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Group Title: Bradenton GCREC research report - University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center ; BRA1990-12
Title: Highlights of significant research and development
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065244/00001
 Material Information
Title: Highlights of significant research and development ornamental, strawberry, and vegetable crops, Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, Bradenton, Dover, 1989
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 18 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Jones, J. P ( John Paul ), 1932-
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton Fla.
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Research -- Florida -- Bradenton   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: edited by Will E. Waters and J.P. Jones.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065244
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63821855

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





GCREC Bradenton Research Report BRA 1990-12
jc s
io -/ U


MIUHLI iH I t

RESEARCH


OF

AND


I


SIGNIFICANT

DEVELOPMENT


ORNAMENTAL, STRAWBERRY, and VEGETABLE CROPS


GULF COAST
Central Science
RESEARCH & EDUCATION CE TE Libra ry

BRADENTON DOVER I SEP 18 1O9
BEE University of Florida




1989



Edited by
Will E. Waters and J. P. Jones J




























UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IFAS IS:

- The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida.
-QA statewide organization dedicated to teaching, research,
and extension.
o Faculty located in Gainesville and at 13 research and
education centers and 67 county extension offices through-
out the state.
-A partnership in food and agriculture, and natural and
renewable resource research and education, funded by state,
federal and local government, and by gifts and grants from
individuals, foundations, government and industry.
DAn organization whose mission is:
--Educating students in the food, agricultural, and related
sciences.
--Strengthening Florida's diverse food and agricultural
industry and its environments through research.
--Enhancing for all Floridians the application of research
and knowledge to improve the quality of life statewide
through IFAS extension programs.






Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, Florida 34203










TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I ORNAMENTAL CROPS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR 1989

PLANT BREEDING, GENETICS, CULTIVAR EVALUATION INCLUDING BIOTECHNOLOGY
OF ORNAMENTAL CROPS

Breeding and Genetics G. J. Wilfret........................... 1
Tomato Breeding J. W. Scott and B. K. Harbaugh................ 2
Cultivar Evaluation T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters............... 2

BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PEST MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT IN
ORNAMENTAL CROPS IN THE AREAS OF ENTOMOLOGY, PLANT PATHOLOGY,
NEMATOLOGY, BACTERIOLOGY AND WEED SCIENCE

Entomology J. F. Price, D. J. Schuster and J. B. Kring........ 3
Plant Pathology A. W. Engelhard, J. B. Jones, S. S. Woltz..... 3
Weed Science J. P. Gilreath................................... 5

PRODUCTION, CULTURE, MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF
ORNAMENTAL CROPS

Nutrition, Production, and Environmental Factors -
B. K. Harbaugh............................................. 6
Plant Physiology and Nutrition S. S. Woltz.................... 7
Ornamental Plant Growth Regulators G. J. Wilfret............. 8

WATER MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS

Poinsettia Irrigation C. D. Stanley, B. K. Harbaugh, and
G. A. Clark............................ 8

TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS TO THE FLORIDA
EXTENSION SERVICE

Economics J. W. Prevatt....................................... 9


PART II VEGETABLE CROPS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR 1989

PLANT BREEDING, GENETICS, CULTIVAR EVALUATION INCLUDING BIOTECHNOLOGY
OF VEGETABLE CROPS

Tomato Breeding and Genetics J. W. Scott...................... 10
Strawberry Breeding and Genetics C. K. Chandler............... 10
Cultivar Evaluation T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters............... 10
Specialty Vegetable Evaluation D. N. Maynard.................. 12










TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont.)
Page

BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PEST MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR
VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE AREAS OF ENTOMOLOGY, PLANT PATHOLOGY,
NEMATOLOGY, BACTERIOLOGY AND WEED SCIENCE

Entomology D. J. Schuster, J. B. Kring, and J. F. Price....... 12
Pathology of Vegetable Crops- J. P. Jones, J. B. Jones,
G. C. Somodi, and S. S. Woltz................... 13
Pathology of Strawberries C. M. Howard........................ 14
Nematology A. J. Overman ..................................... 15
Weed Science J. P. Gilreath.................................. 16

PRODUCTION, CULTURE, MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF VEGETABLE
CROPS

Vegetable Crops A. A. Csizinszky, S. S. Woltz, and
C. M. Geraldson ............................ 16
Strawberry Crops E. E. Albregts............................... 17

WATER MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION FOR VEGETABLE CROPS

Water Program G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley,
D. N. Maynard, and A. A. Csizinszky............. 17

TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE IN VEGETABLE CROPS TO THE FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE

Economics J. W. Prevatt...................................... 18












HIGHLIGHTS OF SIGNIFICANT ORNAMENTAL AND VEGETABLE CROPS
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS FROM GCREC FOR 1989

INTRODUCTION

Outlined below is a brief summary of the most significant research and
extension accomplishments in ornamentals, vegetables, and strawberry crops
from the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center for 1989. Each entry is
listed under one project leader by subject matter area, yet many of the
studies involve several scientists. If more information is desired on any of
these areas, please contact the first research leader listed under each
heading.

