• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Source map and key to faciliti...
 Program description
 Back Cover














Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Title: Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065324/00001
 Material Information
Title: Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka programs for the ornamentals industry
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: iii, 17 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1989
 Subjects
Subject: Ornamental plant industry -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Ann R. Chase ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065324
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70171527

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Source map and key to facilities
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Program description
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Back Cover
        Page 17
Full Text




Central Florida Resear
And Education Cent(
~Apopka~
Central Scienc
Library
M MAR 91
University of FRt












.....:: r::....,} i r:.::::...:.. ......

"Programs for the
'>*y~ ^ -- ._












Central Florida Research and
Education Center Apopka:
Programs for the Ornamentals Indusl






Ann R. Chase
Charles A. Conover
Richard W. Henley
Richard J. Henny
Lance S. Oshnrne


A t..* A"& %l J. a .wxtt.
Robert H. Stamps






University of Florida
of Food and Agricultural Sci(
Research and Education Ceni
Apopka Research Report, RI














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are especially grateful to the many firms and individuals for
providing support in the form of gifts, grants, equipment, plants, supplies and
research sites for the programs at the Central Florida Research and
Education in Apopka. Further input from many individuals regarding
potential research projects are also appreciated since this is one of the best
ways to direct our research toward the needs of the industry. Our programs
would not be possible without this level of support. Finally, the faculty at the
CFREC-Apopka also wish to thank our staff for their dedication and interest
in their jobs.

Wick Acree Agricultural Technician I
James Blake Graduate Student
Cindy Boone Biologist III
Russell Caldwell Biologist II
Nancy Cochrane Clerk Typist Specialist
Donald Cox Laborer
Larry Cox Agricultural Technician I
Steve Eshom Farm Administrator
Elina Faircloth Secretary
Chris Fooshee Biologist III
Kim Hoelmer Post-doctoral Researcher
Bob Kratzer Maintenance Mechanic
Ed McCormick Custodian
Melissa Mull Technical OPS
Bill Nielsen Agricultural Technician II
Karen Palanuk Biologist I
Kathy Phillips Staff Assistant
Cynthia Robinson Biologist II
Diane Rock Technical OPS
Loretta Satterthwaite Technical OPS
Mike Shaw Technical OPS
Sharon Walter Administrative Secretary
Marguerite Wettstein Biologist II
Jeanne Yuen Biologist II





ii










Central Florida Research and
Education Center Apopka:
programs for the Ornamentals Industr3

A. R. Chase, C. A. Conover, R. W. Henley, R. J. Henny,
R. T. Poole, L. S. Osborne and R. H. Stamps


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

Acknowledgements ............................ ii
Introduction and Area Map ...................... 1
Station Map and Key to Facilities ................. 3
Program Descriptions
Plant Pathology Programs
A. R. Chase ................... .... 5
Production of Foliage Plants
C. A. Conover and R. T. Poole ......... 7
Foliage Plant Extension and Plant Evaluation Programs
R. W Henley ...................... 9
Breeding Programs
R. J. Henny ....................... 11
Entomology Research
L. S. Osborne ................... ... 13
Cut Foliage Research
R. H. Stamps ................... ... 15
IFA S IS ............................... 17



Correspondence with research or extension faculty regarding completed
projects or extension publications should be addressed to: Central Florida
Research and Education Center Apopka, 2807 Binion Rd., Apopka, FL
32703. Telephone number (407) 889-4161.








Central Florida Research and

Education Center Apopka


Introduction


The Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka was
established primarily through the efforts of local nurserymen and agricultural
leaders who recognized the' need for research on problems associated with
commercial foliage plant production.

Orange County purchased 18 acres of land and
donated it to the University of Florida for the site.
Building funds for an office building, greenhouse,
and storage building were appropriated by the 1965
State Legislature. Operating funds were
appropriated by a special session of the Legislature
in 1968 as part of the special appropriation for the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. The
center officially opened September 1, 1968 with only
the office building completed.

Research facilities at this center have been vastly expanded since 1968
and have been designed to closely duplicate grower conditions with plants
grown under shade cloth, fiberglass and glass. Presently, there are over
40,000 square feet of research area for plant production. The center also has
over 3,000 square feet of controlled environment rooms to test indoor growth
of foliage plants under consumer conditions.

The primary objective of this research center is to conduct research and
assist in State Extension activities on commercial ornamental horticultural
crops of Florida. The Central Florida Research Center is the only known
center of its kind in the United States whose primary objective is to conduct
research on commercial foliage, cut foliage, and fern crops. Center personnel
are responsible for a vast majority of information pertaining to the industry.
Everything from rates and blends of fertilizer application to disease and insect
control is studied under various test conditions set up within the center's
shadehouses, greenhouses, or indoor facilities, or occasionally at a grower's
range.

