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Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Title: Cut foliage research update, 1985-'87
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065326/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cut foliage research update, 1985-'87
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: i, 10 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stamps, R. H ( Robert Huguenor ), 1948-
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: R.H. Stamps ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065326
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70192149

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page 1
    Main
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text


Central Florida Research and Education
Center-Apopka
CFREC-Apopka Research Report RH-87-6







CUT
FOLIAGE
RESEARCH
UPDATE, 1985-'87
ti t o FCentral Sciences
Library
OCT ,4 19R87
n['/ert t of Florida



Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences












CUT FOLIAGE RESEARCH UPDATE, 1985-'87
CENTRAL FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER APOPKA
R. H. Stamps, A. R. Chase, L. S. Osborne, R. T. Poole, R. J. Henny, and
C. A. Conover

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SUBJECT PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1

INTRODUCTION 2

PROGRAM AREAS
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Physical environment
Icing of shadehouses as an aid to crop cold protection 2
Chemical environment
Herbicides and cut foliage production 3
Chemical control of Florida betony 4

PEST MANAGEMENT
Entomology Nematology
Evaluation of nematicides for use on leatherleaf fern 4
Plant pathology
Chemical control of leaf spot diseases of cut foliage crops 6

PLANT IMPROVEMENT
Breeding
Selections of leatherleaf fern lines grown from spores 7
Plant introduction
Evaluation of plants for use as cut foliage crops 7

POSTPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
Production
Influence of irrigation on vase life of leatherleaf fern 8

UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY
Culture
Effects of floral preservatives on vase life of cut foliage 9
crops

MAP 10


RH-87-6, Page i













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks are extended to the following firms and individuals for
providing support in the form of gifts, grants, equipment, plants,
supplies or research sites for the Cut Foliage Research Program at the
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka during 1985-'87.
Apologies are extended to any company or individual that has been
inadvertently left off this list.

American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, NJ
Ann Bailey, DeLeon Springs, FL
Baywood Nurseries Co., Plymouth, FL
Bendien, Naarden, Holland
Bio-Organics, New York, NY
Brookside Farms Laboratory Association, New Knoxville, OH
J. B. Clifton Ferneries, DeLeon Springs, FL
Cypress Creek Nursery, Windermere, FL
Fender's Flora, Apopka, FL
Floralife, Hinsdale, IL
Fuqua Ferneries, Altoona, FL
Gem Ornamental, Lake Gem, FL
Gloeckner, New York, NY
Grand View Greenhouses/Selway Farms, Okahumpka, FL
Green Images, Orlando, FL
Hermann Engelmann Greenhouses, Apopka, FL
A Hidden Garden, Miami, FL
Holiday Foliage, Okahumpka, FL
IR-4--National Pesticide Registration Program
Jon's Nursery, Eustis, FL
Lawrence Farms, DeLand, FL
Rose and Homer McMillan, Glenwood, FL
Laren Meyers, DeLeon Springs, FL
Oglesby Nursery, Hollywood, FL
Point Seminole Fernery, Weirsdale, FL
Quality Growers Floral Co., DeLeon Springs, FL
Saratoga Horticultural Foundation, San Martin, CA
Loretta Satterthwaite, Apopka, FL
Sandoz Crop Protection Corp., Harrisburg, PA
Sierra Chemical Co., Milpitas, CA
Smithers-Oasis, Kent, Ohio
Spring Hill Nursery, Apopka, FL
Uniroyal Chemical Co., Middlebury, CT


RH-87-6, Page 1








INTRODUCTION

The Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka serves the
dynamic ornamental plant industries in Florida. Research at the
CFREC-Apopka is concentrated on cut foliage (florists' "greens") and
foliage plants. Research in these areas is tremendously important to
these industries, especially since a decline in consumer disposable
income and an increase in competition during the last few years has
prevented a pass-on of increased production costs. CFREC-Apopka
research and publications serve foliage and cut foliage producers and
shippers as well as interiorscapers and florists.
The Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka was
established in the late 1960's and is a part of the Institute of Food
and Agricultural Sciences of the University of Florida. The present
staff consists of 7 faculty members and 17 university support personnel.
Major research emphasis is placed on effects of biological and physical
stress on plant growth, with programs in plant physiology, plant
pathology, genetics, entomology, nematology, and horticulture.



PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Physical Environment

ICING OF SHADEHOUSES AS AN AID TO CROP COLD PROTECTION
Robert H. Stamps

Introduction
The use of a coating of ice to seal shadehouses as an aid to cold
protecting crops like leatherleaf fern is relatively new and much
remains to be learned about this technique. Application of this,
technology has the potential to dramatically reduce the amount of water
required to cold protect sensitive crops. Best management procedures
and the efficacy of this system need to be determined.
Research Results
Preliminary observations from the field indicate that ice can be
readily formed on shadecloth prior to the occurrence of freezing air
temperatures. Therefore, it may be beneficial to apply water early
during a potential freeze in order to seal the structure as soon as
possible and maximize the reduction in heat loss.
Temperatures in shadehouses are often colder (until heat is applied
in the shadehouse) than outside or in hammocks, so in the past growers
have had to freeze protect more often in shadehouses than elsewhere.
Data from shadehouses without sidewalls indicate that icing of
shadehouses may eliminate this phenomena.
Significance to Industry
The use of ice to seal shadehouses appears to have the potential to
reduce both the duration and frequency of water applications necessary
to cold protect. Icing of shadehouses might significantly reduce the
amount of water used to cold protect shadehouse grown plants.


RH-87-6, Page 2










Stamps, R. H. 1987. Some considerations regarding the use of ice to
coat shadehouses during cold protection. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop.
Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower 2(2):1-2.



PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Chemical Environment

HERBICIDES AND CUT FOLIAGE PRODUCTION
Robert H. Stamps and R. T. Poole

Introduction
Weed competition is one of the most troublesome and costly cultural
problems encountered during cut foliage production. Hand-weeding is
expensive and may reduce yield due to mechanical damage and soil
compaction. Safe and effective chemical weed control systems need to be
developed.
Research Results
Leatherleaf fern Several preemergence herbicides have suppressed
weeds significantly with no reduction in frond yield or vase life.
Under experimental conditions, Blockade at 2 and 4 Ib a.i./acre,
Ornamental Herbicide 1 at 2 lb a.i./acre, and Surflan at 2 and 4 Ib
a.i./acre have given good weed control during fern bed establishment
with no observed detrimental effects on the fern. Additionally, several
other herbicides were found to be effective in suppressing weeds once
the fern was established, and these chemicals also caused no yield
reductions.
Pittosporum Evaluation of herbicides for use during containerized
production of pittosporum indicates that this popular cut foliage crop
is very tolerant of a number of herbicides including Blockade,
Ornamental Herbicide 2, Pre-M, Rout, Surflan, and Turf Weedgrass
Control.
Sprengeri fern Blockade WDG, Ornamental Herbicide 2, Pre-M and Tu:
Weedgrass Control caused no yield reduction of containerized sprengeri
fern (Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri').
Treefern In a preliminary study, Ronstar G, Lasso II, and Blockade
at 4 Ib a.i./acre gave significant weed control with no reduction in
treefern (Asparagus virgatus) yield or vigor.
Significance to Industry
The information obtained in these studies may play a role in getting
some of the tested herbicides labeled for use on cut foliage crops. The
ability to use these products on cut foliage crops could help reduce
production costs and help keep Florida growers competitive.
Additional Reading
Stamps, R. H. 1987. Preliminary evaluation of herbicides for use
A-_i4__r /-t-F T71a TT-;- -f VlC T77r- AQ7 + CQM-


RH-87-6, PaE









amps, R. H. and D. D. Mathur. 1987. Effects of preemergence
herbicides on growth of weeds and leatherleaf fern. Univ. of Fla.,
IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower 2(3):1-6.

amps, R. H. and R. T. Poole. 1987. Herbicide effects during
leatherleaf fern bed establishment. HortScience 22(2):261-264.

amps, R. H. and R. T. Poole. 1986. Simazine can reduce leatherleaf
fern yield. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower
1(7):1-3.



