Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Title: Composted household waste utilized as a medium component in greenhouse foliage plant production
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065313/00001
 Material Information
Title: Composted household waste utilized as a medium component in greenhouse foliage plant production
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 5, 2 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conover, Charles Albert, 1934-
Poole, R. T ( Richard Turk )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1991
 Subjects
Subject: Foliage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Compost -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Greenhouse plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Conover and R.T. Poole.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065313
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70109971

Full Text





Composted Household Waste Utilized as a Medium Component'm, r,,
Greenhouse Foliage Plant Production ,


Central Florida Research
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utilized in container media. Earlier experiment
compost as a medium amendment for chrysant
levels of potassium, copper, boron and zinc ii
foliage was also observed in compost grown p
were possible explanations for the foliar damaj

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salts. The processed garbage underwent a rapid breakdown in greenhouse culture causing
nitrogen deficiency symptoms. Leaves of chrysanthemums, snapdragons and petunias ofter
exhibited scorched margins.

Chamaedorea elegans (Parlor Palm) growth response is typical of a number of soluble
salts sensitive foliage plants. On the other hand, Dieffenbachia maculata 'Camille' can tolerate
a wide range of fertilizer levels and its growth response is typical of a number of soluble salt.


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tolerant plants. The following research involving these two foliage plants with widely divergent
soluble salts tolerance was performed to determine the feasibility of utilizing solid waste
aerobically composted for 21 days as a medium amendment in foliage plant production.

The compost tested, Agri-soil (Agri-post Inc., Pompano Beach, FL 33061), was
manufactured from unseparated household garbage obtained from Dade county's municipal curb-
side waste pick-up service. The unseparated household solid waste which included tires, glass,
plastic and paper was shredded, hammermilled and then composted under aerobic conditions at
temperatures above 170F for a 3 week period.

A 9 x 3 factorial experiment was initiated on 16 August 1990 at the Central Florida
Research and Education Center, Apopka, Florida. Chamaedorea elegans and Dieffenbachia
maculata 'Camille' growing in 3 inch pots were transplanted into 6 inch containers using nine
growing media composed of various amounts of Florida peat sedge (P), Agri-soil (AGRI) and
pine bark (B). Composition of the tested media by volume is listed in Table 1. Plants were
grown in a greenhouse under a maximum of 1500 ft-c and watered three times a week. They
were fertilized with 19-6-12 Osmocote 3 month release fertilizer (Grace/Sierra Co., Milpitas,
CA 95035) surface applied on 21 August and 30 November 1990 at rates of 3, 6 and 9 g/6 inch
pot. Electrical conductivity and pH of the leachate from the media were measured using the
pour through method before planting and fertilization, and then monthly for the duration of
research. Plant height was recorded initially and at three month intervals and plant grade was
determined every three months.

Generally, plants grown in the mixes composed of 30 and 40% Agri-soil and less than
40% peat received lower plant grades than foliage produced in media containing less compost
and more peat than pine bark (Tables 1 and 2). The lowest quality plants were produced in
mixes containing only 20 and 30% sedge peat.

Fertilizer rate had no effect on growth and quality of Neanthe Bella palms but
Dieffenbachia 'Camille' grew taller and received higher plant grades as fertilizer rate increased
(Table 2). The best quality Dieffenbachia 'Camille' were grown with 9 grams of 19-6-12 per
6 inch pot, the highest fertilizer rate tested.

Initially the electrical conductivity and pH of leachate significantly increased as percent
of Agri-soil increased but no significant differences were found in electrical conductivity of all
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higher soluble salts levels found in media containing higher percentages of unseparated garbage
may have inhibited plant growth at the start of the experiment, especially growth of the salt
intolerant parlor palm.

Additional Reading

1. Bugbee, G.J. and C.R. Frink. 1989. Composted waste as a peat substitute in peat-lite
media. HortScience 24(4):625-627.

2. Conover, C.A. and J.N. Joiner. 1966. Garbage compost as a potential soil component
in production of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Yellow Delaware' and 'Oregon'. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 79:424-429.

3. Conover, C.A. and R.T. Poole. 1990. Light and fertilizer recommendations for
production of acclimatized potted foliage plants. Foliage Digest 13(6): 1-6.

4. Gogue, G.J. and K.C. Sanderson. 1975. Municipal Compost as a medium amendment
for chrysanthemum culture. J. Amer. Hort. Sci. 100(3):213-216.

5. Hoitink, H.A. and H.A. Poole. 1980. Factors affecting quality of composts for
utilization in container media. HortScience 15(2): 13-15.

6. Poole, R.T. and C.A. Conover. 1972. Evaluation of various potting media for growth
of foliage plants. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 85:395-398.

7. Sanderson, K.C. and W.C. Martin, Jr. 1968. Utilization of processed garbage as a soil
amendment in the production of selected greenhouse crops. HortScience 3(2): 104.








Table 1. Height, growth and plant grade of Chamaedorea elegans grown in 9 media
containing various amounts of Agri-soil from 16 August 1990 until 18 February
1991.


