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Group Title: Bradenton GCREC research report - University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center ; BRA1990- 9
Title: Pansy cultivar evaluation as 4-inch pot plants
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065241/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pansy cultivar evaluation as 4-inch pot plants
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm
Language: English
Creator: Howe, T. K ( Teresa K )
Waters, W. E ( Will E )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1990
 Subjects
Subject: Pansies -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: T.K. Howe and W.E. Waters.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1990"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065241
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 63811975

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida












5007 60TH'Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203



Bradenton GCREC Research Refort BRA1990-9 > ', March 1990
PANSY CULTIVAREEVALUATION A4 INCH POT PLANTS

T. K. Howe and WY ,. Waters'


Florida ranks third nationally in reported wholesale value of flowering
and foliar type bedding plants (exclusive of geraniums) (1). The 1988
national wholesale value of these products was $33,971,000. Flat sales
contributed $16,213,000 and containers contributed $24,221,000 to this
total.

Pansies produced for garden and landscape use accounted for 4% of the
total bedding plant crop in 1988 (3). They ranked fifth in popularity and
seventh as a planned increase item for 1989. Although a minor species in
a total production scheme, pansies provide a wide selection of colors for
use during cooler winter months in Florida.

New and standard pansy cultivars were evaluated in container trials at
the Gulf Coast Research & Education Center during the spring and fall of
1988 to determine those which are best suited for greenhouse production
in 4-inch pots and subsequent useful life when held in containers. The
fifty entries in the spring and forty-two entries in the fall included 23
major cultivar series.

Materials and Methods

Plug-type transplant production. Seed of pansy cultivars (Table 1) were
sown in containerized flats (0.8125 x 0.8125 x 1.75-inch cell size) filled
with peat:vermiculite medium (1:1, v:v, amended with dolomite,
superphosphate and minor elements) on 21 Dec. 1987 and 24 Aug. 1988.
Transplants received liquid fertilizer as needed during production. No
plant growth regulators were used in this study.

Pot culture and management. Plug transplants were set one per 4-inch pot
on 12 Feb. (spring) and 13 Oct. (fall). Transplant shoot height ranged
from 0.6 to 1.6 inches at planting. Potting medium consisted of
peat:vermiculite:sand:perlite (1.6:1.1:0.5, v:v) amended with dolomite
(18.7 lb/yd3), superphosphate (4.7 lb/yd3), MicromaxR (1.4 lb/yd3) and
OsmocoteR 19-2.6-11.2, N-P-K (8.4 lb/yd3). Five pots of each cultivar were
arranged on a bench in a randomized complete block design in a greenhouse


'Research Program Coordinator and Center Director, respectively.










where 45% of full sunlight was available in the spring and 60% of full
sunlight was available in the fall. Pots were spaced on 4.5 inch centers.
Plants were watered by hand as necessary. Pesticides were used on demand
only. Thiodan was used in the spring to control thrips populations.

Data collection. Cultivars were evaluated for flowering time, flower size
and color, plant growth habit, mature plant dimensions, longevity and
other horticultural qualities. Subjective ratings for overall appearance
were assigned to plants based on a 0 to 10 scale, (0 = all plants dead and
10 = excellent). Vigor, floriferousness, habit and uniformity were
considered in this single rating.

Results and Discussion

Spring. The fifty entries evaluated in the spring of 1988 are listed in
Tables 1 and 2. Days to flowering from sowing ranged from 82 days for
'Dancer Mix', 'Faces Yellow', 'Crystal Bowl Purple' and 'Faces Deep Blue'
to 106 days for 'Orange Crown Improved' (Table 2). Twenty-three entries
were not significantly different than those cultivars which flowered 82
days from sowing. Color selections within cultivar series were not
similar in length of time to first flower for the 'Crown', 'Faces',
'Imperial' and 'Waterford' series.

Flower diameter ranged from 1.5 inches for 'Waterford White' to 2.9 inches
for 'Happy Face Mix'. Eleven entries were not significantly different
than 'Happy Face Mix' in large flower size, while seven were similar in
size to 'Waterford White'. Some flowers developed poorly in many
cultivars, while not a severe problem, individual flowers were very
distorted. Lower petals were stunted, cupped and shriveled. The growth
distortions may have been due to high temperatures. Overnight low
temperatures in the spring rose steadily as the trial progressed from 56-
610F in Feb. to 68-700F in early April. Daily high temperatures rose from
a variable 68-860F in Feb. to 83-910F in early April. However, a similar
growth response was not observed in the field trial with fairly similar
day temperatures and slightly lower night temperatures (2).