3EMICAL CONTROL OF FLORIDA BETONY
Robert H. Stamps

Introduction
Florida betony (Stachys floridana), a.k.a. artichoke, is probably the
)st serious weed pest encountered in cut foliage production in Florida.
mntrol measures (mainly hand-weeding and Roundup applications) and crop
sses due to this weed cost growers tens of thousands of dollars
mnually. An effective chemical control material that was safe to use
I leatherleaf fern and other cut foliage crops would therefore be of
'eat benefit to the cut foliage industry.
Research Results
Blockade (prodiamine) at rates as low as 2 Ib a.i./acre was found to
ve excellent control of Florida betony when betony was seeded into
its containing leatherleaf fern. The herbicide had no apparent effect
i yield or vase life of the crop.
Significance to Industry
Registration of prodiamine for use on cut foliage crops could save
rowers thousands of dollars and eliminate the need for growers to
)andon ferneries infested with betony.



PEST MANAGEMENT Entomology Nematology

VALUATION OF NEMATICIDES FOR USE ON LEATHERLEAF FERN
Lance S. Osborne and Robert H. Stamps

Introduction
A number of papers have been written regarding the chemical control
nematodes in leatherleaf fern; however, few of the tests were carried
it in commercial ferneries and many of the chemicals that were tested
-e not now available for use on leatherleaf fern. Additionally, none
the previous studies determined the effects of nematicide infestation
id treatments on vase life of harvested fronds. A longterm study is
sing conducted in a commercial fernery in DeLeon Springs, FL. Data
sing collected include nematode counts in soil and roots,

RH-87-6, Page 4






phytotoxicity, yield and vase life of harvested fronds.
Research Results
This study is still in progress and the results presented here are
only preliminary. To date, no phytotoxicity, differences in yield or
frond vase life have been observed between any of the treatments.
However, there have been differences in nematode counts due to
treatments (see table below).

Rate Mean no. of nematodes
(lb/acre or Application in 10 grams of roots
Treatment pt/100 gal) frequency 12/84 5/85 12/86

Control 0 ----- 566.3 316.5 1645.3
Nemacur 10G 100 lb once a year 167.8 72.5 157.8
Temik 10G 100 lb once a year 208.8 179.8 81.5
Mocap 10G 100 lb once a year 75.5 1.5 37.0
Mocap 10G 50 lb twice a year 121.8 6.0 0.8
Vydate 2L 4 or 8 ptZ monthly 74.8 4.3 0.0
ZApplied as a foliar spray using a monthly rotation pattern of 8pt-4pt-
4pt-8pt-etc.

Significance to Industry
Excellent control of nematodes in leatherleaf fern production appears
obtainable with no loss of fern quality. Additionally, the ability to
control nematodes with a split application of Mocap may enable its use
while avoiding the phytotoxicity observed when it is applied at the 100
lb/acre rate.
Additional Reading
Hamlen, R. A. 1978. Suppression of Pratylenchus penetrans in
leatherleaf fern by nematicides. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62:899-902.

Hart, W. H. and A. R. Maggenti. 1970. Granular and soil-spray
nematicidal treatments for the control of root-lesion nematode,
Pratylenchus penetrans, on leatherleaf fern. Plant Dis. Reptr.
54:1016-1017.

Kaplan, D. T. and L. S. Osborne. 1986. Plant parasitic nematodes
associated with leatherleaf fern. J. of Nematology 18:26-30.

Overman, A. J. 1975. Control of Pratylenchus penetrans, endoparasitic
nematode of leatherleaf fern. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
88:573-578.

Rhodes, H. L. 1968. Pathogenicity and control of Pratylenchus
penetrans on leatherleaf fern. Plant Dis. Reptr. 52:383-385.

Stamps, R. H. 1986. Preplant nematicidal dips of leatherleaf fern
rhizomes. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower
1(6) :1-4.



RH-87-6, Page 5










Stamps, R. H. 1987. Plant parasitic nematodes, nematicides, and
leatherleaf fern yield. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, CFREC-A Cut Foliage
Research Note RH-87-A.

