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Group Title: Bradenton, GCREC research report - University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center ; BRA1992-16
Title: Landscape evaluation of petunia cultivars
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065256/00001
 Material Information
Title: Landscape evaluation of petunia cultivars
Series Title: Bradenton, GCREC research report
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Petunias -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: T.K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065256
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 68622971

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




I (3(j.-'"


9b -/~


tral Science
Library
S:C 1 1992
sity of Florida


Gulf Coast Research
and Education Center


5007 60th St. E., Bradenton, Florida 34203-9324
B Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
. -* A University of Florida








GULF COAST RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
5007 60TH Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203
Cec
Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1992-16 August

LANDSCAPE EVALUATION OF PETUNIA CULTIVARS
Univoi
T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters1 ""'

Florida is ranked fifth in the nation in the reported wholesale value of
floriculture crops for use as bedding or garden plants (10). In 1990-91, total
bedding plant wholesale value was $55.9 million, with $42.1 million of the crop
produced in pots, $5.6 million in hanging baskets and $8.2 million in flats.
This represents 6.3% of total U.S. bedding plant production value.

Petunia produced for garden and landscape use ranked as the second best-selling
bedding plant, behind impatiens, for 1991 according to a Professional Plant
Growers Association national survey (11). Additionally, it also ranked second
as a planned increase item. The last major trial effort on petunia at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center was conducted during the spring and fall of
1984 (1). Since that time, many new cultivars have been released which have
incorporated new petunia series with shortened flowering times and improved plant
characteristics. These new developments have been observed in demonstration
trials at this location since 1984 (2-8). In 1991 a replicated trial of the
major petunia cultivars was conducted during two separate seasons at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center in Bradenton, FL.

Materials and Methods
Cultivar selection was limited to the most commonly available grandiflora and
multiflora/floribunda types in the five most popular solid colors: pink, white,
red, salmon and blue. Seventy-seven (spring) or thirty-six (fall) other entries
of other flower colors and patterns were also examined in companion non-
replicated demonstration trials.

Transplant Production Seeds of petunia cultivars were sown in flats filled with
peat:vermiculite medium (1:1, v:v, amended with dolomite, superphosphate and
hydrated lime) on 18 Jan and 27 Aug 1991 (Table 1). Seedlings were transplanted
into 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 inch containerized cells filled with the above mentioned
medium. Transplants received liquid fertilizer as needed during production. No
plant growth regulators were used in this study.



1Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.








Field Preparation and Crop Management Beds of EauGallie find sand were formed
to a width of 32 inch on 5 ft centers. Slow release fertilizer OsmocoteR 18-2.6-
11.2 (N-P-K) at 3.55 lb/100 ft2 was incorporated over the full bed surface and
incorporated to a depth of 3-4 inches. Beds were fumigated with 67% methyl
bromide:33% chloropicrin and covered with black polyethylene in the spring, and
white on black polyethylene in the fall. The area was irrigated by subsurface
seepage via two ditches spaced 40.5 ft apart and parallel to the beds.

In the replicated trials, plants were set into beds on 12 inch centers with three
staggered rows per bed on 27 Feb and 10 Oct with four replications of six plants
per cultivar arranged in a randomized complete block design. In the
demonstration trials, plants were also set on 12 inch centers with three
staggered rows per bed on the same planting dates. However, these cultivars and
breeding lines were single plots of fourteen plants. In the spring, benomyl,
Bacillus thuringiensis and avermectin were applied for fungal disease,
lepidopterous larvae and leafminer control, respectively. In the fall/winter,
chlorothalonil, benomyl, Bacillus thuringiensis, bifenthrin, and azadirachton
were used for fungal diseases and broad spectrum insect control.

Data Collection Cultivars were evaluated for earliness to flower, flower size
and color, plant height and habit, vigor, floriferousness, and sensitivity of
flowers to pesticide spray damage (spring only). Subjective ratings were
assigned on a 0 to 10 scale where 10 was excellent.

Discussion
General weather conditions for 1991-92 appear in Table 2. Daily temperatures in
the spring were greater than the 38-year averages. Rainfall was heavier than
normal during Mar and Apr, with April receiving 2.92 inches above the 38-year
average. No rain fell the first week of May. Daily temperatures in Oct, Nov and
Jan were very close to normal, however daily maximum temperatures were five
degrees higher than normal in Dec. Rainfall in the fall/winter of 1991-92 was
extremely light, falling well below the 38-year means. Since this trial was
seepage irrigated, crop water use was not limited, but plant quality was affected
by the presence or absence of rainfall.
REPLICATED TRIALS:

Spring .Differences between grandiflora and multiflora/floribunda types for the
spring are found in Table 3. In the spring there was no difference between
grandiflora and multiflora/floribunda types with respect to the number of days
to flower or plant height. Flower diameter was 1.1 inches larger and spray
damage to the flowers following a treatment with B. thuringiensis and benomyl was
less pronounced in the grandiflora types. Overall ratings for vigor, flowering
and uniformity were consistently higher for the multiflora/floribunda types.

Growth and performance parameters of petunia cultivars during the spring appear
in Table 4. Of the 58 cultivars in trial, only ten were similar to 'Celebrity
Salmon' in earliness to flower. The range of days to flowering among all entries
was 54 to 73 days. Flower diameter ranged from 2.1 inches for 'Blue Pearls' to
3.9 inches for 'White Flash', 'Falcon White' and 'Ultra White'. Twelve other
cultivars were not significantly different than 'White Flash', 'Falcon White' and
'Ultra White' in large flower size and all were grandiflora. Fifteen other
cultivars were not significantly different than 'Blue Pearls' in flower size and








all were multiflora/floribunda. Plant height the first week of April ranged from
6 to 16 inches. Four cultivars, all either blue or white flowered, were not
significantly different from the 16 inch height of 'Blue Pearls'. Nineteen
cultivars, all red, salmon or pink flowered, were not significantly different
than 'Primetime Red'. Among these 19 cultivars were all of the red-flowered
types in the trial.

