Group Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Title: Bacterial disease control on ornamentals using Aliette, Kocide, Greenshield and ASC-66825
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065292/00001
 Material Information
Title: Bacterial disease control on ornamentals using Aliette, Kocide, Greenshield and ASC-66825
Series Title: CFREC-Apopka research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chase, A. R ( Ann Renee )
Central Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka
Publisher: University of Florida, Central Florida Research and Education Center-Apopka
Place of Publication: Apopka FL
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Plants, Ornamental -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Bactericides -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3-4).
Statement of Responsibility: A.R. Chase.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065292
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 70004713

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) with Kocide 101 77WP for control of four Xanthomonas diseases.


Bacterial Disease Control on Ornamentals f
q -o0 using Aliette, Kocide, Greenshield and ASC-66825 p 3 0 1994

A.R. Chase '
University of Florida
University of Florida, IFAS
Central Florida Research and Education Center Apopka -
CFREC-Apopka Research Report, RH-92-10

Bacterial diseases of ornamentals are difficult to control due to unavailability
efficacious and nonphytotoxic bactericides. In the past, plant producers have relied on
of antibiotics such as Agri-Strep 21.2% (streptomycin sulfate) and copper compounds si
as Kocide 101 77WP cupricc hydroxide). New compounds have been tested when
available but none have shown activity equal to or surpassing that of the antibiotics
copper compounds (1). Since 1987, several reports have been published regarding
potential use of Aliette 80WP for bacterial disease control (2,3,4,5). These reports indica
that diseases caused by Xanthomonads could be partially controlled by preventative spr
of fosetyl aluminum (Aliette 80WP) at rates between 1 and 5 lb/100 gal (2,3,4). Alie
sionificantlv rMadn~en se.veritv nf some hut nnt all nf the disfnse cenump.d hv Ynnthnmnn:


j-uuIuE, WUlIL ; una oCCUn meU UIL WUL.Luniu LUir c
ornamentals (1). Aliette applications prior to sy
those labeled for control of pythiaceous fungi she


LuuuIIug uluc 'uIlumLrmuunas U.icauc;
nptom development and rates similar
.--1-, .*-- .l- L--_ .


oxide (Kocide 101 77WP at 16 and 32 oz per 100 gal), two rates of
per 100 gal), and three rates of Greenshield (1, 2, and 4 oz p





Water treated controls (inoculated and noninoculated) were included. The Greenshield
treatments were sprayed daily from 21 November to 1 December 1991. The other
treatments were applied on 21 and 27 November 1991. Plants were inoculated on 25
November and the number of lesions per plant was recorded on 2 December. In addition,
the height of the plants was recorded on 2 December. Plants receiving the Greenshield
treatments were stunted with the 4 oz per 100 gal rate causing the most stunting (Fig. 1).
Other bactericides did not affect plant height or cause any other signs of phytotoxicity.
Disease control was significant only for those plants treated with Kocide (Fig. 1).

Xanthomonas blight on Anthurium

Xanthomonas blight on anthuriums is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.
dieffenbachiae which also causes leaf spot and blight diseases of many other aroids.
Treatments which were included in this test onA. andraeanum were water treated controls
(inoculated and noninoculated), two rates of fosetyl aluminum in two formulations (Aliette
80WP and Aliette 80WDG at 2.5 and 5 lb per 100 gal each), and two rates of cupric
hydroxide (Kocide 101 77WP at 16 and 32 oz per 100 gal). The 5 lb rate of the two Aliette
formulations were applied 5 times on a biweekly interval. All other treatments were applied
weekly from 8 August to 3 October for a total of 9 applications. Plants were inoculated on
20 August and again on 23 September and the number of leaves with blight symptoms was
recorded on 20 September and 7 October. Only data from the initial rating are given. The
Aliette treatments gave approximately equivalent control when used at the 5 lb rate but the
WDG gave better control when used at the 2.5 lb rate (Table 1). The 1 lb rate of Kocide
gave similar control to the high rates of Aliette but the 2 lb rate of Kocide gave the best
disease control in this test. No signs of phytotoxicity were noted for these plants.