Stamps, R. H., W. L. Currey, R. A. Dunn, D. E. Short, and G. W. Simone.
1986. Pesticides for use in commercial leatherleaf fern production
in Florida 1986. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, AREC-A Cut Foliage Res. Note
RH-86-C.



PEST MANAGEMENT Plant Pathology

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF LEAF SPOT DISEASES OF CUT FOLIAGE CROPS
A. R. Chase

Introduction
Many cut foliage crops are susceptible to foliar diseases which
cause serious losses in production and quality. The most common method
of controlling these losses has been application of fungicides to
prevent infection or pathogen spread. As new chemicals or cut foliage
crops are introduced, pesticide evaluation tests are run to better
provide the growers with disease control recommendations.
Research Results
Leatherleaf fern Postharvest dips of cut fronds have dramatically
reduced fern decay due to Cylindrocladium spp. or Rhizoctonia solani.
One of the most commonly used chemicals, Benlate 50WP, was found to
control these diseases without reducing frond vase life. Further
research is being conducted to evaluate some new fungicides for control
of Cylindrocladium leaf spot under field conditions.
Euonymus Control of anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides) has been achieved through weekly preventive
applications of Manzate 200, Dithane M-45, Dithane Z-78, Zineb, Daconil
2787, or Zyban (all used at labeled rates).
Pittosporum Excellent control of Alternaria leaf spot has been
achieved with weekly applications of Daconil 2787 or Chipco 26019.
Daconil was safe for use on the green variety of Pittosporum but caused
severe leaf drop and distortion on the variegated Pittosporum. Some of
the newer fungicides which show promise for control of this disease are
Terraguard and C2338 from Uniroyal, and prochloraz from NorAm.
Significance to Industry
Fungicide applications have been an integral part of most disease
control programs for cut foliage crops. Identification of the most
efficacious and safe compounds allows growers to control these foliar
diseases. Additional testing of new compounds as they develop or for
new diseases and new crops will allow a timely development of control
recommendations.


RH-87-6, Page 6









Additional Reading
Chase, A. R. 1985. Euonymus anthracnose Influence of cultivars,
shade level, and increased disease pressure. Univ. of Fla., IFAS,
Coop. Ext. Ser., Commercial Fern Grower 8(5):1-2.

Stamps, R. H. and A. R. Chase. 1986. Benlate dip concentrations and
storage temperatures affect decay and vase life of leatherleaf fern.
Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower 1(3):1-3.

Stamps, R. H. and A. R. Chase. 1984. Fungal inoculation, fungicide
treatments, and storage affect postharvest decay and vase-life of
leatherleaf fern fronds. HortScience 19:292-293.




PLANT IMPROVEMENT Breeding

SELECTIONS OF LEATHERLEAF FERN LINES GROWN FROM SPORES
R. J. Henny

Introduction
Production of leatherleaf fern from spores is one method of obtaining
plants with genetic variability and could lead to the development of new
cultivars.
Research
Four lines of fern grown from spores were selected from several
hundred initial hybrids. Hybrids were selected on the basis of
appearance and apparent vigor. These lines have been asexually
propagated and are now growing in ground beds along with the standard
leatherleaf fern cultivars. Tests for comparison of yield and vase life


I imrc Is b UUL1ibUU aLUI ItclaiLU uy LUIIC AUlI.OL LlUU0LLY 111 1i10W aL.LL
different cut foliage. In addition, cut foliage producers are
interested in crops with improved characteristics, such as cold and
disease tolerance, compared to many of the cut foliage currently being
produced. Extended vase life and the ability to grow in full sun are
other sought after traits.
RH-87-6, Page 7












