic species of mammal that also

burrowed in the deep leaf layer. I believe that the three

species of insectivores of the genus Nesophontes that were

once found in the area were burrowing forms. It is not

known how long ago these species may have become extinct,

but it is possible that there extinction in the Macaya area

is related to the presence of Norway rats in the Macaya

mountains.

D. Rattus rattus, the Black rat, is abundant in all

regions of the park sampled during the inventory period. It

is the only species of rat found in the open ruinate (Raje)

areas and in the drier broad-leaved forests along the margin

of the Plain of Formon. Black rats are present on the top

of Pic Formon and Pic Macaya. They may have gained access

to these areas by following trails and ruinate areas caused

by clearing the land for agricultural purposes and natural

fires. As with the Norway rat, this species now lives deep

in the forest in what appear to be "natural" areas and is

living as a "wild" mammal in a natural state.

The Black rat is a potential competitor of Plagiodontia

aedium in the drier broad-leaved forests where the two

occur together. When the forest is cut, Black rats move

into the rock crevices previously occupied by P. aedium. It

is not clear whether black rats displace P. aedium, since

both can occur together in the same habitat (for example Bwa

Formon). This may be a transitional state, with rats slowly







33


replacing Plagiodontia, or it may be a dynamic equilibrium.

Only a long term study can resolve this important question.

The Black rats living in low areas of the park are

heavily parasitized by mites, which cover their ears, snouts

and inguinal regions. The parasite load of rats living on

Pic Formon and Pic Macaya is much lower than it is for rats

collected on the Plain of Formon. Black rats in the lower

broad-leaved forests have a red-brown coloration in patches

on their chest, front legs and the inguinal region. It is

not known if this is a color pattern of the local

population, or caused by feeding on a specific nut or fruit.

The location and extent of the patches of color vary, but

are always the same color.

As with Parc National La Visite, Black rats occur in

four color morphs in Parc National Pic Macaya. In most

areas of the park brown color morphs dominate in pine areas

and grey-black morphs dominate in open drier areas

(Table 1). The relationship holds for areas of pure pine

or dry broad-leaved forest. In the pine forest habitat on

the top of Pic Macaya more dark morphs than brown morphs

occur which seems to be in contrast with the pattern

observed in other parts of the park and in La Visite.

However, the pine forest of Macaya is unique in that almost

all of the pines are mature forest giants with the

understory being a wet broad-leaved forest. The forest

conditions on the top of Pic Macaya, therefore, are a mix of








34


pine and broad-leaved habitats, and both color morphs of

Rattus rattus ocur in this area (Table 1).

E. The "Zagouti", Plagiodontia aedium, is common in the

broad-leaved forest along the margins of the Plain of

Formon. This forest grows on top of large limestone blocks

with little exposed soil, and so the habitat has not been

exploited for agricultural purposes. The presence of P.

aedium is confirmed by signs such as 1) chewed twigs,

branches and the trunks of small trees; 2) fecal pellets on

rocks and along fallen logs; 3) white streaks on rocks

where P. aedium scent-marks. The status of Plagiodontia

aedium in the Bwa Formon area has been monitored over the

past 3 years, and the numbers of individuals appear to be

stable. However, as of February 1985 peasants have begun to

cut and burn the forest on the limestone domes of "Bwa

Formon" where P. aedium are found. The destruction of

habitat usually leads to the elimination of the Plagiodontia

living in an area because it: 1) removes the vegetation used

as-a food source; 2) allows dogs and cats to enter the area

and kill Plagiodontia; 3) allows rats to increase in numbers

with possible adverse effects on Plagiodontia.

As long as the forest cover on the limestone domes

remains uncut, Plagiodontia aedium appear to be able to

survive because they are able to find food, a moderate local

climate and protection from dogs and cats. Zagouties live

in crevices in rocks, climb about in trees and walk along








35


fallen logs as they feed. In this suitable habitat the

animal can survive very close to human habitation and

intense land use. It was not unusual for me to hear dogs

barking, people talking and the sounds of chickens and goats

in the distance as I worked in a limestone dome where there

were frequent signs of Plagiodontia. The animal appears to

be able to survive in the midst of moderate land use and

human presence if suitable habitats are large enough and

protected from exploitation. The huge blocks of limestone

in the karst hills offer protection to the animals and limit

the adverse effects of humans, dogs and cats. In areas

where the blocks of limestone are not exposed the animal is

more vulnerable to predation and detection and less able to

survive in close proximity to humans. In these areas dogs

and cats must be removed, and the animal protected from

hunting.

No Plagiodontia aedium were found in any of the

habitats on Formon and Macaya where the forest cover is

either virgin (as in areas on Pic Formon, Pic Macaya and Pic

Macaya south) or disturbed (as around Pic Le Ciel, Kay Ogile

and De Glace in the Ravine du Sud). This finding was a

surprise to me, since in all of these areas large regions of

nearly undisturbed forest exist. The missing factor in all

of these habitats, however, appears to be the lack of

extensive exposures of fragmented limestone karstt). I








36


conclude that karst topography in conjunction with forest

cover is necessary for Plagiodontia to survive.

Dogs, cats, mongoose and rats are common in the Macaya area,

as they are throughout Haiti and represent a significant

hazard to Plagiodontia. Heavy predation by these forms may

result in the extirpation of Plagiodontia when crevices for

the animal to seek shelter in are lacking.