ORNAMENTAL CROPS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FOR 1989

I. PLANT BREEDING, GENETICS, CULTIVAR EVALUATION INCLUDING BIOTECHNOLOGY OF
ORNAMENTAL CROPS

A. Breeding and Genetics G. J. Wilfret

1. Caladium: Over 300 advanced seedling lines were evaluated in
observational plots for landscape use and tuber production; 170
of these were grown in 6" pots to evaluate their potential as
potted plants. Forty-two colored-leaf seedlings and 28 white-
leaf seedlings were evaluated in field replicated trials for
tuber production and in pots for container production. Crosses
were made among solid leaf and spotted seedlings to study mode
of inheritance of spot color; crosses were made among 'White
Christmas', 'Candidum Jr.', and a "Candidum-like" mutation from
'White Christmas' to study inheritance of "blotch" in caladiums.
Over 5,000 seedlings were propagated for further evaluation.
Seedlings #30 ('Florida Elise'), #201 ('Florida Fantasy') and
#206 ('Florida Sweetheart') were accepted for release in 1990.

2. Poinsettia: .Twenty-four new cultivars were evaluated in
replicated trials and crosses were made among branching and non-
branching types to study mode of inheritance of this
characteristic. Seedlings will be grown in 1990 for evaluation.

3. Gladiolus: Crosses were made among 'Dr. Magie' (salmon-pink)
and GCREC seedlings to incorporate spike length and quality with
disease resistance in the spring. Seedlings will be evaluated
in two years upon flowering. Unfortunately, the fall crosses
were frozen on December 24-25, 1989.










4. Amaryllis: Over 180 genotypes were evaluated for flowering
date, floral characteristics, and asexual reproductive
characteristics. Plants are being selected for short peduncles
for forcing in pots as well as plants for the landscape to
extend the color availability and also the flowering dates.
Crosses were made among 121 seedlings and over 18,000 seedlings
were planted in the field for evaluation in 1991.

B. Tomato Breeding J. W. Scott and B. K. Harbaugh

1. Micro-Tom: A new tomato cultivar, Micro-Tom, was released for
the ornamental industry. This is the world's smallest tomato
variety and is a decorative plant with edible fruit. Detailed
production guidelines for the commercial ornamental industry as
well as for home gardeners were developed and published.

C. Cultivar Evaluation T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters

1. Marigold: Ninety-six cvs. of Tagetes spp. were evaluated in the
spring of 1989 and 111 cvs. were evaluated in the fall of 1989.
The cultivars were evaluated for earliness to flower, flower
diameter, flower type and color, plant height and diameter,
growth habit, uniformity and overall appearance. Data from the
spring trial can be summarized as follows: The range of time
from sowing to the first flower was 41 to 65 days. Fifty-nine
cvs. flowered in 50 days or less whereas six cvs. flowered at 60
days or longer. Greatest flower size was produced by 'Cortez
Yellow' (3.8 inches) followed by 'Inca Gold' (3.6 inches).
These were significantly larger flowers than any other cultivar.
Fifty-four cvs., all French or triploid types, produced flowers
less than 2.0 inches in diameter. When rated on a 1 to 10 scale
(where 10 is best) for overall appearance, all cvs. received
ratings greater than 8 early in the season. By mid-season, of
the 12 ratings below 8.0, 6 cvs. were triploid or tetraploid
types. At season's end, 16 cvs. were rated below 7 and of
these, 7 cvs. were triploid or tetraploid types.

2. Assorted Flowering Bedding Plants: The summer trial included a
survey of 87 cvs. from 18 genera emphasizing the potential for
color in summer bedding plants. The fall trial contained 113
cvs. from 14 genera. Measurements included those as listed
above for marigold. These trials served to introduce new
cultivars to growers, extension service personnel, landscapers,
and allied horticultural industries as well as to provide a
background of information on which to base future evaluation
work.

3. Ornamental cabbage: Since fertilizer rate is thought to
influence foliar coloration, 'Color Up Pink' and 'Osaka Pink'
were chosen for a factorial experiment with six rates of a slow
release fertilizer, Osmocote 14-14-14. Plants are presently in
the field and no data has been taken as of December 1989.










II. BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PEST MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT IN
ORNAMENTAL CROPS IN THE AREAS OF ENTOMOLOGY, PLANT PATHOLOGY, NEMATOLOGY,
BACTERIOLOGY AND WEED SCIENCE.

A. Entomology J. F. Price, D. J. Schuster and J. B. Kring

1. Sweetpotato Whitefly Exclusion: Numerous shade fabrics were
evaluated for their properties to exclude the sweetpotato
whitefly from horticultural crops. Fabrics having woven holes
less than 400 microns on a side excluded almost all sweetpotato
whiteflies.

2. Sweetpotato Whitefly Behavior: Sweetpotato whiteflies were
found not to penetrate some woven fabrics having holes that
could accommodate the passage of the whitefly. It was found
that when whiteflies' antennae contacted a fabric's thread, the
attempt to penetrate the fabric usually ceased.

3. Encarsia transvena Parasite for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly:
This beneficial insect was found to attack certain stages of
immature sweetpotato whitefly successfully. However, the rate
of attack did not increase sufficiently as the whitefly density
increased.

4. Indigenous Regulators of the Sweetpotato Whitefly: Predators
such as ants were found to eliminate sweetpotato whitefly
individuals more frequently than did parasitoids under sparse
sweetpotato whitefly conditions in the field.

5. Synergistic Effects of Pesticides: Important synergistic
effects of the fenpropathrin pyrethroid and acephate
organophosphorous insecticides applied to sweetpotato whitefly
were found.