vase life of 3 weeks or more following storage for 2 weeks at 400F.
Full sun grown plants have brighter red coloring than shade grown ones.
Japanese photinia grows more rapidly than pittosporum and appears
somewhat more cold tolerant.
Eucalyptus. Cider gum (Eucalyptus gunnii) is more cold tolerant than
the commonly grown silver-dollar eucalyptus. Cider gum foliage is
similar in color but with smaller leaves than silver-dollar eucalyptus.
Other eucalyptus species, such as the cold and disease resistant Omeo
round-leaved gum (Eucalyptus neglecta), also have potential for cut
foliage production in Florida.
Significance to Industry
The use of these crops would broaden the product mix offered by
Florida growers. In addition, the production of these crops should save
water since they require little or no cold protection and grow well with
little irrigation.
Additional Reading
Henny, R. J., R. H. Stamps, and E. M. Rasmussen. 1982. Preliminary
evaluation of different Eucalyptus species for use as a cut-foliage
crop: I. Postharvest vase-life of cut stems. Univ. of Fla., IFAS,
Agr. Res. Cntr.-Apopka Res. Rpt. RH-82-9.

Henny, R. J., R. H. Stamps, and E. M. Rasmussen. 1982. Preliminary
evaluation of different Eucalyptus species for use as a cut-foliage
crop: II. Increasing postharvest vase-life of cut stems using a
floral preservative. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Agr. Res. Cntr.-Apopka
Res. Rpt. RH-82-9.

Stamps, R. H. 1986. Woody landscape plants for use as cut foliage
crops in Florida. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, CFREC-Apopka Cut Foliage Res.
Note RH-86-F.

Stamps, R. H. and R. J. Henny. 1987. Photinia as a cut foliage crop.
Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser., Cut Foliage Grower 2(1):1-3.



POSTPRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY Production

INFLUENCE OF IRRIGATION ON VASE LIFE OF LEATHERLEAF FERN
Richard T. Poole, C. A. Conover, and Robert H. Stamps













reaucea Lz weeKs or iessi, irons watree me uay ueiore narvest
exhibited 20 50% reductions in longevity compared to those fronds tha,
had not been irrigated for a week. During periods when average
postharvest frond longevity was greater than 2 weeks, the reduction in
vase life between fronds watered the day before versus 7 days prior to
harvest averaged only about 8%.
Significance to Industry
Irrigation the day prior to harvest may reduce leatherleaf fern frond
vase life during those periods when frond vase life is reduced in
general. Growers may be able to improve postharvest quality by reduce
irrigation frequencies. Such reduction would have the additional
benefits of reducing both groundwater withdrawals and leaching of
pesticides and fertilizer.
Additional Reading
Poole, R. T., C. A. Conover, and R. H. Stamps. 1984. Vase life of
leatherleaf fern harvested at various times of the year and at
various ages. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 97:266-269.

Poole, R. T., R. H. Stamps, and C. A. Conover. 1985. Fern wilt: t
continuing quest for the culprit. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext.
Ser., Commercial Fern Grower 8(7):1-2.



UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY Culture

EFFECTS OF FLORAL PRESERVATIVES ON VASE LIFE OF
CUT FOLIAGE CROPS
Robert H. Stamps

Introduction
The use of floral preservatives has been widely promoted (Chain of
Life) in the floral industry as an aid in extending the vase life of cut
flowers. However, the effects of these preservatives on florists'
"greens" have not been studied.
Research Results
Leatherleaf fern Leatherleaf fern fronds held in deionized water
lasted as long as fronds held in a variety of preservatives. Two


"TT n-^7 r T-










English ivy Vase life of cuttings of 3 English ivy cultivars were
reduced 48% or more when a floral preservative was added to the
deionized water holding solution.
Significance to Industry
Floral preservatives may significantly decrease the vase life of some
cut foliage crops. Growers should include in their vase life
evaluations the holding solutions their customers use. Further research
is needed to determine which floral preservatives are not detrimental to
cut foliage longevity.
Additional Reading

Stamps, R. H. 1986. Cultivar and floral preservative affect vase life
of crotons and English ivy. Univ. of Fla., IFAS, Coop. Ext. Ser.,
Cut Foliage Grower 1(4):1-3.

Stamps, R. H. and T. A. Nell. 1986. Pre- and poststorage treatment of
cut leatherleaf fern fronds with floral preservatives. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 99:In Press.


Deland


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To
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Winter Garde
7- -


\ CENTRAL FLORIDA
RESEARCH AND EDUCATION
C\NTER- APOPKA
441





50 To Orlando


RH-87-6, Page 10




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