Major research emphasis is placed on effects of biological and physical
stress on plant growth, with programs in plant physiology, plant pathology,
genetics, entomology, nematology, and horticulture. Also, to help increase









consumer satisfaction with Florida products, studies have been initiated on
factors affecting shipping and interior utilization of foliage plant and cut
foliage products.

To service this rapidly expanding industry, the Center has grown from
three faculty and four career service personnel in 1968 to its presents even
faculty and 20 career service personnel. Research faculty now includes a
horticulturist, plant physiologist, entomologist, plant pathologist, fern
horticulturist, plant geneticist, and foliage Extension specialist.

Foliage plants have been commercially grown in Florida since 1928, with
production skyrocketing in the past two decades. Foliage plant producers
grossed $15 million wholesale in 1970, which grew to nearly $250 million
annually in 1980 and $350 million in 1988.

More than 300 kinds of tropical foliage plants are
presently produced in Florida a tremendous increase
from the industry's early years. The first, and almost
only, plant commercially grown in Florida from 1919
to the early 1930s was the Boston fern (Nephrolepis
exaltata 'Bostoniensis'). In 1957, Philodendron scandens
oxycardium heartleaff philodendron) accounted for 33
percent and all species of Sansevieria accounted for 16 percent of the total
value of foliage plants sold.


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1 I Reception, Faculty Offices and Library
2 t Head House, Physiology and Cut Foliage Lal
3 Breeding and Tissue Culture Labs
4 Entomology Labs
-5 Interiorscape Rooms
6 Shipping Coolers, Pholo Studio,
Physiology and Entomology Labs
7 Pesticide Storage and Mixing
L 8 Maintenance and Soil Mixing

Gr:eenhouses

I Pathology
Si^2 fll^- Physiology
S3 i Entomology
Ii 4 i Pathology
i ,5 i FlPhysiology
iii6 iiil Breeding
jiji .i- Breeding, Cut Foliage
Entlomology and Physiology

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Plant Pathology Programs

A. R. Chase

Diseases of ornamentals are seriously limiting in production of mai
crops. Plant pathogens which are especially important include a wide varie
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many oi mese organisms.

Bacterial Diseases:

Bacterial diseases are becoming more importai
and commonplace each year. Although some of tl
most serious diseases such as those caused by Erwini
spp. have been described, many of the new(
pathogens and their hosts have not been adequately
S researched. During the past six years, an ongoing
project for description of new bacterial diseases hi
been underway. Accurate descriptions of diseases ai
one of the most important steps in diagnosis an
therefore disease control. Recognition of many of th
bacterial diseases has been dependent upon isolatio


identii


i;UIILIUI UI IIMC UINSOaUSNs.

Controlling bacterial diseases with bactericides has not always bee
satisfactory due to low efficacy and potential for phytotoxicity. Preliminai
research has indicated that Aliette 80WP (normally used for control I
Phytophthora or Pythium root rot) has some activity in controlling disease<
caused by Xanthomonas campestris pathovars and Pseudomonas spp. Use i
fungicides for control of certain bacterial diseases will increase the chance(
of labeling a product for bacterial disease control since marketing a produ,
as a bactericide alone has been too expensive for the chemical companies 1
pursue on ornamentals.

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oeen me iocus or many rungiciae trials as well, --
leading to many label additions for important 0oo"
fungicides such as ethazol (Truban),
chlorothalonil (Daconil), PCNB (Terraclor),








irodione (Chipco 26019), triflumizole (Terraguard), and fosetyl aluminum
liette). This project continues with both registered compounds and some
F the experimental compounds.

A study on taxonomy of Rhizoctonia-
ke organisms from tropical and subtropical
rnamentals was started about in 1986. Part of
lis study involved characterization of many
hizoctonia-like organisms for further testing as
[ant pathogens of many ornamental crops. Once 0
athogenic isolates have been adequately
characterized they can be tested for fungicide
:nsitivity. The goal of this research is
development of a listing of ornamentals commonly affected by each type of
hizoctonia-like pathogen. This can be used by diagnosticians for more rapid
nd accurate diagnoses and recommendations. Fungicides for optimal control
F each type of pathogen will be identified with labeling the ultimate goal.