Subjective ratings for overall appearance and flower damage following
applications of benomyl and B. thuringiensis are also in Table 4. Spray damage
was absent in all blue and white flowered cultivars as well as 'Cascade Red' and
'Falcon Pink'. Overall appearance ratings were assigned at peak flowering (11
Apr), after rainfall (18 Apr) and late season (7 May). At the first rating date,
ratings ranged from 6.0 to 9.3, and only seven cultivars were rated significantly
lower than the 9.3 assigned to 'Celebrity Blue'. On the second date, ratings
ranged from 3.5 to 8.5, where any cultivar rated at a 6.0 or lower was
significantly different than 8.5, and included 20 cultivars. Lower ratings on
the second date reflected plant lodging due to rain. Ratings at the third date
ranged from 3.0 to 8.0, and any cultivar rated below 5.5 was significantly lower
than 8.0. Only four cultivars of the 22 rated at 5.5 or above were grandiflora.

Fall/Winter In the fall there were no differences between grandiflora and
multiflora/floribunda types with respect to plant height or lodging (Table 5).
Flower diameter was 0.7 inches larger and flowering was 6.4 days later for the
grandiflora types. Ratings for flowering and overall appearance were higher for
grandiflora than the multiflora/floribunda types early in the season, but
reversed later.

Of the 59 cultivars examined (Table 6), fifteen were not significantly different
than 'Horizon Rose' in earliness to flower. The range of days to flowering among
all cultivars was 52-76 days. Flower diameter ranged from 2.0 inches for 'Blue
Pearls' to 4.0 inches for 'White Flash'. Six cultivars were not significantly
different than 'White Flash' in flower size, while ten were similar to 'Blue
Pearls'. Plant height in late November ranged from 5.8 inches for 'Red Dreams'
to 15.2 inches for 'Polo White'. Twelve cultivars, all red, salmon, or rose
flowered, were not significantly different in height than 'Red Dreams'. Among
those were all of the red flowered cultivars.

Subjective ratings were given for lodging, flowering and overall appearance on
22 Nov and 16 Dec. No lodging was found in: 'Horizon Salmon', 'Horizon Scarlet',
'Primetime Red', 'Prism Bright Red', 'Red Madness', 'Celebrity Red', 'Red
Dreams', 'Supermagic Red' and 'Carpet Red'. These were also among the shortest
cultivars in the trial. Flower ratings for the first date ranged from 5.5 for
'Carpet Red' to 9.8 for 'Blue Dreams'. The first rating was indicative of
ability of a cultivar to fill out with flowers quickly. The second rating of
flowering ranged from 5.3 to 10.0 and was after peak flowering. Many red
flowered types had more problems with Botrytis affecting flower wilt than other
colors at this time. Overall appearance ratings assigned on 22 Nov ranged from
5.0 for 'Primetime Red' to 9.3 for 'Primetime Pink'. Only four cultivars were
significantly different from 'Primetime Pink'. By 16 Dec, overall ratings ranged
from 4.5 for 'Ultra White' to 8.8 for 'Primetime Salmon'. Only eight cultivars
were significantly different than 'Primetime Salmon' at that time.








DEMONSTRATION TRIALS:

In the spring, 77 additional petunia cultivars were evaluated in demonstration
plots. These plots included cultivars from 14 series and included colors and
color patterns excluded from the replicated trial due to space constraints. Two
series, 'Horizon' and 'Prism' were not yet named and were tested as advanced
breeding lines prior to release. They were later included in the fall replicated
trial effort. The basic information included in Table 7 represent averages and
ratings from 14 plants of each cultivar. The range of flowering was from 53 to
73 days, essentially identical to the replicated trial. Good late season ratings
were given to 'Horizon Bright Rose', 'Supercascade Blue', 'Freedom White', 'Polo
Red Target' and 'Freedom Red'. Spray damage injury to the flowers was absent
for many different floral colors.

In the fall/winter, 36 additional petunia cultivars were evaluated in a
demonstration trial. These entries included representatives from nine petunia
series and an experimental series of double multifloras (Table 8). Again, the
data is compiled from plots of 14 plants for each entry. Flowering times ranged
from 53 to 87 days with only one entry, Experimental Double Burgundy, being
beyond 75 days. These flowering times are in close agreement to the replicated
trial with that single exception. Longest lasting cultivars (based on the latest
overall rating) included: 'Primetime Rose', 'Freedom Pink', 'Freedom Raspberry
Vein', 'Celebrity Pink Morn', 'Blue Daddy' and 'Ultra Burgundy'. The double
multiflora experimental entries evidenced hyperextension and enlargement of the
anthers in some plants.

Summary

In the replicated trials, grandiflora and multiflora/floribunda types were
fundamentally different with respect to flower size and overall ratings for
vigor, floriferousness and uniformity with grandiflora types having larger
flowers, but the multiflora/floribundas garnered higher ratings. Grandifloras
were later than the floribunda/multiflora types by nearly a week, but only in the
fall/winter season of evaluation.

The demonstration trials identified other cultivars from various petunia series
which are unique based on floral color or type. The crops paralleled the
replicated trials in all respects and the information compiled was similar.

Individual cultivars within each petunia series should be considered separately
since not all colors in a series performed similarly. Also plant heights varied
with flower color, with blue- and white-flowered cultivars tallest and red-
flowered cultivars shortest. Selections for the landscape need to be made based
on personal preference of flower size, flower color, and ultimate plant height.
Then lodge resistance, uniformity, floriferousness, days to flower and longevity
can be used as a guide for narrowing down the best cultivars from these trials.

Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of experimental
results and does not contain recommendations for crop production. Where trade
names are used, no discrimination is intended or endorsement implied.

Acknowledgement: The authors wish to thank Grace-Sierra Horticultural Products
for the contribution of Osmocote fertilizer used in this study, and American








Takii, Bodger Seeds Ltd., Daehnfeldt, G.S. Grimes, Goldsmith Seeds, Royal Sluis,
and Sakata Seed America for their financial support during 1991.

Literature Cited

1. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1985. Evaluation of petunia: spring and
fall 1984. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 98:335-341.


2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, spring 1985. Bradenton

3. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, fall 1985. Bradenton G(

4. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, spring 1986. Bradenton

5. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, fall 1986. Bradenton G(

6. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, spring and fall 1987.

7. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters.
plants, spring and fall 1988.


1986. Observations of flowering bedding
GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1986-6.

1986. Observations of flowering bedding
CREC Res. Rept. BRA1986-8.

1987. Observations of flowering bedding
GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1987-13.

1987. Observations of flowering bedding
:REC Res. Rept. BRA1987-15.

1988. Observations of flowering bedding
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1988-12.

1989. Observations of flowering bedding
3radenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1989-8.


8. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1990. Evaluation of marigold cultivars as
bedding plants, spring and fall 1989. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.
103:332-337.

9. Stanley, C. D. 1992. Temperature and rainfall report for 1991.
Bradenton GCREC Res. Rept. BRA1992-2.

10. United States Dept. Agric. 1992. Floriculture Crops 1991 Summary.
Nat'l. Agric. Statistics Serv., USDA, Washington, D.C.

11. Voight, A. 0. 1992. Special report analyzing the 1991 bedding plant
season. Prof. Plant Growers Assoc. Season Sales Summary, Lansing, MI.





6

Table 1. Cultivars in replicated trial, season studied and seed suppliers.

Cultivar Series, Colors. Season of Usez Seed Supplier

Carpet Ball
Flame (S), Pink (S,F), Red (S,F), Salmon (F), white (S,F)

Celebrity Bodger
Blue (S,F), Hot Pink (S,F), Red (S,F), Salmon (S,F), White (S,F)

Dreams PanAmerican
Blue (S,F), Pink (S,F), Red (S,F), Salmon (S,F), White (S,F)
Falcon Sakata
Blue (S,F), Blush Pink (S), Red (S,F), Salmon (F), White (S,F)

Flash Sluis & Groot
Blue (S,F), Coral (S), Pink (S), Red (S), White (S,F)

Highlight Sakata
Blue (F), Coral (F), Pink (F), Scarlet (F)
Horizon Clause
Bright Rose (F), Ruby (F), Light Salmon (F), Salmon (F), Scarlet (F)

Laser Harris Moran
Blue (S), Pink (S), Red (S), White (S)

Madness Ball
Blue (S,F), Coral (S), Pink (S), Red (S,F), Simply (S,F), White (S,F)
Pearls Clause
Arctic (S), Blue (S,F), Rose (S), Light Salmon (S,F)

Polo Sluis & Groot
Blue (S,F), Pink (S,F), Red (S), White (S,F)
Primetime Goldsmith
Blue (S,F), Pink (S,F), Red (S,F), Salmon (S,F) White (S,F)
Prism Clause
Bright Red (F), Dark Rose (F), Salmon (F), Light Salmon (F)

Supercascade Ball
Blue (F), Pink (S,F), Red (S), Salmon (S,F), White (S,F)

Supermagic Ball
Pink (S), Red (S,F), White (S,F)
Ultra Goldsmith
Blue (S,F), Pink (S,F), Red (S,F), Salmon (S,F), White (S,F)

ZS = spring; F = fall/winter.







Table 2. Average high and low temperatures, average monthly rainfall
measured at GCREC from 1954-1991 (9) compared to 1991-92 data.

Average Daily Temperature (OF)
1991-92 38-yr mean Rainfall (in.)
Month max min max min 1991-92 38-yr mean

Spring 1991

Marz 78 57 77 55 4.20 3.38
Apr 85 63 81 59 4.57 1.65
Mayy 90 66 87 65 0.00 3.24

Fall/Winter 1991-92
Octx 86 64 85 64 0.64 2.80
Nov 78 55 79 57 0.06 2.01
Dec 78 54 73 51 0.44 2.33
Jan" 71 51 71 49 0.05 2.61

z27-28 Feb 1991 temperature and rainfall data included with Mar 1991.
Y'-7 May 1991 temperature and rainfall data only for May 1991.
x10-31 Oct 1991 temperature and rainfall data only for Oct 1991.
"1-7 Jan 1992 temperature and rainfall data only for Jan 1992.



Table 3. Differences in performance in replicated trial between
grandiflora and multiflora/floribunda types for spring 1991.

Multiflora/
Parameter Grandiflora Floribunda
Days to Flowerz 62.6 av 61.7 a
Flower Diameter (inches)y 3.4 a 2.5 b
Plant Height (inches)y 10.1 a 9.8 a
Overall Rating lx 7.8 b 8.2 a
Overall Rating 2x 5.6 b 6.9 a
Overall Rating 3X 4.4 b 6.0 a
Spray Damage Ratingw 8.8 a 7.8 b

zFrom sowing 18 Jan 1991.
YMeasured flowers 4 Apr 1991, measured plant height 8 Apr 1991.
XRating 1 on 11 Apr 1991, Rating 2 on 18 Apr 1991 (post rain), Rating
3 on 7 May 1991. Rating scale: 0 = all plants dead, 1 = very poor, 5 =
borderline acceptable, 10 = excellent.
WNecrotic spots on flowers after pesticide sprays rated on a 1 to 10 scale
where 1 = extreme damage and 10 = no damage.
VMean separation between columns by Tukey's procedure, 5% level.