Mature plant dimensions and ratings were taken after peak appearance to
ascertain how long the plants could be held in 4-inch pots and in what
condition. Plant height on 6 April ranged from 5.0 inches for 'Orange
Crown' to 7.6 inches for 'Imperial Ocean'. Plant diameter ranged from 5.6
inches for 'Crown Mix' to 9.6 inches for 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet'.
'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' also had a tendency to produce large plants
in field plantings (3).

Ratings ranged from 4.8 for 'Majestic Giants Mix' and 'Imperial Orange
Prince' to 9.2 for 'Beacon Bicolor', '.Faces White/Rose', 'Springtime
Clarity Mix' and 'Waterford White'. Thirty other cultivars were not
significantly different than those rated superior at 9.2. Superior
attributes included good plant vigor, dark green foliage, floriferousness,
lack of lodging, fullness of plant businesss) and trueness to type.

Fall. The forty-two entries evaluated in the fall of 1988 are listed in
Tables 1 and 3. Days to flowering from sowing ranged from 79 days for
'Crystal Bowl Mix' to 105 days for 'Lyric Mix' (Table 3). Twenty-eight










cultivars were similar in flowering time to 'Crystal Bowl Mix', while only
eight were as late as 'Lyric Mix'. Color selections within cultivar
series were not similar in length of time to first flower for the 'Crown',
'Imperial' and 'Waterford' series.

Flower diameter ranged from 1.4 inches for 'Maxim Deep Blue' to 2.7 inches
for 'Imperial Blue'. Fourteen other entries were not significantly
different than 'Imperial Blue' in flower size. Flower deformities were
very uncommon in the fall as compared to the spring. Greenhouse
temperatures ranged from lows of 72-78F and highs of 86-900F in September
to lows of 54-68F and highs of 74-82F in late November.

At the end of the evaluations, plant height ranged from 4.3 inches for
'Maxim Deep Blue' to 6.9 inches for 'Imperial Wine Fashion' and 'Waterford
Scarlet'. Plant diameter ranged from 5.5 inches for 'Armado Yellow with
Eye' to 9.3 inches for 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet'. As in the spring
container trial and field trials, 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' had a large
plant diameter (3).

Ratings were assigned after peak value for sale to gauge longevity of the
potted pansy. Ratings ranged from 4.5 for 'Spring Magic Orange Blotch'
to 8.9 for 'Crystal Bowl Purple'. Nineteen cultivars were similar to
'Crystal Bowl Purple' in rating.

Subjective reaction by the senior author to cultivars by color included
these preferences: 'Crystal Bowl Purple', 'Universal Violet', 'Imperial
Silver Princess', 'Imperial Wine Fashion', Yellow Splash Crown', 'Cream
Crown', 'Beacon Bicolor', 'Armado Yellow with Eye', 'Imperial Orange'
(clear apricot), 'Maxim Mix' (balanced color blend), 'Waterford Mix'
(fairly well balanced color blend) and 'Waterford Yellow' (clear yellow).
Miscellaneous information includes: 'Spring Magic Ultra Violet' has a
light purple to cream halo around the blotch which is variable in
intensity and it produces large plants. 'Waterford Azure Blue' and
'Waterford Deep Blue' produced flowers indistinguishable in color and
pattern, which was light purple-blue with dark lines in the petals.
'Waterford Apricot' had petals with a ruffled edge. 'Imperial Silver
Princess' and 'Imperial Wine Fashion' produced flowers of identical color.

Additional information on these cultivars may be found in a research paper
on field evaluations conducted in the spring and fall of 1988(2).

Literature Cited

1. Anonymous. 1989. Florida Agriculture. Foliage, floriculture and cut
greens. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service, Orlando, FL. April
1989.

2. Howe, T. K. and W. E. Waters. 1989. Pansy cultivar evaluation in the
landscape. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 102: in press.

3. Voight, A. O. 1989. Prices strengthen in '88 bedding plant season-
'89 production prospects bright but maturing. PPGA News, Vol. 20, No.
1.










Note: The information contained in this report is a summary of
experimental results and should not be used as recommendations for crop
production. Where trade names are used, no discrimination is intended and
no endorsement is implied.

Acknowledgement: Our thanks to Sierra Chemical Co. of Milpitas, CA for
the contribution of OsmocoteR fertilizer.




Table 1. Pansy cultivars evaluated in 4-inch pots during 1988 and seed
suppliers.