The distribution of Plagiodontia in the Bwa Formon area

of the Plain of Formon at the southern base of the Ridge of

Formon indicates that this area should be included in the

park. Observations on captive Plagiodontia from southern

Haiti in comparison with captive individuals from the

northeastern Dominican Republic suggest that the Haitian

population (sometimes classified as a separate species and

other times listed as a distinct subspecies) has several

important behavioral differences that characterize the

Haitian animals. For example, the Haitian population of

Plagiodontia is more terrestrial in habits and better able

to live in close proximity to disturbance. For this reason,

it is appropriate to consider the animals living in both

national parks in Haiti as the "Haitian Hutia" or "Zagouti"

as opposed to the animals that live north of the Cul-de-Sac

between Port-au-Prince and Barahona (Dominican Republic).

There are no known populations of Plagiodontia aedium in

Haiti that survive north of the Cul-de-Sac (i.e. in northern

Haiti). This gives added significance to the populations of






37


Plagiodontia that occur in the Bwa Formon region of Parc

National Pic Macaya as well as in Parc National La Visite.

F. Solenodon paradoxus, or the Haitian Solenodon ("Nez

Longe") is known to occur in the Parc National Pic Macaya

area. The evidence that confirms the presence of Solenodon

in the Parc Macaya region is the presence of numerous bones

in sinkholes on the Plain of Formon and two feces collected

at 1900 meters in the dense forest on the Ridge of Formon

above Kay Ogile on the trail between Portal Formon and De

Glace. Bones of four Solenodon were collected in peasant

gardens during a separate two year survey of the nearby

Duchity area. These animals were either killed by peasants

with rocks or were killed by dogs. The area of the survey

was less than 5 km northeast of Pic Macaya in the plateau

between Pic Macaya and Duchity (just outside the boundaries

of the park).

I am confident that no Solenodon are found within the

current boundaries of Parc National Pic Macaya. Solenodon

is not nearly as capable of escaping into rock crevices as

Plagiodontia, and therefore is even more vulnerable to

being killed by dogs and cats. The effect of mongoose on

Solenodon is unknown. Solenodon is totally nocturnal,

whereas the mongoose is mostly diurnal. It is clear,

however, that if Solenodon is going to continue to survive

in Haiti, and especially in the Parc National Pic Macaya

region, that the numbers of dogs and cats will have to be







38


controlled in the park. Is is also important to protect

areas of flat land where the Solenodon can hunt for its

natural foods (snails, beetles and millipeds). For this

reason I recommend protecting the "basin" east of Kay Ogile,

and the upper Plain of Formon (often called the Plain of

Deron) west of Portal Formon. If Solenodon is to be

protected and included in the park then the area called

"Mare Cochon" east of the current boundaries of the park

must be added to the park and the Plain of Deron must be

"managed" by removing dogs and cats and undergo extensive

reforestation efforts.

G. No cats were seen hunting during fieldwork over a

three year period. However, cat feces were seen on trails

throughout the park, including the pine forest on top of Pic

Macaya. I assume, therefore, that feral cats are widespread

in the park.

H. Dogs are abundant on the Plain of Formon near

Portal Formon. They range along the plain and hunt at

night. No dog feces were seen with remains of Plagiodontia

in them during the course of the study. Dogs were not seen

on Pic Formon or Pic Macaya, but were encountered at De

Glace in the upper Grande Ravine du Sud.


D. Extinct Land Mammals of Parc National Pic Macaya (Table

8)







39


The land mammals known to have existed in the area of

Parc National Pic Macaya are listed in Table 6. The list is

based on remains collected in three deep sinkholes on the

Plain of Deron, and from one sinkhole on the ridge of Pic

Macaya. These sinkholes, some of which are 100 meters deep,

have served as "pit traps". The animals whose remains are

found in the bottom of the sinkholes can be presumed to have

fallen in, and therefore to have lived in the immediate

vicinity of the sinkhole. The relative percentages of the

various taxa reported in Table 6 is assumed to represent a

reasonable approximation of the abundance of the various

forms.

All endemic forms present on the Plain of Deron and in

the Macaya Mountains are now extinct with the exceptions of

Plagiodontia aedium and Solenodon paradoxus. There are no
14
C dates of the material from Parc National Pic Macaya, but
14
C dates from a similar fossil site just east of the Plain

of Formon indicate that most of the taxa, including the

primate, were present as recently as 3000 years ago. Such

forms as Brotomys voratus, (a small rat-like rodent),

Isolobodon portoricensis (an animal similar to the "Zagouti"

but probably diurnal), Plagiodontia velozi (a form of

Zagouti that was three times as large as Plagiodontia

aedium) and the three species of the genus Nesophontes ( a

small shrew-like insectivore) became extinct even more

recently since their bones are found on the surface of the







40


cave and sinkhole deposits and are mixed with the bon-es of

rats and mice. The data indicate that it is likely that

they became extinct in the Formon/Macaya region as recently

as this century, and that their extinctions may relate in

part to habitat destruction and the effects of dogs, cats,

rats and the mongoose. The insectivore Solenodon marcanoi,

which is similar in morphology to the surviving "Nez Longe"

except that the animal had much shorter limbs and was

somewhat smaller in body size, was also present in Parc

Macaya. No recent signs of this animal were found during

the course of the inventory.

It is possible that Solenodon marcanoi still survives

in the area near Parc National Pic Macaya based on several

reports by peasants of a dark colored "Nez Longe". A

careful search for Brotomys and Nesophontes through all

areas of the Macaya Mountains, however, indicates that these

forms are extinct. The reasons for these extinctions might

relate in part to the presence of rats. Rattus norvegicus,

which burrows and makes use of the deep leaf litter in

remote regions of the park, is the form with the greatest

possible negative impact on Nesophontes. Fossil evidence

from an analysis of cave and sinkhole deposits indicates

that these areas served as refugial preserves for many

endemic mammals during previous climate cycles of the

Pleistocene when Haiti became extremely dry and cold at

regular intervals. The data from an analysis of sinkhole








41


deposits also indicate that the area of Parc Macaya may have

served as one of the last refuges for some endemic

terrestrial mammals well into this century.



