• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Background
 Resources
 Management
 Administration
 Interpretation and research
 Park headquarters and stations
 Integration of parks with...
 Recommended training programs
 Concluding comments
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited
 Maps, figures and photographs






Title: Executive summary : a plan for the national parks of Haiti
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065374/00001
 Material Information
Title: Executive summary : a plan for the national parks of Haiti
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Woods, Charles A.
Publisher: USAID/Haiti
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Hispaniola
Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065374
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Contents
    Background
        Location
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Purpose
            Page 5
            Page 6
    Resources
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Management
        Page 9
        Zones
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Construction controls
            Page 12
        Roads
            Page 12
    Administration
        Suggested annual budget
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Routine maintenance schedule
            Page 15
        Infrastructure
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Personnel
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Logistics
            Page 22
    Interpretation and research
        Page 22
        Interpretation
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Research
            Page 25
    Park headquarters and stations
        Location
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Type and construction
            Page 28
    Integration of parks with region
        Jobs
            Page 29
        Watershed management
            Page 30
        Model programs
            Page 31
    Recommended training programs
        Page 31
        Individuals
            Page 32
        Location and training
            Page 32
        Specific courses and topics
            Page 33
    Concluding comments
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Acknowledgement
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Literature cited
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Maps, figures and photographs
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
Full Text




Executive Summary
of

Stewardship Plan
for

The National Parks of Haiti


by

Charles A. Woods





















W9 6
.. 1986





QK
228.1
.W661
1986





aK






EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


A Plan For


The National Parks of Haiti




by



Charles A. Woods

Florida State Museum

University of Florida

Gainesville, Florida

32611



January 1986














Prepared for USAID/Haiti under Contract Number

521-0169-C-00-3083-00


i / *- i9
fW? /l^ ^lfc*tj











Table of Contents
Page

1. Background 1
A. Location 1
B. Purpose 5

2. Resources 7

3. Management 9
A. Zones 10
B. Construction Controls 12
C. Roads 12

4. Administration 13
A. Annual Budget 13
B. Routine Maintenance Schedule 15
C. Infrastructure 16
D. Personnel 20
E. Logistics 22

5. Interpretation and Research 22
A. Interpretation 23
B. Research 25

6. Park Headquarters and Stations 26
A. Location 26
B. Type and Construction 28

7. Integration of Parks with Region 29
A. Jobs 29
B. Watershed Management 30
C. Model Programs 31

8. Recommended Training Program 31
A. Individuals 32
B. Location and Training 32
C. Specific Courses and Topics 33

9. Concluding Comments 34

10. Acknowledgements 37

11. Literature Cited 38

12. Maps, Figures and Photographs 39









EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1. Background


The concept of protecting the natural areas of Haiti

goes back at least to the law of 17 August 1955. The

official creation of "Parcs Nationaux Naturels" was a decree

published on 23 June 1983, which set aside "Morne La Visite

du Massif de la Selle" (2000 hectares) and "Morne Macaya du

Massif de La Hotte" (2000 hectares) in addition to eight

sites selected as "Parcs Nationaux" and "Sites Naturels" in

the decret of 18 March 1968. These ten sites, but most

especially Parc National La Visite and Parc National Pic

Macaya represent the components of the national parks of

Haiti. Since 1983 the Florida State Museum has worked on a

contract with USAID to complete an inventory of Parc

National La Visite and Parc National Pic Macaya, and to

develop a management plan for each park, as well as for the

national parks program. Since 1983 the parks have been

under the joint administration of the Institut National

Haitien de la Culture et des Arts (INAHCA) and the Ministere

de 1'Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles et du

Developpement Rural (MARNDR).



A. Location


The area now designated as Parc National La Visite is

located 22 kilometers south of Port-au-Prince in the Massif








2


de la Selle in the area of latitude 18 20'30" N and

longitude 72 20' W. The park is situated along the crest of

the Massif de la Selle between Morne d'Enfer (1900 meters)

and Morne Kadeneau (2155 meters). The highest spot in the

park is Morne Cabaio (2282 meters) on which there is a

benchmark. The boundaries of the park have not been

officially designated. The official (by decree) size of the

park is 2000 hectares. The natural boundaries of the

plateau area of the park and the steep cliffs north of the

La Selle Escarpment enclose an area of 4500 hectares. The

region of Morne d'Enfer is a natural extension of the park

that includes uninhabited areas to the west of Morne La

Visite and the existing boundary of the park along the

mountain road from Furcy. This area should be included in

the park because it serves as a reservoir for species and

habitats that have been severely degraded in the eastern

areas of the park. The combined area of Morne d'Enfer to

Morne Kadeneau is an area of 6300 hectares.

Access to Parc National La Visite is via the mountain

highway from Port-au-Prince via Furcy and Ca Jacques. An

alternative access route departs Port-au-Prince and follows

the route to the south and the road to Jacmel. Beyond

Jacmel the route passes through Marigot before ascending the

southern slope of the Massif de la Selle to Marche Seguin

which is near the southern boundary of the park. The route

from Furcy passes through the park to join the route via








3


Jacmel at Marche Seguin. The route via Furcy is 55 km

between Port-au-Prince and Parc National La Visite and

normally takes four hours to drive while the route via

Jacmel is 150 km and over six hours driving time. Both

routes are rough and the unpaved mountain sections

frequently are damaged by heavy rains. The grade on the

route via Furcy is abnormally steep. Improvements will have

to be made to both of these routes before safe and regular

access to the parks by visitors will be possible.

The area now designated as Parc National Pic Macaya is

located 36 km NW of Les Cayes and 195 km W of Port-au-Prince

at latitude 18 21' N and 74 01' W. The park is situated

around the two dominant mountains of the region, Pic Formon

(2219 meters) and Pic Macaya (2347 meters) and includes the

large and deep ravine between these two mountains that

serves as the headwaters of the Riviere Ravine du Sud. The

plain south of Pic Formon (Plaine de Formon and Plaine de

Deron) are also included in the park as are the rocky

karstt) hills along the southern boundaries of these plains.

The two high peaks tower above the surrounding plains

(which are between 1000 and 1500 meters in elevation) and a

series of mountain ridges and receive moist air blowing

inland from the Golfe de la Gonave to the north (via the

northeast trade winds) or the Caribbean to the south (via

sea breezes). The result is an area of extremely high

rainfall (in excess of 3000 mm/year). Parc National Pic









4


Macaya is the source of four major rivers of southern Haiti

(Riviere de Port-au-Piment, Riviere des Roseaux, Riviere

Ravine du Sud and Riviere l'Acul). Extreme deforestation in

the area the stability of these rivers, and the rich

agricultural lands below (Cohen, 1984; Lowenstein, 1984).