Table 4. Growth and performance of replicated petunia cultivars in field beds during spring 1991.
(Planted 27 Feb 1991).


EarlyY Flower" Plantw Floweru
Growth Days tox Diameter Height Overall Ratinqsv Damage
Cultivar Typez Habit Flower (inches) (inches) 1 2 3 Rating

Celebrity Salmon F P 54t 2.8 10 8.8 7.3 4.8 5.8
Primetime Pink M IH 55 2.4 10 9.3 8.5 5.0 5.8
Midnight Madness F I 56 2.5 14 8.8 6.8 5.3 10.0
Carpet Flame M PH 57 2.2 8 8.8 8.0 7.5 6.8
Simply Madness F I 58 2.6 13 9.0 6.5 5.3 6.8
Carpet Pink M H 58 2.6 8 9.3 8.3 5.0 4.5
Polo Pink M H 58 2.3 10 8.5 7.8 5.8 5.8
Celebrity Blue F G 58 2.3 11 9.3 6.3 6.5 10.0
Blue Dreams G IH 59 3.1 12 8.3 3.5 5.0 10.0
Red Madness F HP 59 2.5 7 8.0 7.5 8.0 6.0
Celebrity Hot Pink F P 59 2.7 10 8.0 7.8 5.5 7.3
Primetime Blue M I 60 2.3 13 9.0 6.3 5.5 10.0
Primetime Salmon M P 60 2.7 8 8.0 7.3 7.8 7.0
Primetime Red M PH 60 2.6 6 8.3 5.5 7.0 9.5
White Dreams G I 60 3.3 12 6.8 6.3 4.0 10.0
Falcon Red G H 60 3.5 8 6.8 4.8 3.0 7.8
Coral Flash G IP 60 3.3 10 8.5 6.5 4.5 8.5
Red Dreams G P 60 3.2 7 7.8 5.8 4.5 7.0
Primetime White M I 60 2.3 11 8.8 6.8 6.0 10.0
Polo White M VC 60 2.9 15 6.8 5.3 4.0 10.0
Pink Dreams G P 61 3.4 8 9.3 7.5 6.0 7.3
Laser Pink G P 61 3.6 10 8.8 7.0 4.0 6.8
Salmon Dreams G I 61 3.3 12 8.5 6.3 4.0 7.3
Pink Flash G IH 61 3.6 13 8.0 6.5 4.0 8.0
Falcon White G PI 61 3.9 11 7.8 6.5 4.3 10.0
Supercascade Salmon G I 61 3.6 11 6.0 5.5 5.5 8.5
Falcon Blue G I 61 3.4 12 9.3 4.5 3.5 10.0
Ultra Blue G I 61 3.2 12 9.3 4.3 4.3 10.0
Pink Madness F P 62 2.7 9 8.0 6.8 5.0 6.0






Table 4. Continued 2.


Earlyy Flower" Plantw Floweru
Growth Days toX Diameter Height Overall Ratinqsv Damage
Cultivar Typez Habit Flower (inches) (inches) 1 2 3 Rating

White Madness F P 62 2.9 9 7.5 6.3 6.0 10.0
Supermagic Red G P 62 3.2 7 7.8 5.3 5.5 8.3
Supermagic Pink G P 62 3.6 9 8.3 6.5 5.5 6.8
Laser White G IC 62 3.5 12 7.0 4.5 4.0 10.0
Blue Flash G I 63 3.1 14 8.3 4.8 4.3 10.0
Celebrity Red F P 63 2.6 7 8.3 7.3 7.0 6.8
White Flash G C 63 3.9 13 7.5 3.5 3.0 10.0
Supercascade Red G P 63 3.6 8 6.5 4.3 4.0 10.0
Ultra Pink G P 63 3.6 8 8.3 7.0 5.3 7.0
Celebrity White F C 63 2.6 11 8.5 6.5 4.3 10.0
Ultra White G GI 63 3.9 14 7.5 4.5 4.0 10.0
Carpet White M P 63 2.9 11 8.3 6.8 6.3 10.0
Polo Red M PH 64 2.4 8 8.3 7.5 6.3 6.5
Supercascade Pink G P 64 3.8 10 6.5 6.0 3.8 8.8
Supercascade White G IC 64 3.6 12 7.5 5.3 3.3 10.0
Laser Blue G P 65 3.2 10 9.3 6.8 4.5 10.0
Ultra Red G P 65 3.7 8 8.0 5.8 4.3 7.3
Coral Madness F P 65 2.4 8 8.0 7.3 6.8 6.8
Red Flash G P 66 3.3 7 8.3 5.0 4.0 8.3
Rose Pearls M HP 66 2.2 10 8.3 7.5 4.5 4.3
Polo Blue M G 66 2.2 10 8.0 5.3 4.8 10.0
Falcon Blush Pink G IH 66 3.5 10 7.8 7.3 4.5 10.0
Laser Red G P 67 3.2 7 7.5 4.5 4.3 8.3
Supermagic White G P 68 3.2 9 6.3 6.3 5.0 10.0
Ultra Salmon G P 69 3.4 8 7.0 6.5 5.0 7.3
Blue Pearls M C 69 2.1 16 7.3 3.8 5.8 10.0
Carpet Red M P 70 2.3 6 7.5 7.3 8.0 6.5
Arctic Pearls M P 71 2.4 12 7.3 7.8 7.5 10.0
Light Salmon Pearls M VP 73 2.3 8 7.3 7.3 7.5 6.8
HSD (5%) 4.8 0.4 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.7 1.6







Table 4. Continued 3.

zF = floribunda, G = grandiflora, M = multiflora as defined by seed suppliers.
C = columnar, G = globular, H = hemispherical, I = intermediate between prostrate and hemispherical, P
= prostrate, V = very. Assessed 27 Mar 1991.
xFrom sowing 18 Jan 1991.
WMeasured flowers 4 Apr 1991, measured plant height 8 Apr 1991.
Rating 1 on 11 Apr 1991, Rating 2 on 18 Apr 1991 (post rain), Rating 3 on 7 May 1991. Rating scale:
0 = all plants dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable, 10 = excellent.
UNecrotic spots on flowers after pesticide sprays rated on a 1 to 10 scale where 1 = extreme damage and
10 = no damage.
tMean separation by Tukey's procedure, HSD 5% level.