Xanthomonas leaf spot of Dieffenbachia

Xanthomonas leaf spot of Dieffenbachia is caused by the same pathogen as the
disease on Anthuriums. Two tests were conducted in 1991 using the same treatments as
described above for the anthurium test. In this first test, applications were made between
7 June and 5 July 1991. Plants were inoculated on 11 June and rated for the number of
lesions per plant on 10 July. The lower rate of Aliette 80WP gave the same degree of
control as both the higher rate of Aliette WDG and both rates of Kocide (Table 1).
Disease severity was relatively low in this test and it was repeated later in the year. In the
second test, treatments were applied between 31 October and 19 December 1991. Plants
were inoculated on both 12 November and 9 December and the number of lesions per plant
was rated on 30 December 1991. None of the bactericides tested gave a high degree of
disease control in this test. The higher rate of Kocide, both rates of Aliette 80WP, and the
higher rate of Aliette 80WDG gave the best disease control in this test (Table 1).

Xanthomonas leaf spot of English ivy

Xanthomonas leaf spot of English ivy is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv.
hederae which also causes disease on aralia (Polyscias spp.) and scheffleras (Brassaia and
Schefflera spp.). The first of two tests conducted in 1991 used the same treatments as






described above for the anthurium test. Treatments were applied between 7 and 21 June
1991. Plants were inoculated on 11 June and the number of lesions per plant was recorded
on 24 June 1991. Best control was achieved with both rates of Aliette 80WDG and Kocide
at the 1 Ib per 100 gal rate (Table 2). The second test on English ivy employed the
treatments described for the Pseudomonas test on Impatiens. In this test, treatments were
applied between 15 November and 1 December 1991. Plants were inoculated on 19
November and the number of lesions per plant was recorded on 2 December 1991. ASC-
66825 gave good control of Xanthomonas leaf spot of English ivy and was equivalent to
Kocide in efficacy (Fig. 2). Greenshield did not give significant disease control on English
ivy at the rates tested.

Xanthomonas leaf spot of Geranium

Xanthomonas leaf spot of geranium (Pelargonium hortulanum) is caused by
Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii The same treatments as described above for the
anthurium test were used. Treatments were applied between 8 and 22 August with
inoculation on 20 August and rating on 28 August 1991. None of these treatments gave any
significant degree of disease control although most treated plants had fewer lesions than the
water sprayed inoculated controls (Table 2).

Conclusions

Aliette 80WP and Aliette 80WDG gave approximately the same degree of control
but were not very effective when compared to Kocide in these tests. The difference
between the low and high rates of the Aliette formulations was not consistent and use of the
lower rate would probably be desirable to reduce pesticide costs. ASC-66825 (fluazinam)
gave good control of Xanthomonas on English ivy but failed to control Pseudomonas on
impatiens. Further testing is needed to determine if the degree of control is affected by the
pathogen, the plant or both. Finally, daily applications of Greenshield were able to reduce
severity of Xanthomonas on English ivy but not Pseudomonas on impatiens, again indicating
the need for further testing. Kocide 101 77WP continues to provide the best control
available for bacterial diseases of ornamentals. When disease pressure is relatively high, the
degree of control may be correspondingly poor. Current tests involve use of a variety of
copper compounds as well as ASC-66825 and Greenshield.

Selected References

1. Chase, A.R. 1986. Effect of experimental bactericides on three bacterial diseases
of foliage plants. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 4:37-41.

2. Chase, A.R. 1987. Effect of fosetyl aluminum on severity of two Xanthomonas leaf
spot diseases. Proc. of Symposium on Aliette. pp. 81-86.

3. Chase, A.R. 1987. Update on controlling three bacterial diseases of foliage plants.
Foliage Digest 9(8):1-2.






Chase, A. R. 1989. Aliette 80WP and Bacterial Disease Control Xanthomonas.
Foliage Digest 12(11):1-3.

5. Chase, A. R. 1989. Aliette 80WP and Bacterial Disease Control Pseudomonas and
Erwinia. Foliage Digest 12(11):3-4.

Chase, A. R. 1989. Aliette 80WP and Bacterial Disease Control Phytotoxicity.
Foliage Digest 12(11):4-5.