Parc National Pic Macaya serves the dual role of

conservation of the national patrimony in protecting

numerous endemic species of plants and animals and

protecting the watersheds of four of the most important

rivers of Haiti that spread outwards from the park like the

spokes of a wheel.

Access to Parc National La Visite is difficult. The

journey is via the route to the south from Port-au-Prince

passing through Les Cayes 196 kms west. Beyond Les Cayes

the route is via a gravel road to Le Duc and then a rough

dirt road to Le Pretre that crosses the Riviere l'Acul.

Beyond Le Pretre the route ascends to the plateau of the

Plaine de Formon by a series of sharp switchbacks to the

town of Les Platons. The entire trip from Port-au-Prince is

129 kms, although the 33 kms from Les Cayes to Les Platons

are the most difficult. Beyond Les Platons it is necessary

to hike for 10 kms across the southern edge of the Plaine de

Formon to the location of the park headquarters at 1428

meters elevation. A road is presently under construction by

local residents from the Catholic church at Les Platons in

the direction of Marche Sous Bois. As of November 1985 the









5


road was passable on a jeep for a distance of 1.5 kms.

Because access to the park is so difficult and the location

is so distant from Port-au-Prince we recommend that an area

of the upper Plaine de Formon be leveled for a grass landing

strip for small airplanes after the park is underway.




B. Purpose


The purpose of the national parks has never been

clearly stated. The law of 17 August 1955 regulated

cutting, transporting and selling wood, and the Rural Code

of Francois Duvalier (28 May 1962) strickly controlled

forest resources and activities in forest reserves. The

decree of 23 June 1983 creating "Parcs Nationaux Naturels"

lists eight park related responsibilities for MARNDR that

can be summarized as: 1) protecting ecological conditions;

2) undertaking an inventory of plants and animals; 3)

studying the characteristics of endemic species in relation

to geology, soils, climate, etc.; 4) identifying areas

having important ecological characters; 5) preserving

national parks from physical deterioration; 6) supervising

and working with the scientific community in studies in the

parks and natural sites; 7) diffusing information

concerning the parks and sites; 8) making the facilities of

the parks available to visitors.

We have synthesized these statements, as well as our

many conversations with personnel from the governmental and








6


private sectors into the following list which we believe

represents the purpose of the Parcs Nationaux Naturels

program in Haiti.


1. The protection of natural ecological conditions and

processes. The two most important consequences of these

actions are : 1) the preservation of watersheds, thereby

improving the quality of life for all inhabitants of Haiti

in areas adjacent to or under the influence of national

parks; 2) the preservation of natural species diversity and

therefore the national natural patrimony.


2. The promotion of the national natural patrimony.

The two most important consequences of this activity are:

1) the education of the citizens of Haiti about the unique

features of their country that make Haiti special; 2) the

increased possibility that wise decisions of long range

importance can be made concerning the utilization and

development of the natural resources of Haiti.


3. The development of a recreation and tourism program

that will take advantage of the unique physical location and

beauty of the parks as well as the special features of the

flora, fauna or geology. We believe that it is possible for

the citizens of Haiti to benefit from the parks at both the

local and national levels without damaging the quality of








7


the parks if a careful management plan is developed and

implemented.



2. Resources


The geological and biological resources have been

surveyed and are discussed in detail in the reports

presented as companion volumes to the Stewardship Plan.

These reports are: 1) Geological setting; 2) Floristic

study; 3) Butterflies; 4) Malacology; 5) Herpetofauna;

6) Birds; 7) Recent and extinct mammals. In summary, these

reports indicate that the national parks are of great

importance because they have so many unique features. The

geology of both parks reveals details about the past of

Haiti when it was more than one island and when the tops of

the mountains were shallow marine environments. The great

ravine of the Riviere Ravine du Sud between Pic Formon and

Pic Macaya is part of an enormous fault that cuts across the

southern peninsula of Haiti from Tiburon to the Cul-de-Sac

plain. The floristic features indicate that Parc Macaya has

69 vascular plants that are endemic species and Parc La

Visite has 36 endemic vascular plants. The total vascular

plant flora of Macaya includes 130 species that are endemic

to Hispaniola, which is 28 percent of the flora of the park.

Among flowering plants the degree of endemism of Pare Macaya

is even greater with 124 species endemic to Hispaniola (34









8


percent of total) and 68 endemic to the park itself, which

is 19 percent of the flowering plants of the park. In La

Visite among the flowering plants 85 species are endemic to

Hispaniola (34 percent of total) and 35 species are endemic

to the park itself which is 14 percent of the flowering

plants of the park. In terms of endemism Macaya is more

important than La Visite. The importance of Macaya is even

more dramatically pointed out when just orchids are analyzed

(orchids are not included in the previous lists). Of the

133 species of orchids known to occur in Parc Macaya, 38 are

endemic to the Massif de La Hotte itself. Only twelve

species of orchids were collected in Parc La Visite.

There are 67 species of birds recorded from Parc La

Visite. Seventeen of these are endemic to Haiti, so 81

percent of the endemic birds of the country are found in La

Visite. There are 65 species of birds recorded from Parc

Macaya. Four important endemic species are missing from

Macaya, so Parc Macaya is more limited in importance in

terms of the preservation of endemic species than is Parc La

Visite. Both parks have significant populations of the

Black-capped Petrel. The most endangered species in both

parks is the White-winged Warbler, Xenoligea montana.

There has been a great loss of mammals in Parc La

Visite. Of the 17 species of endemic terrestrial mammals

known to occur in the parks within the last 3000 years, 16

(94%) have become extinct. The bats have fared almost as








9


poorly. Eight bat species are known to have occurred in

Parc La Visite, but only four still occur within the

boundaries of the park, a 50% loss. In Parc Macaya 17

species of endemic terrestrial mammals are known, but 15

have become extinct (88%). Nine bat species still occur in

the park. Five species of bats of the Macaya fauna are

vulnerable to extinction if caves are disturbed and habitat

is destroyed (Morgan and Woods, 1986). The loss of endemic

mammals in both parks is dramatic, but is not unique. The

average loss of endemic species throughout the Caribbean

during the past 3000 years has been 88% (Woods, et al.,

1986). It is clear, however, that the loss in Parc La

Visite is greater than the loss in Parc Macaya, and that La

Visite is a very disturbed area. One species of mammal (a

non-described and now extinct genus and species) is

restricted to Parc Macaya. An intense effort to find

additional new species of mammals in the Macaya and La

Visite areas was unsuccessful, but it is likely that five

species became extinct in the last 30 years (Woods, et al.

