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Title: Evaluation of lisianthus as biennial
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065266/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of lisianthus as biennial
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Harbaugh, B. K ( Brent Kalen )
Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1993
 Subjects
Subject: Eustomias -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Brent K. Harbaugh and Teresa K. Howe.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1993"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065266
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 68623790

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




F (,3( 6
G-C Is

UNIVERSITY OF
LORIDA Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
SFLO I A 5007 60th Street East, Bradenton, FL 34203
Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA-1993-27
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences October 1993 c Si :
Library
EVALUATION OF LISIANTHUS AS A BIENNIAL 1 "' ,

Brent'K. Harbaugh and Teresa K. Howe'
i;;;. .,,. of rii.^ '-
Lisianthus was introduced into the U.S. seed trade from Japan in the early
1980's as Lisianthus russelianus. Lisianthus fanciers have had to adjust to a
change to the correct botanical name of Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn., as
described in Bailey's Hortus Third. Now, because of the mistake in the original
botanical classification, one of the most popular common names for Eustoma is
lisianthus. Prairie gentian, prairie tulip, prairie rose and Texas bluebell are
also common names for lisianthus which describe flower form and native habitat.

Lisianthus is native to the midwestern and southern prairie states ranging from
as far north as Colorado and Nebraska to as far south as central Texas and
Northern Mexico. The flower shapes of the original cultivars of lisianthus
resemble roses in the bud stage, tulips as buds begin to open, and poppies at
maturity. Recent breeding efforts have produced double flowered cultivars.
Perhaps these cultivars will take on new names such as prairie carnation or
prairie gardenia, but double lisianthus appears more likely.

Guidelines for the culture of lisianthus have been as diverse and confusing as
its name. Lisianthus has been described as an annual, biennial, or perennial,
and these differences are reflected in cultural guidelines on how to grow and
flower lisianthus. In general, lisianthus is considered a perennial or biennial
in its northern range. In its southern range, it is grown as an annual. Reasons
for these differences are primarily due to the length of the growing season in
which lisianthus is being produced, and because cultivars flower in response to
temperature and day-length (photoperiod) differently. New cultivars are being
released which appear to have a more uniform response to environmental stimuli.
Also the mystery surrounding mechanisms which trigger flowering is being unveiled
with ongoing research. One can expect that future production guidelines will
reflect the need for control of temperature and photoperiod for precise
scheduling and flowering of new cultivars.
Many southern gardeners can grow lisianthus as an annual due to the long growing
season. Most cultivars grown as annuals will produce only one flower stem with
few lower or upper lateral stems. This growth habit makes them ideal for cut
flowers, but leaves much to be desired for garden performance. However,
multi-branched plants with spectacular flower displays result when plants are
grown as biennials.
We evaluated cultivars of lisianthus grown as biennials for bedding plants. The
number of days from sowing to flowering ranged from 269 to 294 days, a long time
to wait for flowers for gardeners used to growing annuals. This test revealed

'Professor (floriculture) and Research Program Coordinator, respectively.






2

there is still a great deal of variability in flowering and vegetative
characteristics within cultivars (Table 1). However, we also found that when
plants achieved their maximum flowering potential, the abundance of gorgeous
flowers was overwhelming and well worth the wait. Some plants reached 20 inches
in width, 28 inches in height, and had as many as 208 flowers and buds.
Literally a bushel of flowers was produced on one plant.

To grow lisianthug as a biennial, we planted seeds July 21. Seeds germinated well
in two weeks at 70 to 75 OF. Seedlings were grown in seed flats for 1 month and
then transplanted into 1.5 x 1.5 x 1 inch cells. Seedlings were grown under
short days (12 hours of light) and high temperatures (minimum of 75 to 820F).
They were transplanted into ground beds on October 26. First flowers were
observed in mid-March the following year. Peak flowering was in April and May.

The key to production of these spectacular plants was to grow the seedlings at
high temperatures and short days. This forced the plants to grow as biennials.
Biennial plants have a rosette growth habit and do not flower until they
over-winter and days lengthen and become warmer the next spring.
Rosetted plants are recognized by their flat appearance which is due to growth
of many leaves with no elongation of vegetative or flowering stems. However,
many lateral flower stems -form at the base of rosetted plants. Gardeners reap
the rewards form these lateral stems because the lateral stems all elongate and
flower more or less simultaneously after the plants over-winter.