E. Bats of Parc National Pic Macaya (Table 7)


The habitats of Parc National Pic Macaya are more

diverse than those of Parc National La Visite because the

park includes lowland regions on the Plain of Formon (1000

meters elevation) as well as montane regions receiving over

two times as much precipitation as La Visite. The diversity

of the bat fauna would be expected to be much greater in the

Formon/Macaya region than in the La Visite region as a

result. The numerous sinkhole deposits on the Plain of

Deron are usually damp and therefore delicate bat bones are

poorly preserved. No extensive cave deposits are known from

within or near the park. Therefore, no extensive assemblage

of fossil bats exists that is comparable to the list

presented for La Visite (Table 4).

The bats collected or observed within the boundaries of

Parc National Pic Macaya (Table 7) during the period of

investigation are listed below with comments about the

biology of each species.



Eptesicus fuscus hispaniolae Big Brown bat








42


Four males were collected in a mist net set across a

saddle between two ridges on the north slope of Pic Macaya

at 1250 meters elevation. One male was collected in a mist

net set across the Riviere Ravine du Sud at 1040 meters

elevation. The latter was one of approximately 50

individuals that were flying over the riverbed at dusk.

Number of individuals collected: 5 males

Dates: 27 May 1975, 28 January 1985


Artibeus jamaicensis jamaicensis Jamaican Fruit-
eating Bat
Collected in a mist net near a limestone dome on the

Plain of Formon at 975 meters elevation.

Number of individuals collected: 1 male, 2 females

Date: 24 January 1984


Phyllops haitiensis Dominican Fig-eating Bat

Collected in a mist net near a limestone dome on

the Plain of Formon at 975 meters elevation. The

surrounding area is open with numerous gardens and fruit

trees.

Number of individuals collected: 2 males

Date: 21 January 1984; 24 January 1985


Monophyllus redmani clinedaphus Leach's Long-tongued
Bat
Four females were collected in a mist net near a

limestone dome on the Plain of Formon at 975 meters

elevation. Two females were collected in a mist net beside








43


a clearing in a broadleaf forest on Pic Formon at 2170

meters elevation. Seven females were collected in a mist

net in a saddle below Pic Formon at 2170 meters elevation.

Seven females were collected in a mist net on the top of Pic

Macaya in a pine forest at 2300 meters elevation. Three

females were collected in a mist net at Kay Ogile on the

southern slope of the Formon mountains at 1650 meters

elevation.

Number of individuals collected: 23 females

Dates: 2 February 1984 and 22, 24, 25, 26, 28,

31 January and 1 February 1985


Phyllonycteris poeyi obtusa Haitian Flower Bat

One male was collected in a mist net at Kay Ogile

on the south side of the Formon Mountains at 1650 meters.

Number of individuals collected: 1 male

Date: 1 February 1985


Erophylla sezekorni bombifrons Hispaniolan Brown
Flower Bat
Collected in a mist net near a limestone dome at

975 meters elevation on the Plain of Formon.

Number of individuals collected: 2 males

Date: 22 January 1985


Pteronotus quadridens fulginosus Sooty Moustached
Bat
Collected in a mist net set in a saddle at 1250

meters elevation on the north slope of Pic Macaya.








44


Number of individuals collected: 1 female
(pregnant with
single embryo)
Date: 27 May 1975


Pteronotus parnellii pusillus-Parnell's Moustached Bat

Collected in a mist net set in a saddle at 1250

meters elevation on the north slope of Pic Macaya.

Number of individuals collected: 1 female

Date: 27 May 1985


Tadarida brasiliensis constanzae Haitian Free-tailed
Bat
Collected in a mist net in a saddle at 1250 meters

elevation on the north slope of Pic Macaya.

Number of individulas collected: 1 female
(pregnant)
Dates: 27 May 1985







45



Discussion of Pic Macaya bat fauna


The nine species of bats recorded from the

Formon-Macaya region represent more than twice the number of

taxa collected in the La Visite region during the survey

period (Table 7). The total number of bat taxa from

Formon-Macaya is similar numbers to the known bat fauna from

La Visite if data from recent and cave deposits are combined

for La Visite (8 taxa from La Visite; 9 taxa from

Formon-Macaya). However, the mix of species differs between

La Visite and Formon-Macaya. Erophylla (frugivorous),

Artibeus (frugivorous), and two species of the genus

Pteronotus (insectivorous) are found in the Formon-Macaya

area, but are not reported from La Visite, whereas

Brachyphylla (mostly insectivorous but ocassionally

frugivorous) and Lasiurus (insectivorous) are only reported

from La Visite. The food habits of the bats of

Formon-Macaya are: insectivorous (44%); mixed insect, fruit,

nectar and pollen feeders (11%); frugivorous (22%); mostly

fruigivorous but some flower parts (22%).

A comparison of the general feeding categories of the

bat fauna of La Visite and Formon-Macaya indicates that

there are more insect feeders in the La Visite park (75%),

whereas in the Formon-Macaya park insect feeders are less

abundant (55%). In neither park, however, are frugivorous

species as abundant as insectivorous taxa.








46


A comparison of the collecting data from the two parks

(Table 7) indicates that bats are more numerous in Parc

National Pic Macaya than in Parc National La Visite. Only

33 percent of the total taxa and 15 percent of the total

number of individual bats collected in the study came from

the area of Parc National La Visite. Part of this is a

reflection of the geography of the parks, since Parc

National La Visite is largely composed of a high plateau

that is moderately homogeneous in topography. Parc National

Pic Macaya is much more diverse in topography, and ranges in

elevation from 975 meters to 2347 meters. However, more than

topography alone is associated with the paucity of bats at

La Visite when compared with Formon-Macaya.