1986), which is the period of greatest habitat loss in the

Macaya area (Cohen, 1984).



3. Management


We have presented a detailed outline of our

recommendations for the management of each park (a








10


"Stewardship Plan"). We prefer the term stewardship rather

than management since'we believe the latter concept implies

an active state of manipulation and alteration. Stewardship

can be passive and allow the ecosystem to recover and

maintain itself without extensive manipulation. Both parks

are highly disturbed areas, however, and in the initial

stages of creating the parks an active program will be

necessary.


A. Zones.

The zones of each park fall into two categories, each

of which is divided into three areas. One zone is

associated with specific activities, and requires constant

attention and an active role by national park personnel and

visitors alike. This zone is called the "Designated Use

Zone", and it is subdivided into the following areas. 1)

"Recreation Areas" are where visitors can camp, hike,

observe scenic vistas and enjoy special features of the

parks. These areas are designated for each park on the maps

and text of the "Stewardship Plan". 2) "Education Areas" are

where national parks personnel have created a special

enriched environment to educate visitors about the special

features of the parks. These areas include nature trails,

special signs at designated locations, the site exhibits and

the public areas of the Park Headquarters. 3) Maintenance

and Service Areas" are where national parks personnel work








11


and store equipment and supplies that are necessary to

improve the quality of the park. These areas include the

work areas near the Park Headquarters, the depots where

equipment is stored, the security areas where guards work,

the living quarters of the Park Headquarters, the stables

and facilities for horses, mules and donkeys used in the

functions of the park (tourism included), the garages and

shops associated with the vehicles and machines.

The second zone of the parks is associated with

restricted activities, and is called the "Limited Visitation

Zone". The primary goal of activities in this zone is

conservation of the soil, water, flora and fauna. The

largest and most important region of this zone is the

"Biological Preserve Area". No exploitation of any kind

should be allowed in areas so designated. When areas are of

potential importance to the conservation of specific

organisms, soils or watersheds, but currently degraded, then

an active role is required to restore the habitat to a

condition where it can be regarded as a Biological Preserve

Area. These areas, each of which will be designated as a

"Restoration Area", are where active management is necessary

with the long range goal of improving their quality so that

future management will not be necessary. The last area of

the Limited Visitation Zone is where research is permitted

on a limited and carefully controlled basis. This area









12


should be distinct from Biological Preserve Areas, and is

designated as a "Research Area".

All of these zones and areas are discussed in the text

of the Stewardship Plan and identified on the maps of each

park.


B. Construction Controls

The construction of all structures, trails and signs

should be supervised by a central office of the national

parks program where a record is kept of all construction

activities. A central file in the Park Headquarters should

contain work plans, information on costs and photographs of

completed projects. A routine inspection of all projects in

the parks should be completed by the Director at least once

a year, and on a regular basis by each Park Supervisor.

Until a parks program is in place and trained personnel

are able to take on this role a single person should be

designated to assume this responsibility. We recommend that

Paul Paryski serve in this capacity on an interim basis, and

continue to do so until MARNDR, INAHCA, and USAID agree that

a suitable program has been implemented.


C. Roads

The existing roads to the parks are discussed in

section 1A under access to the parks. Clearly, access to

the parks is an important feature, and these roads must be

maintained and improved before an active tourism program is









12


should be distinct from Biological Preserve Areas, and is

designated as a "Research Area".

All of these zones and areas are discussed in the text

of the Stewardship Plan and identified on the maps of each

park.


B. Construction Controls

The construction of all structures, trails and signs

should be supervised by a central office of the national

parks program where a record is kept of all construction

activities. A central file in the Park Headquarters should

contain work plans, information on costs and photographs of

completed projects. A routine inspection of all projects in

the parks should be completed by the Director at least once

a year, and on a regular basis by each Park Supervisor.

Until a parks program is in place and trained personnel

are able to take on this role a single person should be

designated to assume this responsibility. We recommend that

Paul Paryski serve in this capacity on an interim basis, and

continue to do so until MARNDR, INAHCA, and USAID agree that

a suitable program has been implemented.


C. Roads

The existing roads to the parks are discussed in

section 1A under access to the parks. Clearly, access to

the parks is an important feature, and these roads must be

maintained and improved before an active tourism program is









13


possible. In Macaya this will require continuing the

construction of the rough road from Les Platons to Portal

Formon via Sous Bois. Beyond Portal Formon the road can

continue on to the Park Headquarters at "Bwa Pipirite".

This road is designated on the map in the Stewardship Plan.

Great care must be taken in the construction of this road,

however, since it will open the region up and remove the

last barrier to the exploitation of the interior of the

Massif de La Hotte, its isolated location. We do not

recommend the completion of this road until an active

national parks program is in place with personnel committed

to the supervision of all activities in Parc National Pic

Macaya.

The existing road to and through Parc National La

Visite is adequate for the present (but should eventually be

improved). Additional roads are necessary to the camping

facility and Park Headquarters. This road can follow an

existing rough trail and old logging road. The old logging

road should be upgraded to allow vehicles to pass to Tete

Opaque. No roads should be constructed to Morne d"Enfer.



4. Administration


A. Suggested Annual Budget

The total budget for the national parks program over a

five year program includes: 1) set up costs for the Central








14


Office in Port-au-Prince; 2) set up costs for each park;

3) signs; 4) exhibits; 5) publications; 6) training

personnel; .7) research; 8) operating the Central Office in

Port-au-Prince; 9) operating parks; 10) operating

vehicles; 11) salaries in the Central Office; 12) salaries

in parks. The total for these items over a fiver year

period is $2,117,440. The annual budget for the first year

($519,350) is very high because of the expenses of

purchasing equipment. The annual budget for each year after

the first is approximately $400,000. The exact costs are

outlined in the summary (Fig.5). The justification for all

budget items are discussed in the Stewardship Plan. In

summary, the four largest items are: 1) operating the

Central Office (10% of total cost); 2) operating the parks

(14% of total); 3) salaries for Director and other Central

Office staff (27% of total); 4) salaries for Park

Supervisor and personnel in parks (24% of total). These

four items account for 75 percent of the total budget. The

cost of setting up the parks and Central Office is six

percent. The cost of training personnel is three percent.