Final Ht (cm) Plant
Media Composition % (v/v) Ht (cm) Change Gradez
S Peat Agri-soil P Bark 7 Feb 7 Feb 18 Feb
60 20 20 39.2abc 22.0abcy 4.3ab
50 30 20 38. lc 20.6c 4.0abc
40 40 20 40.5abc 22.9abc 4.0abc
50 20 30 42.7ab 24.3ab 4. labc
40 30 30 40.2bc 21.7bc 4.4a
30 40 30 38.8c 20.3c 3.9bc
40 20 40 42.5a 25. la 4.4a
30 30 40 37. lc 20.4c 3.8c
20 40 40 37.0c 19.6c 3.8c


19-6-12 g/6" potx
3 39.7 22.0 4.1
6 39.0 21.5 4.1
9 40.0 22.1 4.1
Significance"
linear ns ns ns
quadratic ns ns ns

'Plants were graded on a scale of 1 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality, salable and
5 = excellent quality plant material.
YMeans in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level,
Duncan's multiple range test.
x19N-6P2Os-l2K20 Osmocote 3 month release rate fertilizer was applied on 17 August and 30
November 1990.
Wns denotes results showing no significant statistical differences.








Height increase and plant grade of Dieffenbachia 'Camille' grown in 9 media
containing various amounts of Agri-soil from 16 August 1990 until 18 February
1991.


edia Composition
Agr-soil


% (v/v)
P Bark


Final
Ht (cm)
7 Feb


20 20 34.0ab
30 20 32.7abc
40 20 33.0abc
20 30 33.7abc
30 30 32.9bc
40 30 33.3abc
20 40 33.2a
30 40 31.9bc
40 40 31.7c


19-6-12 g/6" pot"
3
6
9
Significance"
linear
quadratic


31.8
33.3
33.7


Ht (cm)
Change
7 Feb
22.9aby
21.9abc
21.8abc
22.3abc
21.2bc
21.6abc
23. la
21.2bc
20.8c


Plant
Gradez
18 Feb
4.5a
4.lbc
3.7d
4.4ab
4.0c
3.6d
4.lbc
3.8cd
3.5d


20.7
22.4
22.4


zPlants graded on a scale of 1 = poor quality, unsalable, 3 = fair quality, salable and 5 =
excellent quality.
YMeans in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level,
Duncan's multiple range test.
x19N-6P2O5-12K20 Osmocote 3 month release rate fertilizer was applied on 17 August and 30
November 1990.
Wns, **; Nonsignificant or significant at P = .01.


Table 2.


M


S Peat
60
50
40
50
40
30
40
30
20








Electrical Conductivity
Media Composition % (v/v) 24 AugZ 17 Oct
S Peat Agri-soil P Bark jimhos/cm pH umhos/cm pH A
60 20 20 1337dy 6.3c 1026a 7.8ab
50 30 20 1828c 6.9a 926a 7.8ab
40 40 20 3022a 7.2a 957a 8. la
50 20 30 1341d 6.5b 1104a 7.4c
40 30 30 1968c 7.0a 855a 7.8ab
30 40 30 2620ab 7.3a 867a 8.0ab
40 20 40 1298d 6.6b 1094a 7.2d
30 30 40 1948c 7.2a 844a 7.7b
20 40 40 2430b 7.3a 842a 8.0ab
19-6-12 g/6" potV
3 571 7.8
6 933 7.8
9 1334 7.7
Significance"
1-!*tAr if ^it n




Table 4.


Electrical conductivity and pH of leachate from pots containing Dieffenbachia 'Camille' grown in media containing various levels
of Florida sedge peat, pine bark and Agri-soil from 16 August 1990 until 18 February 1991.


Electrical conductivity (micromhos/cm)
Media Composition % (v/v) 24 AUgZ 19 Oct 14 Nov 6 Feb

S Peat Agri-soil P Bark imhos/cm pH jlmhos/cm pH jmhos/cm pH j^mhos/cm pH

60 20 20 1337d( 6.3c 755a 6.8d 430a 7.5bc 815a 5.8b
50 30 20 1828c 6.9a 833a 7.2ab 479a 7.6abc 819a 6.3a
40 40 20 3022a 7.2a 848a 7.8a 625a 8. la 769a 6.6a
50 20 30 1341d 6.5b 895a 7.0bcd 492a 7.4c 761a 6.0a
40 30 30 1968c 7.0a 782a 7.3abc 531a 7.6abc 857a 6.3a
30 40 30 2620ab 7.3a 940a 7.7ab 606a 8.0a 932a 6.9a
40 20 40 1298d 6.6b 819a 6.9cd 491a 7. Id 647a 5.9ab
30 30 40 1948c 7.2a 705a 7.1abc 527a 7.4abc 629a 6.6a
20 40 40 2430b 7.3a 753a 7.6ab 537a 7.9bc 869a 7. la
19-6-12 g/ 6" potx
3 421 7.4 299 7.8 266 6.8
6 816 7.3 484 7.7 780 6.4
9 1206 7.1 789 7.4 1319 6.0
Significance"
linear -_ ** ** ** ** **
quadratic ns ns ns ns ns ns

zlnitial electrical conductivity and pH level of media leachate were measured from filled containers without plant material or fertilizer on 24 August
1990. The measurements recorded thereafter were taken from containers holding media and growing plants.
YMean in columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level, Duncan's multiple range test.
x19N-6P205-12K20 Osmocote 3 month release rate fertilizer was applied on 17 August and 30 November 1990.
Wns, *, **; Nonsignificant or significant at P = .05 or P = .01 respectively.




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