Within the boundaries of Parc National La Visite are

numerous caves, sinkholes and ravines. These habitats form

excellent roosts for bats, and I would expect bats to be

more abundant and diverse than the four species recorded.

An important limiting factor for bats in La Visite may be

the extensive habitat destruction, especially of the

hardwood forest that surrounds the pine stands and should

occur in depressions and along ravines. These hardwood

stands (Rak Bwas) have been reduced to small remants of

ruinate habitat (Bwa Rajes). The loss of these habitats is

most severe within Parc National La Visite, and may be a

contributing factor in the reduction in bat species from the

8 taxa in the fossil record to the 4 species now occurring







47


in the park. The composition of the broad-leaved forest is

described in detail by Judd (1986) in this report, and by

Holdridge (1947) in his dissertation on the pine forests of

Haiti.



Discussion


After investigating the recent and extinct mammals of

both national parks in Haiti several facts become clear.

The first is that each park had a remarkable assemblage of

endemic terrestrial mammals as recently as 3715 year ago

(MacPhee and Woods, 1982) and probably much more recently

(Woods et al, 1986). These animals are listed in Tables 2,

3, 6 and 8. The pattern of extinction of these species is

not unique to Haiti. Across the Antilles there were at

least 134 species of native mammals present in the past

10,000 years. The extinction rates for these species has

been very high. While most species of bats continue to

survive, 88% of the terrestrial mammals have become extinct

(Woods et al., 1986; Morgan and Woods, 1986). A list of

all the known endemic land mammals of the national parks of

Haiti is presented in Table 8. Of the 23 species of endemic

land mammals known to occur in Hispaniola all but two have

probably become extinct (see below) for an extinction rate

of 86 percent, which is slightly better than the

pan-Antillean average. The exact reasons for these








48


extinctions are unclear but probably relate to many of the

factors discussed in this report.


1. Predation on smaller forms by introduced carnivores

(dogs, cats and mongoose) that are now living as wild

animals in a natural state in almost all sections of Haiti

and are very abundant in the national parks.


2. Competition for limited resources among the smallest

forms with Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Mus musculus.

These three introduced rodents are now abundant in most

terrestrial habitats in Haiti. Rattus norvegicus is common

in lowland wet areas and is the dominant form in rice fields

as well as occurring in the deep pine litter of virgin pine

forests of the highest mountains. This burrowing form would

have been in direct competition with semi-fossorial endemic

species that might have occurred as a last refuge in the

deep litter of the virgin pine forests. I believe this was

the last habitat df Nesophontes and Brotomys. Rattus rattus

occurs in drier areas and in open forests without a deep

leaf litter layer. These rats climb readily and would have

excluded semi-arboreal species of endemic mammals.


3. Habitat destruction and the fragmentation of

habitats into units too small to maintain species diversity.

This unfortunate phenomenon began soon after the arrival of

Columbus and has accelerated in recent decades. Cohen








49


(1984) has documented that within the boundaries of Parc

National Pic Macaya 96.4% of the virgin forest has been

destroyed since 1956 when the area was 100% covered with

"essentially virgin forest". Cohen estimated that only

38.2% of the total area of Parc National Pic Macaya had any

forest cover at all in 1984.


These three factors have acted together in the past to

eliminate most of the endemic land mammals of Haiti and

continue to influence the status of the remaining

populations of Plagiodontia aedium and Solenodon paradoxus.

The number of P. aedium estimated to be present in each park

in 1985 was considerably reduced from the numbers estimated

to be present in 1980. In La Visite the large population

present in 1980 was reduced to one confirmed individual in

1985 by: 1) nearly complete deforestation of the existing

broad-leaved forest by peasants in order to make gardens; 2)

predation by dogs (two confirmed cases where a dog ate a

Plagiodontia); 3) hunting by peasants (one confirmed case

where a peasant killed a Plagiodontia with a machette); 4)

competition or harassment by Rattus rattus (which between

1980 and 1985 became abundant in the habitat previously

occupied by Plagiodontia). Rats now can be trapped in

crevices where Plagiodontia occurred a year or more before.


Within both parks the introduced mammals have expanded

their ranges into most habitats including the few remaining








50


regions of completely natural forest. The natural mammal

community of both parks (Table 9) is now composed of rodents

(Rattus rattus [four different color morphs], R. norvegicus

and Mus musculus) living in the ground and lower vegetation

and feeding on plant products and small animals. The

mongoose serves as a general carnivore that feeds on

insects, small reptiles and amphibians as well as small

mammals and birds. The impact of the mongoose on ground

nesting birds such as the Killdeer, Bobwhite Quail as well

as the Black-capped Petrel is unknown, but based on the

impact of the mongoose on similar species elsewhere in the

world it can be inferred that the impact is probably

negative. Dogs and cats live in a feral state in both parks

and serve as top level carnivores. My analysis of fecal

remains collected within the boundaries of the parks

indicates that cats feed mostly on small birds, rats and

mice. Dogs feed on a variety of things including birds and

Plagiodontia. They are known to readily kill Solenodon and

would be the major danger to this species wherever they

occurred together. Add to this the impact of goats, sheep,

cows, and in some areas even pigs and it is clear that

little remains of the habitat to support endemics (Table 9).