Table 5. Differences in performance in replicated trial between
grandiflora and multiflora/floribunda types for fall 1991.

Multiflora/
Parameter Grandiflora Floribunda

Days to Flowerz 65.1 av 58.7 b
Flower Diameter (inches)Y 3.3 a 2.6 b
Plant Height (inches)y 10.2 a 10.5 a
Lodge Rating 1X 9.4 a 9.5 a
Lodge Rating 2W 6.6 a 7.1 a
Flowering Rating 1x 8.7 a 8.2 b
Flowering Rating 2W 7.5 b 8.9 a
Overall Rating lx 7.9 a 7.5 b
Overall Rating 2W 6.4 b 7.2 a

zFrom sowing 27 Aug 1991.
YMeasured flowers 19-22 Nov 1991, measured plant height 26-27 Nov 1991.
xRating 1 on 22 Nov 1991. Rating scale: 0 = all dead, 1 = very poor,
5 = borderline acceptable, 10 = excellent.
WRating 2 on 16 Dec 1991. Rating scale: 0 = all dead, 1 = very poor,
5 = borderline acceptable, 10 = excellent.
Mean separation between columns by Tukey's procedure, 5% level.








Table 6. Growth and performance of repl
(Planted 10 October 1991).


icated petunia cultivars in field beds during fall 1991.


Flowers Plantx Lodging Flowering Overall
Days toy Diameter Height Rating Rating Rating
Cultivar Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1" 2v 1w 2v 1W 2v


Horizon Bright Rose
Celebrity Hot Pink
Simply Madness
Horizon Salmon
Primetime Pink
Carpet White Improved
Polo Pink
Pink Madness
Horizon Scarlet
Primetime White
Celebrity Salmon
Midnight Madness
Carpet Salmon
Celebrity Blue
Horizon Light Salmon
Prism Light Salmon
White Dreams
Carpet Pink
Ultra Salmon
Horizon Ruby
Primetime Salmon
Polo Blue
Polo White
White Madness
Primetime Red
Celebrity White
Ultra Blue
Primetime Blue
Salmon Dreams


52u
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
56
56
57
57
57
58
58
59
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
61
61
62
62


2.6
2.9
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.2
2.4
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.8
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.7
3.4
3.1
2.5
3.3
2.8
2.7
2.3
3.0
3.0
2.5
2.9
3.2
2.3
3.3


8.4
11.0
11.7
8.5
12.1
12.6
13.0
10.9
7.7
13.0
9.9
14.6
9.2
10.6
10.2
10.1
11.3
8.7
10.3
10.4
9.1
12.8
15.2
10.1
6.6
12.6
12.0
13.1
9.5


10.0/ 9.5
10.0/ 5.3
8.3/ 4.3
10.0/10.0
9.5/ 5.8
9.8/ 5.8
9.3/ 5.8
10.0/ 5.5
10.0/10.0
10.0/ 8.0
10.0/ 7.0
9.5/ 5.0
10.0/ 6.8
7.0/ 5.8
10.0/ 6.0
10.0/ 7.0
10.0/ 5.3
10.0/ 7.8
9.8/ 6.8
10.0/ 8.0
10.0/ 8.5
9.5/ 4.3
8.0/ 5.3
10.0/ 9.5
10.0/10.0
8.5/ 5.8
7.5/ 3.8
8.0/ 4.3
10.0/ 7.5


8.3/ 8.5
8.5/ 9.3
8.8/ 8.5
8.8/ 8.0
9.5/10.0
8.5/10.0
9.0/ 9.8
8.0/ 8.5
8.3/ 7.5
9.0/ 9.3
8.8/ 8.0
8.3/10.0
8.3/ 8.8
8.8/10.0
8.5/10.0
9.8/ 8.3
9.0/ 8.3
7.8/ 9.0
8.5/ 8.3
8.5/ 9.5
7.8/ 8.8
7.5/ 9.5
8.5/ 8.8
8.5/ 9.0
6.0/ 6.3
9.0/ 9.5
9.3/ 7.8
8.5/10.0
9.3/ 9.3


7.0/8.5
8.3/6.3
7.8/5.5
8.0/8.0
9.3/7.5
8.0/7.3
8.5/7.3
8.3/6.3
6.8/8.0
8.5/7.8
8.0/7.3
8.0/7.3
8.3/7.3
6.5/8.3
8.3/7.3
9.3/7.5
8.5/6.3
7.5/8.3
7.5/7.3
8.0/8.0
7.3/8.8
7.5/5.5
7.3/5.5
7.8/8.5
5.0/6.8
7.8/6.5
7.3/5.0
6.5/5.8
9.0/7.8






Table 6. Continued 2.


