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Title: Partial control of crown rot of tomato by soil fertility adjustments
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065214/00001
 Material Information
Title: Partial control of crown rot of tomato by soil fertility adjustments
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Woltz, S. S
Jones, J. P ( John Paul ), 1932-
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Tomatoes -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.S. Woltz and J.P. Jones
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "November, 1985"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065214
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62625734

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







GULF COAST RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
5007 60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1986-20 November 1986



PARTIAL CONTROL OF CROWN! ROT OF TOMATO BY SOIL
FERTILITY ADJUSTivENTS

S. S. Woltz and J. P. Jones1


Crown rot incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici
has become a threatening disease in Florida. It is important to refine
and expand methods of control. Using our background on Fusarium wilt
control by soil fertility adjustments, it is feasible to extend such
control procedures to the other Fusarium oxysporum pathogen. Objectives
were to develop the best feasible control methods for tomato crown rot
utilizing adjustments in liming and fertilization procedures.

'Walter' tomato seedlings were grown three plants per 5 inch pots of
EauGallie fine sand during the cooler winter season. Chemicals mixed
into the EauGallie fine sand before filling pots are shown in Table 1.
Plants were seeded January 13, in GCREC mix, and transplanted 2 weeks
later into pots containing 43 soil mixes with 4 replications. Eight days
later 300 million propagules, mainly microspores, were poured in a
suspension of 150 ml onto the soil surface in each pot. Plants were
wounded 2 weeks later with a scalpel to permit crown rot development from
the equilibrated inoculum equilibratedd with the respective soil mixes).
Disease ratings were made 8 weeks later (April 4) at which time the
experiment was concluded.

A field experiment was conducted on the GCREC farm using 20 foot
plots with 5 foot alleyways. Soil was an EauGallie fine sand seep-
irrigated area. Full-bed plastic mulch was employed on 4.5 foot rows.
Fusarium crown rot inoculum was cultured on vermiculite and mixed in the
row before mulching and planting. Fertilizer was applied on shoulders of
beds (18-0-25, 1500 lbs per acre) and subsequently covered with plastic.

RESULTS

Greenhouse Experiment. Disease rating means are shown in Table 2.
The addition of aluminum reduced the severity of disease, especially in
combination with high lime and low phosphorus availability. Higher
amounts of phosphorus were generally associated with greater severity of
the disease.


Plant Physiologist and Plant Pathologist.







The higher level of lime produced less Fusarium crown rot than did
the low level of lime. iHinor element amendments did not greatly affect
the course of the disease. The preliminary indication here is that
Fusarium crown rot responds in a manner to soil fertility adjustments
generally similar to Fusarium wilt but with less responsiveness to minor
element adjustments.

Field Experiment Spring '86. Soil treatments are shown in Table 3
together with disease and yield data. Soil pH levels differed somewhat
from intended levels and in two cases (treatments 6 and 9) were
significantly lowered by fertilizer mixed into the bed. Although disease
index data were not quite significantly different due to within treatment
variability, there were some important indications, namely, that higher
pH had lower indexes, especially at the lower level of in-bed
fertilization.

Tomato fruit yield were, however, statistically significant which is
of practical importance. The high level of lime and in-bed fertilizer
proved to be a beneficial combination in producing higher yields.
Conversely, low level line and in-bed fertilizer were additively very
damaging to fruit yield. Therefore, low pH with Fusarium crown rot is
undesirable. In-bed fertilization with ammonium-nitrogen, superphosphate
plus frits and magnesium sulfate reduced yield at low pH but not at high
pH; similar results have been found with Fusarium wilt.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Fusarium crown rot was shown to respond to lower soil pH with
increased disease damage and reduced tomato yields.

2. Conversely, higher soil pH levels slightly above neutrality
reduced disease and increased tomato yields.

3. In-bed application of superphosphate, micronutrients, ammonium
sulfate and magnesium sulfate (all combined) reduced fruit yield,
apparently by favoring disease in a low-pH situation; with high-pH, the
in-bed fertilizer was beneficial to yield.

4. These findings in the field were supported by data from the
greenhouse.

5. The greenhouse experiment indicated that micronutrients may be
less important to the Fusarium crown rot pathogen in the disease process
than to the wilt pathogen which has been shown to respond to
micronutrients with increased crop damaging capability.