Host Nutrition and Diseases:

Research concerning the role of host nutrition in
severity of ornamental foliage plant diseases has been
conducted since 1982. This information is necessary to
develop an integrated approach to management of
diseases. Research efforts have concentrated on
determining what effect fertilizer rate has on a wide
variety of fungal and bacterial diseases. The role of
nitrogen source and nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous
ratio have been investigated for some diseases. The
following diseases of Brassaia actinophylla (schefflera)
are minimized with higher than recommended rates of
fertilizer: Alternaria leaf spot, Pseudomonas leaf spot,
ythium root rot, and Xanthomonas leaf spot. In addition, Xanthomonas leaf
)ot diseases of the following plants are minimized with higher than
:commended rates of fertilizer: Brassaia actinophylla, Ficus benjamin,
redera helix, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Pilea spruceana, Schefflera arboricola, and
fmgonium podophyllum. Future research will concentrate on identifying
other systems which are affected by fertilizer rate, balance or source as well
s mechanisms for these effects on diseases of ornamentals.






Dr. Ann R. Chase is a Professor of Plant Pathology. She started at the research center in 1979 when she
completed her doctorate in Plant Pathologv at the University of California at Riverside. : I








Production of Foliage Plants

C. A. Conover and R. T. Poole

The goals of this program are to identify factors limiting production.
foliage plants and cut foliage and to initiate research designed to pro'
information on methods of correcting these deficiencies. Development
cultural information on production of these plants is an important asl
Emphasis has also been placed on the development of basic information
factors affecting keeping quality of potted plants and cut foliage ur
consumer conditions. This information is used to assist extension person
in grower education and dissemination of information relating to cult
production.

Growth Regulators:

Although foliage producers normally want
to achieve maximum growth rate to maximize
profits, there are instances where growth
suppression is helpful as a method of
maintaining plants at their optimum I'
size:container ratio when there is temporary
overproduction. Growth regulators not only
prevent overgrowth, but often enhance quality
by intensifying green coloration. Another
possible benefit of growth regulators is their
potential use in interiorscapes. In many
instances well adapted plants outgrow their
location indoors, and thus growth regulators
could be used to prevent overgrowth. Our
research on growth regulators has been
organized to determine effects of rates and
timing of application on a wide range of potted
foliage plants.



Toxic Substances:

Growth of ornamentals may be influenced by excess soluble salts, he
metals and other pollutants. Research has been conducted on the damaj
effects of fluorides on specific foliage plant genera which led to publical
of a susceptibility list. This also led to our elimination of superphospl,
(which contains fluoride) from potting media used to grow foliage pla
Another common pollutant found in water is boron, which has also b







identified as a cause of chlorosis and necrosis of some foliage plants. Based
on available data, the foliage industry has reduced or eliminated boron from
fertilizer. Most recently, problems with Ficus leaf drop in interior locations
has been found due to vaporized mercury in the air. Mercury was found to
vaporize from the paint used to paint interiors.

Potting media:

The need for low-cost, high quality potting
a media has been a continuous need of the
; foliage industry. Past research has dwelled on
_. ~ use of sand, sawdust, barks and peats to
determine the most desirable porosity, water
s holding capacity, cation exchange capacity and
i weight considerations. The most recent
I w x research finding of significance was the
tremendous potential for using melaleuca trees
(ground bark, wood and leaves) as a potting
medium component in combination with
Florida peat moss. Special emphasis is now
being placed on the potential for using
composts from garbage and sewage products
since they are extremely low in cost and also contain nutrients.

Water:

Recent tests of water found in the superficial aquifer in various parts of
the country have shown many to contain high levels of nitrates. The federal
limit for drinking water is 10 ppm which has been exceeded at several Florida
sites. Our present research is examining the potential for preventing water
pollution using standard and revised production regimes for foliage plants.
Major factors being studied include irrigation rate and frequency, fertilization
rate and source, and potting medium components.

Another area of study is the potential for using "public access water" from
sewage plants for irrigation of foliage plants. Initial research has shown that
this water product does not cause any problems and also has the potential for
supplying some of the necessary nutrients for good plant growth.



Dr. Charles A: Conover is Center Director and Professor of Ornamental Horticulture. He completed his
doctorate at the University of Georgia in Plant Science before assuming his present position at the research
Scenterin1971. 1.







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Evaluation Programs

R. W. Henley

The extension program is designed to coordinate educational activitii
and to transfer technical information useful in wholesale foliage plal
nurseries, commercial interiorscape firms and retail garden centers. Son
emphasis is also given to consumer education programs.

Plant Production Technologies

Bottom Heating:

In recent years considerab
effort has been made 1
introduce producers to the u,
of bottom heating in propagatic
(__ @ I l __ ]and production of finished
ornamental plants. Mai
-.. . . ... . ... 3 ___ a- -1 .. .