We believe that research is a very important component of

the implementation of a national parks program. The cost of

the research package proposed is $250,000 or ten percent of

the total budget. We believe that personnel from the staff

of the national parks program should work closely will all

researchers, and that this should serve as an important part








15


of the training process for all national parks personnel

during the first five years. The staff should also

participate in the publication process of the results of the

research. The results of the initial inventory should be

published in 1986. The results of the five year research

program would be published in 1990.


B. Routine Maintenance Schedule

A regular schedule should be established to insure

communication between the parks and the central office in

Port-au-Prince. The Park Supervisors should spend three

weeks in the parks and one week in the central office.

Within the parks a regular schedule should be established

for the following components.

1. Access Roads A work crew should be assigned to

improving the quality of the access road to each park.

After the roads are in suitable condition to allow safe and

routine access to the parks, they should be "maintained" on

a monthly basis to remove fallen rocks and insure proper

drainage.

2. Trails The trails through the areas of each park

where vegetation is dense, and especially in Parc Macaya

where trails become overgrown with cutting bamboo

Arthrostylidium haitiense and sharp spined blackberrys Rubus

spp., should be cleared every six months. In steep areas









16


care should be taken to landscape the trails at the same

time to prevent erosion.

3. Park Headquarters The Park Supervisor should

develop a checklist for regular maintenance of the toilet,

sinks, septic tank, cisterns, stove, refrigerator, propane

gas and public quarters.

4. Central Office The Director should develop a

checklist for regular maintenance of all equipment, supplies

and the building. The Director should delegate this

authority to the Assistant Director for Administration.

5. Vehicles The Director should develop a schedule

where all vehicles are maintained on a regular basis. Each

vehicle should receive a thorough inspection every three

months. The Director should delegate this authority to the

Assistant Director for Administration.


C. Infrastructure

The national parks "program" should be organized as a

discrete unit with the ability to make decisions on policy,

management and budget. All aspects of the park should be

under the direct control of the Director.

The location of the national parks program within the

structure of the GOH has never been clearly designated. We

believe the best solution is to name the program Parcs Haiti

and make no reference to a department, service or institute.

Parcs Haiti should be a free standing unit of the GOH under









17


the supervision of a board of trustees designated as the

National Park Authority. The organization of the program is

diagramed below.




National Parks Authority

Director of INAHCA or ISPAN

Director of Direction des Ressources Naturelles,

(MARNDR)

Director of Office of Tourism

Director Societe Audubon d'Haiti (SAHPE)

Prominent Private Citizen

International Representative


"Parcs Haiti"

Central Office

Component Parks and Natural Sites


The National Parks Authority would be responsible for

meeting with the Director of Parcs Haiti on a regular basis,

and assisting the Director to improve funding, develop long

range goals and resolve points of conflict.

The actual administration of all aspects of national

parks in Haiti should be the responsibility of the Director

of Parcs Haiti.

The organization of Parcs Haiti can be accomplished in

any one of three ways. We recommend creating a new program









18


within Haiti. During the first year a Director and

Assistant Director for Administration should be hired as

well as a complete staff for each park (Park Supervisor,

seven park guards, 15 park workers) and a complete office

staff. The additional two positions (Assistant Director for

Education and Recreation; Assistant Director for

Conservation and Research) are important to the development

of the parks and parks program, and require some technical

abilities. If individuals with the interest and training

for these positions do not exist in Haiti, then

international personnel could be used to fill the positions

on an interim basis (two to five years). The University of

Florida, IUCN, Parks Canada, U.S. National Parks Service and

World Wildlife Fund should be consulted for advice as to

whom to hire. The University of Florida-Florida State

Museum would be willing to coordinate this process.

The second possibility is to contract out the complete

operation of Parcs Haiti to an international organization

concerned with conservation and national parks. This

concept has the advantage of being able to draw upon the

experiences of the group in other countries and the high

level of expertise of the group. It has the disadvantage of

being new and inexperienced in Haiti (so there will be a

significant loss of momentum) and being temporary and

foreign. On the balance we feel that this is a good idea

and should be implemented if our primary recommendation is









19


not possible. This organization should be under the

supervision of the same National Parks Authority discussed

above. The IUCN is a logical choice for this group. The

University of Florida-Florida State Museum would also be

willing to serve in this capacity.

The third possibility is to continue the existing

program jointly supervised by MARNDR and INAHCA. If this

method of administering the parks is selected then it is

imperative that changes be made in the way the program is

currently organized. We recommend the following changes.


1. Designate a single administrative head to the

program.

2. Create a staff committed to the parks that is drawn

from both INAHCA and MARNDR. Two individuals from each

organization should be designated.

3. This group of five individuals would be responsible

for the parks. The Director and two assistants would

be assigned to the Central Office in Port-au-Prince.

The other two individuals would be assigned to the

parks (one in each park as a Park Supervisor).

4. This group of five would receive training in Haiti

on parks techniques and natural science (see discussion

below under "Training Programs").

5. This group should be given a new name. We recommend

Parcs Haiti.








20


6. The single administrative head of Parcs Haiti should

should be given complete control of the budget of the

parks.

7. The group should have a separate office that is not

a part of either MARNDR (at Damien) or INAHCA (at

MUPANAH) so that it will have an identity of its

own.

8. The group will still be supervised by the

Directors of INAHCA and Ressources Naturelles in

MARNDR. Since these two individuals are part of the

proposed National Parks Authority we recommend the

creation of this authority even if the third

possibility for creating a program is selected.


Our primary recommendation for the creation of a

national parks program in Haiti is the creation of a new

Parcs Haiti authority, although we believe that either of

the alternative possibilities would be able to accomplish

the same goal of implementing a national parks program.

The decision on which program to follow should be made

by March 1, 1986. The decision should be made by a majority

vote of the seven individuals discussed as the National

Parks Authority which can meet on a one time basis to make

this decision or become a permanent group advising the

national parks program (Parcs Haiti).


D. Personnel








21


The organization of Parcs Haiti is diagramed below.