Conclusions








51


A recent in depth search of the land areas contained

within each national park for remaining endemic species

produced a discouraging conclusion. Over the past ten years

I have reviewed all accounts of endemic mammals in the

literature and interviewed many peasants to evaluate the

stories of animals that might be one of the species listed

in Table 8. I have concluded that several species in this

list survived in the areas of both national parks into this

century. These animals are Nesophontes paramicrus, N.

hypomicrus, N. zamicrus, Brotomys voratus, Isolobodon

portoricensis and Plagiodontia velozi (Woods, et. al.

1986). These mammals, three shrew-like forms, one spiny

rat, one "Zagouti-like" form and one giant Zagouti were all

present in 1930 (Miller, 1930). Stories of small shrew-like

mammals persist in nearby areas of the Dominican Republic

well into the 1960's (Clayton Ray unpublished field notes;

Donald Dod, personal communication) and I have received

stories matching the probable appearances of Brotomys

voratus and Plagiodontia velozi. Fecal pellets that did not

match the shape of pellets from any unknown rodent were

collected in Macaya in 1983, and in 1983 and 1984 a small

rodent was seen by three members of the inventory team that

reportedly looked like "a chipmunk" in the "Grande Ravine"

of Parc National Pic Macaya. These accounts are encouraging

signs that some additional endemic mammals may still survive

in some sections of Hispaniola. However, the apparent high








52


density of rats, cats, dogs, and the mongoose as well as the

extent and rate of deforestation and habitat destruction in

both parks are all causes for great alarm. I suggest

(Woods, et al, 1986) that all endemics other than

Plagiodontia aedium and Solenodon paradoxus are now

extirpated in both national parks, and that some of these

extinctions have occurred in the last several decades. I

believe that mongoose, dogs and cats have increased markedly

in numbers within the parks in the last five years as a

result of increased human disturbance.


The status of Solenodon paradoxus is very endangered.

This large and unusual insectivore is most closely related

to mammals that became extinct in North America 30 million

years ago, and is therefore a "living fossil". My analysis

of the fossil deposits in sinkholes in the interior of each

national park indicates that Solenodon was once present in

greater numbers in both of the parks. Today it is gone in

all but two possible regions. One area is on the plain of

Morne d'Enfer west of the current boundaries of Parc

National La Visite. This area of wet broad-leaved forest

(Rak Bwa) is relatively undisturbed and has numerous

patches of exposed limestone as well as deep moist soils.

This habitat must be protected from deforestation and the

introduction of dogs, cats and mongooses which can be done

by including Morne d'Enfer in Parc La Visite. The second







53


region in Haiti that is most suitable for Solenodon

paradoxus is the broad plain that streaches north of the

Ravine du Sud, east of Pic Macaya and west of the towns of

Catiche and Duchity. Between 1981 and 1983 I conducted a

survey of the mammals of this region with the centers of the

survey being Duchity 13 kilometers northeast of Pic Macaya

and Catiche 15 kilometers directly east of Macaya. Catiche

is were I found the first confirmed specimens of Solenodon

from Haiti (Woods, 1976). All animals found dead in

gardens, killed by dogs or otherwise encountered by peasants

were brought to Duchity where a record was kept as to the:

1) date; 2) location; 3) nature of the habitat in the

region; and 4) reason for death of each animal. Of 38

animals accounted for during the survey 4 were Solenodon

paradoxus. The largest number of S. paradoxus came from the

region of "Mare Cochon" (3 individuals) which is an

irregular plain with blocks of exposed karst and collapsed

sinkholes at an elevation of approximately 1200 meters. All

of the specimens came from an area west of the "Les Cayes to

Jeremie" road, and therefore are in the "region" of Macaya.

The area is one of the wettest in all of Hispaniola and

receives more than 4000 mm of precipitation each year. The

area has wet soils that are rich in invertebrates. Many

rocks and karst blocks are exposed and few people, dogs and

cats are found in this region. I believe that this is the

single most important area in Haiti for Solenodon.








54




Summary


The conclusions and recommendations that I would make,

based on the fieldwork and analyses presented here, are

listed below.


1. Introduced mammals now form the largest component of

mammalian fauna of both parks, and are living in a "natural

state" in the parks.


2. These introduced forms may have caused severe damage

to the status of the endemic mammals of the parks and may

have contributed to the extinctions of some endemics in the

last few decades.


3. All introduced mammals, but especially the mongoose

negatively impact the status of birds that nest on the

ground, and may affect the breeding success in species that

nest low in trees and in burrows and crevices such as the

Black-capped Petrel.


4. Rattus norvegicus occur in areas with deep pine

litter and abundant rainfall. These rats make extensive

runways in the pine litter.


5. Rattus rattus occur in four color morphs. Dark

morphs are found in dry areas, open forests and wet

broad-leaved forests with a shallow leaf litter zone. Brown









55


morphs occur in pine forests. Black rats are frequently

seen in the branches of trees at night.


6. The mongoose has recently arrived in the highest

regions of the parks. I do not believe it was in these same

habitats five years ago.


7. Plagiodontia aedium occur in both parks in areas

where mesic broad-leaved forest grows on and around karst.

This habitat provides food and shelter for the mammal.

Plagiodontia can co-exist with dogs, cats and rats in this

specific habitat. Plagiodontia has been eliminated from all

other habitats, even when the forest is present and

appropriate food plants are available, suggesting that

without shelter Plagiodontia are easily killed by dogs and

people.


8. Solenodon paradoxus is not present in either

national park within the boundaries as now drawn. In order

to protect Solenodon the parks must be expanded in size to

include the plain of Morne d'Enfer west of Parc La Visite

and Mare Cochon east of Parc Macaya.


9. Several endemic species on Table 8 may have

survived into recent times. This is especially true of Parc

Macaya where I suspect Nesophontes and Brotomys were present

until the last few years. Based on a separate survey in








56


1985 I now consider these species to be extinct (Woods, et

al., 1986).