Table 1. Chemicals Added to EauGallie Fine Sandy Soil.


iix iix
no. Al Ca P Cu Fe iin Zn no. Al Ca P Cu Fe 'in Zn


1 OQ 4.5z 1.2z 25 6 4.5 1.2 -
2 0 4.5 1.2 20Y 20Y 20Y 20Y 26 6 4.5 1.2 20 20 20 20
3 0 4.5 1.2 20 27 5 4.5 1.2 20 -
4 0 4.5 1.2 20 28 6 4.5 1.2 20 -
5 0 4.5 1.2 20 29 6 4.5 1.2 20 -
6 0 4.5 1.2 20 30 6 4.5 1.2 20
7 0 4.5 4.8 31 6 4.5 4.3 -
8 0 4.5 4.8 20 20 20 20 32 6 4.5 4.0 20 20 20 20
9 0 4.5 4.8 20 33 6 4.5 4.3 20 -
10 0 4.5 4.3 20 34 6 4.5 4.3 20 -
11 0 4.5 4.0 20 35 6 4.5 4.3 20 -
12 0 4.5 4.8 20 36 6 4.5 4.3 20
13 0 13.0 1.2 37 5 10.0 1.2 -
14 0 13.0 1.2 20 20 20 20 38 6 13.0 1.2 20 20 20 20
15 0 18.0 1.2 20 39 6 18.0 1.2 20 -
16 0 18.0 1.2 20 40 5 18.0 1.2 20 -
17 0 18.0 1.2 20 41 6 13.0 1.2 20 -
1i 0 13.0 1.2 20 42 6 18.0 1.2 20
19 0 18.0 4.8 43 6 13.0 4.0 -
20 0 18.0 4.3 20 20 20 20 44 6 13.0 4.3 20 20 20 20
21 0 18.0 4.8 20 45 6 18.0 4.8 20 -
22 0 18.0 4.8 20 46 6 18.0 4.3 20 -
23 0 18.0 4.8 20 47 6 13.0 4.8 20 -
24 0 10.0 4.8 20 43 6 13.0 4.3 20


ZGraas per 4 liters: Al Al(S04)3 13 ii20, Ca = CaC33, P = triple superphosphate.

Y20 ml per 4 liters where "20" is shown, of the follow-in- solutions, grams per 500 Ml
Cu = 3 g CuS04 5 I32, Fe = 4.5 3 Fe 13, iin = 9 g i nS04 -20, Zn = 9 g ZnS04 7 3 i20.

Fertilizer solution, grams per 3 liters: 90 g 1N03, 90 g i 4N03 100 g HgSO4 7 I20, applied 50 ml to each 4
liter batch mix.












Table 2. iain Effects of Soil-Applied Hinerals on iean Fusarium Crown Rot Ratings in Greenhouse
Study.*


I!o Aluminum + Aluminua

Low Lime Hiah Lime means Low Lime High Lime Heans

minors Low P High P Low P High P Low P High P Low P High P

None 3.08 3.33 2.58 2.33 2.83 2.17 2.92 1.25 2.00 2.11

All 2.17 3.92 2.33 1.92 2.59 2.33 3.25 2.00 2.17 2.56

Copper 2.33 3.08 1.83 2.50 2.55 2.58 3.33 2.00 2.17 2.10

Iron 3.50 3.53 2.50 2.42 3.00 2.50 3.42 1.67 3.17 2.69

lnanganese 3.17 3.17 2.58 2.50 2.36 2.53 3.50 1.75 1.75 2.40

Zinc 3.08 3.75 2.33 2.25 2.83 2.66 4.25 1.53 2.33 2.71


Means 2.97 3.47 2.36 2.32 2.55 3.52 1.71 2.28


*Rating scores for disease severity: 0 = none, 1 = very slight, 2 = slight, 3 = medium, 4 = severe,
5 = very severe. LSD, 5% level within table data = 1.16. LSD, 5% level aluminum x lime x
phosphorus = 0.48. LSD, 5% level minors = no significant difference.










3. The Influence of Soil
Tomato, Spring 1985, Field


Treatment, Soil pH Levels, Fusariu- Crown Rot and Fruit Yields of
Plot Experiment.


Fertilizer iean No. of Wt. of
Trt. Intended mixed in Actual disease fruit fruit
no. soil pH bed soil pH index av/plot per plot lbs.


1. 5.0 Ix 4.68 2.84 472.0 114.4
2. 5.0 3x 4.53 2.99 363.5 97.3
3. 5.0 9x 4.63 2.03 293.3 67.5

4. 6.5 Ix 6.45 2.46 419.3 109.1
5. 6.5 3x 6.65 2.35 490.5 114.6
6. 6.5 9x 5.40 2.35 370.8 95.7

7. 7.5 Ix 7.45 1.50 363.5 97.3
3. 7.5 3x 7.43 1.99 415.5 102.4
9. 7.5 9x 6.53 2.33 521.0 126.0

LSD 5% level US 129.7 34.7


*Soil pH of each
furnished, 251bs.


plot was adjusted toward
per plot, to treatments 1


the intended pH using sulfur or Ca(OH)2.
thru 5.


Gypsum was


iFertilizer was rototilled into beds at 3 rates. The Ix rate included 22 Ibs a.monium sulfate,
pounds superphosphate containing fritted trace elements and 67 pounds Emjeo, all on a pounds per
acre basis. The 3x and 9x rates were adjusted by factors of 3 and 9 respectively.


Table
Sunny




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