6. New Insecticides for Control of Sweetpotato Whitefly: Numerous
new insecticides were evaluated for control of various
lifestages of the sweetpotato whitefly. Selections included
insect growth regulators, oils and other compounds. Effective
selections were identified.

B. Plant Pathology A. W. Engelhard, J. B. Jones, and S. S. Woltz

1. Alternaria disease control:

a. Poinsettia: The No. 1 pot plant in Florida and the nation
is severely affected by Alternaria blight. Cultural and
chemical control measures have been developed. Reaction of
germplasm (25 cultivars) to this pathogen resulted in the
identification of the resistance-susceptibility reaction of
the cultivars grown in Florida and will allow improved
programming for disease management for this destructive
crop-pathogen combination.










b. Carnation: The dwarf carnation, a relatively new bedding
plant, is a genetic dwarf of the carnations used for cut
flowers. Alternaria dianthi causes a serious leaf spot and
blight on these plants.

c. Marigold: The marigold is one of our top 10 bedding
plants. They are susceptible to a severe blight caused by
Alternaria tagetes. There also is interest in Chile, El
Salvador and Mexico in this crop as a commercial source of
Xanthophyll that is used in the poultry industry.


d. Dusty Miller: Seedlings
and larger plants are
which apparently has not
miller.


of this bedding plant are killed
spotted by Alternaria cinerariae
been previously reported on dusty


e. Geranium: Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria alternate) was
isolated from geranium plants.

f. Chemical Control of Alternaria blight on carnation,
marigold and dusty miller: Generally, iprodione and
chlorothalonil gave good disease control. Mancozeb ranged
from good control to poor, depending on the crop and test.
Tank-mix combinations of benomyl and either chlorothalonil
or iprodione, each at half rate, produced good disease
control and have value in reducing the selection for
resistance and also would increase the spectrum of
fungitoxicity to a wider range of fungi. Vinclozolin gave
commercially poor disease control.

2. Scab (Sphaceloma poinsettiicola) on poinsettia: Research was
completed on evaluating the reaction of germplasm (about 25
cvs.) to scab and no significant resistance to this destructive
disease was found.

3. Pseudomonas viridiflava: A fluorescent Pseudomonas was found to
cause a stem canker and leaf spot on poinsettia. Through
biochemical, soft rot and tobacco hypersensitivity tests, the
bacterium was determined to be Pseudomonas viridiflava.

4. Book: Publication of the book entitled "Soilborne Plant
Piatogens: Management of Diseases with Macro- and Microelements"
was edited by Dr. A. W. Engelhard and published by the A.P.S.
Press. The press release stated "Until now no book has been
available on the nutrition, and pH in relation to diseases
caused by soilborne plant pathogens. This book brings together
in one volume important biological relationships between
nutrition and disease. Each chapter describes one or more
elements which play a role in reducing control will determine
how much we can reduce our dependence on pesticides. Presented
in this book is information which is at the cutting edge of
biological relationships which can lead to non-pesticidal
control of soilborne disease."









5. Crown rot of Lisianthus: The pathogen was identified as
Fusarium solani. Production of the disease was accomplished by
soil infestation and inoculation of cuttings before rooting.
Disease severity was increased by supplemental ammonium-nitrogen
fertilization. Indications are that higher soil pH-and calcium
will reduce the disease, but sanitation and exclusion are
presently the best methods. This crown rot is not easily
produced and further research is needed.

6. Fusarium wilt of Aster: Liming media with increasingly higher
levels of powdered calcium carbonate decreased disease severity
stepwise. Applications of a micronutrient mix had no
discernible effect on Fusarium wilt. Attention to adequate
micronutrient supply and avoidance of iron deficiency by too-
high pH and/or low iron supply was found to be a necessary part
of the program, in conjunction with the usual sanitation and
pathogen exclusion practices.

7. A procedure was developed termed, "Magnetic immunoisolation of
plant pathogenic bacteria", which is very sensitive for
purification of the target organism while eliminating a high
level of contaminating microbes.

8. Procedures were developed for the production of monoclonal
antibodies with a high degree of specificity for plant
pathogenic bacteria. These will be useful for diagnostics for
rapid and sensitive detection of the bacterium.

C. Weed Science J. P. Gilreath

1. Registration of Kerb for use on gladiolus: Research was
conducted with commercial producers and the manufacturer to
develop the data necessary for registration of Kerb (pronamide)
for use on gladiolus for control of morning glories and other
broadleaf weeds. During 1989, in cooperation with the
manufacturer, Rohm and Haas, assembled the necessary data
package for review by the EPA and assisted in writing and
reviewing the proposed label. Registration of Kerb for weed
control in gladiolus is expected in early 1990.

2. Registration of Pennant for control of sprangletop in St.
Augustine grass: Cooperative studies were conducted with the
Manatee County ornamental extension agent, a researcher from A.
Duda and Sons, and 3 of the major sod producers in Florida to
evaluate herbicides for control of sprangletop in St. Augustine
sod. It was determined that Pennant (metolachlor) provides 95 to
100% control of both species of sprangletop when applied
preemergence in St. Augustine without crop phytotoxicity and at
economical rates. In cooperation with Ciba-Geigy, the necessary
data package was assembled for label for registration of Pennant
for this use in Florida.










