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Title: Host range of tomato yellow leaf curl virus
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065284/00001
 Material Information
Title: Host range of tomato yellow leaf curl virus
Series Title: GCREC-Bradenton research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Polston, J. E ( Jane Elizabeth ), 1954-
Reif, P
Foley, M. L ( Mary L )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1999
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.E. Polston, P. Reif, and M.L. Foley.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bradenton GCREC research report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065284
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 68709797

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




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Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, FL 34203
GCREC-Bradenton Research Report BRA-1999-07


HOST RANGE OF TOMATO YELLOW LEAF
CURL VIRUS


J. E. Polston, P. Reif, and M. L. Foley


iOC 0 9 230
FARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY


UNIVERSITY OF
FLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences








GCREC Research Report BRA1999-7


September


HOST RANGE OF TOMATO YELLOW LEAF CURL VIRUS

J. E. Polston1, P. Reif2, and M. L. Foley3
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, Florida 34203


Summary
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Is), is becoming a serious concern for tomato
growers, transplant producers, and producers of ornamental plants in Florida. A
study is being conducted to identify the plants that can be infected by TYLCV-Is.
Adult whiteflies, reared on TYLCV-Is-infected tomato plants, were placed on 30
different species of plants and allowed to feed. The plants were then tested by PCR
or dot spot hybridization to determine if they had become infected. Thus far,
common bean, ground cherry, petunia, browallia, tomatillo, tobacco, tomato, and
lisianthus have been identified as hosts of TYLCV-Is. A summary of plant hosts
identified from other studies is also presented. Knowledge of the plant hosts of
TYLCV-Is is important for the development of effective disease management
strategies.

Introduction
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, first characterized in Israel (TYLCV-Is), is a whitefly-
transmitted geminivirus, which is indigenous to the eastern Mediterranean. The virus
was found in the eastern Caribbean for the first time in the early 1990's, and in Florida
in 1997. It has since been found in all of the tomato production districts in the state.

The host range of TYLCV-Is has been studied in the eastern Mediterranean and the
Dominican Republic. Several hosts were identified in each study. The number and
diversity of hosts of TYLCV-Is is broad for a whitefly-transmitted geminivirus.
However, many of the plants that are cultivated and many non-cultivated plants
(weeds and wild plants) in Florida have not been tested for their susceptibility to
TYLCV-Is.

Materials and Methods
Adult whiteflies, reared on TYLCV-Is infected tomato plants, were placed on test plants
and allowed to feed for one week, after which time they were killed by imidacloprid.
Test plants were allowed to incubate for 3-6 weeks and then were examined for virus-
like symptoms and tested by laboratory assays for the presence of TYLCV-Is.

1 Associate Professor, 2 Former Research Assistant, 3 Research Assistant







Results
The results of the study to date are presented in two tables. Table 1 presents the plants
that this study has shown can be infected by TYLCV-Is. Table 2 presents the plants that
have been tested and found to be immune to infection by TYLCV-Is. In each table, the
test plants have been divided into three categories; Ornamentals, Vegetables, and
Other.

Fortunately, 21 of the 30 species tested could not be infected by TYLCV-Is (Table 2). Of
the 9 species that could be infected, 4 (ground cherry, petunia, browallia, and tomatillo)
have been identified for the first time as hosts in this study. Tobacco, bean, tomato and
lisianthus have been reported as hosts of TYLCV-Is from other countries and this study
confirms the ability of the strain of TYLCV-Is found in Florida to infect these plants.
Symptoms of infected plants varied considerably among the different species. Some
plants such as tobacco showed no symptoms of infection, other symptoms, such as in
lisianthus, were mild, while petunia, tomatillo, browallia, and currant tomato showed
severe symptoms, similar to those seen in infected tomato plants. All 12 cultivars of
lisianthus and all 4 cultivars of petunia tested were susceptible to TYLCV-Is.

Table 3 presents a list of hosts of TYLCV-Is identified from studies conducted in other
locations in the world. These are divided into Natural Hosts and Experimental Hosts.
Natural Hosts are defined as those plants which were found infected in the agricultural
environment and not infected as a result of deliberate inoculation. Experimental Hosts
are those which have been infected in inoculation studies, and have not been found
infected in the agricultural environment.

Discussion
A number of new plants hosts of TYLCV-Is have been identified in this study. The
susceptibility of several of these plants to TYLCV-Is has relevance to Florida
agriculture. Petunia is a crop worth $4 million in Florida, which is the 3rd largest
producer of petunias in the US. Fortunately at this time, TYLCV-Is symptoms have not
been reported in petunia in producers' nurseries or greenhouses. It may take a few
years before TYLCV-Is becomes a problem for petunia producers. Lisianthus is an
expanding ornamental crop valued at approximately $3 million in Florida in 1997. To
date, no symptoms of TYLCV-Is have been seen in lisianthus in production. Like
petunia, it may take some time for the virus to impact lisianthus production. Bean is an
important fresh-market crop grown throughout Florida with a value of $73 million,
representing one quarter of the US production value. Symptoms characteristic of
TYLCV-Is have been seen in bean fields in Dade Co.

Though identified as hosts under experimental conditions, some plant species never
become infected under natural conditions. This can be due to several factors, such as
feeding preferences of the local whitefly populations, timing of host and virus
availability, etc. However, in most cases, experimental hosts do become naturally
infected. In the case of a new virus, such as TYLCV-Is, time is required for the virus to
adapt to the new host. This can take several years. A good example is the case of
lisianthus in Israel. The virus and the whiteflies were present long before lisianthus was







grown. It took 3 years of production of lisianthus in the presence of TYLCV-Is before
symptoms were observed.

Identifying the plant hosts that can be infected by TYLCV-Is will help in the effort to
reduce incidences of TYLCV-infected plants in production regions. As more hosts
become known, a clearer picture will develop of additional steps that can be taken to
manage this virus.

Acknowledgements
We thank the Florida Tomato Committee for support and Speedling, Inc. for donation
of plant materials.







Table 1. Plants That Can Be Infected by TYLCV-Is


SCIENTIFIC PLANT
TEST PLANT, CULTIVAR SYMPTOMS NAME FAMILY
Ornamentals

Ground Cherry, 'Cossack Small leaves, Physalis sp. Solanaceae
Pineapple' chlorotic margins,
stunting
Lisianthus, 12 cultivars None to slight leaf Eustoma Gentianaceae
curling grandiflorum
Petunia, 4 cultivars Small leaves, Petunia x hybrida Solanaceae
chlorotic margins,
stunting
Browallia, 'Americana' Browallia Solanaceae
speciosa
Vegetables

Common Bean, 'Top Crop' Small leaves, Phaseolus Fabaceae
cupping, mottling, vulgaris
stunting, flower
abscission
Tomatillo, 'Tomate Verde' Small leaves, Physalis ixocarpa Solanaceae
chlorotic margins
and mottling, plant
stunting, flower
abscission
Tomato, 'Florida Lanai' Small leaves, Lycopersicum Solanaceae
chlorotic margins, esculentum
stunting, flower
abscission
Tomato, 'Red Currant' Small cupped leaves, L. Solanaceae
chlorotic mottling, pimpinellifolium
plant stunting,
flower abscission
Other

Tobacco, 'Xanthi' None Nicotiana Solanaceae
tabacum
No common name Stunting, chlorotic Nicotiana Solanaceae
margins, leaf curl benthamiana








Table 2. Plants That Are Immune to TYLCV-Is


TEST PLANT, CULTIVAR SCIENTIFIC NAME FAMILY

Ornamentals

Ageratum, 'Royal Hawaii' Ageratum houstonianum Asteraceae
Chinese Lantern Physalis alkekengi Solanaceae
Chrysanthemum, 'Pomona' Chrysanthemum morifolium Asteraceae
Dusty Miller 'Silver Dust' Sinecio cineraria Asteraceae
Geranium, 'Ringo Red' Pelargonium x hortorum Geraniaceae
Hollyhock Alcea rosea Malvaceae
Impatiens, 'Impact White' Impatiens wallerana Balsaminaceae
Marigold, 'Little Yellow Hero' Tagetes erecta Asteraceae
Poinsettia, 'Freedom' Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae
Salvia, 'Vista' Salvia splendens Lamiaceae
Sunflower, 'Mammoth' Helianthus annuus Asteraceae
Vinca, 'Pacifica Lilac' Catharanthus roseus Apocynaceae
Vegetables
Asparagus Bean Vigna sesquipedalis Fabaceae
Bitter Gourd Momordica charantia Cucurbitaceae
Cabbage, 'Earliana' Brassica oleracea var. capitata Brassicaceae
Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Fabaceae
Eggplant, Thailand Long Solanum melongena Acanthaceae
Lima Bean, 'Macfady' Phaseolus limensis Fabaceae
Okra, 'Clemson Spineless' Abelmoschus esculentus Malvaceae
Other
Brazilian Pepper Schinus terebinthifolius Anacardiaceae
Strawberry, 'Sweet Charlie' Fragaria virginiana Rosaceae








Table 3. Plants from Other Locations Reported as Hosts of TYLCV-Is


TEST PLANT SCIENTIFIC NAME PLANT FAMILY

NATURAL HOSTS Dominican Republic
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Solanaceae
Currant Tomato L. pimpinellifolium Solanaceae
Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum Solanaceae
weed Acalypha alopecuroidea Euphorbia
weed Boerhavia erecta Nyctaginaceae


Israel
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Solanaceae
Lisianthus Eustoma grandiflorum Gentianaceae
weed Cynachum actum Asclepidaceae
weed Malva parviflora Malvaceae


Spain
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae
Tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Solanaceae


EXPERIMENTAL HOSTS
weed Chaerogphyllum sp. Apiaceae
Sow thistle Sonchus oleraceus Compositae
Bean Phaseolus vulgaris Fabaceae
Lentil Lens esculenta Fabaceae
weed Malva nicaensis Solanaceae
weed Nicotiana glutinosa Solanaceae
weed Hyoscyamus desertorum Umbelliferae






The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and.
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
" The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
Q A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
" Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the.state.
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
O An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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