Flowers Plantx Lodging Flowering Overall
Days toy Diameter Height Rating Rating Rating
Cultivar Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1" 2v 1w 2v 1w 2v


Falcon Blue
Blue Dreams
Ultra Pink
Prism Dark Rose
Supercascade Salmon
Ultra White
Supercascade Pink
Falcon White
Blue Flash
Blue Pearls
Prism Salmon
Supercascade White
Highlight Pink
Prism Bright Red
Pink Dreams
White Flash
Red Madness
Light Salmon Pearls
Supercascade Blue
Falcon Salmon
Highlight Blue
Celebrity Red
Falcon Red
Highlight Coral
Red Dreams
Highlight Scarlet
Ultra Red
Supermagic White
Supermagic Red
Carpet Red
HSD (5%)


62
63
63
63
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
65
65
65
65
66
66
66
67
67
67
67
68
68
70
72
74
74
75
76
5.7


3.2
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.4
3.7
3.9
3.8
3.2
2.0
3.4
3.7
3.1
3.6
3.3
4.0
2.6
2.1
3.3
2.8
3.1
2.8
3.4
3.0
3.2
2.8
3.6
3.3
3.1
2.4
0.4


11.5
10.6
11.3
8.1
10.7
12.7
12.4
11.3
12.4
13.1
9.6
12.8
9.9
7.7
9.7
13.2
6.8
8.1
13.5
11.3
12.4
7.5
8.6
9.0
5.8
7.0
6.8
9.6
6.4
6.2
2.6


7.5/ 4.5
5.8/ 4.5
10.0/ 5.5
10.0/ 9.5
10.0/ 5.8
9.5/ 4.8
9.8/ 5.0
10.0/ 8.0
7.8/ 5.0
7.0/ 5.0
9.8/ 6.0
9.5/ 5.5
10.0/ 6.0
10.0/10.0
10.0/ 8.8
10.0/ 5.5
10.0/10.0
10.0/ 6.0
7.8/ 3.8
8.5/ 6.3
10.0/ 5.0
10.0/10.0
10.0/ 8.0
10.0/ 6.0
10.0/10.0
10.0/ 8.5
10.0/ 9.0
10.0/ 7.8
10.0/10.0
10.0/10.0
2.3/ 3.2


9.5/ 7.5
9.8/ 8.0
9.3/ 8.0
8.3/ 6.5
9.8/ 8.3
9.0/ 7.0
8.5/ 7.8
8.3/ 7.5
8.8/ 7.0
8.3/10.0
9.3/ 7.5
8.8/ 8.3
9.3/ 8.8
8.0/ 5.5
8.8/ 7.8
8.5/ 7.0
7.3/ 6.8
6.5/ 8.8
9.8/ 8.8
9.8/ 8.8
7.3/ 6.8
8.3/ 8.3
8.3/ 6.0
7.8/ 8.3
7.5/ 7.0
7.5/ 6.3
7.8/ 5.3
7.5/ 7.8
7.3/ 5.3
5.5/ 7.3
2.6/ 2.1


7.5/5.8
6.0/6.3
8.8/6.0
7.8/7.0
9.0/7.0
8.5/4.5
8.0/5.8
8.3/7.0
7.8/5.3
6.3/6.8
9.0/7.0
7.8/6.3
8.3/7.3
7.8/6.0
9.0/8.0
8.8/5.8
6.8/6.8
7.3/7.5
8.0/5.5
8.3/7.8
7.0/5.5
8.3/8.5
8.0/6.3
7.5/6.8
7.3/6.8
7.3/6.8
6.0/6.0
7.3/7.3
6.3/5.8
5.3/7.5
3.1/3.0






Table 6. Continued 3.


zF = floribunda, G = grandiflora, M = multiflora as defined by seed suppliers.
YFrom sowing 27 Aug 1991.
XMeasured flowers 19-22 Nov 1991, measured plant height 26-27 Nov 1991.
WRating 1 on 22 Nov 1991. Rating scale: 0 = all dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable, 10
= excellent.
VRating 2 on 16 Dec 1991. Rating scale: 0 = all dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable, 10
= excellent.
uMean separation by Tukey's procedure, 5% level.






Table 7. Growth and performance of petunia entries in demonstration trial during spring 1991.
(Planted 27 February 1991).


Flowers Plantw Floweru
Days toy Diameter Height Overall Ratings' Damage
Entry Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1 2 3 Rating

Horizon Bright Rose M 53t 2.6 6.9 9 8 8 6
Horizon Salmon M 54 2.5 7.7 9 7 6 8
Horizon Scarlet M 54 2.5 7.9 9 8 7 8
Sheer Madness M 54 2.6 8.8 9 8 5 9
Freedom Pink F 55 2.6 7.9 10 9 7 5
Horizon Ruby M 55 2.6 10.5 9 10 7 8
Primetime Burgundy Star M 55 3.0 9.5 8 7 3 8
Primetime Coral M 55 2.7 7.8 8 6 5 7
Celebrity Lilac F 56 3.0 11.5 9 8 4 8
Freedom Plum F 56 2.2 9.0 9 8 7 8
Freedom Raspberry Vein F 56 3.0 8.2 9 7 6 9
Lilac Madness M 56 2.4 12.5 7 6 6 8
Polo Rose M 56 2.5 11.3 9 9 5 7
Primetime Light Pink Veined M 56 2.6 12.3 9 5 4 9
Prism Dark Rose G 56 3.4 7.8 7 5 7 7
Prism Scarlet Salmon G 56 3.6 8.2 9 7 4 8
Supercascade Blue G 56 3.3 13.7 10 7 8 10
White Carpet Improved M 57 2.2 13.3 10 9 3 10
Celebrity Blue Ice F 57 3.2 10.3 8 6 4 10
Celebrity Raspberry Ice F 57 2.4 8.6 8 6 5 8
Falcon Red Vein G 57 3.1 12.3 6 3 5 7
Horizon Light Salmon M 57 2.8 9.2 10 8 5 7
Polo Pink Veined M 57 2.6 11.8 10 5 5 9
Primetime Pink Veined M 57 2.6 12.4 8 6 4 8
Primetime Red Star M 57 2.7 7.4 9 7 5 8
Primetime Rose M 57 2.3 8.5 10 9 5 6
Prism Light Salmon G 57 3.4 8.6 8 7 5 10
Celebrity Strawberry Ice F 58 2.9 8.6 7 6 7 9
Primetime Plum M 58 2.3 12.6 10 8 4 9








Table 7. Continued 2.