3. Spotted spurge control in container-grown ornamentals: Spotted
spurge (Chemaesyce maculata) has become one of the three most
troublesome weeds in container ornamental production in the
southern U.S. During the summer of 1989, in cooperation with
the Manatee County office of the Florida Cooperative Extension
Service and a local nursery, herbicides were evaluated for
control of spotted spurge. Twenty-one herbicide treatments were
evaluated for control of spotted spurge (Chemaesyce maculata)
and phytotoxicity to 9 species of container-grown ornamentals.
Most treatments were combinations of registered products. As a
result of this research, our grower-cooperator and several other
key nurserymen have altered their herbicide programs to obtain
effective control of spotted spurge.

4. Weed control in nursery-grown sea oats: Sea oats have become an
important native plant species in Florida and other southern
coastal states due to their importance in dune restoration and
stabilization of coastlines. Currently, there are no herbicides
labeled for use on sea oats nor is scientific literature
available related to weed control in sea oats. Research was
initiated in preemergence weed control in containerized sea
oats. Approximately 26 herbicides were evaluated in 3
experiments in 1989. The final experiment identified 3
herbicides which appear to fulfill industry's needs, but will
require testing by each nursery to determine if they are
acceptable with their specific strain of sea oats.

5. Clover control in cut flower crops: No currently labeled
herbicides control clover in flower crops and soil fumigation
appears to increase the population rather .than reduce it.
Weeding costs are estimated at well in excess of $1,000 per
acre. Greenhouse and field experiments on a commercial farm
were conducted during 1988 and 1989. From replicated field
trials in the winter of 1989-90, it appears that several
herbicides are capable of controlling clover, but response of
the nine crops has varied greatly.


III. PRODUCTION, CULTURE, MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF ORNAMENTAL
CROPS

A. Nutrition, Production, and Environmental Factors B. K. Harbaugh

1. The effectiveness of commercial sources of calcium and wetting
agents to be used to control marginal bract necrosis, a
transitory localized calcium deficiency of poinsettia, was
evaluated. Fertilizer grade calcium sources were as effective
and safe as laboratory sources.









2. Eustoma grandiflorum: Cultural practices for production of this
potentially new potted plant, bedding plant and cut flower for
Florida's ornamental industry were developed and refined.
Research was initiated on the interaction of pH and micro
elements to define the importance of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe and B alone
and in combinations for growth and flowering, and to establish
visual deficiency or toxicity symptoms. The relationship
between heat stress and rosette growth habit was established.

3. Achimenes grandiflora: Temperature induced dormancy will allow
storage of achimenes without cold injury. Information will
benefit both Florida's growers producing potted plants as well
as those producing rhizomes for marketing throughout the U.S.

4. Streptocarpus production: Light intensity was found to be
extremely critical for Streptocarpus production, with PAR
greater than 300 -s- mol.s .m detrimental for all growth
parameters.


5. Research results on ideal shipping temperatures
caladiums were published and the effect of heat
on prefinished plants in transit was described.


for prefinished
and cold stress


6. The beneficial effects from use of tissue cultured stock of
caladiums was found to be three years. Yields were actually
reduced after three years if tissue cultured stock were planted
on nonfumigated soil, indicating the rebound effect from
pathogens entering clean stock could cause greater loss than if
commercial stocks were used.


B. Plant Physiology and Nutrition S. S. Woltz

1. Poinsettia Bract Necrosis: It was concluded that marginal bract
necrosis (MBN) of poinsettia is a physiological disorder caused
basically by the absence of adequate soluble calcium delivered
to the bract margins. The delivery was impaired by low
transpiration, excess competitive cations in media and low
available calcium. Inefficient cultivars would not transport
sufficient available calcium even though soil supplies were kept
intentionally very high. Carefully administered foliar sprays
of calcium prevented MBN.

2. Post-planting media adjustments: Corrections for media problems
in too high or too low pH and excess micronutrients involved
media pour-through applications of powdered calcium carbonate,
phosphoric acid and ferrous sulfate.





-8-


C. Growth Regulators G. J. Wilfret

1. Chrysanthemums: Five cultivars were treated with 3
concentrations of 3 growth regulators at different application
methods (directed vs. area sprays) and at different volumes.
Uniconazole (Sumagic) was effective with most cultivars at 10
ppm with a directed spray of 20ml/plant or as an area spray of 2
qts/100 sq ft. Paclobutrazol (Bonzi) required 150 ppm to attain
the same height of plants and SADH (B-Nine) needed 2 or 3
applications of 2500 ppm to produce plants of similar size.
Concentrations above 30 ppm Sumagic delayed flowering.

2. Poinsettia: Cultivars A. Hegg Diva and V-14 Glory required
single applications of Sumagic and Bonzi at 10 and 60 ppm,
respectively, to produce plants equivalent to 2 applications of
a combination of Cycocel (2000 ppm) + B-Nine (1000 ppm) or 2-3
applications of Cycocel alone at 2000 ppm. A directed spray of
15 ml/plant produced plants equivalent to an area spray of 2
qts/100 sq. ft. Combinations of B-Nine and Cycocel at
concentrations of 1000 ppm and 2000 ppm, respectively, retarded
plant height without delaying bract development. Pretreatment
of stock plants with growth regulators had a residual effect on
subsequent plant height of cuttings, even when the resultant
plants were treated with a growth retardant.

