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Title: Response of slicing cucumbers in trellised culture to soluble and slow release fertilizers with seepage irrigation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00065197/00001
 Material Information
Title: Response of slicing cucumbers in trellised culture to soluble and slow release fertilizers with seepage irrigation
Series Title: Bradenton GCREC research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Csizinszky, Alexander Anthony, 1933-
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center (Bradenton, Fla.)
Publisher: Gulf Coast Research & Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Bradenton FL
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Cucumbers -- Nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: A.A. Csizinszky.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1984"
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00065197
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 62522479

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Gulf Coast Research & Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
5007-60th Street East
Bradenton, FL 34203

Bradenton GCREC Research Report BRA1984-6 March 1984


RESPONSE OF SLICING CUCUMBERS IN TRELLISED CULTURE
TO SOLUBLE AND SLOW RELEASE FERTILIZERS
WITH SEEPAGE IRRIGATION

A. A. Csizinszky


Replicated trials were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center
in Bradenton, FL in 1978 fall (Sep-Dec) and 1979 spring (Mar-May) to investigate
the effect of soluble, and soluble + slow release fertilizers on slicing cucumber
yields.

Materials and Methods

Experiments were conducted on Eau Gallie fine sand (formerly Myakka fine sand)
with hardpan at 30 inches from the surface. Seven plant beds, 30 inches wide and
9 inches high on 54 inch centers, were formed between 2 irrigation furrows 40.5
ft apart for a total of 7500 linear ft of plant bed per acre. In this report,
amounts of fertilizers, soil fumigant and yields are reported on this basis.

In both soluble and soluble + slow release treatments, N, P 0 and K20 were applied
at 231, 128 and 263 Ib/A, respectively. In the soluble fertilizer plots, all N
and K 0 were derived from soluble sources, and in the soluble + slow release
plots 57 lb (25%) of the N, 57 lb (-5%) of the P 0 and 57 Ib (22%) of the K20
were derived from Sierrablen 14-14-14. Fertilizers and their placements were
as follows: in the soluble fertilizer plots, bed mix consisted of 563 lb/A
superphosphate (20% P20 ), broadcast over the full width of the bed, then incor-
porated to 4 inches in he soil. Banded fertilizer, 18-0-25 + 2 at 1088 lb/A,
was applied in 2 narrow bands 12 inches from the center. Top dressing mix of
34-0-0, 18-0-25 + 2 and 0-20-0, each at 75 lb/A, was broadcast on the top in the
full width of the bed. Micronutrients (FTE 503) were applied with the super-
phosphate at 22.5 lb/A.

In the soluble + slow release fertilizer plots, 278 lb/A 20% superphosphate
with 22.5 Ib/A micronutrients, and 405 lb/A Sierrablen 14-14-14 were broadcast in
the full width of the bed and incorporated 4 inches in the soil. Banded fertilizer,
750 lb/A 18-0-25 + 2, and top dressing mix were applied as in the soluble fertilizer
plots. Soil was fumigated with an MC-33 fumigant (33% chloropicrin + 66% methyl
bromide), applied with 3 chisels at 154 lb/A. Beds were mulched with a white 1.25
mil thick polyethylene in the fall and with a black polyethylene in the spring.
Plots, 30 ft long, were arranged in a randomized complete block with 3 replications.
Cucumber seedlings, Burpee's 'Burpless Hybrid' in the fall and 'M.& M Hybrid' in
the spring, were raised in TODDO Planter trays (Speedling, Inc., model 150, 1.5 inch
sq x 2 inch high) filled with Cornell A medium. Two weeks after fumigation, on









Sept. 25, 1978 and on Mar. 1, 1979, 13-day-old seedlings were set in the field,
18 inches apart in the row, single rows per bed. As the plants grew, they were
supported by 3 rows of strings, tied 1 ft apart on 4 ft high tomato stakes.
During the season, plants were sprayed with approved pesticides. Soil samples
were taken after transplanting and after harvest at 3 depths: 0-2, 2-5 and
5-9 inches and 3 locations across .the bed: fertilizer band, midway between the
fertilizer band and plant row (i.e., mid bed) and plant row. Total soluble salts
(TSS) and pH were determined on the saturated paste extract. Soil pH was measured
by a pH meter and TSS by a solubridge. Soil moisture, at first fruit set, first
harvest and at last harvest, was determined by the oven dry method. Concentrations
of N, P, K, Ca and Mg on leaf and petiole samples were determined by the official
AOAC methods in mid-season and at the end of the season in fall 1978 and at the
end of the season in spring 1979. Fruits were picked 3 times during the week
throughout the season. At harvest, the number and weight of marketable fruits were
taken.