The weight and bulk of foliage plants is a significant factor in the cc
of shipping. A light weight root medium package has been designed whi<
will significantly reduce the amount of water and fertilizer required in pla
production with the added advantage of increasing efficiency of shipping ai







st harvest handling.
The "poly-pot-pack" is a new concept of growing
ished potted plants in a synthetic medium
-packaged in a plastic film envelope tailored to be
,ommodated by commercially available decorative
itainers. Application of this technology designed to
luce the cost of shipping in medium and large size
ints, particularly over long distances. This
:hnique of growing produces plants adaptable to
her peat-lite or calcined clay (true hydroculture)
teams indoors.

Plant Evaluation and Introduction:

An important step in the successful introduction of
new plants is critical evaluation. Production of new
foliage plants from industry under different shade levels
and using different propagation procedures often reveals
considerable insight as to the best cultural practices to
follow and frequently provides information useful in
S.,determining the true potential of specific plants.
./ Several species and cultivars of Ficus have been
evaluated in this program. A second stage of the
S/ evaluation process involves testing finished plants under
Commercial interiorscape conditions. Interior
landscaping firms in Central Florida are being utilized
as cooperators for limited evaluation of selected foliage
plant cultivars.

A statewide network of extension plant display and evaluation centers
s organized in 1988. Implementation of the network will benefit industry
ough identification of superior plants which can be promoted and
rketed more systematically. The display dimension of the network will be
particular value in local consumer education programs featuring plant
action and availability of new plants.




KNOW & GROW








k ~ PI ~ ~


R. J. Henny

The mission of the foliage breeding program (initiated in 1976) is twofold.
One is to develop scientific information concerning the reproductive systems
of tropical foliage plants and the other involves production, testing and
release of new cultivars to Florida growers.

Reproductive Systems:

Much of the breeding research has involved
members of the family Araceae, including
Aglaonema, Anthurium, Dieffenbachia and
Spathiphyllum. Initial research focused on factors
affecting flowering and seed production. One
early discovery was that aroids could be
stimulated to flower with a single foliar treatment
of gibberellic acid (GA3). Use of GA3-treatments
has proven to be an invaluable aid to interspecific
hybridization by causing different species, with
unpredictable blooming periods, to flower
simultaneously.




Secondly, it was found that high relative
humidity (RH) was required for pollen a 2%


shuuCeu in seiecteu crops. Leatnerleal iern proauceu irom spores aiso nave
been screened for desirable cut-foliage traits.







Cultivar Development:


Hybrids selected for potential
release are vegetatively increased for
use in production tests. These tests
include growing hybrids through a
complete crop cycle under different
nutrition and light levels. Mature
plants are then subjected to shipping
and postharvest tests. Following
completion of these tests hybrids are
named and released to licensed Florida
tissue culture labs for propagation and
distribution to growers. Six hybrids
have been released using this system.
The first hybrid released was
Dieffenbachia 'Triumph' in February 1986. Later in the same year
Dieffenbachia 'Victory' was released. In September 1987, another
Dieffenbachia, 'Tropic Snow' was made available. The first Anthurium was
released in the same month and was named 'Southern Blush' for its bright
pink flowers. In December of 1987, Aglaonema 'Stripes' was released. The
most recent release is another Dieffenbachia called 'Starry Nights' which was
released to the industry in June 1988.


Dr. Richard i. llenny Is Associate Professor and Plant onenictit in Ornamental Horticulture. Dr. flenny
started work at the research center In 1976 upon completion of his doctoral studies in tiorticulture at the
University of Minnesota.







Entomology Research

L. S. Osborne

The ability to grow quality ornamental foliage
plants depends on the continued availability of
safe and effective pesticides. This has become a
critical problem during the past few years with
the loss of many important compounds due to N
government restrictions, voluntary removal from
the market by producers, and development of
pesticide resistant strains of the target pests. In
order to help the industry preserve these valuable
resources the Entomology program has developed
research with pesticide management as the major
goal.

Biology of New Pests:

Many of the major pests have had significant
amounts of data collected on their biology. However,
it seems that each year we have new pests to contend
with in ornamental foliage plant production and very
little information is available about their biology
under our production conditions. We evaluate
methods to monitor or detect the pest which entail
studies on developing traps, guidelines for trap
placement, and methods to correlate trap catch data
with actual greenhouse populations and damage. The
potential damage that can be expected from these
pests will be evaluated in order to give the grower an
idea of the significance of new pests. For pests that
pose a significant threat to the industry we will
determine their developmental rates, reproductive biology and general life
history on major crops. The sweetpotato whitefly is a current example of a
"new pest". This insect has been in Florida since 1894 but was not considered
a pest until the fall of 1986. At that time, it caused significant economic
losses for ornamental producers. Currently, the sweetpotato whitefly can be
controlled but the tools we have are limited and give erratic results. These
tools are also at risk of being lost due to development of pesticide resistant
populations.