Flowers Plantw Floweru
Days toY Diameter Height Overall Ratingsv Damage
Entry Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1 2 3 Rating

Prism Scarlet G 58 3.5 7.5 8 6 7 8
Ultra Rose G 58 3.7 13.8 8 5 6 7
Blue Daddy G 59 3.2 11.5 9 8 7 10
Freedom Blue F 59 2.3 13.4 8 6 7 10
Freedom Blue Star F 59 2.3 10.5 7 7 4 10
Freedom Summertime F 59 2.8 7.7 9 8 4 10
Polo Rose Flare M 59 2.4 13.7 8 6 5 5
Celebrity Pink Morn F 60 2.6 10.5 9 8 6 7
Falcon Coral G 60 3.1 10.2 8 5 5 8
Sugar Madness M 60 2.7 9.8 10 9 5 8
Prism Salmon G 60 3.5 11.0 9 6 5 8
Ultra Burgundy G 60 3.6 9.8 7 6 4 9
Celebrity Burgundy F 61 2.9 8.8 9 8 6 9
Celebrity Summer Ice F 61 2.4 10.2 7 5 4 8
Strawberry Daddy G 61 3.6 10.2 5 4 3 10
Freedom White F 61 2.6 13.2 7 6 8 10
Orchid Madness M 61 2.5 12.8 9 6 5 10
Plum Madness M 61 2.3 11.7 8 7 5 8
Rose Madness M 61 2.5 7.9 8 7 7 6
Summer Madness M 61 2.2 10.3 10 8 4 9
Polo Red Target M 61 2.3 8.3 10 8 8 8
Polo Velvet M 61 2.5 12.3 9 6 5 6
Ultra Plum G 61 3.7 9.1 8 6 4 10
Americana Mix G 62 2.5 9.1 7 6 7 5
Peppermint Daddy G 62 3.6 11.5 8 6 5 10
Freedom Red F 62 2.6 6.3 9 8 8 5
Celebrity Orchid Ice F 63 2.6 11.3 8 7 4 10
Falcon Red Morn G 63 3.2 12.2 7 4 4 9
Rose Flash G 63 3.5 10.6 8 7 5 7
Polo Blue Star M 63 2.3 10.8 4 4 3 10
Polo Burgundy Star M 63 2.3 8.0 6 7 7 4
Primetime Blue Star M 63 2.5 8.3 7 7 4 10
Orchid Daddy G 64 3.8 11.2 7 5 5 10





Table 7. Continued 3.


Flowers Plant" Floweru
Days toy Diameter Height Overall Ratinqsv Damage
Entry Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1 2 3 Rating
Falcon Burgundy G 64 3.8 11.5 8 6 4 8
Deep Rose Pearls M 64 2.3 11.7 10 8 4 4
Primetime Light Blue M 64 2.3 11.3 8 8 5 10
Primetime Rose Star M 64 2.5 9.3 9 8 6 6
Tahitian Pearls M 65 2.4 7.8 9 7 7 7
Ultra Peppermint G 65 3.5 12.2 6 4 3 10
Velvet Flash G 66 3.7 10.2 7 4 3 10
Falcon Plum Vein G 67 3.2 8.8 8 5 4 10
Primetime Burgundy M 67 2.4 10.2 8 8 4 5
Pink Daddy G 68 3.5 12.1 7 5 4 10
Falcon Pink Vein Improved G 68 3.5 9.8 8 5 5 10
Burgundy Madness M 68 2.5 7.9 8 7 4 5
Silver Madness M 68 2.1 13.7 7 6 4 10
Sugar Daddy M 71 3.5 15.3 7 4 5 10
Laser Lavender G 73 3.3 12.5 8 7 3 10

zF = floribunda, G = grandiflora, M = multiflora as defined by seed suppliers.
YC = columnar, G = globular, H = hemispherical, I = intermediate between prostrate and hemispherical, P
= prostrate, V = very. Assessed 27 Mar 1991.
xFrom sowing 18 Jan 1991.
UMeasured flowers 4 Apr 1991, measured plant height 8 Apr 1991.
VRating 1 on 11 Apr 1991, Rating 2 on 18 Apr 1991 (post rain), Rating 3 on 7 May 1991. Rating scale:
0 = all plants dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable, 10 = excellent.
uNecrotic spots on flowers after pesticide sprays rated on a 1 to 10 scale where 1 = extreme damage and
10 = no damage.
tMeans averaged over 14 plants per plot.







Table 8. Growth and performance of petunia entries in demonstration trial during fall 1991.
(Planted 10 October 1991).


Flowers Plantx Lodging Flowering Overall
Days toy Diameter Height Rating Rating Rating
Entry Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1" 2v 1W 2v 1 2