Table 1. Effect of Aliette 80WP, Aliette 80WDG, and Kocide 101 77WP on severity of
Xanthomonas leaf spot and blight of aroids.

Treatment' oz per Anthurium no. Dieffenbachia Dieffenbachia
100 gal blighted no. lesions test no. lesions
leavesb 1c test 2c
Noninoculated 0.8 a 0 a 0 a
Inoculated 1.8 c 1.2 ab 19.1 c
Aliette 80WP 40 1.2 bc 0.3 a 10.2 b
Aliette 80WP 80 0.9 b 1.4 ab 10.8 b
Aliette 80WDG 40 1.2 bc 2.0 b 16.2 bc
Aliette 80WDG 80 1.8 c 0.2 a 8.5 b
Kocide 101 77WP 16 1.2 be 0.1 a 15.0 be
Kocide 101 77WP 32 0.4 ab 0.4 a 10.9 b

In the Anthurium test, the 80 oz rates of Aliette 80WDG and Aliette 80WP were
applied on 8 and 22 August and 5 and 19 Septemebr 1991. Other treatments were
applied weekly from 8 August to 3 October 1991. In the first Dieffenbachia test, the
80 oz rates of Aliette 80WDG and Aliette 80WP were applied on 7 and 21 June and
5 and 18 July, 1991. Other treatments were applied weekly from 7 June to 25 July
1991. In the second Dieffenbachia test, the 80 oz rates of Aliette 80WDG and
Aliette 80WP were applied on 31 October, 15 and 27 November and 12 December
1991. Other treatments were applied weekly from 31 October to 19 December 1991.
Anthurium plants were inoculated on 20 August and 23 September and the number
of leaves with blight symptoms was recorded on 20 September 1991 (the second
rating is not presented).
Dieffenbachia plants in test 1 were inoculated on 11 June and the number of lesions
per plant was recorded on 10 July 1991. Dieffenbachia plants in test 2 were
inoculated on 12 November and 9 December and the number of lesions per plant
was recorded on 30 December 1991.






Table 2. Effect ofAliette 80WP, Aliette 80WDG, and Kocide 101 77WP on several
Xanthomonas leaf spot of English ivy and geranium.
Treatment oz per English ivy Geranium
100 gal no.lesionsb no. lesions'
Noninoculated 03 a 0 a
Inoculated 14.5 b 113.0 b
Aliette 80WP 40 9.7 b 60.8 b
Aliette 80WP 80 13.3 b 99.6 b
Aliette 80WDG 40 7.6 ab 88.3 b
Aliette 80WDG 80 7.8 ab 72.9 b
Kocide 101 77WP 16 5.5 ab 61.6 b
Kocide 101 77WP 32 12.5 b 72.0 b
a In the English ivy test, the 80 oz rates of Aliette 80WDG and Aliette 80WP N
applied on 7 and 21 June and other treatments were applied weekly from 7 ti
June 1991. In the geranium test, the 80 oz rates of Aliette 80WDG and Aliette 8C
were applied on 8 and 22 August and the other treatments were applied weekly f
8 to 22 August 1991.
b English ivy plants were inoculated on 11 June and the number of lesions per p
was recorded on 24 June 1991.
C Geranium plants were inoculated on 20 August and the number of lesions per p
was recorded on 28 August 1991.






Figure 1. Effect of Kocide 101, ASC-66825, and Greenshield on growth and severity of
Pseudomonas leaf spot of Impatiens Wallerana caused by P. syringae.

6

5

4

3

2

1


Nonlnoc Inoo Koolde 66825 66825 Ornshld Ornshid Ornshld
ulated ulated 32 oz 4 oz z 1 oz 2 oz 4 oz
Treatment

M Height = Number of lesions


Figure 2. Effect of Kocide 101, ASC-66825,
Xanthomonas leaf spot of Hedera helix
pv. hederae.


and Greenshield on severity of
(English ivy caused by X. campestris


Average number of lesions


Nonlnoc Inoc Kocide 66825 66825 Grnshld Grnahld Grnshid
ulated ulated 32 oz 4 oz 16 oz 1 oz 2 oz 4 oz
Treatment




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