PARCS HAITI

Director


Assistant Director for Administration

Assistant Director for Education and Recreation

Assistant Director for Conservation and Research


Central Office

Secretary

Librarian-Secretary

Chauffer

Commissar

Office Guardian



Parc National La Visite Parc National Pic Macaya

Park Supervisor Park Supervisor

Guardian Headquarters Guardian Headquarters

Cook Cook

Park Guards (7) Park Guards (7)

Park Workers (15) Park Workers (15)








22



E. Logistics

The Central Office in Port-au-Prince would coordinate

all aspects of the program in national parks. All files,

plans, publications, correspondence and budget information

should be maintained there. The Director would interact

upward with the National Parks Authority, laterally with

other programs and supervise all activities of Parcs Haiti.

The Assistant Directors will work with the Director and

regularly tour the parks and make reports. The Park

Supervisors will implement the directions from the Central

Office and supervise the personnel in each park. The Park

Supervisors should spend one week each month in

Port-au-Prince working with the Central Office staff and

planning. A radio communication network should exist

between the Central Office and each park, and there should

be regular discussions between the Park Supervisors and a

designated person in the Central Office.

The Director of Parcs Haiti should meet with the

National Parks Authority at least twice a year.



5.Interpretation and Research


The programs in interpretation and research are two of

the most important elements of the national parks program.

Interpretation is the reponsability of the Assistant

Director for Education and Research. Research is the








22



E. Logistics

The Central Office in Port-au-Prince would coordinate

all aspects of the program in national parks. All files,

plans, publications, correspondence and budget information

should be maintained there. The Director would interact

upward with the National Parks Authority, laterally with

other programs and supervise all activities of Parcs Haiti.

The Assistant Directors will work with the Director and

regularly tour the parks and make reports. The Park

Supervisors will implement the directions from the Central

Office and supervise the personnel in each park. The Park

Supervisors should spend one week each month in

Port-au-Prince working with the Central Office staff and

planning. A radio communication network should exist

between the Central Office and each park, and there should

be regular discussions between the Park Supervisors and a

designated person in the Central Office.

The Director of Parcs Haiti should meet with the

National Parks Authority at least twice a year.



5.Interpretation and Research


The programs in interpretation and research are two of

the most important elements of the national parks program.

Interpretation is the reponsability of the Assistant

Director for Education and Research. Research is the








23


responsibility of the Assistant Director for Conservation

and Research.


A. Interpretation

We recommend the following as part of a program in

interpretation.

1. A series of temporary exhibits in Central Office

(year one).

2. Informative signs at entrance to each park (year

one).

3. A brochure on the parks that promotes the most

important features, provides a species list of important

organisms, discusses the rules of the park and the purpose

and concepts of the parks (year one).

4. Four exhibits in the Park Headquarters at Morne La

Visite (year two).

5. Two exhibits in the Park Headquarters at Macaya

(year two).

6. Two permanent exhibits in the Central Office Park

Headquarters (year two).

7. Nature trails with educational signs in each park as

designated on the maps in the Stewardship Plan (year two).

8. Information signs at designated locations off the

road beyond Furcy and along the road to Jacmel (year two).

9. Training the Park Supervisors to be interpretive

naturalists (continual).









24


10. Developing a slide-tape presentation (French,

Creole, and English versions) for use in informing the

public of the national natural patrimony and the value of

the parks (year one).

11. Designating national species, and promoting a

better understanding of these species. We recommend the

following.

a. Plagiodontia aedium National Mammal

b. Phaenicophilus poliocephalus

(Grey-crowned Palm Tanager) National Bird

c. Didymopanax tremulum National Tree

d. Fuchia pringsheimii National Flower

e. Karst topography National Geological Feature


These features can be promoted in postage stamps,

newspaper articles and posters. They can also be topics of

discussion in schools.


12. There should be a regular weekly newspaper feature

on the national parks written by the Director of Parcs Haiti

or by special contributors. This feature should be in a

prominent place in at least one newspaper, and should also

be featured in the English language Haiti News.

13. Writing booklets on the special features of each

park based on scientific results from inventories and

ongoing research projects (year two and three).









25


B. Research

Research is one of the most important elements of the

development process for the national parks program. An

active research program will generate data on which

management decisions must be based. The research program

will also provide data on the national natural patrimony

(endemic species, many of which will be new). A third and

very important aspect of the research program is that by

actively involving the staff of Parcs Haiti in the research

activities (field work, analysis, publications) one of the

most important and difficult aspects of the training program

is completed (i.e. training in specific topics) at the same

time that data and publications are being generated.

Research personnel can also be required to lead training

sessions while they are in Haiti. The most important

research goals are outlined below. The costs of these

programs are listed in the budget sheet and in the

Stewardship Plan.


1. Publication of previous data from inventory (year one).

2. Research on the composition and requirements of the major

plant communities. (five year study)

3. Research on the basic biology of the endemic mammals

(endangered species). (five year study)

4. Biology of the Black-capped Petrel (three year study)

5. Regular inventories of avifauna (five year study)








26


6. Meteorological studies (five year study)

7. Invertebrate faunal studies (five year study)

8. Habitat requirements of herpetofauna (three year study)

9. Publication of the above data in 1990 (year five)



6. Park Headquarters and Stations


The facilities of the parks program are very important

because they not only provide a working environment for

Parcs Haiti personnel and colleagues, but also signal the

existence of a viable parks program. This is especially

important within the boundaries of Parc National Pic Macaya

and Parc National La Visite where the Parc Headquarters

buildings, depots and outposts demonstrate that the parks

are official and that authority exists in the region. The

parks facilities should be constructed at the earliest

possible date (with existing funds, or in the first year of

the new five year budget).


A. Location


1) Central Office This structure should be distinct

from either MUPANAH or Damien. It can be located in

Port-au-Prince or Petionville. We feel it would be

desirable to build a facility for the parks at the

designated National Botanical Garden. The existing

plans for the Park Headquarters (see below) could be








27


modified as plans for the Central Office.


2) Park Headquarters at Parc National La Visite

This structure (see figure below) is to be located

near the cascade in the central part of the park

above the campground. This location is in

an attractive wooded area (Bois Cascade) and is central

to all activities in the park.


3) Depots and maintenance areas for Parc National La

Visite will be in the existing buildings at the

Scierie.


4) An existing caye can be rented or purchased at Tete

Opaque as an outpost.