Season Seed
Cultivar Evaluatedz Supplier

Armado series
Yellow w/Eye F Royal Sluis-
White F Royal Sluis
White w/Eye F Royal Sluis

Beacon Bicolor S,F Sakata

Crown Series
Azure S Sakata
Azure Improved S Sakata
Cream S,F Sakata
Mix S,F Sakata
Orange S Sakata
Orange Improved S Sakata
Rose S,F Sakata
Yellow Splash (Yellow Lip) S,F Sakata

Crystal Bowl Series
Mix S,F Sakata
Purple S,F Sakata

Dancer Mix S Bodger

Delft Mix F Sluis & Groot

Faces Series
Deep Blue S German (Grimes)
Mix S German (Grimes)
Orange S German (Grimes)
Red & Yellow S German (Grimes)
White/Rose S German (Grimes)
Yellow S German (Grimes)


Bodger


Happy Face Mix










Table 1 (continued).


Cultivar

Icequeen

Imperial Series
Blue
Gold Princessy
Mix
Ocean
Orange
Orange Prince
Pink Shades
Red
Rose
Silver Princess
Wine Fashion
Yellow

Lyric Mix

Majestic Giants Mix

Maxim Series
Deep Blue
Mix

Medallion Series
Blue/Blotch
Deep Rose/Blotch

Roc Mix

Shazam Mix

Spring Magic Series
Blue/Blotch
Orange/Blotch
Rose
Ultra Violet
White
Yellow/Blotch

Springtime Series
Clarity Mix
Lemon Splash

Super Majestic Series
Ocean
Ocean Improved


Season
Evaluatedz

F


Seed
Supplier

Sluis & Groot


F
S
S,F
S
S,F
S,F
S,F
S,F
S
S,F
S,F
S

F'

S,F


F
S,F


Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii
Takii

Goldsmith

Sakata


Sakata
Sakata


Harris Moran
Harris Moran

Sluis & Groot

Vaughan's


S
F
S
S,F
S
S


S,F
F


Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris
Harris


Moran
Moran
Moran
Moran
Moran
Moran


Harris Moran
Harris Moran


Sakata
Sakata


Table 1 (continued).










Table 1 (continued).


Season Seed
Cultivar Evaluatedz Supplier


Ultima Mix


Universal Series
Mix
Violet

Viking Mix

Waterford Series
Apricot
Azure Blue
Deep Blue


Mix
Red
Scarlet
White
Yellow


S,F


S,F
S,F
F


Sakata


Goldsmith
Goldsmith

Goldsmith


Ball
Ball
Ball

Ball
Ball
Ball
Ball
Ball


zS = spring, F = fall.
YFleuroselect Gold Medal Winner.











Table 2. Growth and performance of pansy cultivars grown in 4-inch pots at the
GCREC, spring 1988.


Days Flower Plant Plant
to Diametery Heighty Diametery Ratingx
Cultivar Flowerz (in.) (in.) (in.)


Dancer Mix
Faces Yellow
Crystal Bowl Purple
Faces Deep Blue
Faces White/Rose
Waterford Yellow
Imperial Ocean
Springtime Clarity Mix
Crown Mix
Imperial Rose
Imperial Gold Princess
Crystal Bowl Mix
Azure Crown Improved
Rose Crown
Imperial Wine Fashion
Beacon Bicolor
Imperial Pink Shades
Maxim Mix
Ultima Mix
Spring Magic
Ultra Violet
Spring Magic Rose
Medallion Blue/Blotch
Medallion Deep
Rose/Blotch
Faces Mix
Faces Orange
Waterford Azure Blue
Roc Mix
Waterford Scarlet
Waterford White
Imperial Silver
Princess
Yellow Splash Crown
(Yellow Lip)
Spring Magic
Yellow/Blotch
Imperial Red
Super Majestic
Ocean Improved
Azure Crown
Spring Magic
Blue/Blotch
Super Majestic Ocean
Happy Face Mix


2.2
1.9
2.1
1.6
2.1
2.0
2.5
2.4
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.0
2.5
2.4
2.6
2.0
2.2
2.3
1.9