Results and Discussion

In the fall 1978 the crop received 27 inches of irrigation and 5.6 inches of rain
and in the spring 1979, 28 inches of irrigation and 6.55 inches of rain. Irriga-
tion rates were closely controlled by adjusting water flow rates every day of the
week, except during week-ends. The close control of irrigation rates resulted in
little runoff from lateral irrigation furrows and in a relatively small fluctuation
of soil water table during the season (data not presented here). Soil moisture in
the bed shoulder, where the banded fertilizer was placed and in the plant row was
high in both seasons on 3 sampling dates (Tables 1 and 2).

Plant stands were not affected by fertilizer sources (Table 3). Marketable yields
and average fruit size were also similar with soluble and with soluble + slow
release fertilizers, regardless of cultivars. In the fall, 'Burpee's Burpless
Hybrid' yielded 928 bu/A with the soluble and 957 bu/A with the soluble + slow
release fertilizers. In the spring, 'M & M Hybrid' yielded 1315 and 1385 bu/A,
respectively, with soluble and with soluble + slow release fertilizers (Table 3).
Yields in these trials were much higher than the 308 bu/A average yields reported
for Florida in the 1981-82 crop year and above the 500 bu/A'yield reported for
California in non-trellised cultures. It appears, therefore, that slicing
cucumbers in trellised culture have a high marketable yield potential. In trellised
culture, cucumbers are hanging from the vines instead of laying on the mulch or on
the soil as in ground culture. Fruit has an even green color all around and pestir
cides reach the fruit from all sides. Vines are not crushed by the machines or by
the pickers and this allows a long harvest season and higher yields.

The disadvantage of the trellised culture is the high labor cost of training the
vines on the trellises. Therefore, trellised culture of cucumbers may be suitable
only for home gardeners and small U-Pick operators.

Concentrations of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the leaf and'petiole tissues were not
different between soluble and soluble + slow release fertilizers (Table 5). In
mid-season, N, P and K were higher than at the end of harvest, while Mg concentra-
tions were high in the saturated extract, especially in the spring with soluble
+ slow release fertilizers (Tables 6 and 7). In spite of the high soil TSS concen-
trations, plant survival was not adversely affected. The high survival rate was
probably the result of maintaining an evenly high soil moisture in the beds in
both seasons (Tablesl and 2).








In summary, cucumber yields in these trials were not different with soluble as with
soluble + slow release fertilizers, regardless of season or cultivar. The high
concentrations of residual soil TSS after harvest indicate that cucumbers in a full
mulch culture could be grown with lower amounts of fertilizers than used in these
trials.

Table 1. Average soil moisture content (%) in plant beds for cucumbers at
fruit set, 1st harvest and last harvest. Fall 1978.z


Soil Location in plant bed
depth
(inches) Shoulder (%) Plant Row

1st fruit set (10/16)
0-2 15.0 17.8
2-4 19.0 21.5
4-6 22.2 23.2

1st harvest (10/31)
0-2 19.5 19.6
2-4 23.1 21.5
4-6 28.0 25.2

Last harvest (12/19)
0-2 17.2 16.6
2-4 17.9 19.3
4-6 19.5 20.2

ZDetermined by the oven dry method.


Table 2. Average soil moisture content (%) in plant beds for cucumbers at fruit
set, 1st harvest and last harvest. Spring 1978.-


Soil Location in plant bed
depth
(inches) Shoulder (%) Plant Row

1st fruit set (4/12)
0-2 15.8 17.2
2-5 22.0 18.8
5-9 23.8 25.3

1st harvest (4/23)
0-2 16.4 17.7
2-5 19.1 19.9
5-9 27.7 26.8

Last harvest (5/19)
0-2 16.0 15.2
2-5 19.2 20.5
5-9 25.6 25.7

ZDetermined by the oven dry method.






Table 3. Cucumber yields with soluble and soluble +
Fall 1978 and Spring 1979.


slow release fertilizers.


Fertilizer source
Soluble Soluble +
Season and yield data slow release

Fall 1978z
Plant survival, % 100 100
Yield/A, bu 928 957
Average fruit size, oz. 6.46 7.02
Number of marketable
fruit/A (xl000) 110.31 104.70

Spring 1979y
Plant survival, % 96 96
Yield/A, bu 1315 1385
Average fruit size, oz. 8.08 7.87
Number of marketable
fruit/A (xlOOO) 125.03 135.15

z
cv. Burpee's Burpless Hybrid.
cv. M & M Hybrid.


Table 4. Cumulative percent of cucumbers harvested with soluble and soluble +
slow release fertilizers. Fall 1978 and Spring 1979.


Fertilizer Days after seeding
source 55 62 69 76 83 90 98

Fall 1978z
Soluble 12 16 41 59 79 91 100
Soluble +
slow release 14 18 45 55 78 93 100

Spring 1979y
Soluble 3 18 43 63 87 100
Soluble +
slow release 3 15 37 59 80 100

Burpee's Burpless Hybrid sown on 9/12/78, last harvest 12/19/78.
M & M Hybrid, sown on 3/1/79, last harvest 5/25/79.







Table 5. Concentration of selected elements in cucumber leaves and petioles


with soluble and soluble + slow release fertilizers.


Fall 1978 and Spring 1979.


Element
Fertilizer source. N P K Ca Mg
-------------------------- -------Y,-----------------------------
Fall 1978 (mid season)
Soluble 4.7 0.36 3.9 1.3 0.46
Soluble + slow release 4.8 0.36 3.8 1.2 0.48

Fall 1978 (end oP season)
Soluble 2.6" 0.21 1.4 -- 0.79
Soluble + slow release 2.2 0.16 1.3 -- 0.78

Spring 1979 (end of season)
Soluble 2.9 0.35 2.9 1.5 0.68
Soluble + slow release 2.8 0.33 2.9 1.2 0.84

ZDry weight basis.


Table 6. Total soluble salt (TSS) content of soil solution after fertilizer
application and after harvest of cucumbers with soluble and with soluble +
slow release fertilizers. Fall 1978.



Fertilizer type
Soluble Soluble + slow release
Soil depth Location in plant bed"
(inches) A B C A B C
--------------------- ppm ----------------------------
After fertilizer application
0-2 237,440 4,690 6,230 207,200 18,900 5,990
2-5 1,540 960 660 2,280 590 780
5-9 590 1,220 500 790 1,180 560
After harvest
0-2 9,310 9,940 7,140 2,730 3,350 8,400
2-5 2,820 2,940 2,770 860 1,000 1,300
5-9 980 1,200 1,120 580 760 810

ZA = shoulder region; B = mid-bed; C = plant row.







Table 7. Total soluble salt (TSS) content of soil solution after fertilizer
application and after harvest of cucumbers with soluble and with soluble +
slow release fertilizers. Spring 1979.

SFertilizer type
Soluble Soluble + slow release
Soil depth Location in plant bedZ
(inches) A B C A B C
------------------------ ppm ---------------------------
After fertilizer application
0-2 309,120 8,680 3,780 224,000 10,640 6,720
2-5 1,200 804 740 1,750 1,690 760
5-9 64o 730 660 970 620 530

After harvest
0-2 10,920 7,280 5,460 27,970 7,560 7,420
2-5 3,010 3,110 2,240 5,040 2,730 2,240
5-9 1,750 1,750 1,610 1,610 1,340 1,360

ZA = shoulder region; B = mid-bed; C = plant row.




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