3. Easter Lily: Single and multiple applications of growth
regulators were applied as a foliar spray or soil drench in
comparison to a preplant bulb dip. Foliar sprays of Sumagic at
10-15 ppm produced plants of similar height to ancymidol (A-
Rest) at 30 ppm. Soil drenches of Sumagic, Bonzi, and A-Rest
produced equivalent plants with 0.09, 4.0 and 0.25 mg ai,
respectively. Two quarts/100 sq ft was sufficient to retard
plant height compared to 3 quarts/100 sq ft. 'Ace' required
slightly higher concentrations of growth regulators than 'Nellie
White'.

IV. WATER MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS

A. Poinsettia Irrigation C. D. Stanley, B. K. Harbaugh, G. A. Clark

1. An easy method to estimate water requirements for poinsettia
production with practical applications to commercial operations
was developed to promote water conservation. A water-
requirement prediction equation that used pan evaporation along
with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was
generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing
plant quality of crops irrigated according to the generated
water requirement prediction equation to crops irrigated "on-
demand" or with capillary-mat irrigation. Applied water was
significantly lower for plants irrigated with the prediction
equation that would normally be applied in a commercial
operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate.










2. Research results were published showing that significant savings
(76%) in water and fertilizer could be realized with use of
trickle irrigation and controlled release fertilizer without
loss of yield or quality of chrysanthemum cut flowers when
compared to fertigation.


V. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE IN ORNAMENTAL CROPS TO THE FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE

A. Economics J. W. Prevatt

1. Economic studies evaluating ornamental irrigation systems found
that the life of the irrigation system, magnitude of investment
cost, and level of energy and water use were the sensitive
factors affecting irrigation costs. These factors, under
certain circumstances, were also found to result in the
selection of a different irrigation system between installing a
new irrigation system versus replacing an existing irrigation
system.

2. Other economic research efforts focused on the evaluation of
pesticidal application costs and the economic considerations of
developing an ornamental enterprise.





-10-


VEGETABLE CROPS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS FOR 1989

I. PLANT BREEDING, GENETICS, CULTIVAR EVALUATION INCLUDING BIOTECHNOLOGY OF
VEGETABLE CROPS

A. Tomato Breeding and Genetics J. W. Scott

1. Papers were published on bacterial spot resistance of tomato
indicating bacterial spot foliar resistance was not associated
with bacterial wilt resistance, nor with bacterial spot
resistance on fruit. Resistance to bacterial spot on fruit is
controlled by dominant gene action.

2. Micro-Tom tomato, world's smallest tomato variety for growing in
dwellings with limited gardening space was released. Three
plants can be grown in a 5" hanging basket. This should provide
a new crop for the nursery industry.

3. The resistance to Fusarium wilt race 3 disease of tomato was
shown to be linked to an isozyme marker Got-2 which will
facilitate resistance breeding. The race 3 resistance was
derived from a line which has new genes for resistance to races
1 and 2 (also linked to Got-2) than those which were previously
shown.

B. Strawberry Breeding and Genetics C. K. Chandler

1. It was determined that the strawberry selection FL 79-1126 could
be an alternative to 'Selva' or 'Dover' (depending on where it
is propagated), and that selection FL 83-37 and FL 84-1932 could
be alternatives to 'Pajaro' and 'Chandler'.

2. Significant interactions were detected between propagation site
(nursery location) and genotype for total marketable strawberry
yield and average fruit weight.

3. Several new strawberry clones were identified that produce firm,
attractive and flavorful fruit on relatively small plants that
are easy to harvest. These clones appear to have field
resistance to anthracnose.

C. Cultivar Evaluation T. K. Howe and W. E. Waters

Several vegetable variety trials have been completed in 1989 at the
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center. Evaluations included
tomato (spring and fall), sweet bell pepper (spring and fall), sweet
corn (spring), napa-type Chinese cabbage (winter 1988-89), cabbage
(winter 1988-89 and 1989-90) and slicing cucumber (fall). Highlights
of these numerous trials include: favorable assessments of new "hot
set" tomato hybrids from the University of Florida and assessments of
bell peppers resistant to bacterial leaf spot. Results from all
trials indicate that growers have many options for each crop in terms
of high yield and good horticultural characteristics. Research
reports are published and available for all trials listed above.





-11-


1. Cabbage: Thirty-two cultivars (cvs.) of cabbage were included
in the winter 1988-89 replicated trial. Additionally, single
plots of 30 cvs. and/or breeding lines were examined. All 62
entries were harvested, measured, weighed, examined internally,
photographed and described by shape. The tropical, flat or
drumhead-type cabbage, although early to mature, is
inappropriate for use in this area due to lack of density.
Thirty cvs. are currently included in a winter 1989-90 trial.

2. Chinese Cabbage (Napa-type): Chinese cabbage was evaluated in
winter 1988-89. Several of 26 cvs. tested looked promising for
further evaluation. Best performance could not be judged on
yield alone, but also on maturity, head size, head weight and
lack of internal defects. 'W.R. 70', 'China Express', 'Blues',
'Tempest', and 'Rumba' were best.