d-m
j-o
f-m
n-o
f-m
i-n
a-h
b-k
e-m
b-j
a-h
i-n
a-g
b-k
a-e
g-n
e-m
d-m
j-o


2.2 d-m
2.2 e-m
2.2 e-m


a-d
k-o
e-m
i-n
d-m
e-m
o


93 d-o 2.0 h-n

93 c-n 2.5 a-f

93 c-n 2.0 g-n
94 b-m 2.4 a-i

95 b-1 2.8 ab
96 a-1 2.5 a-h


96 a-1
97 a-k
97 a-k


2.3 d-m
1.9 k-o
2.9 a


6.7
5.7
6.1
5.8
5.7
6.5
7.6
6.6
5.9
7.0
6.7
5.9
7.3
5.9
7.0
6.1
6.9
5.3
6.3


8.5
7.6
6.0
8.0
7.6
7.5
7.4
9.0
5.6
7.8
6.5
7.7
7.1
6.9
7.4
9.1
6.9
6.8
7.8


a-e
b-j
jk
b-g
b-j
b-j
c-j
a-c
k
b-i
g-k
b-h
d-k
e-k
c-j
ab
e-k
f-k
b-h


8.8
8.6
7.6
8.6
9.2
8.6
7.2
9.2
6.2
8.5
6.4
7.4
5.8
7.4
6.2
9.2
6.6
7.4
8.0


ab
a-c
a-f
a-c
a
a-c
a-g
a
b-g
a-d
b-g
a-g
d-g
a-g
b-g
a
a-g
a-g
a-e


7.1 a-e
6.7 a-h
7.3 a-c


9.6 a
8.0 b-g
8.6 a-d


7.0
5.6
6.1
6.1
5.7
6.7
6.6


a-f
f-j
b-j
b-j
e-j
a-h
a-i


7.4
7.3
7.4
7.2
6.9
6.8
8.0


c-j
d-j
c-j
d-k
e-k
f-k
b-g


8.2 a-e
8.4 a-d
6.6 a-g

5.6 e-g
7.8 a-f
7.6 a-f
7.4 a-g
6.8 a-g
7.6 a-f
9.2 a

7.0 a-g

8.4 a-d

5.6 e-g
5.6 e-g

7.2 a-g
5.8 d-g

7.6 a-f
5.6 e-g
6.2 b-g


5.5 g-j

5.2 ij

6.5 a-i
6.3 a-j

5.9 c-j
7.0 a-f

7.4 ab
6.0 b-j
6.4 a-j


6.1 i-k

8.1 a-g

6.9 e-k
6.6 g-k

7.8 b-h
7.8 b-i

8.4 a-f
7.9 b-h
6.3 h-k











Table 2 (continued).


Days Flower Plant Plant
to Diametery Heighty Diametery Ratingx
Cultivar Flowerz (in.) (in.) (in.)

Majestic Giants Mix 97 a-k 2.6 a-e 6.8 a-g 6.9 e-k 4.8 g
Imperial Orange Prince 98 a-j 2.3 d-m 7.2 a-d 6.8 f-k 4.8 g
Faces Red & Yellow 98 a-i 2.2 d-m 6.0 b-j 8.6 a-d 7.2 a-g
Imperial Mix 99 a-h 2.3 c-e 5.5 g-j 6.8 f-k 6.2 b-g
Universal Mix 99 a-g 2.0 g-n 6.8 a-g 7.6 b-3 6.8 a-g
Spring Magic White 99 a-f 2.2 e-m 6.5 a-i 7.7 b-i 7.4 a-g
Imperial Orange 99 a-f 1.9 1-o 6.2 a-j 6.8 f-k 6.0 c-g
Cream Crown 100 a-e 2.8 a-c 5.2 ij 8.4 a-f 7.6 a-f
Imperial Yellow 102 a-d 2.3 d-m 6.4 a-j 8.4 a-f 7.8 a-f
Orange Crown 104 a-c 2.2 Im 6.1 b-j 7.6 b-j 5.2 fg
Waterford Apricot 104 ab 1.8 m-o 5.9 c-j 6.6 g-k 6.2 b-g
Orange Crown Improved 106 a 2.3 d-l 5.0 j 6.9 e-k 6.8 a-g


zFrom sowing 21 Dec, 1987.
YMeasured 6 Apr, 1988.
xRated 6 Apr, 1988. Overall rating scale: 0 = dead, 1 = v. poor, 5 =
acceptable, 10 = excellent.
wMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.










Table 3. Growth and performance of pansy cultivars grown in 4-inch pots at the
GCREC, fall 1988.


Days Flower Plant Plant
to DiameterY Heighty DiameterY Ratingx
Cultivar Flowerz (in.) (in.) (in.)