The more leaves and lateral stems on rosetted plants, the more flowering stems
can be expected. Rosetted plants may cause frustration or be a source of
disappointment for gardeners desiring to have flowers in the fall. However,
rosetted plants, held over the winter months in cold frames or planted in
protected areas in the ground, become a delight for avid gardeners with the
patience to wait for an abundance of showy flowers the following April-May.





Table 1. Growth and performance of lisianthus cultivars grown as overwintered biennials.


Number Days to' Basal x' Budx Flowerx Plantx Plantx Flowerx
Cultivar of Plants Flower Breaks Number Number Height Width Diameter

Cocktail Blue & White 4 292 + 11 5 + 1 156 + 68 3 + 1 27 + 1 15 + 5 2.7 + 0.7
Double Deep Purple 5 281 + 22 5 + 1 113 + 37 5 + 3 24 + 6 17 + 5 3.1 + 0.2
Double Light Blue 4 269 + 12 6 + 1 125 + 50 2 + 2 25 + 5 20 + 9 3.3 + 0.9
Double Medium Blue 7 285 + 6 6 + 2 200 + 59 2 + 1 26 + 2 16 + 3 3.3 + 0.3
Double Pink 7 287 + 4 8 + 2 201 + 117 2 + 1 25 + 4 18 + 5 2.9 + 0.3
Double White 18 284 + 7 6 + 3 206 + 131 2 + 2 28 + 4 21 + 8 3.2 + 0.5
Echo Light Blue 19 271 + 11 5 + 1 126 + 46 4 + 6 22 + 5 16 + 4 3.4 + 0.7
Echo Mid Blue 22 281 + 7 6 + 2 152 + 56 2 + 2 26 + 3 .17 + 3 3.4 + 0.5
Echo Pink 17 286 + 7 7 + 2 191 + 81 4 + 3 25 + 3 20 + 5 3.0 + 0.3
Echo White 8 276 + 17 5 + 1 193 + 142 11 + 22 24 + 4 18 + 7 3.2 + 0.6
Hakusen 21 276 + 8 6 + 2 153 + 63 3 + 2 23 + 4 17 + 6 2.8 + 0.2
Lion Pink 3 289 + 12 5 + 2 118 + 63 5 + 7 23 + 4 16 + 1 2.3 + 0.6
Pink Pearl 20 282 + 18 6 + 2 177 + 158 3 + 2 20 + 4 16 + 6 2.9 + 0.4
Prima Blanche 14 287 + 8 7 + 3 162 + 117 2 + 1 20 + 6 18 + 7 3.1 + 0.6 W
Prima Donna 3 288 + 7 5 + 0 108 + 57 3 + 3 20 + 1 12 + 3 2.8 + 0.1
Prima Violetta 17 279 + 16 5 + 2 147 + 87 2 + 2 20 + 5 17 + 6 3.3 + 0.5
Saga Pink 5 270 + 12 4 + 1 77 + 78 2 + 1 17 + 4 10 + 3 2.7 + 0.5
Saga Purple 6 283 + 7 7 + 4 113 + 75 3 + 2 21 + 8 17 + 9 2.7 + 0.6
Saga White 13 273 + 9 5 + 2 126 + 81 2 + 1 21 + 5 16 + 6 2.8 + 0.5
Shisen 5 272 + 22 6 + 1 130 + 39 2 + 1 21 + 4 16 + 5 2.9 + 0.8
Tosen 6 274 + 15 5 + 1 74 + 42 2 + 1 18 + 6 13 + 4 2.5 + 0.6
Yodel Blue 19 272 + 13 4 + 1 75 + 49 2 + 1 19 + 3 12 + 3 2.8 + 0.4
Yodel Deep Blue 16 294 + 12 5 + 2 89 + 37 2 + 1 22 + 3 14 + 4 2.5 + 0.3
Yodel Lilac 18 283 + 11 6 + 2 141 + 104 2 + 1 24 + 4 17 + 6 2.8 + 0.5
Yodel Mid Blue 23 269 + 8 4 + 2 115 + 55 3 + 3 21 + 2 14 + 3 3.1 + 0.4
Yodel Pink 18 272 + 7 6 + 1 119 + 74 5 + 7 19 + 3 16 + 4 2.6 + 0.6
Yodel Rose 17 279 + 17 5 + 2 111 + 65 2 + 2 21 + 5 13 + 4 2.6 + 0.5


ZThe number of plants for which data was taken. Data are means + s.d.
yFrom sowing 21 July 1989.
Measured when first flower opened.
"The number of major flowering stems counted at the base of the plant.




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