5) Park Headquarters at Parc National Pic Macaya

This structure is to be of the same plan as the La

Visite facility and is to be built in "Bois Pipirite"

at 1428 meters two kms north of Portal Formon (Madame

Robert's house) and two kms SE of Pic Formon (year

one).


6. Depots and maintenance facilities should be

located near Portal Formon. The road will eventually

be constructed to this area, and since the area is flat

it is suitable for construction of a landing strip. An

existing caye can be rented or purchased, such as the









28


caye of Madame Robert's that has been used by the

inventory team (year one).


7. An inexpensive caye should be constructed at 1000

meters elevation in the ravine of the Riviere Ravine du

Sud as an outpost. It should be modeled after Madame

Robert's caye that the inventory team used (year two).


8. An inexpensive caye should be located on the north

side of the park near 700 meters beside the Riviere

La Guinaudee. An existing caye can be rented or

purchased. This caye would serve as an outpost.


B. Type and construction


The plans for a Park Headquarters have been drawn and

are available (submitted to INAHCA, MARNDR, and USAID on 17

December 1985). The plans call for a basic stone or cement

block structure with a large front porch and central room

for public meetings. There are four rooms around the

central room to serve as office, laboratory, living and

depot space. In the rear of the building are rooms for

cooking, eating and a bathroom. The water supply for the

headquarters is via two 300 gallon cisters that gather

rainwater off of the rear roof of the building. This design

is very flexible, and the function of rooms can change as

the program grows. There is a loft for sleeping or storage.








29


The Park Headquarters would provide office space for

the Park Supervisor, a work room, a sleeping room for the

Park Supervisor, sleeping space for visiting scientists and

technicians, and a guest room for visitors from the Central

Office.

The building is to be constructed out of rock or

cement. Wood is used for the interior supports. The roof

is metal. All materials are available at the site or in

Port-au-Prince. A materials list is provided with the

plans.



7. Integration of the Parks with region


Parcs Haiti should make a special effort to improve the

quality of life in the region around the parks in the Massif

de la Selle and Massif de la Hotte. If the parks are going

to be successful they must be viewed as being of local

importance as well as in the national interest.


A. Jobs

The Personnel from the parks should be hired from the

region. The available jobs associated with each park are

listed below. Regular jobs = R; Occassional jobs = I.


Number positions

1. Park Guards 7 (R)

2. Park Workers 15 (R)








30


3. Headquarters Cook 1 (R)

4. Headquarters Guardian 1 (R)

5. Other building guardians 3 (R)

6. Guides (estimate) 10 (I)

7. Special project workers 10 (I)

(estimate)


Twenty seven jobs will be generated in each region by

the permanent staff of the parks. Additional jobs will be

available as the Park Headquarters is being constructed, and

during phases of reforestation. Jobs will also be generated

as recreation and tourism increases. Some of the jobs will

be as guides, while others will be associated with renting

horses and donkeys to visitors and selling supplies. The

amount of money in the region will increase because of

regular salaries being paid to Parcs Haiti personnel, and

more money means an increased need for supplies. This will

provide more jobs in the service sector of the region (store

owners, farmers).


B. Watershed Management

One of the main goals of the park is to improve the

quality of the environment and of the associated watersheds.

This will have some impact on residents on the plains and

along the rivers below the parks. More water will be

available for human consumption and irrigation. The quality









31


of the water will improve. The rate of soil erosion will

decrease. The danger of flooding to inhabitants living near

rivers will decrease. All of these will be possible because

major reforestation projects will be undertaken in each

region.


C. Model Programs

The following model programs are proposed for the

region of each park in association with Parcs Haiti.


1. Communal Firewood Forest Project.


2. Reforestation and Fruit Tree Propagation Program

in cooperation with MARNDR and PVOS in region.


3. Technical Assistance Program coordinated by the Park

Supervisors.


4. Local artisan, handicraft and recreation program

coordinated by the Assistant Director for Education and

Recreation.



8. Recommended Training Programs


Since there has not been a tradition of natural

science, conservation or national parks in Haiti it is

necessary and important to implement an active training

program for all national parks personnel. After careful

reflection we believe that the most cost effective and






I









31


of the water will improve. The rate of soil erosion will

decrease. The danger of flooding to inhabitants living near

rivers will decrease. All of these will be possible because

major reforestation projects will be undertaken in each

region.


C. Model Programs

The following model programs are proposed for the

region of each park in association with Parcs Haiti.


1. Communal Firewood Forest Project.


2. Reforestation and Fruit Tree Propagation Program

in cooperation with MARNDR and PVOS in region.


3. Technical Assistance Program coordinated by the Park

Supervisors.


4. Local artisan, handicraft and recreation program

coordinated by the Assistant Director for Education and

Recreation.



8. Recommended Training Programs


Since there has not been a tradition of natural

science, conservation or national parks in Haiti it is

necessary and important to implement an active training

program for all national parks personnel. After careful

reflection we believe that the most cost effective and






I








32


appropriate training program is for seminars and workshops

to be conducted in Haiti. Each workshop or training session

should last about two weeks and be conducted by a carefully

chosen international individual or group. There should be

four training sessions per year (every three months). These

training sessions should take place in the Central Office

and within the parks. There could be more frequent training

sessions during the first year of the program, and fewer as

the program develops. A possible training program is

outlined in Fig.6.


A. Individuals

Everybody associated with the parks should receive

training of some kind. The nature and duration of the

training are listed in the following table.


B. Location and Training

With the exception of the Director, who should be

encouraged to participate in the international parks

seminar, all training should be in Haiti. In this way

specific training is possible and all staff of the Parcs

Haiti program can receive some benefit from the instructors

and training sessions. In addition, research biologists can

be involved in the training sessions. This is good economy

and encourages individuals to focus their training on the

Parcs Haiti program rather than use the training as a

stepping stone to a higher position in Haiti or to leave








32


appropriate training program is for seminars and workshops

to be conducted in Haiti. Each workshop or training session

should last about two weeks and be conducted by a carefully

chosen international individual or group. There should be

four training sessions per year (every three months). These

training sessions should take place in the Central Office

and within the parks. There could be more frequent training

sessions during the first year of the program, and fewer as

the program develops. A possible training program is

outlined in Fig.6.


A. Individuals

Everybody associated with the parks should receive

training of some kind. The nature and duration of the

training are listed in the following table.