Crystal Bowl Mix 79 hw 1.9 9-m 5.7 a-d 6.8 e-m 6.3 a-e
Waterford Yellow 80 gh 1.7 j-m 6.0 a-c 8.8 a-c 8.3 ab
Rose Crown 80 f-h 2.2 a-i 5.7 a-d 6.8 e-m 7.3 a-d
Ultima Mix 81 e-h 1.8 h-m 6.1 a-c 7.0 d-l 7.1 a-e
Imperial Pink Shades 82 d-h 2.1 b-k 6.7 ab 6.4 i-m 6.8 a-e
Imperial Wine Fashion 83 c-h 2.4 a-e 6.9 a 6.5 h-m 5.4 c-e
Waterford Mix 84 c-h 1.8 g-m 5.6 a-d 7.2 c-l 7.2 a-e
Imperial Orange 84 c-h 2.1 b-j 6.1 a-c 7.1 d-l 6.8 a-e
Maxim Mix 84 c-h 2.0 d-l 5.4 a-d 6.7 f-m 7.0 a-e
Waterford Azure Blue 85 c-h 1.9 e-m 6.1 a-c 7.8 a-j 5.3 c-e
Cream Crown 86 c-h 2.6 ab 6.5 ab 9.3 ab 5.4 c-e
Universal Mix 86 c-h 2.0 d-l 5.9 a-d 7.6 b-k 7.3 a-e
Waterford White 86 c-h 1.6 lm 5.7 a-d 8.4 a-e 7.8 a-c
Spring Magic
Ultra Violet 86 c-h 1.6 k-m 5.6 a-d 9.3 a 6.8 a-e
Beacon Bicolor 87 c-h 2.1 b-j 5.8 a-d 8.6 a-d 6.8 a-e
Maxim Deep Blue 87 c-h 1.4 m 4.3 d 7.8 a-j 4.8 d-e
Waterford Scarlet 88 b-h 1.9 f-m 6.9 a 6.2 i-m 5.9 b-e
Universal Violet 88 b-h 1.9 g-m 6.5 ab 7.9 a-i 8.3 ab
Roc Mix 88 b-h 2.3 a-g 6.3 a-c 7.0 d-l 5.3 c-e
Waterford Red 88 b-h 2.0 d-l 6.8 ab 6.1 j-m 5.7 b-e
Crystal Bowl Purple 88 b-h 1.8 h-m 6.8 ab 7.5 c-k 8.9 a
Crown Mix 88 b-h 2.3 a-h 6.5 ab 8.3 a-g 4.8 de
Armado Yellow w/Eye 89 b-h 2.3 a-g 5.5 a-d 5.5 m 5.0 c-e
Springtime Lemon Splash 89 b-h 2.1 b-j 6.0 a-c 6.8 e-m 5.3 c-e
Armado White 89 b-h 2.1 b-k 5.2 b-d 6.2 i-m 4.7 de
Springtime Clarity Mix 91 b-h 2.2 a-i 5.8 a-d 8.3 a-e 7.0 a-e
Imperial Blue 91 b-h 2.7 a 6.8 ab 6.0 k-m 4.9 d-e
Imperial Orange Prince 92 b-h 2.0 d-l 5.1 b-d 6.2 i-m 4.8 de
Armado White w/Eye 92 b-h 2.2 b-j 6.8 ab 6.6 g-m 5.8 b-e
Majestic Giants Mix 92 b-g 2.6 a 6.3 a-c 8.2 a-h 5.6 b-e
Shazam Mix 92 b-g 2.3 a-i 5.9 a-d 7.0 d-l 7.0 a-e
Imperial Mix 92 b-g 2.5 a-c 6.4 ab 6.8 e-m 5.0 c-e
Imperial Red 92 b-g 2.4 a-f 6.0 a-c 6.3 i-m 5.5 b-e
Delft Mix 93 a-f 2.1 c-k 5.1 b-d 6.8 e-m 6.0 b-e
Waterford Apricot 94 a-e 1.8 h-m 5.5 a-d 6.3 i-m 5.7 b-e
Waterford Deep Blue 94 a-e 2.4 a-d 6.0 a-c 7.3 c-l 6.8 a-e
Viking Mix 95 a-d 2.4 a-d 6.3 a-c 8.4 a-e 6.8 a-e
Yellow Splash Crown
(Yellow Lip) 95 a-c 2.4 a-d 5.9 a-d 7.0 d-l 6.3 a-e










Table 3 (continued).


Days Flower Plant Plant
to Diametery Heighty Diametery Ratingx
Cultivar Flowerz (in.) (in.) (in.)

Imperial Silver Princess 96 a-c 2.0 d-1 4.7 cd 5.6 1-m 6.7 a-e
Spring Magic
Orange/Blotch 96 a-c 2.0 d-1 5.8 a-d 7.0 d-l 4.5 e
Icequeen 100 ab 1.8 i-m 4.7 c-d 7.5 c-k 4.8 de
Lyric Mix 105 a 2.0 d-l 6.0 a-c 7.6 b-k 4.7 de


zFrom sowing 24 Aug, 1988.
YMeasured 8 Dec, 1988.
xRated 13 Dec, 1988. Overall rating scale: 0 = dead, 1 = v. poor, 5
acceptable, 10 = excellent.
"Mean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.




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