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Group Title: What to plant and when : : a Florida bedding plant guide
Title: What to plant and when
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065277/00001
 Material Information
Title: What to plant and when a Florida bedding plant guide
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1995
 Subjects
Subject: Flowers -- Planting time -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gardening -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: Teresa K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "March, 1995"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065277
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 68682876

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







5-~:^ \ UNIVERSITY OF
nFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


Gulf Coast Research and Education
5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, FL
Bradenton GCREC Research Report
BRA-1995-8 (March 1995)


Center
34203


WHAT TO PLANT AND WHEN


A FLORIDA


TERESA K.


BEDDING


HOWE AND W.


PLANT


GUfDrln Science
Library


APR 2 0 1995
E. WATERS
University of Florida







Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1995-8


WHAT TO PLANT AND WHEN A FLORIDA BEDDING PLANT GUIDE

Teresa K. Howe and W. E. Waters1
Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
University of Florida, IFAS
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Establishing a flower garden in Florida can be a challenge to anyone, but
particularly to people who relocate from the northern United States. Changes in
Florida seasons are less strikingly defined for those familiar with snow in
winter and corn "knee-high by the fourth of July". Add to this the fact that
Florida is nearly 450 miles long north to south and covers three major climatic
zones, and it is no wonder there is often confusion about which bedding plants
and when to plant them.

The easiest way to determine planting times for various species of bedding plants
is to divide the calendar into seasons and Florida into three parts: north
(Georgia to Ocala), central (Ocala to Port Charlotte and Fort Pierce) and south
(Fort Myers and Stuart to the Florida Keys). Four seasons will define planting
times which can assure year round displays of color from flowering annuals.

Spring for each part of Florida is the time immediately following the last danger
of freezing temperatures. Spring.plantings should be made within a month after
the last frost. In north Florida the last frost is typically in early March, in
central Florida it is the third week of February, and in south Florida freezing
temperatures are extremely rare. Essentially south Florida has a very early
spring on the heels of an extended autumn.

Summer is defined by very high temperatures (900 daily high) and the start of the
rainy season. It is important to understand that while summer months in the
northern U.S. may reach temperatures experienced in Florida, Florida temperatures
are prolonged and not mitigated by cool evenings. Temperatures commonly reach
800 by 8:00 am during July and August. Use about a month planting interval at
the beginning of the summer.

Autumn begins with the cessation of the rainy season, shorter days, and the drop
in temperature. The planting times generally extend from September through
October. However, care must be taken in the north part of Florida to plant
early, since frost will end the fall season. The usefulness of autumn plantings
may well be defined by the danger of frost in central Florida as well. If the
planting date is too late into the autumn and a frost occurs, the enjoyment of
the planting will be shortened. However, autumn plantings may survive well into
winter months if no frost occurs.


'Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively. Fla. Agri.
Expt. Sta. Journal Series No. N-00959.

Reprinted from the Proc. of the 42nd Annual Fla. Turfgrass Conference, 1994.
Vol. 42.


March 1995







Winter is when freezing temperatures may occur. Species that can not survive a
frost may be planted, but the risk dictates that frost tolerant plants be used
if the loss of plant material is not acceptable. In south Florida tender (frost
sensitive) plants may be used with a degree of safety in December, January and
February.

The selection of bedding plant material (annuals and perennials treated as
annuals) for each of the seasons is provided in Table 1. One major criterion
limiting the use of material in the landscape is temperature tolerance. Tender
annuals are planted when there is no danger of freezing temperatures and hardy
annuals are planted when a frost or freeze is likely. Examples of tender plants
are marigold, zinnia, vinca, salvia and celosia. Hardy plants include
snapdragon, ornamental cabbage, pansy, alyssum, petunia, and calendula. However,
in Florida, heat tolerance must also be considered for successful use of bedding
plants and several species are heat intolerant. Geranium, for example, has a
physiological response to temperatures above 90 0 and becomes chlorotic (1).
This yellowing of the foliage can become severe and fertilizer will not change
the situation. Even in the winter, high temperatures have a defining role in
successful bedding plant use. Ornamental cabbage needs certain minimum
temperatures (50-600) to initiate the characteristic foliage coloring and without
these low temperatures the plants remain green. Research has shown that
conditions in central Florida do not always induce the brilliant color of
ornamental cabbage (2), so it is very unlikely that ornamental cabbage would
change color in south Florida. There are several outstanding heat tolerant
species for summer gardens which include: vinca, celosia, coleus, ornamental
pepper, ornamental basil, torenia and hibiscus.