B. Location and Training

With the exception of the Director, who should be

encouraged to participate in the international parks

seminar, all training should be in Haiti. In this way

specific training is possible and all staff of the Parcs

Haiti program can receive some benefit from the instructors

and training sessions. In addition, research biologists can

be involved in the training sessions. This is good economy

and encourages individuals to focus their training on the

Parcs Haiti program rather than use the training as a

stepping stone to a higher position in Haiti or to leave









33


Haiti. It is important to create as much long term

stability in the Parcs Haiti program as possible.


C. Specific Courses and Topics

The need for specific topics will be identified with

greater precision as the staff is hired and the background

of the Parcs Haiti staff are known. At the initial stage we

can identify the following topics which are of major

concern.


National Parks Topics


1. History of National Parks and National Parks Policy


2. Biosphere Reserves


3. Administration of National Parks


4. Personnel Management and Decision Making


5. Financial Accounting and Data Management


6. Public Relations and Advertising


7. Museum Studies and Interpretation


8. Principles of Recreation and Tourism



Research and Conservation Topics


1. Biological and Geological History of Haiti









34



2. Collecting Techniques Botanical


3. Collecting Techniques Zoological


4. Ecological Methods


5. Cartography, Photo Interpretation and Remote Sensing


6. Major Features of Haiti Botanical


7. Major Features of Haiti Zoological


8. Major Features of Haiti Geological, Hydrological,

Meteorological


9. Analysis of Data, Statistical Techniques and

Publication Techniques


Some of these 16 topics can be combined into one

training session, while others (such as "major features of

Haiti") represent more than one training session. The

training sessions can be organized as distinct one to two

week workshops and seminars. All research staff should be

required to present training sessions as part of their

research activities, and to include selected Parcs Haiti

personnel in specific aspects of their research activities.



9. Concluding Comments on Parcs Haiti and Biosphere

Preserves









35


The concept of a "Biosphere Reserve" has been approved

by UNESCO under the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB).

Biosphere reserves are examples of the major landscapes of

the world complete with characteristic landforms, flora and

fauna as well as the various patterns of human use and

adaptation of the region. The concept of a biosphere

reserve is intended to promote a balanced relationship

between people and the natural environment. The emphasis in

biosphere reserves is demonstrating the value and need for

conservation and the link between wise land use policies and

conservation and sustainable development. We believe that

the concept of a biosphere reserve is very well suited to

the nature of the national parks in Haiti, and we encourage

Parcs Haiti to proceed with the implementation of a

biosphere reserve program.

Biosphere reserves consist of core areas, which are

lands already under some form of protection. In the case of

Parcs Haiti, the core areas are Parc National Pic Macaya,

Parc National La Visite (and the various sites listed in the

decree of 23 June 1983). In biosphere reserves core areas

are surrounded by zones of cooperation, in which a variety

of resource uses may take place, such as forestry, ranching,

farming or tourism. In these zones solutions to

man-environment problems are sought by involving local

people. This is often done by including selected local

residents in the discussion process, often via a committee








36


made up of Parks personnel and local residents. The zone of

cooperation is analogous to the "Buffer Zone".

The concept of a national park surrounded by a buffer

zone, as discussed in the Stewardship Plan lends itself well

to the principles of a biosphere reserve, especially

considering the complicated land use practices in and around

the national parks and the need to resolve the problems of

land use and land tenure in the region. We also believe

that the habitats of Parc National La Visite and Parc

National Pic Macaya are unique and worthy of inclusion in

the biosphere reserve program of the world's major

landscapes. In 1985 there are 243 biosphere reserves in 65

countries. Parcs Haiti should begin from its conception to

organize the national parks program and especially the two

great national parks of Haiti as biosphere reserves.









37



Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the authors of each of the nine

reports that form the basis of this project: 1) Dr. Bruce

MacFadden on Geology; 2) Dr. Walter Judd on Botany; 3) Dr.

Walter Judd and Mr. Donald Dod on Orchids; 4) Mr. Frank

Gali and Dr. Albert Schwartz on Butterflies; 5) Dr. Fred

Thompson on Mollusks; 6) Mr. Richard Franz and Mr. Daniel

Cordier on Reptiles and Amphibians; 7) my co-author Jose

Alberto Ottenwalder on Birds; 8) I wrote the report on

Mammals but thank Jose Ottenwalder for his valuable comments

and 9) my co-author Dr. Lawrence Harris on the Stewardship

Plan. In addition to these individuals I am grateful for

the help of other colleagues and students, and especially

thank Kurt Auffenberg, Dan and Tia Cordier, Ada Fowler,

Leslie Hay, John Hermanson, Larry Hurst, Kevin Jordan,

Margaret Langworthy, Mara McDonald, William Oliver, Roger

Portel, Dariel Skean and to all the participants of the

University of Vermont Field Naturalist Program.


In addition I thank Florence Sergile and especially

Paul Paryski for excellent support in all phases of this

project. Mr. Gaston Hermantin of INAHCA and Mr. Raoul

Pierre-Louis and Edmond Magny of MARNDR provided support,

which I gratefully acknowledge.









38


Patricia Ottenwalder typed most of the reports and I am

very grateful for her assistance. Rhoda Bryant assisted me

in coordinating the administration. This report is

dedicated to my wife Missy, who has been supportive and

helpful, and to my sons Stott and Bryan who worked with me

in the field. Thank you everyone.








39




Literature Cited

Cohen, W.B. 1984. Environmental Degradation in Haiti: an
analysis of aerial photography. Unpublished report.
U.S. Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince. 35 pp.

Franz, R. and D. Cordier. 1986. The herpetofaunas of the
proposed National Parks in southern Haiti. Unpublished
Report, U.S. Agency for International Development,
Haiti, Port-au-Prince. 73 pp.


Dod, D. and W. Judd. 1986. The Orchidae of the proposed
National Parks of Haiti. Unpublished Report. U.S.
Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince.

Gali, F. and A. Schwartz. 1986. The Butterflies
(Lepidoptera:Rhopalocera) of Morne La Visite and
Pic Macaya, Haiti. Unpublished Report. U.S.
Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince. 16 pp.

Lowenstein, F. 1984. Le deboisement du perimetre "Pic
Macaya" et son impact sur la Plaine des Cayes.
Unpublished report to Ministre d'Agriculture, des
Ressources Naturelles et du Developpement Rural.
Port-au-Prince, Haiti. 22 pp.