3. Corn supersweett): In 1989, based on weight and ear count, most
of the 18 cvs. tested performed well. 'Butterfruit' continues
to be a reliable performer based on 5 years of evaluation.
'Florida Staysweet' and 'Supersweet 7210' have done well the
last 4 and 2 years, respectively.

4. Cucumber: Twenty of the 25 cvs. evaluated in the fall of 1989
were similar in high U.S. Fancy fruit yield. Twelve cvs.
produced less than 15% cull fruit after 7 harvests. Selections
as good performers were: 'HSR 181', 'Prolific', 'PS184',
'Maximore 100', 'Revenue', 'Sprint 440 II', 'Superset', Dasher
II', 'Monarch', and 'Olympian'.

5. Pepper (Sweet Bell): In the spring of 1989, 33 cvs. of bell
peppers were in replicate trial and 35 cvs. were in
observational yield trial. Promising cvs. were: 'Supersweet
860', 'Crispy', 'Galaxy', 'Lucia', and 'PR-200-12-1'. In the
fall of 1989, 17 cvs. were evaluated. Data is in tabulation.

6. Tomato: Two variety trials were conducted during 1989 (spring
and fall). In spring 1989, greatest extra large fruit yield was
produced by: 'Bingo', 'Duke', 'NVH 4459', 'Pacific', 'Solar
Set', 'PSR 9586' and 'Olympic', although 'Bingo' and 'Olympic'
had lower yields overall for all grades. Best large fruit yield
came from: 'FTE 24', 'IFAS 7209', 'Sunny', 'Sunre 984',
'Centenario', 'Shamrock 600', 'Bonita' and 'Whirlaway'. In the
fall of 1989 new "hot set" tomato hybrids were highlighted in
trial. However, due to severe disease pressure, no harvest was
made of the entries in trial. From subjective examination of
fruit set and quality the following should receive further
study: 'Heatwave', 'IFAS 7307', 'NC88286', 'NC88225' and
'NC89280'.




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D. Specialty Vegetable Evaluation D. N. Maynard

Specialty vegetables are a diverse group that include those
vegetables grown on small acreages (formerly called minor crops),
ethnic vegetables, gourmet vegetables, and miniature vegetables.
Production of specialty vegetables offers the opportunity of
diversification for large growers and production of high-value crops
by small growers that permit them to be competitive in the market
place.

1. Icebox Watermelons: Ten icebox watermelon varieties or
experimental lines were evaluated in a replicated trial in
spring 1989. 'Tiger Baby', 'S86 C8-5', and 'SSDL' were the most
outstanding entries based on yield, quality, and fruit size.

2. Plum Tomato: Evaluations were made of 11 varieties or
experimental lines of plum tomato in spring 1989. 'Milano',
'Roma VF', 'La Rossa', and 'Hybrid 882' were the most
outstanding varieties based on yield and fruit shape.

3. Radicchio: Nine varieties of radicchio were evaluated in the
fall of 1988 and spring of 1989. 'Medusa', 'Cesare', and
'Augusto' were the best performers in the fall trial. The
spring trial was a near failure because of the unseasonably warm
weather.

4. Rhubarb: Highest yields were obtained from plants propagated
from 'Victoria' seed. Yields were similar from plants
propagated from 'McDonald' crown divisions or single-bud
divisions, and were not greatly affected by GA applications to
crowns at planting. Petiole color was much better in 'McDonald'
than in 'Victoria' plants.

5. Seedless Watermelons: Evaluation of 30 seedless watermelon
varieties or experimental lines were made in a replicated trial
in spring 1989. High yields and quality were obtained from 'HMX
7924', 'CFREC 88-4', 'CFREC 88-2', 'HMX 6920', and 'Tri X-313'.

II. BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PEST MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT FOR
VEGETABLE CROPS IN THE AREAS OF ENTOMOLOGY, PLANT PATHOLOGY, NEMATOLOGY,
BACTERIOLOGY AND WEED SCIENCE

A. Entomology D. J. Schuster, J. B. Kring, and J. F. Price

1. The sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemesia tabaci, was directly
linked to expression of irregular ripening (IRR) of tomato fruit
and silver leaf on squash foliage in cage studies.

2. The sweetpotato whitefly was found in greenhouse trials to
transmit a new gemini virus found attacking tomato in the fall
of 1989.




-13-


3. Aluminum-painted plastic mulch resulted in fewer alighting adult
SPWF, delayed increase in densities of SPWF immatures and
delayed infection with gemini virus on tomato relative to white
plastic mulch.

4. Flat yellow sticky traps were equivalent to or better than
cylindrical traps for monitoring SPWF adults in staked tomatoes.
More adults were captured between 1000 and 1600 hr regardless of
time of year. More adults were captured at or near the tops of
plants in field interiors.

5. Severity of IRR symptoms on tomato fruit decreased as the rate
of potassium fertilizer was increased.

6. At least 20 insecticides or insecticide combinations were
evaluated in the greenhouse against nymphs, pupae and adults of
the SPWF. On commercial or experimental fresh market tomatoes
in the field, new pyrethroid insecticides and rotations of
registered insecticides in different classes resulted in fewer
SPWF immatures and less IRR.

7. Adult SPWF were either entrapped in sticky hairs or suffered
direct mortality and nymphal populations did not develop on
crosses between the cultivated tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum,
and two wild species, L. hirsutum and L. pennellii.