The species suggested in Table 1 are not the only possibilities, but are examples
of those which have been shown to be easiest to grow at specific times of the
year. For example, the exclusion of impatiens as a summer annual may appear to
be a glaring oversight, when actually they can be difficult to establish as young
plants in the early summer and mature plants often experience mid-day wilting
despite good irrigation. Impatiens can be grown successfully in the summer under
certain circumstances, but it can be difficult. Even the heat intolerant
geranium, can be pampered through the summer months in some situations and with
some cultivars.

Growing annuals in the landscape can be made easier when the time is taken to
plan ahead and make informed decisions. It is worth the effort to get to know
bedding plant materials and learn when and where they perform best. Adding color
to the landscape in the form of annuals is worth the effort. They accent and
enhance our daily activities and can provide the image of the "flower" state....
Florida.

Literature Cited

1. Armitage, A. M. 1985. Seed propagated geraniums. Timber Press Growers
Handbook Series, vol 1.

2. Howe, T. K. and B. K. Harbaugh. 1992. Color development problems of
ornamental cabbage. Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-3.









Table 1. Seasonal planting guide for bedding plants in Florida.


Spring Garden

African Daisy (Dimorphotheca)
Ageratum (Flossflower)
Alyssum
Amaranthus (Joseph's Coat)
Aster
Begonia
Browallia
Butterfly weed (P)
Calendula (Pot Marigold)
Candytuft
Celosia
Coleus
Coreopsis (P)
Cornflower (P)
Cosmos
Crossandra
Dahlberg Daisy
Dahlia
Dusty Miller
Exacum (Persian Violet)
Forget-Me-Not
Gaillardia (Blanket Flower)(P)
Gazania
Geranium
Gerbera Daisy (P)
Godetia
Gomphrena
Helichrysum (Strawflower)
Heliopsis (P)
Heliotrope
Impatiens
Lisianthus
Lobelia
Marigold
Melampodium
Nicotiana (Flowering Tobacco)
Nierembergia
Ornamental Pepper
Petunia
Phlox
Polka Dot Plant (P)
Portulaca (Moss Rose)
Rudbeckia (Gloriosa Daisy)(P)
Salvia farinacea (Mealy Cup
Salvia) (P)
Salvia splendens
Shasta Daisy (P)
Strawflower
Stock
Sunflower
Thunbergia (Black-Eyed Susan
Vine)
Torenia (Wishbone Flower)
Verbena
Vinca (Periwinkle)
Zinnia


Summer Garden Winter Garden
(Heat Tolerant Plants) Fall Garden (Hardy or Heat Intolerant Plants)


Abelmoschus (Annual Hibiscus)
Achillea (P)
African Daisy (Dimorphotheca)
Begonia
Celosia
Coleus
Coreopsis (P)
Cosmos
Crossandra
Dahlberg Daisy
Dusty Miller
Euphorbia (P)
Exacum (Persian Violet)
Gaillardia (Blanket Flower)(P)
Gazania
Goldenrod (P)
Heliotrope
Hibiscus
Kochia
Lamb's Ears (P)
Moss Verbena
Nicotiana (Flowering Tobacco)
Nierembergia
Ornamental Basil
Ornamental Pepper
Polygonum
Portulaca (Moss Rose)
Ratibida (Mexican Red Hat)
Rudbeckia (Gloriosa Daisy)(P)
Salvia farinacea (Mealy Cup
Salvia)(P)
Salvia splendens
Sanvitalia
Southwestern Verbena
Thunbergia (Black-Eyed Susan
Vine)
Torenia (Wishbone Flower)
Vinca (Periwinkle)
Zinnia augustifolia


Abelmoschus (Annual Hibiscus)
Begonia
Calendula
Celosia
Chrysanthemum (P)
Coleus
Coreopsis (P)
Cosmos
Dusty Miller
Foxglove (P)
Gaillardia (Blanket FLower) (P)
Gazania
Geranium
Impatiens
Marigold
Melampodium
Petunia
Portulaca (Moss Rose)
Salvia farinacea (Mealy Cup
Salvia)(P)
Salvia splendens
Vinca (Periwinkle)
Zinnia


Allium (Onion, Garlic) (P)
Alyssum
Calendula
Candytuft
Carnation
Cornflower (P)
Delphinium (P)
Dianthus (Pinks)
Foxglove (P)
Gaillardia (Blanket
Flower) (P)
Godetia
Gypsophila (P)
Hollyhock (P)
Ornamental Cabbage/Kale
Pansy
Petunia
Phlox
Poppy
Rudbeckia (Black-Eyed
Susan) (P)
Shasta Daisy (P)
Snapdragon
Statice
Sweet Pea
Verbena
Viola (P)


(P) = perennial







The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge ofdisciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
Q The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
Q A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
Q Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
Q A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
D An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floidians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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