Pesticide Evaluation:


Quality ornamental plants can not be produced
without the continued availability of pesticides. We
are evaluating many new products that the
manufacturers have shown an interest in labeling for
ornamentals. The kinds of projects that we have
ongoing include studies to determine efficacy on such
pests as spidermites, broad mites, mealybugs, thrips,
aphids, and whiteflies. Once we have products that
are effective at controlling specific pests we determine
how safe they are by conducting phytotoxicity trials.
Finally, we look at the potential for the product to be
integrated with various biological control agents that
we have in culture at any given time.


Biological Control:

The potential for developing biological control
programs for ornamental plants is being evaluated
extensively. We feel that biological control is a viable
control tactic in certain production systems. These
systems include stock beds from which propagative
material is obtained and crops in which the marketed
product is sold without the damaged tissue. The factors 0
that are impeding the implementation of control programs 00
are also being evaluated. The primary thrust of the
program is utilizing pathogenic organisms that can be used
in a similar fashion as traditional pesticides.


Dr. Lance S. Osborne is Associate Professor of Entomology He completed his doctoral research in
Entomology at the University of California at Davis and joined the research center faculty in 1980.













CUL IUollUagc U Upo, 1I1eans UI cuOIIolllulg uIUas i: a
pests, identification of new crops, determination
optimum fertilization and shade levels for production
crops, and assessment of crop water requirements
of the needs of Florida's expanding cut foliage
Center researchers are conducting experiments
answers to these and other questions.

Weed Management:
One of the biggest and most
costly problems facing producers
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md water. Weeds car
r disease, insect and o
trimental and hard to c
crop production. A
neans of controlling we
editions of heavy crop h
rch is centered on find
tainn registration of pi
Special emphasis has b
iis characteristic helps
-ss. Herbicides that slt
ilarly of interest.

section:
Most con
or subtropic,
temperature!
I .e damage duri
demand are
the most coi
least expensi
cold protect


1C LI IUS I 11r,11L,
e with harvesting VALii
leed competition 9
the establishment
mnopy can be an
not be achievable
ith certain crops.
onphytotoxic herbicides and
'icides so that they can be
herbicides that have low s(
de movement and increase,
to control Florida betony a




)liage crops produced in Flo
are severely damaged or I
countered during winters ii
is particularly pernicious be
; the first six months of the
means of cold protection 1
ailable. However, water ca
crops.










jne o01 me most important cnaracterisucs ot a cut ronage crop is me
ty to last in an arrangement. Some cut foliage crops can be counted
) outlast the flowers without any human intercession; however, others
require special treatment. Additionally, suppression of diseases during
ping and storage can be a problem, especially when the crop is not
lied properly after it leaves the grower's operation.
\ntitranspirants, preservative and pulsing agents, and fungicides are
g evaluated for their ability to prolong the vase life or reduce
harvest disease development of cut foliage crops. The effects of
auction factors are also being monitored in these efforts to maximize
postharvest longevity. The influences of microclimate on crop
lopment and subsequent durability are another area of active research.

New Crops:
The introduction of new cut foliage is an essential element
keeping the industry vital and growing. Many floral designers
interested in obtaining new foliage that can contribute variety to tl
arrangements. Plants are continually being evaluated for tl
suitability as cut foliage crops. Evaluation criteria include vase 1
yield, susceptibility to pests and diseases, and potential demand for
cut foliage by florists. Induction of mutation and selection of supel
sports of established cut foliage crops are also underway.

auction Techniques:
)nce it has been ascertained that a crop has adequate shipping and vase
acteristics for cut foliage use, production techniques must be developed that will all
:rop to be grown economically and with suitable quality.
research is being conducted to determine the effects of
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n cut foliage crops. Crop water requirements are being
ied to allow precise irrigation scheduling in efforts to
e water use, production costs and potentials for ground
*ntamination.







IFAS IS:


- The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
- A statewide organization dedicated to teaching, research and extension.
- Faculty located in Gainesville and at 23 Research and Education Centers and 67 County
Extension offices throughout the state.
- A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural and renewable resource research and
education, funded by state, federal and local government, and by gifts and grants from
individuals, foundations, government and industry.
- An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food and agricultural industry, and related sciences.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and agricultural industry and its environments
through research.
Enhancing, for all Floridians, the application of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS Extension Programs.


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 11


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an Equal Opportunity
Employment-Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide research, educational
information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without
regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.




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