8. Weeds were surveyed for he sweetpotato whitefly and its
parasites in two locations each in west-central and southwest
Florida and one location in south Florida. Although the SPWF
colonizes over 500 species, most immatures were found on 12 weed
species. At least three species of parasites were collected
including Encarsia nigricephala, Aleurodiphilus sp. and
Erectomocerus n. sp.

B. Plant Pathology J. P. Jones, J. B. Jones, G. C. Somodi, and
S. S. Woltz

1. Bacterial leaf spot of tomato was again controlled better by the
combination of cupric hydroxide alone but both treatments were
only moderately effective.

2. Two techniques were developed and compared for determining
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria populations in bacterial
spot lesions on tomatoes. Both indirect immunofluorescence and
direct plating were equally effective in differentiating
resistant and susceptible genotypes, and have potential use in
screening seedlings for resistance to bacterial spot.





-14-


3. Diseased watermelon fruits from several counties in Florida were
brought into the laboratory in May. Isolations were made and
descriptions, physiological test, and pathogenicity tests were
completed. The bacterium isolated was determined to be
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli described by
Schaad and present in Guam and Australia. Up to 50% loss was
reported in some areas with large lesions on mature fruit. The
disease subsequently was reported in numerous states in the east
and midwest.

4. A procedure was developed termed, "magnetic immunoisolation of
plant pathogenic bacteria", which is very sensitive for
purification of the target organism while eliminating a high
level of contaminating microbes.

5. Procedures were developed for the production of monoclonal
antibodies with a high degree of specificity for plant
pathogenic bacteria. These will be useful for diagnostics for
rapid and sensitive detection on the bacterium.

6. In contrast to a decade ago, Benlate was found to be merely
equal, not superior to Bravo in the control of target spot of
cucumber caused by Corynespora cassiicola.

7. Fusarium wilt of tomato and watermelon seedlings in the
greenhouse was greatly reduced by adequate levels of lime
applied to artificial media for transplant production.

8. Fusarium crown rot of tomato in the greenhouse, including the
root rot phase, was somewhat reduced by adequate liming;
however, the response was only fractionally as good as was the
Fusarium wilt response to lime.

9. The recent GCREC tomato release 'Solar Set' was no more
susceptible to damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum than
the commercial cvs. 'Sunny' and 'Duke' in greenhouse
experiments.

10. Field experiments were demonstrated that the IFAS tomato
developers of the Manapal and Walter cvs., by incorporating
single dominant genes for resistance to Fusarium wilt, did not
develop cvs. that drastically succumbed to new pathogenic races
of the wilt pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

C. Pathology of Strawberries C. M. Howard

1. Spores of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and Glomerella
cingulata were injected into rhTzomes of plants in the
strawberry fruiting field and:

a. It was determined that C. acutatum does not kill the plants
but C. fragariae and G. cingulata do.





-15-


b. It was determined that crown rot caused by C. fragariae and
G. cingulata does spread to some degree Tn the fruiting
field and that infection of crowns extends into the roots.

2. Controlled greenhouse studies with the three anthracnose fungi
indicated that the strawberry crown rot disease does not result
through root infection from infested soil.

3. It was determined that chlorothalonil fungicide controlled gray
mold and anthracnose fruit rot of strawberries as well as
captain.

4. It was determined that in the summer strawberry nursery
chlorothalonil was equal to or better than captain for control of
anthracnose fungus but slightly inferior to captain for control
of leaf blight.

D. Nematology A. J. Overman

1. Solarization: When used to solarize sandy soil, plastic film
designed to conserve heat in greenhouses raised temperatures at
12-inch depths 10 degrees F higher than other plastics and
increases subsequent tomato yields. Nematodes were not detected
for 10 weeks after planting tomato. Soil solarization was as
effective as soil fumigation in increasing strawberry yields on
sandy soil.

2. Micro-irrigation: Procedures have been developed for
controlling soil pests in established full-bed mulch culture
using micro-irrigation systems for injecting nematicides, soil
fumigants, or bio-control agents. Vapam is now commercially
used in microsystems to prepare beds for double-cropping.
Methyl bromide is promising as a hot gas applied via the drip
tube for double cropping when the tube is buried at least 3
inches mid-bed and the plastic mulch is intact over at least 95%
of the bed surface.

3. Liquid Wheel: Where microsystems are not in use, a liquid
injection wheel has been used to sidedress nematode infested
crops with liquid nematicides or with a soil fumigant to kill
the initial crop in preparation for a double crop.

4. Soil Fumigation: At present, a publication has been developed
by Noling and Overman using 25 years of Overman's data to assess
crop loss in tomato due to nematodes and/or diseases. Methyl
bromide avoids average potential losses of 48.1% of which 18.7%
is attributed to nematodes and 29.4% to weeds and other plant
pathogens. Loss in the state is actually negligible because
essentially all tomato is grown in fumigated soil. Current
research indicates that for low value crops methyl bromide may
be applied to advantage in a non-mulched bed culture where sandy
soil is heavily compacted: squash yields increased 40% due to
such treatment.





-16-


E. Weed Science J. P. Gilreath

1. Replicated field studies were conducted to evaluate herbicides
for nightshade and eclipta control in vegetable row middles.
Excellent pre-emergence control was obtained with several
herbicides, including Ronstar and Pyromin. Cobra and Goal were
very efficacious when applied post- as well as pre-emergence.
Unfortunately, none of these products appear likely to be
labeled for this use in the near future. Post-emergence control
usually can be obtained legally with Diquat or a tank mix of
Enquik and Paraquat.