Five Most Inportant Actions


1. Expanded Parc National La Visite westward to include all

of Morne d'Enfer.


2. Expand Parc National Pic Macaya eastward to include the

Mare Cochon area.


3. Initiate a policy of removing all dogs and cats in the

parks.


4. Initiate a research program to determine the impact of

rats and the mongoose on Plagiodontia aedium.


5. Create "Biological Reserve Zones" on 1) the north face of

the La Selle Escarpment between Morne d'Enfer and Morne

Kaveneau; 2) the entire Ravine of the Riviere Blanche; 3)

the entire region of the karst hills on the Plain of Formon;

4) the entire Mare Cochon region east of Pic Macaya.





Acknowledgments


This investigation was funded by a contract from USAID

to the author, and by grants to the author from the National

Science Foundation, the International Foundation for the








57


Conservation of Birds, the Wildlife Preservation Trust

International, the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust

(JWPT), the Florida State Museum (FSM), the University of

Florida, the University of Vermont and the Center for Field

Research (Earthwatch).


The author would like to thank the following

individuals who served as field assistants on this project.

For the work on bats I thank Anne Heise, Tamara Naumann and

Rose Paul of the University of Vermont Field Naturalists

Program (UVMFNP); Galen Rathbun of the U.S. Fish and

Wildlife Service; John Hermanson and Laurie Wilkins of the

FSM; Jose A. Ottenwalder of the Parque Zoologico Nacional

(Zoodom) and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural of Santo

Domingo and Donald May of Gainesville. For the work on

extant land mammals I thank Nancy Bazilchuk, John Kasmar,

David Publicover and Sandy Whidden of the UVMFNP; Kevin

Jordan and Margaret Langworthy of the FSM; Ray Cleveland of

Earthwatch; and William Oliver of JWPT. For the work on

fossil mammals I thank Dan and Tia Cordier, Dick Franz,

Larry Hurst and Margaret Langworthy of the FSM, and Ada

Fowler, Leslie Hay, Stott Woods, John Yarington.

I owe a special debt of appreciation to Florence

Sergile of MARNDR and Paul Paryski of INAHCA for their

valuable assistance.








58


Jose Ottenwalder provided valuable comments and

criticisms to the manuscript. I also acknowledge with

sincere thanks the able assistance of Patricia Ottenwalder

in typing various drafts of this report.








59


LITERATURE CITED


Bruggers, R.L. and A. Valvano. 1982. 1982 Annual Progress
Report: Section of International Programs. Denver
Wildlife Research Center. Denver, Colorado. 99 pp.

Cohen, W.B. 1984. Environmental Degradation in Haiti: an
analysis of aerial photography. Unpublished report
U.S. Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince. 35 pp.

Holdridge, L.R. 1947. The pine forest and adjacent mountain
vegetation of Haiti considered from the standpoint of a
new climatic classification of plant formations. PhD
Dissertation. Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor. 186 pp.

Judd, W.S. 1986. Floristic study of la Visite and Macaya
National Parks, Haiti. Unpublished Report U.S. Agency
for International Development. Haiti, Port-au-Prince.
98 pp.

Keith, J.O., D.N. Hirata and D.L. Espy. 1985. Control of
mongoose predation on endangered Hawaiian birds.
Unpublished Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Hawaii National Park. Hawaii. 16 pp. + 11 Tables and
12 Figures.

MacPhee, R.D.E. and C.A. Woods. 1982. A new fossil cebine
from Hispaniola. Amer.Jour.Phys. Anthropology 58:419-
436.

Miller, G.S. Jr. 1929. Mammals eaten by Indians, owls, and
Spaniards in the coast region of the Dominican
Republic. Smithsonian Misc.Coll. 82(5):1-16.

Miller, G.S. Jr. 1930. Three small collections of mammals
from Hispaniola. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 82(15):1-10.

Morgan, G.S. and C.A. Woods. 1986. Extinction and
zoogeography of West Indian land mammals. (In Press).
Jour.Linn.Soc. 67 pp.

Rouse and Allaire. 1978. Caribbean. In: R.E. Taylor and
C.W. Meighan (eds.). Chronologies in New World
Archaeology: 431-481. Academic Press, New York.

Valdman, A. 1981. Haitian Creole-English-French Dictionary.
Creole Institute, Indiana University. Bloomington,
vol.I, pp.1-582; vol.II, pp.1-222.








60


Woods, C.A. 1976. Solenodon paradoxus in Southern
Haiti. Jour.Mammalogy 57(3):591-592.

Woods, C.A. and L. Harris. 1986. Stewardship plan for
the national parks of Haiti. Unpublished Report U.S.
Agency for International Development, Haiti.
Port-au-Prince.

Woods, C.A., J.A. Ottenwalder and W. Oliver. 1986. Lost
Mammals of the Antilles. Dodo (Jersey Wildlife
Pres. Trust). 22:







61



List of Tables and Figures

Table 1. Distribution of Rattus by habitat and color morph
in the national parks of Haiti.

Table 2. Summary of trapping data on land mammals collected
within the boundaries of Parc National La Visite.

Table 3. List of fossil and recent land mammals collected in
sinkholes and cave deposits within the Parc National La
Visite.

Table 4. List of known recent bats of Hispaniola.

Table 5. Bats occurring in fossil deposits of Parc National
La Visite.

Table 6. List of fossil and recent land mammals in order of
abundance collected from a sinkhole at 1200 meters in
Parc National Pic Macaya.

Table 7. A comparison of the bats of Parc National La
Visite and Parc National Pic Macaya.

Table 8. List of all known surviving and extinct endemic
terrestrial mammals of the National Parks of Haiti.

Table 9. List of all known exotic (introduced) terrestrial
mammals of the National Parks of Haiti.

Figure 1. Map of Hispaniola showing position of National
Parks.

Figure 2. Map of Parc National La Visite

Figure 3. Map of Parc National Pic Macaya

Figure 4. Drawings of: A) Plagiodontia aedium;
B) Solenodon paradoxus

Figure 5. Drawings of Herpestes auropunctatus; B) a
barn owl near a cave and a barn owl "pellet" filled
with bones.

Figure 6. Photographs of: A) Phyllops haitiensis,
a fruit eating bat; and B) Artibeus jamaicensis,
a fruit eating bat.

Figure 7. Photographs of: a) Monophyllus redmani
clinedaphus, a nectar, fruit and insect eating bat;








62


and B) Phyllonycteris poeyi obtusa, a fruit,
pollen, nectar and insect eating bat.







63


Table 1. Frequency of Rattus by habitat and color morph in the
National Parks of Haiti.*



Open areas Pine forest Broad-leaved
forest


Parc National La Visite

Rattus rattus 9 10 10
Brown morph 5 9 3
Black morph 4 1 7

Plain of Formon

Rattus rattus 14
Brown morph 1
Black morph 13
Rattus norvegicus 8

Macaya/Formon Mountains

Rattus rattus 49 24
Brown morph 18 9
Black morph 31 15
Rattus norvegicus 10


* Number of individuals in each habitat type based on the same
trapping effort in each area.







64



Table 2. Summary of trapping data on land mammals collected within
the boundaries of Parc National La Visite.


Trap Black Norway %
Location nights rat rat Mouse Mongoose success


1.Rak Bwa 31 4 0 0 0 13%

2.Bwa Raje-1 24 0 0 0 0 0%

3.Bwa Raje-2 20 6 0 0 0 30%

4.Raje 58 10 0 4 1 26%

5.Pine 283 10 0 4 0 5%
Forest

6.Riparian 102 8 0 0 0 8%

7.Succesional 105 0 0 3 0 3%
Pine

Summary 623 38 0 12 1 9%









65

Table 3. List of fossil and recent land mammals collected in sinkholes and cave
deposits within the Parc National La Visite (C=common; U=uncommon; R=rare;
EX=extinct; LE=locally extinct).



Current Status Comments
status fossil record


Order Rodentia
Family Capromyidae
Plagiodontia aedium R U always an uncommon
and secretive form

Plagiodontia velozi EX U present until colo
nial times; largest
known zagouti; may
survive in adjacent
areas of Dom.Rep.

Plagiodontia araeum EX U large heavy bodied
form

Isolobodon portoricensis EX C the most abundant
of all endemic
rodents until
colonial times

Isolobodon montanus EX U large heavy bodied
form with similar
characteristics to
Plagiodontia
aedium

Hexolobodon phenax EX U long limbed, large
bodied form

Family Echimyidae
Brotomys voratus EX C similar in size
to a rat and very
abundant until recent
times

Family Muridae
Rattus rattus C C suddenly abundant
(in post- in colonial times
Columbian
deposits)







66



Table 3. (continued)



Current Status Comments
status fossil record


Mus musculus C R found only near
(in post- disturbed areas
Columbian
deposits)

Order Primates
Family Cebidae
Saimiri bernensis EX R found at several
locations in park


Order Insectivora
Family Solenodontidae
Solenodon paradoxus LE C extirpated in
recent times

Solenodon marcanoi EX U possibly survives
in Dom. Rep.

Family Nesophontidae
Nesophontes zamicrus EX C
extirpated within
the last century
Nesophontes hypomicrus EX C

Nesophontes paramicrus EX C


Order Xenarthra
Family Megalonychidae

Several species EX C extirpated within
the last 1000
years







67




Table 4. List of the known recent bats of Hispaniola (6
Families; 15 genera; 18 species).


Family Noctilionidae

Noctilio leporinus mastivus Greater Bulldog Bat
Distributed throughout the Greater and Lesser Antilles,
Mexico and Central America.

Family Mormoopidae

Pteronotus quadridens fulginosus -Sooty Moustached
Bat
Distributed in Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola

Pteronotus parnellii pusillus Parnell's
Moustached Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola as subspecies

Pteronotus parnellii gonavensis Parnell's
Moustached Bat
Endemic to La Gonave Island, Haiti as subspecies

Mormoops blainvillii (=Aello cuvieri)- Antillean
Ghost-face
Bat
Distributed on Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola

Family Phyllostomidae

Macrotus waterhousi waterhousi Waterhouse's
Leaf-nosed Bat
Distributed in Southern Bahamas, Puerto Rico and His-
paniola

Monophyllus redmani clinedaphus Leach's
Long-tongued Bat
Distributed in Eastern Cuba, Southern Bahamas and
Hispaniola

Artibeus jamaicensis jamaicensis Jamaican Fruit-
eating Bat
Distributed on Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and
Lesser Antilles.