Morgan, G. and C.A. Woods. 1986. Extinction and
zoogeography of West Indian land mammals. Linn.
Soc. of London. 67 pp.

Thompson, F.G. 1986. Land Mollusks of the proposed National
Parks of Haiti. Unpublished Report. U.S. Agency for
International Development, Haiti, Port-au-Prince.
19 pp.

Valdman, A. 1981. Haitian Creole-English-French Dictionary.
Creole Institute, Indiana University. Bloomington,
vol.I, pp.1-582; vol.II, pp.1-222.

Woods, C.A. 1986. The mammals of the National Parks of
Haiti. Unpublished Report. U.S. Agency for Inter-
national Development, Haiti, Port-au-Prince. 90 pp.

Woods, C.A. and L. Harris. 1986. A Stewardship Plan for
the National Parks of Haiti. Unpublished Report U.S.









40


Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince. 272 pp.

Woods, C.A. and J.A. Ottenwalder. 1986. The Birds of the
proposed National Parks of Haiti. Unpublished Report.
U.S. Agency for International Development, Haiti,
Port-au-Prince. 241 pp.

Woods, C.A., J.A. Ottenwalder and W. Oliver. 1986. Lost
Mammals of the Antilles. Dodo (Jersey Wildlife Pres.
Trust). 22:






























*








41



Maps, Figures and Photographs

1. Map of Hispaniola with Parks

2. General Map of Parc National La Visite

3. Specific Map of Parc National La Visite

4. General Map of Parc National Pic Macaya

5. Specific Map of Parc National Pic Macaya

6. Drawing of proposed Park Headquarters

7. Table of Budget (labeled Figure 5)

8. Table of Training Program (labeled Figure 6)

9. Photograph from air of Parc National La Visite

10. Photograph of Pic Macaya and Pic Formon

11. Photograph of the Plain of Formon of Parc National
Pic Macaya

















74* 73 72* 7i" o* s9*






20 20er


















c il lc Mc Parc National La Visite
Saomand





















Parcs Natlonaux Naturels d'Haiti ISPANIOLA
Par National PIC Macaya Parc National La Visite'








0 80 r60km


4* 73o* 72,T TTo* 69E














No^fH,
'Furcyj


crlont ..-ne. B .llf. 4+ "e- La Selle. Eserpre +
.Morl,*






j^^ "^ ^-^lii-.^'^^^^ PARK NATIONAL LA VISIT
BUFFER M,,,, L,







CIAD





PARK BOUNDARY
Ni~ oo~



I km,+ .-21'
rsro Sou i'


























RECREATION ARA SCIC









J ~BIOLOGICAL PRESERVE AR
b ~ RESTORATION AREA "
CURITSECURITY MAINTENANCE












. Parc National ILa Visite
Special Areas Map
BILOICL REERE RE
CASCADE
RECREATON ARE
BIOOGCALPRSERE RE
RESORTIN RE
SECRIT MANTEANC
Va'
jI CC~~i33~l Parc National La Visiter C~~fL~IYblL~
Spcil res a









a e I-



I^*RIierL., d<0. 000ha
k ,seaux



RA^l PARK NATIONAL

Af PIC MoACAYA -^ r^ Ive e

U -4

," -- - -







t 1a "A 10 t
I'I
'B-JPbO6 k .''


,-P I"+-t., *- -



^^^l \ o^ --P^'^ r r-






SZONE.
Pot-a 1P- cwe1





Enie~lk.
I' $1t n




























r c iou '"r .
^^^'^T "ff f-"T. "

-.4..2











r--














Parc National Pic Macaya r
Special Areas Map /
-CT KASTI:G"!;iAR T ti:~i
IRSTRAIO
IX ...Tyi AIIKAi
SECURITY A. ,
MAINTENANCE.


Parc Naional Pc Macay
Special Areas Map












Figure 6















-














Figure 5

National Parks of Haiti

Year

Item 1 2 3 4 5 Total
(1986) (1987) (1988) (1989) (1990)

Set up office 72,400 72,400
Set up Parc La Visite 26,750 26,750
Set up Pare Macaya 26,750 -- 26,750
Signs 2,000 1,000 -3,000
Exhibits 8,000 -- 8,000
Publications 25,000 5,000 5,000 20,000 55,000
Training Personnel 12,000 17,000 12,000 12,000 12,000 65,000
Research 43,000 63,000 43,000 28,000 28,000 205,000
Overhead 6,450 9,450 6,450 4,200 4,200 30,750
Operating Office 41,000 41,000 41,000 41,000 41,000 205,500
Operating parks 56,900 56,900 56,900 56,900 56,900 284,500
Operating vehicles 14,400 14,400 14,400 14,400 14,400 72,000
Salaries Office 100,200 105,210 110,470 115,993 121,793 553,666
Salaries Parks 92,400 97,020 101,640 106,491 111,573 509,124

Totals 519,350 417,080 391,960 379,084 409,966 2,117,440















Figure 6

TRAINING PROGRAMS



Individuals Topic When Location Duration Instructors



1. Director Parcs Haiti Orientation Spring 1986 PAP One week Raoul Pierre-Louis, Gaston
Assistant Director Design Program Hermantin, Paul Paryski, Bob
Park Supervisors Wilson, Charles Woods

2. Office Staff Orientation Spring 1986 PAP One day Director

3. Park Staff Orientation Spring 1986 Parks Two days Park Supervisor

4. Director, Asst. Training Spring-Fall PAP Two weeks International Parks
Directors, Park programs on Parks 1986-1990 Representative
Supervisors

5. Director, Asst. Interpretation Summer-Winter PAP + Two weeks UF/FSM Staff and Researchers
Directors, Park of park features, 1986-1990 Parks
Supervisors flora and fauna
plus field tech-
niques

6. Park Guards Park features Summer-Winter Parks Two days UF/FSM Staff and Researchers
1986-1990

7. Director National Parks Summer 1986 USA/ Two weeks Univ. of Michigan Parks
Seminar CANADA Canada, USNPS














La Seller






























La Visited

1983

Pare La Visite










PARC MACAYA

Tete Ravine Petrel Nesting Area

Grande Ravine
Pic Formon Burn Pic Macaya























View From Plc Le Ciel Campground 1 985










PARC MACAYA
Bwa Formon Bwa Deron

Karst Hills


























/Portal Formon 1985 Plain Deron
Plain Formon




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs