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Group Title: Bradenton GCREC research report - University of Florida Gulf Coast Research and Education Center ; BRA1985-19
Title: Preliminary evaluation of Nutricote controlled release fertilizer for production of flowering pot crops
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065212/00001
 Material Information
Title: Preliminary evaluation of Nutricote controlled release fertilizer for production of flowering pot crops
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harbaugh, B. K ( Brent Kalen )
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Flowers -- Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants, Potted -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: B.K. Harbaugh.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May 1985."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065212
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62559640

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




SC



GULF COAST RESEARCH & EDUCATION CENTER
IFAS, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
5007-60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203


Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1985-19 May 1985



PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF NUTRICOTE CONTROLLED RELEASE FERTILIZER FOR
PRODUCTION OF FLOWERING POT CROPS

B. K. Harbaugh



Nutricote is a resin-coated controlled release fertilizer recently released
for purchase in Florida with potential use for production of many flori-
cultural crops. The release of nutrients is primarily dependent upon the
temperature of the soil. The labelled release rates range from 40-360 days
at an average soil temperature of 770 F. Since fertilization practices for
flowering pot plants often include a controlled release fertilizer,
Nutricote was evaluated at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center for
potential use in the production of poinsettias, chrysanthemums, and
gerberas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


CHRYSANTHEMUM: Rooted 'Echo' chrysanthemum cuttings were planted 4 per 6-
inch azalea pot on March 2, 1984. Potting medium was a volume mix of 5
parts Florida peat: 3 horticultural grade vermiculite: 3 builders sands 1
perlite amended on a cubic yard basis with 20 lbs dolomite, 1.5 lbs
Micromax microelement mix, and 5 lbs single superphosphate. Plants were
pinched March 9 and lighted with incadescent bulbs at 10 ft.c. or greater
intensity from 10 PM -2 AM from planting to March 19. B-nine at 2500 ppm
was applied to all plants April 27. A capillary mat system was used for
irrigation and plants were grown in a 25% polypropylene shade house.

Production regimes utilizing 100 day release Nutricote were compared to
similar fertilization regimes with equivalent rates of nitrogen, phosphorus
and potassium supplied from Osmocote or liquid fertilizer. Treatments are
listed in Table I. Treatments were replicated 10 times in a randomized
complete block design with a single pot as the experimental unit. Data on
plant characteristics were recorded on Iay 15 and leaf tissue samples were
taken for analyses of foliar nutrient content.

POINSETTIA: Rooted cuttings of 'Annette Hegg Diva' poinsettia were planted
one per 6-inch azalea pot on September 12, 1984. Potting medium was a volume
mix of 5 parts Canadian peat: 3 horticultural grade vermiculite: 3 builders
sand: 1 perlite amended on a cubic yard basis with 10 lbs dolomite, 10 lbs
HiCal (calcium carbonate), 5 lbs single superphosphate, and 3 lbs Perk
microelement mix. Plants were pinched to 5 nodes on Sept. 24. Plants were







10 AM-2PM until Oct. 8. A-Rest was applied as a 0.25 mg per pot drench on
Oct. 15. A capillary mat system provided irrigation and plants were grown
in a 25% polypropylene shade house.

Production regimes utilizing 70 or 100 day release Nutricote were compared
to similar fertilization regimes with equivalent rates of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium supplied from Osmocote or liquid fertilizer.
Treatments are listed in Table II. Treatments were replicated 12 times in
randomized complete block design with a single pot as the experimental unit.
Data on plant characteristics were recorded on Dec. 17 and leaf tissue
samples were taken for foliar nutrient content.

GERBERA: 'Galaxy' gerbera plugs were planted 1 per 5-inch azalea pot on
April 21, 1984. Potting medium was a volume mix of 5 parts Canadian peat: 3
horticultural grade vermiculite: 3 builders sand: 1 perlite amended on a
cubic yard basis with 10 lbs dolomite, 5 lbs single superphosphate, 2 lbs
hydrated lime, 1.5 lbs Micromax microelement mix, and 1.5 lbs magnesium
sulfate. Plants were grown in a 25% polypropylene shade house with
capillary mat irrigation.

Production regimes utilizing 70 day release Nutricote were compared to
similar fertilization regimes with equivalent rates of nitrogen, potassium
and phosphorus supplied from Osmocote or liquid fertilizer. Treatments are
listed in Table III. Treatments were replicated 10 times in a randomized
complete block design with a single pot as the experimental unit. Data cn
plant characteristics were recorded on.May 15 and leaf tissue samples were
taken for foliar nutrient content.

RESULTS

CHRYSANTHEMUM Plants produced with Nutricote alone were of similar height
and width compared to those produced with liquid fertilizer or Osmocote, but
plant fresh weight and quality ratings were lower for plants fertilized with
the 100 day Nutricote. Plants produced with Nutricote supplemented with
liquid fertilizer were similar to plants produced with liquid fertilizer for
all the above plant characteristics, and they were also similar to plants
grown-with Osmocote + liquid fertilizer except fresh weight was greater for
the latter treatment. Foliar tissue analyses indicated that neither
controlled release fertilizers supplied as much nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P)
or potassium (K) late in the season as liquid fertilizer applied twice
weekly.

.POINSETTIAs Plant characteristics of poinsettias produced with 70 day
release Nutricote were similar to those produced with liquid fertilizer.
All fertilizer regimes produced high quality, marketable, plants. Plants
produced.with 100 day release Nutricote had less fresh weight and were rated
lower for quality than liquid fertilized plants, but plants grown with 100
day release Nutricote supplemented with liquid fertilizer were of high
quality and similar to liquid fertilized plants. Tissue analyses indicated
both controlled release fertilizers supplied only marginally acceptable
levels of nutrients late in the season and the low levels of foliar nitrogen
were probably the cause of,late season chlorosis (as reflected in less
desirable plant quality ratings) of plants grown with controlled release
fertilizers alone.







GERBERA: High quality gerberas were produced with all fertilizer regimes
Swith.relatively few differences in plant characteristics and quality
ratings. Osmocote with supplemental liquid fertilizer and liquid fertilize:.
treatments resulted in plants with the greatest number of flower buds.
Foliar tissue analyses indicated that Nutricote supplied similar levels of
nutrients late in the season as liquid fertilizer.

SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

Nutricote was evaluated for production of chrysanthemums, poinsettias and
gerberas by comparing plant growth characteristics and quality ratings of
plants produced with fertilization regimes utilizing controlled release
fertilizers.alone (Nutricote or Osmocote), liquid fertilizer, or controlled
release fertilizers supplemented with liquid fertilizer. Gerberas produced
with 70 day release Nutricote incorporated in the soil at planting were
similar to plants- grown with other fertilization regimes. Poinsettias
produced with 70 day release Nutricote incorporated in the soil at planting
were similar to plants fertilized with liquid fertilizer or Osmocote, except
fresh weight was greater in the latter treatment. Poinsettias and
chrysanthemums fertilized with the 100 day release Nutricote had less fresh
weight and appeared less desirable compared to other treatments, but
supplemental liquid fertilizer improved plant growth characteristics and
quality.

These treatments were designed to provide the same amount of nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium to each pot. The type of resin coating on the
controlled release fertilizers would affect the release and subsequent
availability of nutrients for plant uptake. Since Nutricote is labelled to
release at 77" F and Osmocote at 70 F, temperatures during the production
cycle would differentially affect release of these controlled release
fertilizers. Table IV provides the mean monthly temperatures for Florida
for 1984 and the average from 1954-1984. Average monthly temperatures were
only near the optimum 770 F level for release of nutrients from Nutricote
for May and September during the production of these three crops. Thus, the
total supply of nutrients would not have been released from the Nutricote
pellets reducing the available nutrients for plant growth. By increasing
rates of use or utilizing a faster release fertilizer for production months
with temperatures below the labelled optimum for Nutricote, total available
nutrients would be increased. These relationships were evident in these
tests as the 70 day release Nutricote and Osmocote (temperatures were near
the optimum of 70 F for release of nutrients from Osmocote during May,
October and November) produced the best plants, while relatively poor growth
resulted with the 100 day release Nutricote. For a detailed discussion of
the effect of temperature on the release of nutrients from a resin coated
controlled release fertilizer and the effect on flower production, the
following publication addresses factors to be considered for both types of
resin-coated controlled release fertilizers used in these tests:
Harbaugh, B. K. and G. J. Wilfret. 1981. Factors to consider when using
Osmocote for Poinsettia production in Florida. Bradenton AREC Research
Report GC1981-15.

Controlled release fertilizers are often used in flowering pot plant
production, especially when crops are produced in shade cloth structures.
Heavy rains often leach soluble nutrients from the pots, but liquid
fertilization can not be resumed because the potting medium is saturated.







Controlled release fertilizers incorporated in the soil continue to release
nutrients under these conditions and are often considered to insure delivery
of nutrients during these adverse conditions. Similarly, controlled release
fertilization regimes rely upon supplemental liquid fertilization practices
to compensate for undesirable release rates from fluctuating temperatures
during the production cycle (too little release during below normal or
expected seasonal temperatures, or depletion of coated nutrients early in
the season due to extremely high temperatures which leaves an inadequate
supply for later in the production cycle). These evaluations indicate that
the most consistent results could be expected from a combination of
controlled release fertilizer and liquid fertilizer since high quality
plants were produced with all three crops for all treatments grown with a
controlled release fertilizer supplemented with liquid fertilizer.
These preliminary results indicate that Nutricote has potential for use in
the production of flowering pot plants, especially for production during
periods when average temperatures are 77 F or above (Table IV).






Table I. Evaluation of Iutricote for production of 'Echo' chrysanthemums.
All treatments received the equivalent of 16 lbs per cubic yard of a
14-14-14 fertilizer regardless of the source or application method.


Treatments:

1. Nutricote 14-14-14 100 day release: 100% preplant soil incorporated.

2. Nutricote 14-14-14 100 day release + supplemental'liquid fertilizer:
8 lb/cubic yard Nutricote preplant incorporated + 6.8 oz. of a
290 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution twice a week.

3. Osmocote 14-14-14Y (3-4 month release): 100% preplant soil incorporated.

4. Osmocote 14-14-14 + liquid fertilizers applied as treatment 2.

5. Liquid fertilizer: 6.8 oz. of a 580 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution twice/week.


Results:

Plant Plant Plant Quality Foliar Foliar Foliar
Treat- height width weight rating' N P K
ments (cm) (cm) (g) (%) (%) (%)

1. 33 aw 38 b 51 c 2.2 a 2,8 c 0.41 c 4.2 c

2. 32 a 41 ab 57 be 1.3 b 3.0 b 0.62 b 4.4 b

3, 34 a 43 a 62 b 1.3 b 2.6 c 0.37 c 4.1 c

4. 34 a 44 a 70 a 1.0 b 2.8 c 0.56 b 4.4 b

5. 32 a 41 ab 59 b 1.0 b 3.3 a 0.82 a 4.6 a


zNutricote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 100 days is at 770 F.

Y0smocote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 3-4 months is at 70 F.

XPlant quality rating with 1 = best (highly marketable) to 5 = worst (not
marketable).

WMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.







Table II. Evaluation of Nutricote for production of 'Annettee Hegg Diva'
poinsettias. All treatments received the equivalent of 16 lbs per cubic
yard of a 14-14-14 fertilizer regardless of the source or application
method.


Treatments:

1. Nutricote 14-14-14 70 day releaseZ: 100% preplant soil incorporated.

2. Nutricote 14-14-14 100 day release: 100% preplant soil incorporated.

3. Nutricote 14-14-14 100 day release + supplemental liquid fertilizer:
8 lb/cubic yard Nutricote preplant incorporated + 6.8 oz. of a
415 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution once a week.

4. Osmocote 14-14-14y (3-4 month release)s 100% preplant soil incorporated.

5. Osmocote 14-14-14 + liquid fertilizers applied as treatment 3.

6. Liquid fertilizer: 6.8 oz. of a 415 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution twice/week.



RESULTS:

Plant Plant Plant Quality Foliar Foliar Foliar
Treat- height width weight rating N P K
ments (cm) (cm) (g) (%) (%) (%)

1. 24 abw 42 ab 186 be 2.1 ab 2.7 d 0.38 d 1.2 c

2. 24 ab 38 b 173 c 2.3 a 3.0 be 0.40 c 1.4 be

3. 24 ab 41 ab 207 ab 1.5 b 3.3 bc 0.51 b 1.3 be

4. 26 a 42 ab 218 a 2.1 ab 2.7 d 0.40 c 1.3 b

5. 25 ab 43 a 216 a 1.8 ab 3.5 b 0.51 b 1.5 ab

6. 23 b 41 ab 205 ab 1.4 b 4.1 a 0.72 a 1.7 a


ZNutricote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 70 or 100 days is at 770 F.

YOsmocote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 3-4 months is at 70 F.

XPlant quality rating with 1 = best (highly marketable) to 5 = worst
(not marketable).

'Mean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.







Table III, Evaluation of Nutricote for production of 'Galaxy' geberas. All
treatments received the equivalent of 16 lbs per cubic yard of a 14-14-14
fertilizer regardless of the source or application method.


Treatments:


1. Nutricote 14-14-14 70 day releaseZ: 100% preplant soil incorporated.

2. Nutricote 14-14-14 70 day release + supplemental liquid fertilizers
8 lb/cubic yard Nutricote preplant incorporated + 5 oz. of a
368 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution twice a week.

3. Osmocote 14-14-14y (3-4 month release ): 100% preplant soil incorporated.

4. Osmocote 14-14-14 + liquid fertilizer: applied as treatment 2.

5. Liquid fertilizer: 5 oz. of a 736 ppm N-P2 05 -K20 solution twice/week.


RESULTS:


Leaves/ Plant Buds/ Quality Foliar Foliar Foliar
Treat- plant width plant rating^ N P K
ments (no.) (cm) (no.) (%) (%) (%)

1. 25w 27 1.4 c 2.4 2.9 ab 0.30 c 2.3

2. 25 27 1.3 c 2.2 2.9 ab 0.47 b 2.7

3. 30 30 1.2 c 2.4 2.2 b 0.31 c 2.4

4. 32 35 5.0 a 1.2 2.4 b 0.43 be 2.5

5. 22 ns 27 ns 3.4 b 2.8 ns 3.2 a 0.65 a 2.8 ns



ZNutricote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 70 days is at 770 F.

YOsmocote 14-14-14 labelled release rate of 3-4 months is at 70 F.

"Plant quality rating with 1 = best (highly marketable) to 5 = worst (not
marketable).
Wns = not significantly different; mean separation by Duncan's multiple
range test 5% level.









Table IV. Average of daily high and low temperatures measured at the Gulf
Coast Research and Education Center from 1954-1984 (Degrees Fahrenheit).
------------------------- ----------------------------------------


Month 1984 1954-1984


January 59 60

February 62 65

March 65 66

April 69 71

May 76 76

June 77 81

July 80 82

August 83 82

September 79 80

October 66 75

November 66 68

December 66 63


------------------------- -------------------------------------
From: Stanley, C. D. 1985 Temperature and rainfall report for 1984.
Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1985-3.




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