Phyllops haitiensis Dominican Fig-eating Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola








68


Brachyphylla nana Antillean Fruit-eating Bat
Distributed on Cuba and Hispaniola plus Caicos Islands

Phyllonycteris poeyi obtusa Haitian Flower Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola as subspecies

Erophylla sezekorni bombifrons Hispaniolan Brown
Flower Bat
Hispaniola and Puerto Rico

Family Natalidae

Natalus stramineus major Hispaniolan Funnel-
eared Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola as subspecies

Natalus micropus micropus Small footed Funnel-
eared Bat
Distributed on Jamaica, Old Providence Island (Bahamas)
and Hispaniola

Family Vespertilionidae

Eptesicus fuscus hispaniolae Big Brown Bat
Distributed on Jamaica and Hispaniola

Lasiurus borealis minor Small Hairy-tailed Bat
Distributed in Bahamas, Puerto Rico and Hispaniola

'Family Molossidae

Tadarida brasiliensis constanzae Haitian Free-
tailed Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola as subspecies

Tadarida macrotis Big Free-tailed Bat
Distributed in Southwestern United States, Mexico and
the Greater Antilles

Molossus molossus verrilli Hispaniolan Pallas
Mastiff Bat
Endemic to Hispaniola as subspecies








69



Table 5. Bats occurring in fossil deposits of Parc National
La Visite representing strata deposited within the past
10,000 years.



Order Chiroptera Major food source

Family Phyllostomatidae
Monophyllus redmani Nectar and fruit.

Phyllonycteris poeyi Fruit, pollen,
obtusa nectar and insects.

Erophylla sezekorni Pollen, fruit, nectar
bombifrons and insects.

Brachyphylla nana Pollen, insects,
fruit, and nectar.

Phyllops haitiensis Fruit.


Family Molossidae
Tadarida brasiliensis Insects.

Family Vespertilionidae

Eptesicus fuscus Insects.

Lasiurus borealis Insects.








70



Table 6. List of fossil and recent land mammals in order of
abundance collected from a sinkhole at 1200 meters at the
base of Pic Formon in the upper Plain of Formon (C= common;
U+ uncommon; R= Rare; Ex= extinct).


STATUS, % of
Current Fossil Record sample



Plagiodontia aedium R C 20.1%

Rattus rattus C C 13.9%

New genus and species C C 12.3%
of rodent

Nesophontes hypomicrus EX C 11.5%

N. paramicrus

Plagiodontia velozi EX C 9.0%

Brotomys voratus EX C 8.2%

Hexolobodon phenax EX C 7.4%

Ground sloths EX C 5.7%
(several species)

Isolobodon
portoricensis EX U 4.1%

Solenodon paradoxus R U 2.5%

Solenodon marcanoi Unknown R 1.6%

Isolobodon montanus EX R 1.6%

Mus musculus U R 0.8%

Saimiri bernensis EX R 0.8%








71





Table 7. A comparison of the bats of Parc National La Visite and Parc
National Pic Macaya. (NC= not collected; 0= observed).


La Visite Macaya
Taxon No. % No. %
individuals total individuals total



Family Mormoopidae
P. uadridens NC 0 1 3

P. parnelli NC 0 1 3

Family Phyllostomidae
M. redmani 3 16 23 59

A. jamaicensis NC 0 3 8

P. haitiensis 1 5 2 6

P. poeyi NC 0 1 3

E. sezekorni NC 0 2 6

Family Vespertilionidae
E. fuscus 0=12 63 5 13

Family Molossidae
T. brasiliensis 3 16 1 3



Total #
of individuals 19 39








72




TABLE 8

Mammals of the National Parks of Haiti
(Ex = extinct; Pr = present; NP = never present)

Endemic Land Mammals

La Visite Pic Macaya

Order Rodentia
Family Capromyidae
Plagiodontia aedium Pr Pr
Plagiodontia velozi Ex Ex
Plagiodontia araeum Ex NP
Isolobodon portoricensis Ex Ex
Isolobodon montanus Ex Ex
Hexolobodon phenax Ex Ex
New genus + species NP Ex

Family Echimyidae
Brotomys voratus Ex Ex

Order Primates
Family Cebidae
Saimiri bernensis Ex Ex

Order Insectivora
Family Solenodontidae
Solenodon paradoxus Ex Pr
Solenodon marcanoi Ex Pr(?)

Family Nesophontidae
Nesophontes zamicrus Ex Ex
Nesophontes hypomicrus Ex Ex
Nesophontes paramicrus Ex Ex

Order Xenarthra
Family Megalonychidae
Synocnus comes Ex Ex
Parocnus Ex Ex
New Taxon Ex Ex
New Taxon Ex Ex
New Taxon Ex Ex

Total number of taxa 17 18
Number of surviving taxa 1 2
Number of endemics not 1 1
found in other park








73


TABLE 9


Mammals of the National Parks of Haiti


Introduced Land Mammals



Species La Visite Macaya


Order Rodentia
Family Muridae
Rattus rattus rattus (Black Rat) + +
Brown morph
Rattus rattus rattus + +
All grey morph
Rattus rattus rattus + +
Grey & white morph
Rattus norvegicus (Norway Rat) +(R) +(C)
Mus musculus (House mouse) + +

Order Carnivora
Family Viverridae
Herpestes auropunctatus (Mongoose) + +

Family Canidae
Canis familiaris (Dog) +(D+F) +(D+F)

Family Felidae
Felis catus (Cat) +(D+F) +(F)

Order Artiodactyla
Family Bovidae
Capra hircus (Goat) +(D+F) +(D+F)
Ovis aries (Sheep) +(D) +(D)
Bos taurus (Cow) +(D) +(D)

Order Perissodactyla
Family Equidae
Equus caballus (Horse) +(D) +(D)
Equus asinus (Donkey) +(D) +(D

Present (+); common (C), domestic (D), feral (F), rare (R).
Note: feral individuals of the horse and the wild boars were observed
on the slopes of Morne la Selle 18 km east of Parc National La
Visite in 1984.



















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Figure 5B. Barn Owl near cave with pellet and Nesophontes skull





































Figure 6A. Phyllops haitiensis





























Figure 6B. Artibeus jamaicensis





































Figure 7A. Monophyllus redmani clinedaphus





























Figure 7B. Phyllonycteris poeyi obtusa




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