Freedom Pink F 53u 2.8 14.7 10 7 9 10 9 8
Primetime Plum M 53 2.5 14.1 8 7 7 10 6 7
Freedom Blue F 55 2.3 14.7 8 6 7 9 6 7
Freedom Raspberry Vein F 55 2.9 11.6 10 7 9 9 8 8
Lilac Madness M 56 2.4 13.3 9 6 8 9 8 7
Primetime Light Pink Veined M 56 2.6 15.0 10 5 9 8 9 7
Freedom Plum F 57 2.3 12.4 10 7 8 8 8 7
Freedom White F 57 3.0 14.1 8 6 10 9 8 7
Primetime Pink Veined M 57 2.9 14.0 10 6 9 10 8 7
Primetime Rose M 57 2.3 10.8 10 8 9 10 9 9
Supercascade Lilac G 57 3.8 12.9 8 6 10 8 9 6
Celebrity Lilac F 59 3.0 14.0 10 5 9 9 9 7
Celebrity Pink Morn F 59 2.6 13.4 10 7 9 10 9 8
Freedom Summertime F 59 3.0 13.4 10 7 7 8 7 7
Celebrity Ice Mixture F 61 2.8 13.6 10 6 8 8 7 7
Polo Rose Flare M 61 2.8 14.6 10 5 9 10 9 6
Primetime Light Blue M 61 2.4 14.8 10 6 8 9 8 6
Ultra Rose G 61 3.4 14.4 10 6 9 8 8 7
Celebrity Burgundy F 62 2.9 15.3 10 6 9 9 9 7
Falcon Pastel Salmon G 62 3.3 11.3 10 5 10 8 10 7
Ultra Peppermint G 62 3.3 12.7 10 5 9 8 9 7
Blue Daddy G 63 3.2 15.7 10 7 10 10 10 8
Experimental Double
Rose/White M 63 2.5 15.3 10 6 7 9 7 6
Primetime Burgundy M 63 2.4 14.6 10 6 8 9 8 7
Ultra Plum G 63 3.1 13.4 10 5 9 8 9 7
Experimental Double Coral M 64 2.6 15.4 10 5 5 9 6 6
Falcon Red Vein G 64 3.3 12.8 9 6 9 8 9 6
Falcon Red Morn G 65 2.9 12.9 10 6 8 8 8 6





Table 8. Continued 2.


Flowers Plantx Lodging Flowering Overall
Days toy Diameter Height Rating Rating Rating
Entry Typez Flower (inches) (inches) 1w 2 1 2 1" w 2

Ultra Burgundy G 65 3.5 10.9 10 9 9 7 8 8
Falcon Pink Veined G 68 3.4 13.8 10 6 9 8 10 6
Supercascade Blush Improved G 68 3.8 11.8 10 8 10 8 9 7
Falcon Plum Veined G 72 3.9 13.8 10 6 8 8 9 7
Supercascade Rose G 74 3.2 12.9 10 5 10 8 9 7
Experimental Double
Peppermint M 75 2.7 13.4 10 5 7 8 7 6
Experimental Double White M 75 2.4 17.5 10 6 5 8 5 7
Experimental Double Burgundy M 87 2.9 15.3 10 7 1 9 2 7


zF = floribunda, G = grandiflora, M = mu
YFrom sowing 27 Aug 1991.
xMeasured flowers 19-22 Nov 1991, measure
WRating 1 on 22 Nov 1991. Rating scale:
= excellent.
VRating 2 on 16 Dec 1991. Rating scale:
10 = excellent.
uMeans averaged over 14 plants per plot.


Itiflora as defined by seed suppliers.

ed plant height 26-27 Nov 1991.
0 = all dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable, 10

0 = all dead, 1 = very poor, 5 = borderline acceptable,








The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center


The Gulf Coast Research and Education Center is
a unit of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sci-
ences, University of Florida. The Research Center
originated in the fall of 1925 as the Tomato
Disease Laboratory with the primary objective of
developing control procedures for an epidemic out-
break of nailhead spot of tomato. Research was ex-
panded in subsequent years to include study of sev-
eral other tomato diseases.

In 1937, new research facilities were established
in the town of Manatee, and the Center scope was
enlarged to include horticultural, entomological, and
soil science studies of several vegetable crops. The
ornamental program was a natural addition to the
Center's responsibilities because of the emerging in-
dustry in the area in the early 1940's.

The Center's current location was established in
1965 where a comprehensive research and extension
program on vegetable crops and ornamental plants is
conducted. Three state extension specialists posi-
tions, 16 state research scientists, and two grant
supported scientists from various disciplines of
training participate in all phases of vegetable and
ornamental horticultural programs. This interdisci-
plinary team approach, combining'several research
disciplines and a wide range of industry and faculty
contacts, often is more productive than could be ac-
complished with limited investments in independent
programs.


The Center's primary mission is to develop new
and expand existing knowledge and technology, and
to disseminate new scientific knowledge in Florida, so
that agriculture remains efficient and economically
sound.

The secondary mission of the Center is to assist
the Cooperative Extension Service, IFAS campus
departments, in which Center faculty hold appropri-
ate liaison appointments, and other research centers
in extension, educational training, and cooperative
research programs for the benefit of Florida's pro-
ducers, students, and citizens.

Program areas of emphasis include: (1) genetics,
breeding, and variety development and evaluation;
(2) biological, chemical, and mechanical pest manage-
ment in entomology, plant pathology, nematology,
bacteriology, virology, and weed science; (3) produc-
tion efficiency, culture, management, and counteract-
ing environmental stress; (4) water management and
natural resource protection; (5) post-harvest physiol-
ogy, harvesting, handling and food quality of horti-
cultural crops; (6) technical support and assistance to
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service; and (7)
advancement offundamental knowledge of disciplines
represented by faculty and (8) directing graduate
student training and teaching special undergraduate
classes.


Location of
GCREC Bradenton


IFAS IS:
0 The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
" A statewide organization dedicated to teaching,
research and extension.
" Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research
and education centers, 67 county extension
offices and four demonstration units throughout
the state.
) A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural
and renewable resource research and education,
funded by state, federal and local government,
and by gifts and grants from individuals, founda-
tions, government and industry.
Q An organization whose mission is:
Educating students in the food, agricultural,
and related sciences and natural resources.
Strengthening Florida's diverse food and
agricultural industry and its environment
through research.
Enhancing for all Floridians, the application
of research and knowledge to improve the
quality of life statewide through IFAS exten-
sion programs.




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