2. A replicated field experiment was conducted to evaluate the
effect of sublethal concentrations of Roundup on pepper plant
growth, fruit yield, and plant elemental analysis for major
nutrients and several micronutrients. Peppers appear to have
some tolerance to Roundup as compared to tomatoes. Rates of
less than 0.01 lb. a.i./acre caused little to no visible injury
and no yield loss. Younger plants were more susceptible than
older plants. The effect of 0.1 Ib. a.i./acre was inconsistent
as it produced no injury in at least one experiment. Rates
greater than 0.1 Ib. a.i./acre resulted in yield loss with
degree of injury and amount of yield loss increasing with
increasing rate.

3. Field trials were run to develop supportive data for
registration of Poast and Fusilade in leeks through the IR-4
program.

4. Studies were carried out on the effects of Dual and Goal on
leeks as influenced by herbicide rate, planting date, and plant
size. Early plantings of leeks were injured by Dual while later
plantings were not. Rates in excess of 2.0 lb. a.i./acre caused
some temporary stunting, but yield usually was not affected.
The effect of plant size on crop response to Dual was minimal.
Work is continuing.

III. PRODUCTION, CULTURE, MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF VEGETABLE
CROPS

A. Vegetable Crops A. A. Csizinszky, S. S. Woltz, and C. M. Geraldson

1. In colored mulch trials, tomato cv. Sunny, yields were similar
with black or silver (aluminum) mulch colors. Fruit size was
reduced with blue, orange, red and yellow mulch color.

2. Tomato cv. Solar Set yields were similar with soluble N at 225
lbs/acre (70% NO :30% NH ) and with slow release N (25%
oxamide:75% methylene urea5 fertilizers. Methylene urea alone
and 25% IBDU + 75% SCU increased the numbers of fruits with
blossom end rot.





-17-


3. A quick copper procedure was developed for foliar residue
analysis. It was used routinely to monitor the residue status
for different treatments and leaf locations on the plant.

4. A containerized tomato culture, evaluated from a standpoint of
nutrition and economics, was considered to be potentially
feasible. Minimal water requirements and pollution controls
included in this concept could help to alleviate the concerns of
society as well as the farmer.

B. Strawberry Crops E. E. Albregts

1. Containerized strawberry transplants were produced which held
root balls together and required no irrigation to establish in
fruiting field.

2. It was shown that California developed strawberry cultivars give
little to no response to K fertilization when grown on
previously cropped land, whereas Florida developed cultivars
respond to moderate K fertilization.

IV. WATER MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE PROTECTION FOR VEGETABLE CROPS

A. Water Program G. A. Clark, C. D. Stanley, D. N. Maynard,
A. A. Csi:inszky, and E. E. Albregts

1. A study of micro versus seepage irrigation was performed on
raised bed, mulched, staked tomatoes. Initial seepage
irrigation was required on both systems to provide sufficient
field moisture for bed preparation and transplant establishment.
Yield and quality were not affected by irrigation method.
Irrigation quantities were significantly less with micro
irrigation, however, system costs were greater.

2. The effects of 3 bed widths (16, 24 and 36 inches) were
evaluated for raised bed, mulched micro-irrigated vegetables.
Ten vegetable varieties were evaluated. Only summer squash had
significantly greater yields with increased bed width. Reduced
bed widths require less plastic mulch, less soil fumigant, less
horsepower for formation, and could be used on narrower bed
spacing for increased production per gross acre.

3. 'Sunny' tomatoes had higher large and medium sized fruit yields
and fewer fruits exhibiting blossom-end rot with 100% NO -N
liquid fertilizer than with 100% urea-N liquid fertilizer source
in trials conducted for 2 consecutive seasons.

4. A project was designed to reduce per crop investment and
operating costs for microirrigated vegetables by using multiple
cropping of the initial bed and irrigation tubing installation.
Nine different cropping sequences (3 crops per sequence) were
evaluated and results showed that a sequence of fall tomatoes-
winter cauliflower-spring zucchini had the highest gross returns
compared to other sequences.





-18-


5. A completed 3-year project evaluating the use of tailwater
recovery systems for strawberry production showed that more than
60% reduction in deep well pumpage resulted with the system. A
computer software package was developed to simulate pond
behavior as affected by different management practices and to
aid in pond design.

V. TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND ASSISTANCE IN VEGETABLE CROPS TO THE FLORIDA
COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE

A. Economics J. W. Prevatt

1. An empirical examination of tomato yield response to fertilizer
(including physical and economical maximums and input
sensitivity to fertilizer and tomato prices) was conducted.

2. Low-volume vegetable irrigation systems in terms of cost of
adopting this technology was evaluated.

3. Costs were evaluated, break-even production levels were
determined, and sensitive variables for containerized vegetable
production systems were identified.


4. A return-risk analysis of
examine the magnitude and


vegetable enterprises was conducted to
seasonality associated with risk.


NOTE


The information contained in
results and should not be used
Where trade names are used,
endorsement is implied.


this report is a summary of experimental
as recommendations for crop production.
no discrimination is intended and no




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